Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


31st Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2005

Event Details

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Poster Session #342
#342 Poster Session - EAB
Monday, May 30, 2005
12:00 PM–1:30 PM
Southwest Exhibit Hall (Lower Level)
80. The Effects of Distraction on Performance during a Time Perception Task
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
PAMELA DIAZ (University of Arkansas, Little Rock), John J. Chelonis (University of Arkansas, Little Rock), Mark C. Edwards (University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences), Eldon Schulz (University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences), Ronald L. Baldwin (University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences), Brian M. Kubacak (University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences)
Abstract: Previous research has found that distracters can significantly affect children’s perception of the passage of time. The current study was designed to specifically explore some possible underlying mechanisms of this effect. A sample of eight children, ages 8 to 12 years, was recruited from clinics at Arkansas Children’s Hospital. Each child participated in two sessions, lasting twenty minutes each. Time perception was measured using a differential reinforcement of low rates (DRL) procedure. The DRL procedure required children to produce inter response times (IRT) between 10 and 14 s to earn a nickel. The distracter, present for one of the tasks, consisted of an illuminated press-plate that the child could press to earn nickels on a variable-interval 15 s schedule. The mean percent correct was significantly lower with the presence of a distracter and there was also a trend towards more variability in the IRTs produced on the DRL schedule, however there was no shift in the mode for the IRTs. These data suggest that the presence of a distracter affects precision of timing responses on the DRL schedule, but does not consistently increase or decrease the perceived duration of the interval.
81. Effects of Glucose Concentration in Water on Body Weight and Water and Food Intake After Food Deprivation
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
ALBA GABRIELA MARTINEZ (University of Guadalajara), Antonio Lopez-Espinoza (University of Guadalajara), Hector Martinez Sanchez (University of Guadalajara)
Abstract: Twenty-four albino rats (3-month-old at the beginning of the experiment) divided in four groups, were exposed to fifteen days of free access to water and food, followed by 3 days of food deprivation. On the next five days every group were exposed to one of three kinds of water concentration of glucose. The first concentration had 180 calories, the second had 120 calories, and the third had 60 calories. Caloric food concentration remained the same. Food was available at all times during free access periods. These results suggest that modification of caloric concentration in water affects the feeding behavior after food deprivation period. Key words: glucose, food deprivation, post-deprivation period, body weight, water and food consumption, rats.
82. Relative Reinforcer Value of a Species-Typical Call Compared to an Artificial Sound for Northern Bobwhite Hatchlings
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
SUSAN M. SCHNEIDER (Florida International University), Robert Lickliter (Florida International University)
Abstract: Using both reversal single-subject and repeated-measures group designs, we demonstrated the reinforcing efficacy of both a species-typical maternal assembly call and an artifical beep in one- to four-day-old Northern bobwhite hatchlings. The control condition was exposure to a variable-time schedule of reinforcement at a rate similar to that produced in the corresponding response-dependent conditions. Comparative changes in reinforcer efficacy over time will also be examined.
83. Varying Reinforcer Ratio and Changeover Response Requirement
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
JORGE ARTURO BALDERRAMA TRAPAGA (University of Guadalajara, CEIC), Carlos F. Aparicio (University of Guadalajara, CEIC)
Abstract: It has been shown that choice doesn't require steady state to show sensitivity to reinforcement (Davison and Baum, 2000). The present study assessed this idea with rats in a situation where seven reinforcer ratios and five changeover response requirements were manipulated within sessions. Every day a different reinforcer ratio provided 50 pellets in two levers. Within sessions five different changeover response requirements (1, 4, 8, 16 or 32 responses) were presented in random order, each lasting for 10 reinforcers. Then, the same reinforcer ratio and one changeover requirement remained in effect for 21 days; after that, a different reinforcer ratio was selected. This cycle was repeated until all ratios were tested with all changeover requirements. The last phase was a redetermination with all changeover requirements arranged to occur within the same session. The results were consistent with those of previous studies, responses distributions favored the alternative associated with the highest probability of reinforcement. Sensibility increased with increasing changeover requirement, and it was not affected by the rats’ experience in such dynamic environment.
