Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


31st Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2005

Event Details

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Poster Session #399
#399 Poster Session - AUT
Monday, May 30, 2005
5:30 PM–7:00 PM
Southwest Exhibit Hall (Lower Level)
1. Teaching Teenagers with Autism to Answer Cell Phones and Follow Directions When Lost in Community Settings
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ANGELA RODRIGUEZ (Alpine Learning Group), Bridget A. Taylor (Alpine Learning Group), Hannah Hoch (The Graduate Center, City University of New York), Christina Kenny (Alpine Learning Group), Leah Scaglione (Alpine Learning Group)
Abstract: A multiple baseline across participants was used to assess prompting and reinforcement procedures to teach three teenagers with autism to access assistance when lost in community settings. This study replicated a previous study (Taylor, Hughes, Richard, Hoch, & Rodriguez-Coello, 2004) in which participants were taught to respond to a vibrating pager to seek assistance. In this study however, participants were taught to answer a cell phone and to follow directions via the cell phone to seek assistance. In baseline, none of the participants were able to answer the cell phones to seek assistance. Following instruction at school and in the community all three participants learned to answer the cell phone, follow instructions to go to various locations and to seek assistance from a naïve adult when separated from their teachers in community settings. Generalization probes were conducted in non-training community sites. A second observer recorded IOA data for 30% of the sessions and averaged 95%.
2. The Use of Video Modeling to Teach Three Novel Vocational Tasks to a Student with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MICHELLE L. MATATHIA (The Genesis School), Erin Sparacio (The Genesis School), William J. Donlon (The Genesis School), Mary Ellen McDonald (The Genesis School)
Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to examine the effectiveness of the use of video modeling to teach three novel vocational tasks to a student with autism. The participant was an adolescent with autism who was currently sampling jobs in the community. A mutiple-baseline across tasks design was used. During baseline video modeling was not used and the participant was simply presented with the materials and an instruction to do their work. During training, a video model of a vocational task was presented to the participant and the participant then completed the task. Generalization probes were conducted at the student's current work site. The present study demonstrated that video modeling can be an effective tool for teaching new vocational skills to individuals with autism.
3. Jared's Story: How a Fourteen-Year-Old Boy with Dual Diagnoses Survived the Harsh Realities of a Regular Education Public School
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
JOEL VIDOVIC (The Ohio State University), Pamela G. Osnes (The Ohio State University)
Abstract: Jared was a 14-yr-old boy with diagnoses of autism, Down Syndrome, and ADHD who attended a middle school classroom for students with moderate to intensive disabilities in a public school that served regular education students. Jared exhibited severe and challenging behaviors that were atypical for the classroom, including frequent attempts to aggress toward others, screaming, self-stimulation, and severe functional communication deficits. The classroom teacher had received training in behavior analysis in her Master's program, and had implemented a variety of strategies with Jared that had proven ineffective in meeting his individual needs. Because of Jared's intensive needs, an instructional aide provided most instruction in 1:1 format. School personnel reported being afraid of Jared, although his parents reported having very few difficulties at home. A BCBA completed a functional assessment, and determined that Jared's problem behaviors were caused by attention-seeking and escape/avoidance of demands with attempts to communicate driving much inappropriate behavior. This presentation will describe the complexities of providing effective intervention to Jared within the constraints of a public school that was unaccustomed to serving students with his level of disability. Functional assessment and intervention data will be provided.
4. Productivity and Publication Trends in Autism-Specific Journals
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
BERENICE DE LA CRUZ (University of Texas at Austin), Helen I. Cannella-Malone (University of Texas at Austin), Seung-Hyun Son (University of Texas at Austin), Chaturi Edrisinha (University of Texas at Austin), Daniel H. Robinson (University of Texas at Austin), Jeffrey S. Sigafoos (University of Texas at Austin), Mark O'Reilly (University of Texas at Austin)
Abstract: The purposes of this study were to (a) identify the most productive researchers and institutions and (b) document publication trends (e.g., type of articles, experimental designs) across the 3 major autism-specific journals (i.e., Journal of Autism and Developmental Disabilities, Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disorders, Autism: An international Journal of Research and Practice). We reviewed every article published in these journals for the period 1999 — 2004. Articles were coded for author name and gender, institutional affiliations of authors, type of article (e.g., intervention study, assessment study), and funding support. For intervention studies we also coded the type of design (e.g., control group design, single-subject). A second individual scored 20% of the articles to establish inter-coder agreement, which was always above 80% Data analysis revealed that articles were contributed by a number of individuals (both males and females). Multi-authored papers was the norm, and authors were mainly affiliated with a relatively select group of universities, indicating concentrations of autism research in a few major centers. Intervention studies were less prevalent compared to assessment-oriented research studies. Results suggest a need for expanding intervention research using experimental designs, including single subject research designs.
