Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


31st Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2005

Event Details

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Poster Session #86
#86 Poster Session - EAB
Saturday, May 28, 2005
5:30 PM–7:00 PM
Southwest Exhibit Hall (Lower Level)
70. Is There a Relationship Between Preference and Demand Measures?
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
THERESE MARY FOSTER (University of Waikato, New Zealand), Catherine E. Sumpter (University of Waikato, New Zealand), Amber Grant (University of Waikato, New Zealand), William Temple (University of Waikato, New Zealand)
Abstract: The preference between 2-s of access to wheat and 8-s access to wheat was established for six hens using equal concurrent variable-interval variable-interval schedules. Inherent bias was assessed with 3-s access to wheat available on both schedules. Eight seconds access to wheat was preferred. The hens were then exposed to series of increasing fixed-ratio schedules. Two series involving each of the different reinforcer-access times (2 s versus 8 s) were carried out. The data were then assessed to examine whether there was a relationship between the preference and demand measures. For example, did the demand functions generated when the hens worked (under increasing FR schedules) for the preferred (8-s) reinforcer-access time yield higher initial consumption rates, less elastic demand functions and/or higher Pmax values when compared to the demand functions generated for the less preferred (2-s) reinforcer-access time?
71. The Relation Between Preference for Different Flavors and Body Weight and Food Intake in Rats
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
NAYELY ORDAZ (Universidad de Guadalajara, Mexico), Antonio Lopez-Espinoza (Universidad de Guadalajara, Mexico), Hector Martinez (Universidad de Guadalajara, Mexico)
Abstract: Twenty albino rats (3-month-old at the beginning of the experiment) were divided into five groups. Subjects were exposed to free access to water and food for fifteen days, followed by five days of flavor preference testing. On the first and third days of testing, subjects were exposed to water flavored with cream, butter, chili pepper or quinine. On the second and fourth days of testing, subjects were exposed to water. On the fifth day, the subjects were tested with flavored water and plain water. The subjects preferred cream- and butter-flavored water over plain water. In contrast, water was preferred over chili pepper and quinine. The results suggest that several flavors can be preferred by rats even before conditioning and can produce changes on body weight and food consumption.Key words: flavors, preference, water and food consumption, body weight, rats.
72. Effect of Response-Timeout Contingencies Under Controlled Probability of Timeout Presentations
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
RAFAEL BEJARANO (Henderson State University), Dean C. Williams (University of Kansas)
Abstract: The present study was conducted to investigate whether the punishing effect of response-contingent timeouts (TOs) from positive reinforcement is due to the response-TO contingency per se, or whether it is due to the fact that, as the frequency of the punished response decreases, so does the overall probability of TOs. To this end, adults with mental retardation touched stimuli presented on a touch-sensitive computer monitor, in exchange for pennies delivered with a 0.5 probability per trial. Conjointly, 15-s TOs from monetary reinforcement were contingent on response latencies shorter or longer (depending on the experimental condition) than 30 of the latencies on the preceding 39 trials. That is, TOs were presented on a percentile schedule, with a 0.25 probability per trial. Short latencies decreased in frequency when TOs were contingent on their occurrence, and long latencies decreased in frequency when they produced TOs, even though the probability of TOs per trial did not vary systematically across conditions. These results were replicated both across and within subjects, demonstrating that the response-TO contingency is sufficient to explain the punishing effect of TOs.
