Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


31st Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2005

Event Details

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Poster Session #400
#400 Poster Session - BPH
Monday, May 30, 2005
5:30 PM–7:00 PM
Southwest Exhibit Hall (Lower Level)
34. Food Deprivation and Oral Nicotine Effects on Mult FR Behavior
Area: BPH; Domain: Basic Research
DOUGLAS D. BOE (South Dakota State University), Debra J. Spear (South Dakota State University)
Abstract: Aged female rats were well trained under a Mult FR 10 FR 50 schedule. Body weight was manipulated to produce a range of food deprivation levels (80, 85, 90, 95, and 100% free-feeding body weight). On selected days, nicotine (1, 3, or 10 mg/kg) was administered via gavage. As food deprivation increased, lever-pressing rate also increased. Response rates were dosed dependently decreased by nicotine. An interaction between dose and body weight was common with nicotine having a greater disruptive effect at higher body weights. Effects of both food deprivation and nicotine were more prevalent under the FR 50 than under the FR 10.
35. Changes in Social Status During Direct DA Agonist Exposure: Effects on Individual and Group Matching in an Optimal Foraging Paradigm
Area: BPH; Domain: Basic Research
ELSA C. KRISHNASWAMY (Illinois State University), George Mucher (Illinois State University), William Thompson (Illinois State University), William J. Higgins (Illinois State University), Thomas Malcyk (Illinois State University), Valeri Farmer-Dougan (Illinois State University)
Abstract: Ideal free distribution predicts that the ratio of time spent by a group at two food patches will equal the ratio of obtained food at the patches. Unlike the matching law, however, it makes no prediction regarding individual member behavior. Indeed, previous studies show that group behavior conforms to the matching law, but individual behavior does not necessarily. Rather, competitive status of individual members correlates with undermatching values for individuals. Disruption of competitive status, then, should alter individual but not necessarily group matching. Status may be manipulated via drug exposure. Exposure to dopamine agonists has been shown to disrupt social status, thus it should also disrupt individual but not necessarily group matching. This is the focus of the present experiment. Baseline rates of matching and social status were obtained for two groups of rats using CONC FT FT schedules in a large foraging box. High and low status animals were identified. The high or low status rat was then exposed to apomorphine, a direct DA agonist, during a replication of the schedules. Apomorphine disrupted both status and matching for the high and low rats. However, group behavior adjusted to the changes in the high or low status animal.
36. Changes in Sensitivity to Reward During DA D1, D2 and D3 Receptor Agonist Exposure: Differential Effects of DA Receptor Subtypes
Area: BPH; Domain: Basic Research
VALERI FARMER-DOUGAN (Illinois State University), Rachel Knight (Illinois State University), Michelle Toelle (Illinois State University), Thomas Lynch (Illinois State University), Elsa C. Krishnaswamy (Illinois State University), Seshanand Chandrashekar (Illinois State University)
Abstract: Dopamine D1, D2 and D3 receptors appear to have differential effects on reward behavior. DA D1 receptors may be part of a feedback loop about reward. In contrast, DA D2 receptors may regulate overall response rates, not reward sensitivity. The role of DA D3 receptors is less clear, but is likely motor control rather than reward-related. These differences probably emerge from the way different receptors regulate DA at the synapse and the particular location of the receptors. Research from our lab supports these hypothesizes: Changes in reward sensitivity during D1 and D2 agonist exposure were correlated with differences in behavioral topography produced by the two agonists. D1 agonist elicited behaviors (sniffing, grooming, general search) reduced sensitivity to reward. In contrast, D2 agonist exposure had less effect on reward sensitivity, but decreased overall response rates. To further examine these effects, the current experiment examined sensitivity to reward during exposure to incremental doses of a D1 agonist (SKF38393), a D2 agonist (quinipirole) and a D3 agonist (PD128095) across a series pf concurrent VI VI schedules. Effects on choice and the implications for the role of DA and in particular the role of specific DA receptors, in choice behavior is discussed.