5. Stimulus Masking in Skill Acquisition for an Individual with Seizure Disorder and Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MARK WILLIAMS (The May Institute), Adam J. Magee (The May Institute), Samantha Fisher (The May Institute), Jessica Everett (The May Institute), Melissa Demers (The May Institute)
Abstract: The use of visual prompting strategies in teaching new skills to students with PDD is widely recognized as good clinical practice. However, individual differences may limit the success of visual supports. The extent to which visual supports were beneficial as a prompting technique was explored in teaching receptive and expressive language skills to a 13 year old with Autism and Continuous Spikes and Waves during Sleep, a seizure disorder. A comparison was made between skill acquisition using verbal prompting techniques versus verbal prompting paired with a visual stimulus. Both of these prompting strategies were compared with the visual stimulus alone. Targeted skills were taught using a most to least prompting hierarchy. Results suggest that the visual stimulus may be masking the verbal prompt and hindering the ability to acquire skills.
6. A Classroom Intervention for Floor-Dropping in a Child with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JANE I. CARLSON (The May Institute), Amy Slyman (The May Institute), Melissa Stafford (The May Institute)
Abstract: This case study presents a functional assessment and intervention for floor dropping behavior in a 14 year old with autism. Functional assessment revealed that the child displayed two distinct forms of floor dropping; "happy" floor dropping, and escape-motivated floor dropping. During baseline the student displayed the behavior at a rate of 5 episodes per day. A multicomponent intervention was implemented that included a physical escort to his feet for escape-motivated floor dropping. During intervention, the behavior decreased to a rate of .1 episodes per day during the last month of intervention. The rate remained low during a three-month follow-up period. Inter-rater reliability was calculated on 25% of sessions (IRR = 92%).
7. Exploring the Relationship Between Staff Competencies and Rate of Skill Acquisition
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JESSICA EVERETT (The May Institute), Leslie Sutro (The May Institute), Mark Williams (The May Institute), Samantha Fisher (The May Institute), Lorrie Ann Perry (The May Institute), Rebecca Brumaghim (The May Institute)
Abstract: Best practice in intensive behavioral intervention for students with pervasive developmental disorders requires a team of highly trained professionals to implement teaching procedures. However, little research has documented the relationship between professional competencies and skill acquisition in individual students. In the present study, professional competencies were measured monthly over a four month period using a competency based checklist derived from behaviors identified in the field as being necessary for providing quality services. These competencies were compared to daily progress in two skill areas across ten students. All students had at least two staff working with them over the course of the study and received between 15 and 25 hours of direct service on a weekly basis. Results support a relationship between professionals who exhibit high competency levels and rate of skill acquisition within individual students.
8. Learning Horticultural Job Skills Through the Use of the Picture Task Analysis
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
MICHAEL R. MAYTON (Beacon Behavioral Consultants, Inc.), Anthony Menendez (Cleveland State University)
Abstract: A teenage girl with autism, severe mental retardation, no spoken language, and no previous work experience was taught a series of horticultural work tasks allowing her to be employed by a local plant nursery and earn money with which she could engage in preferred recreational and leisure activities. Using a multiple baseline design, data were gathered to demonstrate the efficacy of a picture task analysis as part of a program of systematic instruction incorporating a hierarchy of least-to-most prompts, positive reinforcement, and errorless learning, all couched within a series of discrete trials. After a 32-hour instructional program that took place across 16 days, the participant was able to independently perform her work tasks at the nursery through the use of the picture task analyses.