84. Extinction of Behavior Maintained Under CRF with and without Interposed Intermittent Reinforcement
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
PAUL THOMAS ANDRONIS (Northern Michigan University), Robert Belonga (Northern Michigan University), Christopher Leith (Northern Michigan University), Scott Martin (Northern Michigan University)
Abstract: Introductory textbooks in behavior analysis commonly state that behavior maintained by continuous reinforcement is less resistant to extinction than behavior maintained under intermittent schedules. In applied settings, this is conveyed in admonitions that intermittently reinforced behavior may be highly resistant to extinction, and may take longer to decelerate than continuously reinforced behavior. Several laboratory investigations have examined the effects of extinction on intermittently reinforced behavior brought back under control of CRF before extinction is applied. These studies suggested that CRF-maintained behavior that was previously reinforced intermittently is more resistant to extinction than behavior simply maintained under CRF with no history of intermittent reinforcement. The present poster describes experiments in which pigeons were trained to peck a key under intermittent reinforcement schedules, followed by a return to CRF for various periods, and then subjected to extinction of keypecking. The numbers of responses made under extinction, rates, celeration changes, and propensity, were related to the number of response units reinforced prior to extinction. The investigators discuss some possible implications of these findings for the effective use of extinction in applied settings.
85. Sub-optimal Preference Patterns Between Fixed and Random Schedules: A Situation of Preference for "Pure" Risk?
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
MICHELLE D. ENNIS (Temple University), Claudia D. Cardinal (University of Nevada, Reno), Philip N. Hineline (Temple University)
Abstract: All previous theoretical accounts of the robust preference for variable over fixed schedules of reinforcement have appealed to the occasional quick payoffs within the variable schedule's distribution. We have found a situation in which variable schedules are preferred almost equally to fixed alternatives even when the smallest value obtainable on a variable schedule is never smaller, and often longer, than the fixed alternative. Four pigeons were exposed to this concurrent-chains procedure with fixed interval (FI) 30" and random interval (RI) 60" terminal links. The likelihood of the RI value equaling the FI value on any given trial was manipulated across conditions as the RI rate of reinforcement was held constant. The preference for the RI increased as the percentage of RI trials that equaled the FI value increased. More surprisingly, in a condition in which 75% of the RI trials equaled the FI value, an overall preference for the RI schedule developed. This occurred even though 25% of the RI trials were longer than the FI, and thus is a finding that no theoretical model of choice can currently account for. These data are discussed in terms of behavioral models of choice, behavioral contrast, and schedule discriminability.
86. The Effects of Click + Continuous Food Versus Click + Variable Food on Maintenance of Dog Behavior
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
PAM WENNMACHER (University of North Texas), Rachel Dunham (University of North Texas), Joan M. Engel (New England Veterinary Behavior Associates), Jesus Rosales-Ruiz (University of North Texas), Ami L. Miller (University of North Texas), Chad Scott Hunter (University of North Texas)
Abstract: In clicker training, dog trainers often use the term “intermittent reinforcement” when a click is delivered after every correct behavior, but food is delivered only occasionally. However, when behavior analysts use intermittent reinforcement, the click and food reinforcement are always delivered together and the click never occurs without the food being delivered. Many dog trainers believe that there is no difference between the two procedures. The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of maintaining behavior with a click + continuous food reinforcement (CCF) versus a click + variable food reinforcement (CVF). Two dogs will be trained to lay-down and stand-up on hind legs until a performance criteria of 90% correct is reached during baseline. Once at criteria, one behavior (either stand-up or lay down) will continue to receive continuous food, while the other behavior will receive food delivery every other click. One dog will receive continuous food for stand-ups, while the other dog will receive continuous food for lay downs. The clicker will be used to mark every occurrence of the correct behavior for both dogs, regardless of food delivery. Results are in progress.
87. Effects of Reinforcement on Performance in the Serial Reaction Time Task
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
NATASHA A. BUIST (Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand), Maree J. Hunt (Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand), David N. Harper (Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand)
Abstract: According to the cognitive literature, the Serial Reaction Time Task (SRT) involves both implicit and explicit learning processes. The first experiment of this study examined the effects of reinforcement on these two aspects of performance. Results indicated that some aspects of performance that are said to reflect explicit learning improved with continuous reinforcement. Measures of performance said to reflect implicit learning did not. This lack of effect may have been the result of the relative simplicity of the task rather than a failure of reinforcement processes to affect implicit learning. In four subsequent conditions reinforcement schedules were employed to investigate whether the pattern of behavior could be influenced by reinforcement.