73. Mathematical Behavior: Ordinal Relations and Transitive Inference in Students with Learning Disability
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
MYLENA PINTO LIMA RIBEIRO (Universidade Federal do Para), Grauben Assis (Universidade Federal do Para), Sonia Regina Fiorim Enumo (Universidade Federal do Para)
Abstract: An experimental procedure was assessed based on the behavior control through ordinal relations in 14 pre-students from a Child Education City Center. They were individually exposed in a computer programmed procedure aimed at the ordinal performance teaching followed by emerging performance assessment by means of behavioral tests in computerized and non computerized contexts. In the teaching procedure computerized all the students met the teaching criteria; 71% of the students in the ordering test with 5 stimuli indicating that the behavior control by ordinal relation was established. In the conditional control assessment over the ordinal relations by way of matching to sample, none of the children had 100% of accuracy. In the non-computerized assessment of the stimulus function transference, 85% of the students ordered a sequence with 5 new stimuli; 50% ordered pairs of non-adjacent stimuli and 50% chose the correct numerousness conditionally. From the achieved results, it is supposed that the background characterization of the child’s admission is important for the deficit identification in the basic abilities. It follows that the establishment of control by ordinal relations is strictly related to elementary numeric performances and that these functional relations may be assessed by means of behavioral tests based on ordering and matching tasks.Key words: 1) Equivalence Relations; 2) Mathematical Behavior; 3) Ordinal Relations; 4) Learning Disability.
74. Prefeeding and Late Session Decreases in Responding
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
BENJAMIN L. LAWSON (Washington State University), Frances K. McSweeney (Washington State University), Anna Pham Du Ong (Washington State University), Benjamin P. Kowal (Washington State University)
Abstract: The subjects were 4 female and 2 male experimentally experienced racing homer pigeons maintained at approximately 85% of their free feeding body weights. Key pecking was reinforced with 5-sec of access to mixed grain, according to a variable interval 60-s schedule of reinforcement, in 60-min sessions. Subjects were exposed to one of the six pre-feeding amounts (i.e., 25, 15, 5, 2, 1, or 0 g of mixed grain) prior to the onset of each experimental session. During baseline sessions, animals did not receive pre-feeding. Baseline and experimental sessions alternated on consecutive days. Each bird was run until they were exposed to each of the pre-feeding amounts for 5 sessions. A two-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted (COND X TIME) on rates of responding. The interaction term was significant, F (55, 275) = p<.05, indicating that pre-feeding amounts were related to within-session patterns of responding.
75. Evaluative Conditioning: A Comparative Study Between Behavioural, Cognitive, and Physiological Response
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
JUAN MOISES DE LA SERNA TUYA (University of Seville, Spain)
Abstract: A comparative study between supraliminal and subliminal evaluative conditioning was realize using measure deferens, behavioural response using subliminal emotional stroop to determinate the conditioning level obtain; cognitive response using a Liker scale where the participants evaluate their preferences to stimuli in a pre-test and post-test and physiological response using CPT task with evocate potentials. Sixty university women took part to the study, eight to each group. In subliminal group the EIs was presented only 15 milliseconds whereas supraliminal group the EIs was expose 500 milliseconds. The result inform about a high correlation between behavioural and physiological response.
76. Effects of Pavlovian Contingency Procedures on Response Rates Under Signalled-Delayed Reinforcement Schedules
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
RAFAEL RUIZ (Universidad Central de Venezuela), Rocio Vegas (Universidad Central de Venezuela)
Abstract: The purpose of the present experiment was to examine the relation between a signal during the delay of reinforcement interval and key pecking rates and to determine if this relation may be explained in terms of Pavlovian conditioning using Rescorla´s contingency model. Four pigeons were trained on a two-component RI 90-s multiple schedule and a 10-s food reinforcement delay. In one component, signalled delays were manipulated according to five Pavlovian contingency procedures: perfect positive [p(signal/delay-interval)=1.0 and p(signal/~delay-interval)0.0]; imperfect positive [p(signal/delay-interval)=0.75 and p(signal/~delay-interval)=0.25]; zero [p(signal/delay-interval)= p(signal/~delay-interval)=0.50]; imperfect negative [p(signal/delay-interval)=0.25 and p(signal/~delay-interval)=0.75]; and perfect negative [p(signal/delay-interval)=0.00 and p(signal/~delay-interval)=1.0]. In the other component, delay of reinforcement was unsignalled. The results showed that: 1) The perfect positive contingency produced response rates higher than those obtained under conditions of unsignalled delay; 2) The negative imperfect contingency produced reduced response rates similar to those obtained under the unsignalled delay; and 3) No systematic relations were found between response rates and the other conditions of Pavlovian contingency. These results suggest that a delayed signal may serve as a conditioned reinforcer and that the acquisition of this function may be interpreted in terms of Pavlovian conditioning.