9. Asperger's Syndrome: Best Practices and Applications
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
COLLEEN ANN O'LEARY-ZONARICH (The May Institute), Sandra Pierce-Jordan (The May Institute)
Abstract: This poster will present critical components needed when programming for students diagnosed with Asperger's Syndrome. A brief review of best practices will be provided; such as thorough assessment, optimal program specifications, general behavior strategies, general academic strategies, speech components, and parent training and involvement as a part of the team process. Data will be presented demonstrating applications of critical components to students' programming that yield significant improvements in performance spanning across school and home environments (i.e., increases in on-task behavior, increases in work completion, decreases in maladaptive behavior, and improvements in social skills developed) as presented in an AB multiple-baseline design. Discussion points will include staff and parent training options and opportunities and the impact of strong programming in school systems.
10. The Effect of Speech-Generating Software on the Rate of Acquisition of Spelling Words in Teenagers with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MARIAJOSE BOWDEN (Alpine Learning Group), Barbara Potter (Alpine Learning Group), Bridget A. Taylor (Alpine Learning Group), Hannah Hoch (The Genesis School), Lauren Fredericks (Alpine Learning Group), Nina Cohen (Alpine Learning Group)
Abstract: This study compared the effects of a speech output word processing program with a standard word processing program on the rate of acquisition of spelling words in teenagers with autism. The speech output program used was the Talking Word Processor (a product of Premier Assisted Technology). The standard word processing program was Microsoft Word. The participants were four teenagers with autism ages 13 to 19 with a history of slow acquisition of spelling words when using a standard word processing program. This study used an alternating treatment design. One set of words was taught on the Talking Word Processor and another set was taught on Microsoft Word. The results indicated that three of the participants learned new spelling words at a faster rate and corrected their errors more frequently using the Talking Word Processor. One participant showed no differentiation in the rate of acquisition between the two programs. IOA data were calculated for 40% of the sessions and averaged 95%.
11. Shaping Exercise Compliance in an Adolescent with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LAUREN FREDERICKS (Melmark), Richard Cappo (Melmark), Larry Goins (Melmark)
Abstract: Physical fitness and health related issues are a concern for many individuals with developmental disabilities. Obesity was an ongoing concern for one adolescent male diagnosed with autism and mental retardation, residing at a comprehensive residential and educational facility. Dietary interventions alone did not result in weight reduction. In addition, maladaptive behaviors, such as aggression and self-injury, interfered with physical activity compliance. Baseline data indicated that the individual tolerated walking on a treadmill for an average of 30 seconds. A fixed interval reinforcement schedule with a visual feedback system was introduced to increase the duration of time spent walking on the treadmill. The effectiveness of this strategy was empirically evaluated using a changing criterion design. The intervention was successful in increasing the duration of walking time to 10 minutes in the last phase of treatment. The next phase of treatment included differential reinforcement of diminishing rates to decrease the number of step off or stopping attempts. Interobserver agreement data were collected, and generalization and further applications of the current intervention are discussed.
12. Increasing Appropriate Social Interactions of a Teenager with Asperger's Syndrome
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
DIPTI MUDGAL (University of Southern Mississippi), Erin Perry (University of Southern Mississippi), Kelly Turner (University of Southern Mississippi)
Abstract: The purpose of this poster is to discuss the data-based outcomes of social skills training procedure designed to increase appropriate interactions of a thirteen year old male diagnosed with Asperger syndrome. The training included didactic instruction, modeling, role-plays, and feedback (verbal and video). Data indicated that the social skills training package was successful in increasing appropriate interactions and decreasing irrelevant statements. The addition of video feedback further enhanced the results.Keywords: Asperger, social interactions, social skills training
13. Effects of Videotaped Versus Live Lecture Trainings on Employees' Test Scores
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
SHARI L. SCHATZMAN (Eden II Programs), Daphna El-Roy (Eden II Programs)
Abstract: Competence of direct-care staff working with individuals with disabilities is a critical component of improving the quality of life for the individuals they serve (Jahr, 1998). Staff need to be proficient in general teaching skills, such as providing clear instruction, the use of systematic prompting procedures, and reinforcement principles (Ducharme, et. al., 2001). Therefore, providing efficient and effective training to new personnel is a priority. Training procedures such as lectures, discussions, and written and/or verbal information are rarely effective to teach staff proper techniques when used exclusively (Jahr, 1998). Another possible training tool is videotaped lectures. Although this format may be more efficient than live lectures, it may not be as effective as a training tool. The purpose of this study is to determine whether training test scores for recently hired employees would be enhanced following live lectures vs. videotaped lectures. Employees attending the lecture series have been recently hired to a variety of positions in the agency, with varying degrees of related experience and education. Results of this study are expected to show that people who view videotaped lectures scored lower than those who attended live lectures.