37. Reinforcement Schedules Modulate Discriminative Stimulus Properties of 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine and Cocaine
Area: BPH; Domain: Basic Research
DANIEL KUEH (Western Michigan University), Lisa E. Baker (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Drug discrimination procedures are used in behavioral pharmacology as a model of the subjective effects of psychoactive drugs. These procedures have been used to study different types of drugs such as cocaine and methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). However, results from MDMA discrimination studies have not been entirely consistent across different laboratories. Different investigators employ different approaches and techniques such as reinforcement schedules during drug discrimination training. The extent to which reinforcement schedule during discrimination training may influence discrimination acquisition and stimulus generalization has not been examined with MDMA and cocaine. Therefore, the present study compared two commonly used reinforcement schedules, fixed-ratio (FR) 20 and variable interval (VI) 15 s schedules, to determine their influence on discrimination accuracy, response rates, and number of reinforcers earned by rats trained to discriminate either MDMA or cocaine from vehicle. Preliminary data indicate that response accuracy, response rates, and number of reinforcers earned were greater under the FR20 schedule compared to the VI15 s schedule. MDMA (ED50 = 0.75 mg/kg) was also found to substitute for cocaine in rats trained to discriminate cocaine (10 mg/kg) from saline. Experiments to assess stimulus generalization from MDMA to cocaine are currently ongoing.
38. Effects of Cocaine Under a Response-Initiated fixed-Interval Schedule
Area: BPH; Domain: Basic Research
MATTHEW T. WEAVER (University of Florida), Marc N. Branch (University of Florida)
Abstract: Daily administration of cocaine often results in the development of tolerance to the drug's effects. These effects have been observed to be more robust in small fixed ratio values, with less tolerance being observed in large ratios. This schedule-parameter-dependent tolerance has not been observed in comparable fixed-interval schedules. The present experiment examined the role that post-reinforcement pause patterning plays in the differences in the two schedules. Six pigeons were shaped to respond on a three-component tandem FR1 FI schedule. The fixed interval values were 5-, 15-, 60 seconds. Early observations of log survivor functions and quantitative analysis indicate an FR like pattern in the distribution of pauses. Effects of various doses were determined weekly, and the resulting dose functions determined chronic doses for individual pigeons. Chronic doses will be delivered prior to the session for a number of days until responding stabilized. Re-assessment of the drug doses will be performed and tolerance will be determined. The degree of parameter tolerance will be compared if systematic trends are revealed.
39. Stereoselective Behavioral Effects of NMDA and NMLA in the Rat: Assesment Under an IRT>t Schedule of Water Presentation
Area: BPH; Domain: Basic Research
JOSHUA JOHNSON (Allegheny College)
Abstract: The present study was designed to assess the effects of the stereoisomers of NMDA and NMLA on schedule-controlled responding. Behavior was maintained under an IRT>5" schedule of water presentation. Of primary concern was the response rate and the temporal organization of responding. Rats were given sequential doses of NMDA,NMLA, Ketamine, and MK-801. Doses were counterbalanced and administered in a nonsequential order that varied across subjects. Injections of the NMDA antagonists Ketamine and MK-801 when administered alone yeilded considerable dose-related decreases in response rate while NMDA and NMLA did not substantially alter the response rates relative to saline controls. The temporal distribution of responses were, however, moved toward the end of the interval. Antagonists administered concomittantly with doses of NMDA produced an increase in premature responding. The antagonists administered with NMLA did not produce any alterations in the rate or temporal distribution of responses. these data are consistant with previous research indicating that NMLA was to a large extent inactive while NMDA had considerable effects on behavior.
