Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


34th Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2008

Event Details

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Poster Session #291
#294 Poster Session (AUT)
Sunday, May 25, 2008
5:30 PM–7:00 PM
South Exhibit Hall
1. Effects of Visual Feedback on Parents' Completion of Clinically Recommended Hours—IEIBT and Autism.
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ADRIENNE STADLER (The Lovaas Institute Midwest), Steffani N. Falardeaux (The Lovaas Institute Midwest), Melissa J. Gard (The Lovaas Institute Midwest), Kristy L. Oldham (The Lovaas Institute Midwest)
Abstract: In Intensive Early Intervention Behavior Therapy (IEIBT) for treating children with autism, it is imperative that parents are involved at the clinically recommended level to support skill generalization and outcome success. As each child’s treatment objectives are determined, a specific number of parent hours are recommended in order to support successful mastery and generalization of the treatment objectives. A variety of procedures have been used to provide feedback to parents regarding the completion of their recommended hours. The frequency of the feedback and the outcome of the feedback vary as some parents complete 100% of the recommended hours while others complete less than 50% of the recommended hours. The current study evaluated the effects of regular visual feedback using cumulative line graphs on parent’s completion of the clinically recommended hours in a six-month interval. Furthermore, the research investigated whether providing parents with a comparison to other parents would affect the completion of their recommended hours. The outcomes provide further information in regards to developing consistent feedback procedures to ensure parents are involved at the level necessary for their child to meet treatment goals.
2. Support Behaviors Demonstrated by Four Paraeducators to Help Children with ASD during Academic Work.
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
ANNIE PAQUET (Université du Québec à Montréal), Celine Clement (Louis Pasteur University, Strasbourg, France), Jacques Forget (Université du Québec à Montréal), Melina Rivard (Université du Québec à Montréal)
Abstract: An increasing number of paraeducators are employed to support students with disabilities in inclusive settings. Some authors note th paraeducators are asked to assist children with academic tasks without being prepared to offer that kind of support. Only a few studies have attempted to describe precisely what they do in the classrooms. The aim of the present study is to describe the behavior of four paraeducators supporting children with autism during academic work in an inclusive classroom. A grid for direct observation is used. Five categories of support behaviors are defined: (1) social integration support, (2) behavior management (3) academic support, (4) care and support for personal autonomy, and (5) interpersonal communication. Academic support includes four behaviors: (1) material adaptation, (2) environment adaptation, (3) support for academic tasks and (4) evaluation. Behaviors are recorded using a 5s/5s interval procedure, for a total of 12,054 intervals. Results show that academic support is the category of behaviors most often displayed by all participants. Within this category, support for academic tasks is more frequent than other behaviors. Support for academic tasks represents 14.69% (SD = 2.99) of intervals and 39.62% (SD = 7.73) of total support behaviors. Implications of the results are discussed.
3. Using Feedback with Paraeducators to Increase Contrived Teaching Opportunities for Children with Autism.
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CANDICE A. GIZEWSKI (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Rachel S. F. Tarbox (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Traci M. Cihon (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Kerry O'Connor (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract: Little research is available to demonstrate how to train paraeducators in the public school setting. Schepis, Reid, Ownbey, and Parsons (2001) conducted a study which showed a treatment package consisting of verbal instruction, role-play, on-the-job training, on-the-job monitoring, and feedback to be successful in an inclusive preschool setting. The multiple components in this study make it difficult to replicate in a public school setting. We expanded on this study with 3 paraeducators by using only feedback once a week as the crucial component to the treatment package. Results suggest that a treatment package, which consists of several components, may not be necessary for increasing correct contrived teaching opportunities and independent student responding. Implications for practitioners in the school setting are discussed.
4. Increasing the Fluency of Paraprofessional Teaching Skills through Self Monitoring.
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JANICE R. BOLTON (HMEA), Michele D. Mayer (HMEA)
Abstract: The use of intensive behavioral intervention as an effective strategy in the treatment of children with autism is well established. Typically these interventions rely upon paraprofessional instructors to provide direct teaching sessions under the direction of a supervising clinician. As paraprofessional instructors often have limited formal education in the use of behavioral interventions, it is important that they receive training in order that they are able to accurately and fluently present teaching trials. While in-service training programs offered in an analogue setting have been effective in developing accurate generalized teaching skills (Bolton & Mayer, in press), there is less research investigating the fluency of teaching skills. A previous study conducted by the authors demonstrated that fluency of teaching skills could be improved through a brief training and self-monitoring intervention. The purpose of this study is to further investigate the use of the self-monitoring intervention through the use of a multiple baseline across subjects design.