88. Behavioural Efficacy of Enironmental Enrichment in the Reduction of Stereotypy in Captive Vicugna (Vicugna Vicugna)
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
MATTHEW PARKER (University of Southampton), Ed Redhead (University of Southampton), Deborah Goodwin (University of Southampton)
Abstract: The proliferation of stereotypies in inhabitants of zoological parks is a major consideration in the assessment of welfare, and can cause severe management problems for zoo keepers. It has been suggested that stereotypies in captive animals are indicative of an abnormal animal-environment interaction and that systematic, controlled alterations to the environment can help to decrease the rate of the behaviours through multi-stimulus enrichment (Shepherdson, Mellen, & Hutchins, 1998). The current study used an ABACA design to investigate the efficacy of increasing forage substrates and foraging opportunities in the reduction of stereotypy in captive vicugna (vicugna vicugna). When browse were added the incidence of stereotypy increased, but when the animals’ existing forage was split, stereotypy decreased. Increase during the browse condition may have been a result of over-stimulation of the DA system, owing to super-normal stimuli (Appleby, 1996). The decrease seen during the split-feed condition may have resulted from an opportunity to perform a natural response. In the wild, vicugna are reported to eat and sleep in different areas. In the present study, the vicugna were being ordinarily fed solely in their sleeping quarters. The relative reinforcing value of stereotypy may have been lower than that of performing a wild-type behaviour.
89. Effects of Coextensive Stimuli Correlated with TD and T? and Variation of T-cycle Length in Limited-Hold Temporal Schedules
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
CARLOS TORRES (University of Guadalajara), Emilio Ribes Iñesta (University of Guadalajara), Edgar Montes (University of Guadalajara)
Abstract: An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of the coextensivity of the stimuli correlated with the different sub-cycles of a temporally defined schedule. In this experiment, four rats were exposed to three experimental phases and one redetermination phase with different values of the parameter T. The T values used were 60, 80 and 120 s.. The probability of water delivery was 1.0 in the tD subcycle, and 0.0 in the t? in all the experiment. The results of this study do not replicate previous findings about the effects of the absolute value of T-cycle length on response frequency. There were no differences of responding in both subcycles, and the reduction of water delivery frequency decreased responding in t? exclusively. The results are discussed in terms of stimulus control and correlation of coextensive stimuli with water deliveries.
90. The Role of Higher-Order Place Conditioning in the Appearance of Positive Induction
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
JERI NURNBERGER (University of North Dakota), Brent C. Hanson (University of North Dakota), Jeffrey N. Weatherly (University of North Dakota)
Abstract: Our research has shown that rats increase their rate of responding for 1% sucrose reinforcement when food-pellet reinforcement will be upcoming (positive induction). We have also demonstrated that this effect likely occurs because the 1% sucrose becomes more reinforcing in that situation than when food-pellets are not upcoming. The present experiment investigated whether that increase in reinforcer value occurs through higher-order place conditioning. Rats pressed a lever for 1% sucrose reinforcement in the first half of the session and, in different conditions, for 1% sucrose or food-pellet reinforcement in the second half. In one treatment condition, the sucrose and food pellets were delivered to the same location. In another, they were delivered to different locations. A larger induction effect was observed when the reinforcers were delivered to the same location than when they were delivered to separate locations, indicating that higher-order place conditioning plays a role in the size of induction. However, induction was still present when different locations were used, indicating that other factors also contribute.
91. Open Versus Closed Economies: The Role of Post-Session Income
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
RYAN R. ROWE (University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire), Kasey Stephenson (University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire)
Abstract: One of the distinctions between open and closed economies is the presence and absence, respectively, of response-independent (free supplemental) feeding outside the experimental chamber. Behavioral economists (e.g., Hursh, 1980) have held that these supplemental sources of income decrease motivation to work for food during the session (these findings have been likened to the effects of welfare as a variable that decreases recipients’ motivation to seek out a job). Previous research conducted by Timberlake and colleagues, however, has shown that animals discount the value of delayed response-independent feedings such that these feedings do not affect motivation to work for response-contingent food. Specifically, Timberlake et al. (1987) reported that supplemental feedings occurring 32 minutes or more after the session had no effect on progressive-ratio breakpoints. A shortcoming of the Timberlake studies is that they were not conducted in a closed economy. That is, Timberlake’s studies have, with the exception of one rat for 8 days, always included supplemental feedings (they simply varied the time to these feedings). In our study, pigeons worked under PR schedules with no supplemental feedings. Baseline consumption under the PR maintained the subjects at approximately 80% of their free-feeding weights. In subsequent conditions, the number of food pellets delivered per session was the same as that obtained in the stable baseline sessions, but any pellets not earned under the PR were delivered response independently across delays ranging from 4 to 64 minutes. Consistent with behavioral-economic predictions, PR breakpoints were consistently lower when unearned pellets were delivered response-independently.