77. Further Evidence in Support of a Detection Account of the Choose-Short Bias in Pigeons
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
CASSANDRA D. GIPSON (University of California, San Diego), John T. Wixted (University of California, San Diego)
Abstract: Zentall, Klein, and Singer (2004) proposed that Gaitan and Wixted's (2000) results supporting a detection account of the choose-short bias in pigeons can instead be explained by a procedural artifact, ambiguity between training and retention testing conditions. However, in attempting to disambiguate the conditions through differences in chamber illumination, Zentall et. al. may have unintentionally altered the task in a fundamental way by replacing an explicit "nothing" sample (absence of any stimulus with conditions the pigeon may perceive as a long duration houselight sample during what would normally be the intertrial interval. In two experiments using many-to-one houselight samples differing in both duration and intensity, differential predictions made by the confusion and detection accounts are tested. Results support the detection account.
78. Local Determinates of FR Pause Duration in Multiple Schedules
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
DEAN C. WILLIAMS (University of Kansas), Adam H. Doughty (University of Kansas), Kathryn Saunders (University of Kansas), Michael Perone (West Virginia University)
Abstract: The pause following reinforcement under fixed-ratio (FR) schedules is an enigma for operant researchers because it delays the upcoming reinforcer and reduces overall reinforcement rate. It is well accepted that mean pause duration is a positive function of the FR-schedule value. This result is seen in steady-state research using both simple schedules, in which FR-schedule requirement is manipulated across sessions, and multiple schedules, in which FR-schedule requirement is alternated within sessions. This positive relation of mean pause duration and FR-schedule requirement is caused by an increase in the frequency of long pauses, whereas the modal duration remains relatively constant -- the distribution of pauses becomes increasingly positively skewed with increased ratio values. Thus, increasing the FR-schedule value results in increases in the variability of pause duration. This variability remains largely unanalyzed. We examined the local context in which the longest pauses occurred under multiple FR FR schedules, and found that the longest pauses in the large FR-schedule component occurred following long runs of the small FR-schedule component. This result is counter to traditional conceptualizations of waxing and waning response strength under FR schedules and modern behavioral momentum theory.
79. Effects of Delays on Human Performance on a Temporal Discrimination Procedure
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
LORI LIEVING (University of Texas-Houston Health Science Center), Scott D. Lane (University of Texas-Houston Health Science Center), Don R. Cherek (University of Texas-Houston Health Science Center), Oleg Tcheremissine (University of Texas-Houston Health Science Center), Sylvain Nouvion (University of Texas-Houston Health Science Center)
Abstract: Studies of temporal discrimination in non-human subjects have reliably shown a choose-short effect: higher matching accuracy on short-duration-sample trials than on long-duration-sample trials that occur as a function of increasing delay between the onset of sample and comparison stimuli. The present experiment investigated whether the choose-short effect could be produced with human subjects. Subjects responded under a discrete-trial procedure in which they were required to push one of two buttons depending on the duration of a conditional stimulus (a blue square on a computer monitor). Delays (0, 8, 16, and 32 s) separated sample and comparison stimuli and were tested both within and across several sessions. Correct choices (“C” button after a 2-s stimulus; “A” button after a 4-s stimulus) resulted in an increase in session earnings of $0.12. Intermediate durations (probe stimuli between 2 and 4 s) were also presented. The addition of a delay between the sample and comparison stimuli produced a bias to judge intervals as short when delays were tested across sessions, but did not alter performance when delays were tested within the same sessions. Thus, the choose-short effect was produced in human subjects only when individual delay values were tested in blocks across sessions.