14. Increasing Data Collection by Staff in a Residential Setting
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Abstract: In behavior analysis, data collection on target behaviors is essential to determine the baseline rate of behavior and the effectiveness of any intervention put in place to increase or decrease behaviors. In applied settings, it may be difficult to ensure that direct care workers collect all necessary data. Staff data collection was analyzed by determining the percent of shifts across a week in which staff collected data on consumers in a group home setting. Following baseline, a meeting was held explaining the importance of data collection and why it is necessary. On the shifts following the meeting, praise was provided when the staff had their data books out and prompting was used to increase levels of data book carrying. In the next phase, staff had to sign a memo indicating their awareness of the consequences for not collecting data: a written warning for the first occurrence and written corrective feedback for all subsequent occurrences. In the final phase, the consequences outlined in the memo were implemented. Results indicated that praise and prompting were not sufficient to increase levels of data collection but that corrective feedback resulted in a clinically significant increase in data collection by staff.key words: performance feedback, residential
15. Acquisition of Cell Phone E-mail Use by Children with Autism in Community Settings
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KOJI TAKEUCHI (University of Tsukuba, Japan), Kasumi Sasaki (University of Tsukuba, Japan), Sigeki Sonoyama (University of Tsukuba, Japan)
Abstract: This study examined the acquisition of cell phone e-mail use by children with autism and moderate cognitive disabilities. While in community settings, children were taught to follow a set of procedures for using cell phone e-mail when they were received e-mail by their parents. For example, children gave their parents information about their location in several community settings by using cell phone e-mail. Through the use of a prompting system in conjunction with total task presentation, children acquired these new skills of cell phone e-mail. Furthermore, some children were able to generalization that skills to another new cell phone. For one child, a cell phone e-mail was used to reduce his inappropriate behavior in community settings (e.g., bus and train). Results indicated that all children successfully acquired the skills of using a cell phone to receive, read, and send e-mail.
16. A Comparison of Two Correction Procedures to Teach Tacts to Young Children with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MARY D. BELILE (Summit Educational Resources), Lori Romanek (Summit Educational Resources), Patricia Egan (Summit Educational Resources), Kristy L. Milczarski (Summit Educational Resources)
Abstract: The effectiveness of discrete trial instruction with young children with autism has been documented in several research studies to date (Anderson, et al 1978; Lovaas, 1978; others....). Most of the studies described very favorable outcomes for children, but not a thorough component analysis of the discrete trial instructional programs described in the studies. A closer analysis of these studies indicates that a variety of error-correction procedures are used across and within discrete trial instruction. The purpose of this study was to compare two widely used error-correction methods, i.e., "immediate prompt" and "no-no prompt." The study investigated whether one method of error-correction resulted in more rapid acquisition of the target skill for children with autism.
17. Decreasing Aggressive Behavior: Utilization of a Repetitive Task as a De-escalation Procedure
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ALTOVISE JACKSON (Melmark), Jessica Tyminski (Keystone Human Services), Patricia A. Neary (Melmark), Stephen C. Luce (Melmark)
Abstract: The present study examined the effectiveness of a de-escalation procedure on the aggressive behavior of a 14 year-old boy with a dual diagnosis of Autism and Mental Retardation. On the first occurrence of aggression, staff prompted the student to sit down and engage in a repetitive task (e.g., stacking rings). The student was required to complete the task calmly (no incidents of aggression) for a period of two minutes. If any incidents of aggression occurred, staff continued to present the task until he completed the task with no aggressive incidents for two minutes. Following the intervention, the student was directed back to the scheduled activity. Results showed that aggressive incidents decreased from 4.5% to 1.8% following the implementation of the de-escalation procedure in the student’s residential setting. Data is currently being collected on the effectiveness of this procedure in the student’s classroom environment. Results will be discussed in terms of generalization across settings and the influence of staff training.
18. Beyond Pennies and Smiley Faces: Behavior Management Plans for Middle School Children with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Abstract: There exist numerous types behavior management plans to address the needs of students with autism in the educational setting. Unfortunately many educators not move to more sophisticated types of motivational systems as the students grow older. The researcher presents examples of effective behavior management plans used with 3 middle school children diagnosed autism as well as data based graphs. The results suggest that all three plans were effective in reducing non-compliance an off-task behavior.
19. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Aggression for an 11-Year-Old Boy with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MARIJKE P. CALLAHAN (Melmark New England), John Stokes (Melmark New England), Mike Conard (Melmark New England)
Abstract: This study reviews the implementation of a systematic manipulation for Aggression on a 11-year-old boy with Autism,. Initial results of descriptive Analysis indicated that aggression was maintained by positive reinforcement (attention). After initial success the rates of aggression began increasing. Systematic manipulation (Iwata et. al. 1982) was then implemented, results indicated that his aggression was maintained by negative reinforcement (escape from demands). A treatment package including escape extinction and functional communication was then implemented. Continued implementation resulted in decrease in aggression to near zero rates.. Overall IOA of rates of Aggression was 92% (range 83%-100%) Results are displayed graphically.
20. The Systematic Reduction of Risperidone in a Child with Autism through the use of a “Parent Friendly” Behavior Data System
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
FRANK R. CICERO (Eden II Programs)
Abstract: Issues of compliance with and accuracy of data collection by parents remain important issues in applied behavior analysis. The present poster describes a case in which a “parent friendly” data collection system was used in the home to systematically decrease Risperidone, prescribed for hyperactivity in a child with autism. At the time of the study, the family was being seen by the author, once per week as part of an outpatient ABA crisis program. Though the parents wanted to withdraw the Risperidone, they were unable to collect objective behavioral data on either an interval or frequency system due to practical constraints within the home. In an effort to maintain objective databased decision making, an intensity rating system was initiated in the home in which the parents rated their son’s hyperactive behavior at the end of each day. Operational definitions were provided for each intensity raking. Decreases in risperidone were made according to the daily intensity ratings of behavior provided by the parents. Risperidone was completely withdrawn by day 18 with no reported increases in hyperactive intensity ratings. Data presented in the current poster show evidence that objective treatment decisions can be made based on accurate, parent-collected data when the data system is carefully tailored to the practical constraints of the home environment.
21. Reduction of Stereotypy Through the implementation of Differential Reinforcement of Lower Rates of Behavior in a School Environment
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
PAM LONEGRAN (Melmark New England), Cynthia N. Catania (Melmark New England)
Abstract: This study demonstrates the use of differential reinforcement procedures to decrease multiple topographies of repetitive behavior. The subject of the study is a 15 year old male diagnosed with Autism and Pervasive developmental disabilities. Clinicians developed a Differential Reinforcement of Lower Rates of behavior (DRL) program to reduce rates of repetitive behaviors. The procedure was used across multiple topographies of repetitive behavior and was effective in reducing rates of the behavior to near zero levels at the student school environment. Data is displayed graphically.
22. Effect of Group Drawing in Training Reciprocal Social Interactions for Children with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KYONG BONG KIM (Lotus Flowers Children Center), KeeYeon Min (Lotus Flowers Children Center), Yunhee Lee (Lotus Flowers Children Center), Eun Hee Shon (Lotus Flowers Children Center), Jin Hwa Lee (Lotus Flowers Children Center), Jee Hae Lee (Lotus Flowers Children Center), Soo Ok Shong (Lotus Flowers Children Center)
Abstract: The present study examined the effect of group drwaing in training reciprocal social interactions for children with autism. Five children with autism and ten typically developing peers participated in the study. The resuts showed that the intervention program achieved increased rate of reciprocal social interactions for children with autism and improvement scores in social competence and school adjustment test for the typically developing children.
23. The Use of Computer Technology to Teach Students with Autism Receptive Language
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LEAH STOVEL (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting), Lesley Lucas Pahl (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting), Alison L. Moors (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting)
Abstract: As an intervention for receptively identifying pictures of objects, acomputer program was created and implemented for two non vocal-verbalemerging listeners. This poster will include the scope and sequenceand supporting data for transferring responding from the computer toflashcards and 3-D objects.
24. When the Big 6 Isn't Enough: Extending the Scope and Sequence to the "Little" Six
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
LESLEY LUCAS PAHL (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting), Michael Fabrizio (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting), Amy King (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting), Ami Diakite (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting)
Abstract: Beyond the big 6 + 6 skills, which are component skills for such activities as eating with utensils, playing with toys, and dressing;the "little" big 6 targets component skills for activities that require greater dexterity such as writing. This poster will scope and sequence the "little" big 6 skills. In addition, it will include data on the effects of the "little" big 6 skills.