92. Social Foraging: The Ideal Free Distribution and Differences in Competitive Ability
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
JOSHUA BECKMANN (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale), Katarzyna Grabowska (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale), Eric A. Jacobs (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale)
Abstract: We are examining human choice and decision-making process in groups of humans “foraging” for points. Specifically, we are testing predictions of the Ideal Free Distribution (IFD), a quantitative model of foraging behavior that was developed in field observation. The IFD predicts that forgers be distributed among multiple “patchy” resource sites such that the overall rate resource acquisition is equal among all foragers. Previous research in the field and the laboratory has supported the predictions of the model. One restrictive and unnatural assumption of the model is that the competitive ability of all of the foragers is equal. In field studies, where data do not conform to the predictions of the IFD, researchers often attribute the discrepancy to differences in competitive ability. Introducing the “competitive unit” post hoc has extended the model to accommodate these discrepant cases. For example, if one forager can obtain food at twice the rate of another, then that forager will count as two “competitive units”. The extended model predicts that foragers will be distributed such that the rate of return per competitive unit is equated across research sites. In the current study, we are attempting to experimentally validate this model by manipulating competitive ability across participants. Participants forage for points, but a select number earn points at a proportionally higher rate than other participants. Preliminary results are consistent with the expanded model.
93. Extinction in S- is the Hallmark of Discriminated Operant Responding
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
MATTHEW E. ANDRZEJEWSKI (University of Wisconsin-Madison), Curtis D. Ryals (University of Wisconsin-Madison)
Abstract: The acquisition of an operant discrimination has been shown to be a function of the number of reinforcers earned in S+, or the cumulative amount of time in S-. Often, experiments designed to investigate the role of one allow the other to vary. In the present research, the role of extinction in S- was investigated further in a within-subject design, thereby exploring one of the limitations of experiments showing support for the extinction hypothesis. Concurrently, the role of cumulative reinforcers was investigated. Sixteen rats were exposed to a successive discrimination procedure where amount of time in S- varied across 4 conditions, but programmed rate of reinforcement in S+ was constant. In every individual case, irrespective of the order of exposure, the acquisition of an operant discrimination was a function of time in S-, even though cumulative reinforcers were roughly the same. These results confirm the prediction by Skinner that extinction of S- responding was the “hallmark” of a discrimination.
94. Role of the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus in Habituation of the Headshake Response in Rats
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
KELBY HOLTFRETER (Washington State University), John Wright (Washington State University)
Abstract: Four rats received bilateral radio frequency lesions of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). A second group of four rats served as sham lesion controls. Subjects responded to four different intersession intervals (ISIs= 5 min, 2, 24, & 48 hr) during habituation of the headshake response (HSR). Subjects were exposed to 24 trials during the first habituation session, followed by an additional 24 trials during a second session. SCN-lesioned animals revealed a decrease in responsiveness as compared with controls. Both groups revealed comparable habituation of the HSR. The SCN-lesioned rats did not reveal spontaneous recovery of the HSR after 24 hr; however, recovery was established at 48 hr. The results of the present experiment suggest that lesions of the SCN do not alter habituation, although lesions of the SCN delay the 24 hr spontaneous recovery property of habituation (e.g., Groves & Thompson, 1970) to 48 hr.