80. Variables Influencing Negative Punishment in Humans
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
CYNTHIA J. PIETRAS (Western Michigan University), Andrew E Brandt (Western Michigan University), Gabriel Daniel Searcy (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Negative punishment is the response-contingent removal of positive reinforcers which results in response suppression. When positive reinforcers are removed in negative punishment procedures, however, the molar reinforcement rate decreases. The decreased reinforcement rate may also decrease response rates. The present study is designed to investigate the separate effects of the punishment contingency and the reduced reinforcement rate on punished responding in adult humans. Button pushing is maintained on a three component multiple schedule. In all components, which are signaled by the background color of the computer screen, responses produce money deliveries according to a random-interval 30-s schedule. In one (punishment) component responses also produce money subtractions according to a random-ratio schedule. In a second (no-punishment) component responses produce money only. In a third (yoked) component response-independent money subtractions are delivered at the same temporal intervals that they were produced in the punishment component. The punishment schedule is varied across conditions. Preliminary results suggest that responding in the punishment component is suppressed by a greater extent than responding in the yoked component, at least at high punishment schedule values, suggesting that the decreased rate of reinforcement under punishment conditions cannot entirely account for the suppressive effect of negative punishment on responding.
81. Effects of Reinforcement Variability on Within-Session Changes in Responding
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
ERIC S. MURPHY (University of Alaska Anchorage), Catherine Opgenorth (University of Alaska Anchorage), Zeljka Jutric (University of Alaska Anchorage), John Egbert (University of Alaska Anchorage)
Abstract: The present experiment tested the hypothesis that habituation contributes to within-session changes in operant responding. Four rats responded on a VI 30-s schedule in which pressing a lever produced 10% sucrose reinforcers during 50 min sessions. In different baseline conditions, the duration of reinforcement was held constant at 5 s (constant duration), or was 1-, 3-, 5-, 7-, or 9-s access (variable duration), with a mean of 5-s. During the treatment conditions, the duration of reinforcement was changed from the constant to the variable duration, or was changed from the variable duration to the constant duration 25 min into the session. Both manipulations temporarily increased rate of responding following the change in the delivery of reinforcement. The results of the present experiment are consistent with the idea that violating stimulus specificity restores habituated behavior, and that sensitization and habituation to the reinforcer contribute to within-session changes in operant responding (e.g., McSweeney & Roll, 1998).
82. The Effects of Lesioning the Orbital Prefrontal Cortex on Sensitivity to Temporally Extended Consequences in Rats
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
CATHRYN R. WATKINS (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale), Rachel S. Ward (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale), Bonnie M Henry (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale), Eric A. Jacobs (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale), Douglas C. Smith (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale), Michael R. Hoane (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale)
Abstract: In ongoing research, we are examining the effects of quinolinic acid induced lesions of the oribital prefrontal cortex (OPFC) on rats performing under a choice in diminishing returns procedure. Rats made repeated choices between fixed interval 108-s and progressive interval 3-s schedules of milk presentation. Completion of the fixed schedule reset the progressive schedule to 0 s. Previous research has shown that lesioning the OPFC increases the degree of temporal discounting in rats. Thus, we anticipated that points of switching from the progressive to the fixed schedule should increase after inducing the lesion. Preliminary results from two subjects do not support this hypothesis, however. Following surgery, the switch points decreased markedly for one subject and decreased slightly for another. In both cases, the switching patterns were more closely aligned with predictions based upon maximization of overall reinforcement rate. These preliminary results need to be interpreted with caution, however, as the locations of the lesions have yet to be verified through histology.