25. The Use of Video Modeling in Children with Autism to Increase Compliance with Health-Related Tasks
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
FREDERICK W. HOOTS (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Kyong-Mee Chung (Kennedy Krieger Institute), SungWoo Kahng (Kennedy Krieger Institute), John Davis (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Elizabeth Abellon (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Individuals with autism and other developmental disabilities often require frequent medical procedures due to physical disabilities. If the individual is noncompliant with these health-related tasks (e.g., blood pressure monitoring, EEGs, EKGs), caregivers sometimes resort to the use of physical or chemical restraint to complete these necessary procedures. Unfortunately, these methods can be unsafe and are therefore, not always practical long-term solutions. An alternative approach to increasing compliance with health-related tasks may be video modeling. Video modeling involves presenting a video demonstration of the successful completion of a desired behavior. Video modeling was selected to increase compliance during blood pressure checks among 3 boys with autism and developmental disabilities who engaged in challenging behaviors. Video modeling combined with extinction was effective for one of the participants. This method was then successfully used for that participant to tolerate an EKG procedure. For the other 2 participants, either extinction or extinction with noncontingent reinforcement successfully increased compliance. The results indicated that video modeling has the potential to be effective in increasing compliance with medical procedures in some individuals with autism.
26. Teaching Strategy for Children with Autism to Play the Piano
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KASUMI SASAKI (University of Tsukuba, Japan), Koji Takeuchi (University of Tsukuba, Japan), Fumiyuki Noro (University of Tsukuba, Japan)
Abstract: The purposes of the present study were to examine effective strategy for two children with autism to increase piano performance. Children were taught to play the piano through two kinds of prompting system. 1) Visual prompting system and 2) auditory prompting system were used. In this study, percent correct of “pitch” and “rhythm” was measured to evaluate piano performance. As results, visual prompting system increased performance of “pitch” in all children, but did not increase performance of “rhythm” in only one child. The child who had difficulties in “rhythm” needed additional auditory prompting system. These results indicated that combining visual and auditory prompting system was effective when teaching piano skills for children with autism.
27. The Autism Sound Stimulability Assessment: A Novel and Effective Articulation Assessment for Individuals with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
KATHLEEN DYER (River Street Autism Program), Deirdre Lee Fitzgerald (Eastern Connecticut State University), Jori Harris (River Street School Autism Program at Coltsville), Ann Sullivan Harris (River Street School Autism Program at Coltsville)
Abstract: Children with autism often do not respond well to traditional assessment tools due to their characteristic language delays, excesses in problem behavior, and depressed motivation. Therefore, this study evaluated an assessment tool that was designed to respond to these problems by: 1) decreasing demands on expressive language production that are often intrinsic to standardized articulation assessment; 2) provide external motivation with child preferred items; and provide behavioral support through individual behavioral support plans. In additional, the assessment was delivered by a teacher who had stimulus control in a familiar setting, rather than a speech therapist that had limited contact with the child. The results of the study showed that this assessment method was more effective in providing information on the child’s articulation ability than traditional assessment in the context of ABA reversal designs for three children. Reliability data was collected across conditions and children for 44% of the sessions across children and condtions was calculated to have 92% agreement (range:.83%-100%).
28. Review of Video Modeling Techniques and Applications in Autism and other Developmental Disabilities
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
GEOFFREY D. DEBERY (Western Michigan University), Koji Takeshima (Western Michigan University), Linda A. LeBlanc (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Reviews the current literature in the area of Video Modeling for skill acquisition in Autism and other Developmental Disabilities. Video Modeling describes a teaching procedure wherein a learner is exposed to a videotaped model of a target behavior and subsequently instructed to imitate such a model with the goal of skill acquisition. Specific topics to be addressed include the range of skills taught using video modeling, procedural variations within video modeling techniques, and reports of skill generalization. The material will be thematically oriented towards both practitioners interested in employing video modeling, and applied researchers interested in extending our knowledge of video modeling.