95. Using the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR) as an Animal Model to Examine the Effects of Delay-of-Reinforcement in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
JONATHAN M. SLEZAK (James Madison University), Sherry L. Serdikoff (James Madison University), Kristina T. Austin (James Madison University), A. Charles Catania (University of Maryland, Baltimore County)
Abstract: Recent research suggests that Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may be the result of an altered reinforcement mechanism characterized by shorter and steeper delay-of reinforcement gradients. The current study investigates this possibility in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), an animal model of ADHD. SHR and Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) were trained to emit sequences of responses on two levers, A and B, such that a fixed number of presses on lever-A must be accompanied by a fixed number of presses on lever-B in order to produce a reinforcer. As the overall number of responses separating lever-A responses from the reinforcer were systematically altered, rates of responding on lever-A decreased. Data are discussed in terms of the extent to which the shapes of the delay-of-reinforcement gradients differ for SHR and WKY. These data provide additional evidence for SHR as animal model of ADHD and for the for the altered reinforcement mechanism view of the disorder.
96. Effects of a Non-verbal Object-Categorization by Signaling Task and Feedback in Kindergarten Children
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
EMILIO RIBES IÑESTA (University of Guadalajara), Alejandra Marquez (University of Guadalajara), Ivette Vargas (University of Guadalajara), Antonia Padilla (University of Guadalajara)
Abstract: Sixteen 3 and 4 year-old children participated in a study evaluating the effects of the exposure to a human model in a non-verbal object-categorization task. Children were randomly assigned to one of four groups: 1) observation of a model’s performance with feedback, 2) observation of a model’s performance without feedback, 3) observation of the outcomes of a model’s performance with feedback, and 4) a control group, in which subjects did not have any contact with the model or feedback on their performance. The task consisted in grouping objects according to the material from which they were made (e.g. plastic, wood, metal, and mixed material). The children had to indicate in which group objects were to be included. The design involved a) pre-training; b) pre-test; c) four sessions of categorization, and, d) post-test. The results suggest that category boundaries cannot be learned merely by observing the performance of a human model, or by feedback on performance during the task.
97. Progressive Ratio in Children Exhibiting Symptoms of Depression
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
CHRISTIAN LYNCH (University of Arkansas, Little Rock), Brian M. Kubacak (University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences), John J. Chelonis (University of Arkansas, Little Rock), Ronald L. Baldwin (University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences), Mark C. Edwards (University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences), Merle G. Paule (University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences)
Abstract: A primary impairment in individuals diagnosed with depression is a lack of motivation to complete or initiate tasks. Previous research has failed to directly investigate motivation in children with depression using behavioral tasks. The current study examined differences in motivation to earn money among children ages 7 to 13 years with and without depressive symptoms on a progressive ratio task. During the task participants were required to press a lever in order to earn nickels. The number of presses required to earn each nickel increased with each nickel that was earned. Children were considered to exhibit symptoms of depression if they met DSM-IV criteria for Major Depressive Disorder or Dsthymia based on parent report (n=13) or if the child scored greater than or equal to one standard deviation above mean on the Child Depression Inventory (n=17) or both (n=5). Surprisingly, no significant differences were found in the number of responses or reinforcers earned between the children exhibiting depression based on any of the above criteria and control children. In fact, depressed children made slightly more responses than the controls. These results suggest that the clinical deficit in motivation observed in depressed individuals may not generalize to all tasks.
98. The Effects of Brief Delays and Non-differential Verbal Replies on the Performance of Verbal Conditioning
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
KANAME MOCHIZUKI (Teikyo University, Japan), Hitoshi Ohnishi (National Institute of Multimedia Education)
Abstract: We examined the effects of brief delays on the performance of verbal conditioning and found that 300m-sec delay of reinforcement disturbed the conditioning. In this experiment we also examined the effect of"meaningless" words such like "Uh" on the conditioning. During the conditioning phase, participants' echoic verbal responses were reinforced by a verbal praise of computer "Uh... Correct!", when they were recognized properly by a speech recognition system on a computer.When they were not recognized properly, the computer replied"Uh... Wrong!". In this procedure, the echoic performances were significantly increased compared to the baseline. But when were placed the "Uh..." with the sound less delay of the same length, the echoic performances were significantly decreased. The functions of"meaningless" words as a mediator of delay in daily conversation is discussed.