83. An Experimental Study of Cooperation in a Natural Setting
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
OSCAR GARCIA LEAL (Universidad de Guadalajara, Mexico), Juan Botella Ausina (Universidad Autonoma de Madrid), José Santacreu Mas (Universidad Autonoma de Madrid)
Abstract: During the last several decades research in social behavior has allowed at least to differentiate between two different types of interactions: cooperation and competition. Specifically, several attempts have been made to predict and explain cooperative behavior. Typically, it has been studied using artificial situations being the most typical matrix games like the Prisoner’s Dilemma, but recent studies have incorporated more naturalistic situations. Following the research initiated by Ribes-Iñesta we show how a computerized puzzle-solving task can be used to improve our knowledge of dyadic interactions, as minimal settings representative of social behavior. In three studies, the candidates for a job position could cooperate or not cooperate with another candidate by helping with the other’s puzzles. Results show that the behaviors could be classified in three groups: non-cooperation, graded cooperation, and systematic cooperation. These behavioral tendencies were highly consistent throughout the task and reasonably stable after a one-year interval. Their distribution is not independent of gender; females show a higher frequency of non-cooperative behaviors than of systematic cooperation, whereas males show the reverse. These results are in accordance with recent reports in the literature. As previous studies, we demonstrate that the tendency to cooperate with others is affected by their cooperative tendency.
84. Discrimination as a Measure of Cognitive Dysfunction in the Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis Mouse Model of Multiple Sclerosis
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
YUKIKO WASHIO (University of Nevada, Reno), Linda J. Parrott Hayes (University of Nevada, Reno), Kenneth W. Hunter (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: Experimental allergic encephelomyelitis (EAE) is an established mouse model of the human neurodegenerative disease, relapsing and remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). Although EAE has many of the same clinical characteristics of MS, most noticeably in motor dysfunction, it is unclear whether the cognitive dysfunction seen in humans with MS is also seen in mice with EAE. The present study was designed to evaluate cognitive function in the mouse EAE model. Food deprived, susceptible, female SJL/J mice were exposed to a MULT (VI10”EXT) schedule of food reinforcement in which components alternated every 2 minutes, the VI signaled by a tone, the Ext by no tone. Once stable discriminated performances had been established, EAE was initiated in mice by immunization with the neuropeptide PLP 139-152 emulsified in complete Freund’s adjuvant. Degradations of discrimination were observed over three relapse and remit cycles in a 12 week period. In addition, the subjects were evaluated on a five-point clinical scale ranging from limp tail (level 1) to total hind limb paralysis (level 5). The results of this study are discussed in terms of the value of direct observation of behavior as a measure of cognitive dysfunction.
85. Peer Review of Teaching: Increasing Instruction Skills
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
RAYMOND O. SACCHI (Washington State University), Thomas A. Brigham (Washington State University), Ryan Sain (Washington State University), Jennifer McDonald (Washington State University)
Abstract: Peer review of teaching skills will be compared to traditional supervisor review of teaching skills in a college classroom. Peer instructors from a university class will be assigned into groups based upon their schedules. The control group will receive the standard evaluation from two supervisor reviews of teaching skills at five-week intervals during the semester. The experimental group instructors will be paired with each other and peer review each other twice at five-week intervals. A pair of observers will assess teaching skill during the 3rd week, before the first evaluation, and again during the last week of class using the Checklist Items For Peer Evaluation of Instruction (Felder & Brent, 2004). It is predicted that instructors participating in the peer review condition will show greater improvement in teaching skills than those in the control condition. A factor analysis will be conducted to determine if there are any possible subscales in the instrument. A secondary dependent measure will compare responses to the Washington State University Student Evaluation of Instruction between groups.