40. Reduction of Ethanol Self-Administration by Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors
Area: BPH; Domain: Basic Research
CHRIS SCHMOUTZ (Allegheny College), Rodney D. Clark (Allegheny College)
Abstract: Previous research has established a role for both serotonin and dopamine in the self-administration of ethanol suggesting that medications that act upon these systems may have clinical efficacy in the treatment of alcohol dependence. Given that decreases in both serotonin and dopamine availability may contribute to increased ethanol intake, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) which increase the accessability of serotonin and dopamine by blocking their metabolism, may provide a means of decreasing operant ethanol self-administration. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of MAOIs on ethanol self-administration. Rats were trained to self-administer ethanol (10% v/v)through a sucrose-fading procedure. Two MAOIs, deprenyl and clorgyline were used as antagonists. Rates of ethanol self-administration decreased in a general dose-related manner.
41. Differential Effects of Amphetamine and Ethanol on Variable and Repetitive Behavior
Area: BPH; Domain: Basic Research
ERICKA BAILEY (Utah State University), Ryan D. Ward (Utah State University), Amy Odum (Utah State University)
Abstract: This experiment examined the effects of amphetamine and ethanol on variable and repetitive behavior. Four white Carneau pigeons with a history of responding on a variety of related operant procedures pecked keys during a multiple schedule. Two components, REPEAT and VARY, were used. The REPEAT component required a four-response sequence of Left, Left, Right, Right to produce food. In the VARY component, a four-response sequence had to differ from one of the previous ten sequences to produce food. Acute administration of d-amphetamine produced a dose-dependent decrease in response rate. Amphetamine had little effect on the percentage of sequences meeting the contingency in both the VARY and REPEAT component except at the highest dose. Additionally, the variability measure for both components was little changed. For comparison purposes, we evaluated the effects of ethanol. Ethanol had little effect on the percentage of sequences meeting the contingency in the VARY component but did lower this percentage in the REPEAT component. Variability was increased in the REPEAT component and maintained in the VARY component. A final determination of the effects of amphetamine was added to replicate initial findings. Results indicate different effects of amphetamine and ethanol on variable and repetitive behavior.
42. Response Acquisition with Delayed Reinforcement in Lewis and Fischer 344 Rats
Area: BPH; Domain: Basic Research
MIRARI ELKORO (West Virginia University), Karen G. Anderson (West Virginia University)
Abstract: Lewis and Fischer 344 rats have been shown to differ with respect to neurochemistry and behavior on various operant tasks, including choice between delayed and immediate reinforcers. The present study was designed to evaluate acquisition of a response with delayed reinforcement. Eight rats of each strain were exposed to a tandem fixed-ratio 1, fixed-time 20 s schedule of food reinforcement for pressing one lever in a two-lever chamber. Responses on the alternative lever were recorded but had no other scheduled consequences (extinction). During the single eight-hour session, two Fischer 344 rats and five Lewis rats acquired the response. Response rates for the Fischer 344 rats were significantly lower than those obtained for Lewis rats. These findings may suggest a role for genetic and neurochemical variables in determining sensitivity to delay of reinforcement during acquisition of a novel operant response.
43. Do High Rates of Cigarette Consumption Increase Delay Discounting? A Cross-Sectional Comparison of Adolescent Smokers and Young-Adult Smokers and Nonsmokers
Area: BPH; Domain: Basic Research
BRADY A. REYNOLDS (State University of New York, Buffalo)
Abstract: The present report attempts to help clarify the causal or consequent relation between frequently reported high rates of delay discounting (DD) associated with cigarette-smoking status in adults. Delay-discount functions of adolescent smokers and young-adult smokers and nonsmokers from two earlier studies (Reynolds et al., 2003; 2004) were cross-sectionally compared. If a high rate of DD is a predisposing factor to future smoking status, adolescent and young-adult smokers were expected to have similar rates of DD, but both groups were expected to have higher rates of discounting than young-adult nonsmokers. Alternatively, if a high rate of cigarette consumption over an extended period is related to increases in DD, young-adult smokers were expected to discount more than adolescent smokers and young-adult nonsmokers. Results supported the hypothesis that a high rate of cigarette consumption is related to higher rates of DD, rather than the alternative hypothesis that smokers are predisposed with higher rates of DD. Also, after combining adolescent and young-adult smokers, self-reported number of cigarettes consumed per day was positively correlated with rate of DD; however, reported length of smoking history was not correlated with DD.