99. The Effects of Teacher Questions Versus Student Questions on Academic Responding and Total Learn Units to Criterion
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
GENEVA SCHAUFFLER (Teachers College, Columbia University), Grant Gautreaux (Teachers College, Columbia University), R. Douglas Greer (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract: The study examines the effects of teacher questions versus student questions on the academic responding of three middle school students. During the teacher question phases of the study, the teacher wrote 5 questions for the students to answer pertaining to a science chapter. During the student question phases of the study, the students were responsible for writing their own set of 5 questions for the next science chapter. The study also examines the effects of the student questions versus teacher questions on the students’ correct responding to an additional 5 bonus questions, written by the teacher and asked following the original 5 questions. The data show that each student’s required number of learn units to criterion on the information from a given science chapter decreased when students wrote their own questions. The data also show a decrease over time in the students’ overall required number of learn units to criterion, regardless of who wrote the 5 questions. Finally, the data show an increase in the students’ correct responding to the 5 bonus questions over time, regardless of who wrote the original 5 questions. Suggestions to explain the reasoning behind these results and implications for future studies are discussed.
100. Maternal Responsiveness: An Alternative to Treating Child Abuse
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
ARIEL VITE SIERRA (National Autonomous University of Mexico), Erika Aguirre (National Autonomous University of Mexico)
Abstract: Empiric evidence that demonstrates that the approval and the maternal reflection generally work as positive reinforcement, thus, the mothers that offer contingent feedback on the child’s prosocial behavior strengthen this behavior. These reactions to appropriate and opportune have been characterized under the term of maternal responsiveness. Presumably, the maternal congruence creates a harmony or synchrony that fosters child reciprocity, in general, as well as specifically fostering compliance. For what the interest of the present study was to evaluate the effect that has the mirroring and the social reinforcement in promoting the maternal responsiveness in dyads mother-child with history of physical abuse. Participated seven dyads mother-boy with this problem, an experimental design of the type ABC was used, and in the intervention such procedures of behavioral change were applied as shaping, visual feedback and instructions. The results are analyzed with relationship to if the maternal responsiveness is a class of behavior that it include to the reflection and the social reinforcement or it is a wider construct that can have an effect on the restructuring of the interactions in dyads mother-child with antecedents of physical abuse.
101. Conditional Relations with Compound Stimulus: Improving Test Performances
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
PAULA DEBERT (Presbyterian University Mackenzie), Paulo Toshio Missão (University of Sao Paulo, Brazil), Jonas de Oliveira Boni Jr. (University of Sao Paulo, Brazil), Maria Amelia Matos (University of Sao Paulo, Brazil)
Abstract: Past studies established emergent conditional relations using a go/no-go procedure with compound stimuli. These emergent relations were observed only in the last block of Transitive and Equivalence Test. In the present study compound stimuli remained on computer screen for a longer time during test to evaluate whether emergent relations would be detected early in the first test block. This evaluation was conducted with three naive college students. During training, each compound stimulus was presented successively at the computer screen for four seconds. Responses emitted in the presence of certain compound stimuli (A1B1, A2B2, A3B3, B1C1, B2C2 and B3C3) were reinforced; while responses emitted in the presence of others (A1B2, A1B3, A2B1, A2B3, A3B1, A3B2, B1C2, B1C3, B2C1, B2C3, B3C1 and B3C2) were not. During tests, new configurations (BA, CB, AC, and CA) were presented resembling tests usually employed in equivalence studies. Each of these compound stimuli was presented for eight seconds during tests. All participants showed emergent relations and two in three participants revealed emergence of Transitivity and Equivalence relations in the first block of the tests. These results indicate that emergent relations may be detected early in testing when compound stimulus remained for longer time on the screen.
102. Investigating the Celebratory Drinking Style of College Students: Implications for Prevention Interventions
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
ELISE A. DRAKE (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University), Ryan C. Smith (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University), Sarah Thornton (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University), Megan Progen (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University)
Abstract: The present work describes two field studies supporting the occurrence of celebratory drinking behavior among students, and measured consequences of this behavior using participants’ Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) levels. For each study, students’ BACs were assessed using handheld breathalyzers. Study 1 was conducted on the night of an NCAA Division 1 football game. BAC data were analyzed by self-report of Tailgating. The one-way ANOVA reached significance, F (1, 86) = 24.96, p < .001. Those participants who tailgated for the game reached a mean BAC of .091, while those that did not reached a BAC of .034. Study 2 was conducted on Halloween night, also a Thursday. BAC data were analyzed using a 2 Costume X 2 Gender ANOVA. The main effect for costume reached significance, F (1, 87) = 5.94, p < .05. Those in costume reached a mean BAC of .089, while those not in costume reached a BAC of .055. These results support the belief that students consuming alcohol with a reason to celebrate drink to higher levels of intoxication, reaching BAC levels which can put them at risk for alcohol-related problems. Students’ celebratory style of drinking should be considered when designing prevention interventions for this population.