86. Within-Session Changes in Human Eating Behavior
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
YUYA TAKAKI (Doshisha University), Kenziro Aoyama (Doshisha University)
Abstract: In past studies, within-session changes in human eating behavior had always been treated as functions of time elapsed within meals. Aoyama (1998) showed that within-session decreases of operant response in rats could be described as a linear function of cumulative amount of food intake. This study aimed to apply this mathematical equation to human eating behavior. Twenty-three male humans ate corn soup in the laboratory. The weight of the soup plate was recorded throughout the meal. The subjects were instructed to eat as much corn soup as possible within a 10 minute meal session. The following results were obtained. 1) Rate of eating (amount of consumption per minute) decreases within the meals for most of the subjects. 2) The linear equation could well describe the average rate of eating of all subjects as a function of amount of food intake (R2>.98). Thus the rate of eating decreased proportionally to the increase in cumulative amount of food intake in humans.
87. The Effects of Time-Outs on Decision Making in Adults
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
NICK WILHELM (University of Arkansas, Little Rock), John J. Chelonis (University of Arkansas, Little Rock)
Abstract: The Effects of Time-outs on Decision Making in AdultsJohn J. Chelonis, Ph.D., Nick WilhelmUniversity of Arkansas at Little Rock Most research on decision making has examined choice behavior using reinforcers that are different in amount and delay. This research examined decision making using delays to aversive events in humans. For this procedure, participants made choices between a larger, more delayed time-out from reinforcement over a smaller, less delayed time-out from reinforcement. Participants were allowed to earn nickels on a VI-10 schedule of reinforcement by making responses on the center of three horizontally aligned press-plates on a response panel. Every 3 minutes, the center press-plate would darken and participants had to press one of the two side press-plates to continue earning nickels. If the participant chose one press-plate he/she would have an immediate 20 s timeout from the opportunity to earn nickels on the VI schedule. A press on the other press-plate resulted in a longer, but delayed timeout from the opportunity to earn nickels on the VI schedule. Results indicated that decision making in adults is affected by the delay to timeouts and the length of the timeouts. This is analogous to the research on self-control in which delays and amount of reinforcers also affect the degree of self-control exhibited.
88. Behavior’s Resistance to Change in Children
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
SILVIA MORALES (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México), Carlos Santoyo (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México)
Abstract: This study looks to assess and describe the basic elements of behavioral momentum in humans, working with group of 4 eight to nine years old kids and mathematical operations used as operant behavior. A three-component multiple schedule that contained a concurrent schedule within each component was used. In the A component, a VI0 VI15 concurrent schedule with a white screen as background was used. For the second component (B) a VI0 VI60 concurrent schedule with a red screen as background was used and finally in the C component a VI20 VI60 concurrent schedule with green screen background was tested. Each Component lasted 180 seconds and earned points were shown over the table. A 5 seconds blackout between components was programmed. Two “resistance to change” tests were used: extinction and the free access to reinforcement plus extinction. The preliminary results show the level of the generalization of the resistance to change’s principles in humans: the relationship between response-reinforcement as the determiner of behavioral velocity and the relationship between stimulus-reinforcement as the determiner of the resistance to change or behavioral mass in the behavioral momentum metaphor.
89. The Gambler’s Roll: Investigating the Casino Game of Craps
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
ANGELA R. BRANON (Southern Illinois University), Kimberly Moore (Southern Illinois University), Ashton J. Robinson (Southern Illinois University), Mark R. Dixon (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract: A number of studies have examined the variables thought to be responsible for both “normal’ and pathological gambling. These variables include the illusion of control, level of risk and the gamblers fallacy. Although Craps is one of the most popular casino games, no investigations have attempted to examine craps in either the naturalistic or analogue settings. Furthermore, the aim of the present study is to extend the gambling literature by examining the aforementioned variables as they are represented in the game of Craps. In order to do this a series of studies were conducted in both the analogue and casino environment. The first set of studies involved a descriptive assessment of: risk-coefficients, gamblers fallacy, illusion of control and conformity in betting. In order to further examine the trends discovered in the descriptive analysis, a second study was conducted in which the researchers manipulated the rules and odds of the game; therefore, making possible an examination of the illusion of control, level of risk and conformity in betting. The results of the above studies demonstrated a correspondence in gambling behavior across the two environments.