29. Self-Monitoring of Social Initiations and Collateral Behavior Change
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
RACHEL L. LOFTIN (Children's School Success, Indiana University)
Abstract: Students with autism have difficulty initiating social interactions. Many also exhibit stereotypic or repetitive behaviors, such as body rocking and hand flapping, which can be socially stigmatizing. Self-monitoring strategies are an effective means for students with autism to increase their rate of initiating social interaction. When self-management strategies like self-monitoring are used, collateral reductions in problem behavior can result. The proposed poster will present data from a multi-component intervention involving direct training to teach and promote social initiations and a self-monitoring intervention to ensure continued use of the skills. Data on social interaction, initiation, and stereotypy or repetitive behaviors will be presented.
30. The Use of Schedules to Increase Appropriate “Break-Time” Behavior in Individuals with Autism across School and Vocational Settings
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
WILLIAM J. DONLON (The Genesis School), Erin Sparacio (The Genesis School), Michelle L. Matathia (The Genesis School), Mary Ellen McDonald (The Genesis School)
Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of recreation schedules on break-time behavior for three individuals with autism. A multiple-baseline-across participants design was used. During baseline, schedules were not present and the participants were given an instruction to take a break. During training, schedules were present and the participant was given an instruction to take a break and then followed the recreation schedule provided. Generalization probes were conducted at the student's current worksite. The participants' break time behavior improved after the implementation of the schedule. The present study showed the effectiveness of schedules for increasing appropriate break time behavior.
31. Elimination of Aggression in a Girl Diagnosed with Autism via a Reversal of Sensory Contingency
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
BOBBY NEWMAN (Room to Grow)
Abstract: A girl with autism was engaging in serious aggression. This was primarily directed towards her mother and sibling, and included serious hair-pulling, pushing and hitting. The child’s school had suggested that such aggression was indicative of a sensory need and that such behavior should be considered a cue for the family to provide deep sensory pressure, massaging, and other sensory experiences. A functional behavioral assessment suggested that these sensory experiences might have been reinforcing the aggression. The contingencies were reversed such that sensory experiences were provided only if the girl had not aggressed for specified periods. If aggression did occur, the assaulted individual separated him/herself from the girl, behind a closed door if necessary. Data indicated that aggression dropped from over dozen instances a day pre-treatment to complete elimination within two days of treatment.
32. Conditioning Toys and Coloring to Decrease Stereotypic Behavior and Increase Appropriate Play
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
HEATHER GREEN (Teachers College, Columbia University), Robin Nuzzolo (Teachers College, Columbia University), R. Douglas Greer (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract: The current study tested the effectiveness of a conditioning procedure to reduce the stereotypic behavior of one school-aged student. After training sessions, the student was observed to test the effects of the conditioning procedure to decrease stereotypic behavior by replacing the behavior with an appropriate play behavior to expand the students community of reinforcers. The participant showed response patterns that were consistent with the findings of other studies, suggesting expanding students community of reinforcers by pairing appropriate play decreases inappropriate behaviors.
33. Treatment of Self-Injury Maintained by Positive Reinforcement: Integration of FCT with Alternative Communication Modalities
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KATE E. FISKE MASSEY (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University), Robert LaRue (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University), David J. Fischer (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutger), Diana Antinoro (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University), Aurelie Welterlin (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University), Karen L. Lenard (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University), Karitssa Fernandez (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University), Todd Frischmann (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University)
Abstract: The present study examined possible variables maintaining self-injurious behavior exhibited by a 5 year-old male diagnosed with autism. Prior to assessment, the student had been taught to communicate with a picture exchange communication system (P.E.C.S.). To evaluate the maintaining factors for hand biting, a functional analysis was conducted. Results of the functional analysis indicated that problem behavior was maintained by positive reinforcement in the form of access to preferred items (e.g., toys). Following these assessment procedures, functional communication training (FCT) with extinction was evaluated in a reversal design. Rates of communication increased (0.00 to 4.01 per minute) while a corresponding decrease maladaptive behavior was observed (2.78 to 0.21 per minute) during FCT treatment. During a reversal to baseline, inappropriate behaviors did not increase and rates of communication remained relatively high. The treatment was then reimplemented and the communicative response was then faded to be integrated into the student’s P.E.C.S. book (i.e., decreased card size, handing the card on a sentence strip). Overall, the FCT treatment decreased problem behavior by 92.4% relative to baseline. Results are discussed in terms of procedures to fade functional communication responses to make them compatible with different modalities of communication to enhance generalization.



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