103. Teaching Children to Respond to the Relevant Stimulus Dimensions: Figure, Feature, or Background
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
TANYA BAYNHAM (University of North Texas), Jesus Rosales-Ruiz (University of North Texas), Lisa G. Falke (University of North Texas)
Abstract: This research examined several methods to assess and teach non-verbal children with autism generalized identity matching. The first phase of the study demonstrated that the participants could show generalized identity matching with some stimulus dimensions but not others. That is, children were more likely to match by figure than by feature or background. The second phase consisted of teaching children to respond to the stimulus dimensions under conditions in which they had previously failed. Procedures involved arranging the stimulus presentations such that responding to the target stimulus dimension (figure, feature, or background) was likely to be reinforced. Results will be discussed in terms of current procedures used to teach generalized identity matching. Results are in progress.
104. Investigation of the Role of Entering Histories on the Performance of Human Operant Tasks
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
IAN STEPHENS (University of Nevada, Reno), Michael R. Johnston (University of Nevada, Reno), Linda J. Parrott Hayes (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: Much experimental work conducted with animals tends to show regularity in terms of schedule controlled behavior. The results of human operant work tend to be much more variable and are often disparate from animal patterns. One potential explanation for this lies in the methodological differences between human and animal experiments. This may include the role of participants’ entering repertoires or histories with respect to certain human operant tasks. Many of these tasks involve the use of computers and mouse clicking, a skill that may vary widely among the common population of this type of research: college students. This study attempted to discover any correlations among the entering repertoire of human participants (such as high or low computer use, and high or low video game use) and performance on simple operant tasks such as sensitivity to low or high-rate schedules of reinforcement. Results will be discussed from the perspective that the entering repertoire of college students needs to be better accounted for and controlled if we hope to reduce some of the variability observed in the human operant literature.
105. Teaching Preschool Students To Mand
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
SONJA GALIC (Teachers College, Columbia University), Mapy Chavez-Brown (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract: The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the effect of echoic to mand procedure and an establishing operation on instructing three preschool males to ask questions. A multiple baseline design across three target responses was implemented. Data were collected during instructional time in the participants’ classroom in a one-on-one setting. Responses to the learn units served as a measurement of learning in the treatment phase in which the students received an object from the box for the appropriate response or a correction in the form of an echoic response. The baseline data indicate students’ deficit in the repertoire of asking questions. The first question – What is it? – functioned to gain information as to what was hidden in the box, whereas “Can I see it?” served to obtain a view of the item. The last form of question – Can I have it? – functioned to receive an object. Data show that these procedures taught all participants these skills.
106. The Effects of Outcome-Reversal Training on Equivalence Performances
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
NATALIE JACOME (University of North Carolina, Wilmington), Carol Pilgrim (University of North Carolina, Wilmington)
Abstract: It has been shown that class-specific reinforcers are critical not only to the establishment but also to the maintenance of conditional discriminations. However, this effect has yet to be tested with humans. Thus, one purpose of the present study is to see if this effect will extend to humans. Children were taught two arbitrary conditional discriminations (AB and AC) such that selections of B1, B2, or B3 given A1, A2, or A3, respectively, produced R1, R2, or R3, respectively. Likewise, selections of C1, C2, or C3 given A1, A2, or A3, respectively, produced R1, R2, or R3, respectively. During subsequent training, reinforcement contingencies were reversed such that selections of B1, B2, or B3 given A1, A2, or A3, respectively, produced R2, R3, or R1, respectively; selections of C1, C2, or C3 given A1, A2, or A3, respectively, produced R3, R1, or R2. Upon mastery of baseline conditional discriminations, equivalence probes were administered to evaluate the formation of stimulus-equivalence classes. Participants also completed reinforcer probes in order to ascertain whether the class-specific reinforcers had become class members. To date, baseline conditional discriminations have shown no disruption following outcome reversals, equivalence performances are strong, and responses on reinforcer probes are random.



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