90. Correspondence Between Temporal Distance of the Verbal Report and Treansference Analysis
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
OLIVIA TENA (FES Iztacala, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México), Hortensia Hickman (FES Iztacala, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México), Patricia Plancarte (FES Iztacala, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México), Rosalinda Arroyo (FES Iztacala, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México), Diana Moreno (FES Iztacala, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México), María Luisa Cepeda (FES Iztacala, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México)
Abstract: The purpose of the investigation was to evaluate the functional correspondence between the verbal and non verbal conduct and if this would be affected by the semantic content and/or the temporal location of the general execution rule solicitude. Twenty-five college students randomly assigned into five groups participated, carrying out a matching to sample task. They were all exposed to a pretest, three trainings, three transference tasks and one posttest. The groups one, 2 and 3 completed by the end of each training session four sentences with different semantic characteristics for each group and wrote the rule by the end of each phase. The groups 4 and 5 didn’t complete the phrases and the rule was requested per session or per phase respectively. Correspondence and non-correspondence types were analyzed on the transference tests; most of the participants had good results on these. There were some differences between the correspondence groups, depending on the complexity level of the transferences tasks.
91. The Effects of Functional Behavioral Assessments on the Academic Behavior of Elementary Students
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
MARIA F. WYNNE (University of Georgia), Shanna Hagan-Burke (University of Georgia), Mack Burke (University of Georgia)
Abstract: The use of a functional behavioral assessment (FBA) problem solves by categorizing a student’s behavior using direct and indirect measurements. Three parts that make up a FBA include describing the problem, defining the problem behavior, and collecting information on the possible functions of the problem behavior. This information can be collected through direct observations, indirect observations such as discussions with parents and adults who witness the problem behaviors. The assessor then forms his hypothesis of the possible variables that maintain the problem behavior. Once a student’s behavior is categorized based on a function, such as the student displays problem to avoid or escape doing a task or to recruit attention from adults or peers, behavioral interventions are implemented and are based on performance or skill deficits as determined by the FBA. Outside factors are always taken into account when conducting FBAs and implementing behavioral intervention plans. With the use of FBA and behavioral interventions, classroom discipline problems can be resolved by implementing simple classroom management techniques. Some of the strategies that prove to be effective include setting up rules in the classroom, self-management techniques, posting schedules and names, or pre-teaching academics.
92. Linking a Functional Behavioral Assessment of Off-task Behavior to Effective Intervention
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
AIMEE MCGEORGE (The May Institute), Dannell Roberts (The May Institute)
Abstract: A Functional Behavior Assessment was initiated in order to determine environmental predictors of a student’s off-task behavior. First, the student’s special education teacher completed the Functional Analysis Informant Record for Teachers (FAIR-T), which provided information on the target behaviors such as definition, frequency, duration, antecedents, and consequences. Identified target behaviors were inappropriate vocalizations and off-task behavior. Next, ten-minute direct observations were conducted using a partial interval recording system. Based on these observations and the information obtained from the FAIR-T, it was determined that the occurrence of the student’s problem behavior appeared to be related to the difficulty of the task. For this student, difficulty was determined by the amount of writing involved in the task. The student’s problem behavior occurred more often during the task that involved writing, regardless of the amount of teacher attention given. To reduce the level of task difficulty, it was suggested that the teacher allow for structured breaks contingent on progress on the assignment. When the student was provided with a 2-minute break following each written sentence, off-task behavior immediately decreased, and continued to decrease within sessions for each subsequent sentence (i.e., 10 minutes to complete first sentence, 7 minutes to complete second sentence, etc.).