44. Laboratory Analog of Voucher Reinforcement with Smokers
Area: BPH; Domain: Basic Research
BETHANY R. RAIFF (University of Florida), Jesse Dallery (University of Florida)
Abstract: Contingency management in the form of voucher reinforcement is used to decrease or eliminate drug use. There are several elements of the voucher reinforcement procedure that are poorly understood. We recently developed a laboratory model for studying the effects of voucher magnitude on smoking. The current study represented an initial step toward validating the laboratory model. Smokers attended three sessions, during which one of three conditions was implemented: 1) low magnitude, 2) high magnitude and 3) control. All subjects experienced each condition in a randomly selected order. During sessions, participants were given the opportunity to earn money for each 30-second period that they did not take a puff from a cigarette. A standard ascending schedule of reinforcement was used, with the high magnitude four times the value of the low magnitude. During the control session, participants earned money regardless of whether they took a puff. Subjects took fewer puffs during the high magnitude condition than during the low magnitude and control conditions. This is consistent with the effects of voucher magnitude on other drug taking behavior (e.g. cocaine).
45. Using Standard Celeration Charts as Evidence to Support Discontinuing Anti-Psychotic Medications with Individuals with Severe Behavior Disorders in a Residential Facility
Area: BPH; Domain: Applied Research
PATRICIA RIVERA (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center), Robert Von Heyn (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center), Anthony Joseph (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center), Lisa Northman (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center), Matthew L. Israel (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center)
Abstract: Historically, individuals referred to residential facilities are often prescribed some form of psychotropic medication to address their behavior difficulties. These “behavior difficulties” include severe aggressive, disruptive, and health dangerous behavior that can sometimes be categorized as psychotic. Increasingly, antipsychotic medications are used when other medications fail to show significant results or as a supplement to mood stabilizers or anti-depressants. Over 50 % of the individuals admitted to the Judge Rotenberg Center, a residential facility for students with severe behavior disorders, were admitted on at least one anti-psychotic medication. Using a comprehensive behavioral support program we have been able to reduce, or in most cases completely eliminate the use of anti-psychotic medication with concurrent behavioral improvement in all of the individuals. Data will be presented in the form of standard celeration charts showing anti-psychotic medication reduction/elimination and behavioral improvement. Specific behavioral programming will also be discussed.
46. Comparison of the Effects of Nicotine and Non-Pharmacological Manipulations on Repeated Acquisition in Rats
Area: BPH; Domain: Basic Research
KIMBERLY A. JAREMA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency), Robert C. MacPhail (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency)
Abstract: Non-pharmacological manipulations may be useful in identifying the behavioral mechanisms of drug action. We compared the effects of nicotine with several manipulations of reinforcer efficacy on the repeated acquisition of response sequences in rats. Adult male Long-Evans rats (N=18) were trained to emit three-response sequences using food reinforcement. Each daily session consisted of a two-component multiple schedule with a new sequence to be learned (i.e., repeated-acquisition) and a fixed sequence that remained invariant (i.e., a performance control). Following extended training, rats received a single injection of 0.6 mg/kg nicotine, s.c., 5-min prior to testing. Nicotine administration was preceded by manipulations of reinforcer efficacy that included pre-feeding, extinction and delayed reinforcement. Nicotine decreased response rates and accuracy in both the repeated-acquisition and performance components. Pre-feeding slightly decreased response rates but had no effect on accuracy in either schedule component. Extinction and delayed reinforcement decreased accuracy in both schedule components in a manner similar to that produced by nicotine. In contrast to nicotine, however, extinction and delayed reinforcement increased rates of responding in both schedule components, with greater increases in the performance component. Thus, the effect of nicotine on repeated acquisition could not be completely mimicked by pre-feeding, extinction or delayed reinforcement.



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