93. Percentile Reinforcement of Long Interresponse Times in Humans II: A Comparison Performances Under Percentile and Yoked Random Ratio Schedules
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
JOSE L. MARTINEZ (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale), Joshua Beckmann (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale), Eric A. Jacobs (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale)
Abstract: Sensitivity to consequences arrayed over short and extended time scales was assessed using a percentile schedule that maintained a constant ratio of responses to reinforcers while continually differentially reinforcing relatively long interresponse times (IRTs). The molar relationship between overall reinforcement rate and overall response rate arranged by the percentile schedule was similar to that arranged by a random-ratio schedule. Overall reinforcement rate increases as a direct function of overall response rate. Control by the IRT-based contingency, thus, opposes control by molar reinforcement variables because reinforcement of long IRTs decreases overall response rate, thereby decreasing overall reinforcement rate. In Exp. 1, nine adults participated in three 90-minute sessions in which they watched movies that were subject to brief, random disruption. Lever pressing produced disruption-free viewing periods. In the first two sessions, disruption-free periods occurred following any IRT that was longer than 16 of the previous 20 IRTs. In the third session, disruption-free periods were arranged by a yoked random-ratio (RR5) schedule for the first half of the session, followed by a return to the percentile schedule for the second half of the session. Seven of nine participants demonstrated some sensitivity to the local contingencies of reinforcement. The results provide evidence for control by consequences arrayed over short and long time spans, individual differences in sensitivity to each, and a role for history of reinforcement in determining those differences. In Exp.2, an additional six participants were exposed to a RR5 schedule throughout the three sessions. The purpose of Experiment 2 was to confirm that the response patterns observed in Exp. 1 were indeed influenced by the presence of the IRT contingency under percentile conditions. Relative to the participants in Exp. 1, participants in Experiment 2 more quickly acquired high rate response patterns indicative of RR schedule control. Thus, the results of Exp. 2 confirm that the local contingency affected performance under the percentile schedule.
94. The Relation Between Response Complexity and Resistance to Change in Verbal Adults
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
L. FERNANDO GUERRERO (University of Nevada, Reno), Linda J. Parrott Hayes (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: Three groups of normal adults participated as subjects. Participants in the first group responded on 3-component multiple schedules in which different rates of conditioned reinforcement were programmed. The second group was exposed to the same schedules as the first group, however rules describing effective performances for each component accompanied their exposure to schedule contingencies. The third group participated in match-to-sample training pursuant to the establishment of 3 equivalence classes. The rates of reinforcement for correct responding across the 3 classes varied so as to be comparable to the different rates of reinforcement in the multiple schedules. Upon achieving stable responding, the subjects in all groups were exposed to a series of disruptors of different sorts. Resistance to change as a function of reinforcement rate was observed for the participants in all groups across all conditions. Differential effects of these manipulations upon contingency shaped versus rule-governed behavior are presented.
95. Using Equivalence and Class-Specific Reinforcement to Teach Math Facts to Developmentally Disabled and Normally Developing Children
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
AMANDA E. GULD (University of North Carolina, Wilmington), Carol Pilgrim (University of North Carolina, Wilmington), Mark Galizio (University of North Carolina, Wilmington), Jeanette E. Wilson (University of North Carolina, Wilmington), Maureen Theresa Aro (University of North Carolina, Wilmington), Natalie Jacome (University of North Carolina, Wilmington)
Abstract: The present study will utilize an equivalence procedure using compound class-specific reinforcement to teach simple math facts including counting quantities and addition problems. Previous research in stimulus equivalence has suggested that class-specific reinforcers and components of compound reinforcers can become members of the equivalence class (Schomer, 2001; Ashford, 2003). Printed numerals, spoken number words, and printed number words will be used as class-specific reinforcers in training the matching of quantities of different configurations to each other and matching quantities of objects to simple addition facts. This study will use a match-to-sample procedure to train and test conditional discriminations and emergent relations involving mathematical stimuli. The experimental question addressed by this study is whether developmentally disabled and normally developing children can learn math facts using this equivalence procedure. If successful, this procedure holds great implications for classroom teaching efficiency in mathematics, an area where many students struggle, especially the developmentally disabled.



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