5. A Review of Naturalistic Teaching Models.
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KEVIN J. SCHLICHENMEYER (University of Wisconsin, Eau Claire), Matthew Newquist (University of Wisconsin, Eau Claire), Kevin P. Klatt (University of Wisconsin, Eau Claire)
Abstract: Several different naturalistic teaching models have been used to teach skills to children with autism. These models include Incidental Teaching, Natural Language Paradigm, Multiple Incidental Teaching Sessions, Pivotal Response Training, Milieu Teaching, Enhanced Milieu Teaching, and Speak. The procedures within these models vary, and some overlap. The purpose of the current study was to provide a review of these models and the procedures used to aid in the discrimination of their similarities and differences. The review of the naturalistic teaching models revealed that between all of the models there were 22 different procedures. Sixty-eight percent of those procedures were used by at least two of the models, fifty percent of the procedures were used by at least three of the models, and thirty-two percent of the procedures were used by all of the models. These results suggest that while there are several different naturalistic teaching models that have been used to teach skills to children with autism, these models are not as distinct from each other as one might expect. Future research should compare the efficacy of the individual procedures and the different combinations of the procedures (i.e. the models) in order to determine which are most effective.
6. Staff Members’ Say-Do Correspondence in Autism Support Classrooms: Verbally Stated Expertise vs. Procedural Competence.
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JENNIFER A. WADE (Temple University), Emily B. Bisen-Hersh (Temple University), Philip N. Hineline (Temple University), Saul Axelrod (Temple University)
Abstract: As part of an ongoing three-year project, staff expertise (verbal report on behavior analytic techniques) and staff competence (implementation of behavior analytic techniques) are assessed in autism support classrooms receiving public education funding. Measures based upon direct observation as well as upon verbal reports have been developed to address various behavior-analytic approaches, examining staff expertise, competence, background factors, and training. Preliminary analyses during the first year of data collection have revealed a relatively low correlation between what staff members say (expertise) and what they do (competence). This lack of correspondence appears most pronounced for individuals who perform poorly on expertise measurers and strongly on competence measures. The stability of initial findings over an extended period will be considered along with the use of an additional staff-training checklist that addresses the role of direct feedback in strengthening say-do correspondence. It is suggested that say-do correspondence may be stronger for staff members who receive more regular feedback from supervisors and who are implementing highly structured procedures. The implications of these results for the development of effective staff training regimens, and for likely relationships between types of curriculum and child outcome are also considered.
7. The Effects of Public Posting on Increased Productivity of Classroom Staff Working with Children Diagnosed with ASD.
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
GILI P. RECHANY (Shema Kolainu - Hear our Voices)
Abstract: The current investigation focuses on increasing teachers’ productivity through public posting. Three preschool classrooms and four school age classrooms each with six students diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) participated in the study. Data were collected by the classroom teachers and teacher assistants daily and combined on weekly basis for review. The effects of public posting on increased teacher productivity were measured. The effects of school-wide data posting versus classroom data posting were compared.
8. BAAM Website Behavioral Video Clips for Teaching ABA Techniques: Preliminary Effectiveness Data.
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
HEATHER M. ANSON (Eastern Michigan University), Jennifer D. Kowalkowski (Eastern Michigan University), James T. Todd (Eastern Michigan University)
Abstract: Professionals worldwide are actively establishing behaviorally-based treatment programming for children with autism spectrum disorders. Unfortunately, due to lack of staff in many areas, services cannot meet demand. In response, professionals have implemented parent-training models ranging from 8-hour parent-training workshops to directive parent-training programs lasting several months. Parents, then, substitute for the missing staff or psychologists. Varied levels of success have resulted from these approaches. Uncertainty about effectiveness calls for research on best training practices for parents. We have created a Web page providing video clips and other information to teach skills using applied behavior analysis techniques. Each video is accompanied by a caption explaining the background of the child in the video, the teaching sequence of the skills shown, specific techniques within the video to look for, and the current status of the child. The researchers plan to collect feedback from site users to provide preliminary data on the usefulness of the Web page.
9. An Analysis of Instructor Errors in Discrete-Trial Teaching of Children with Autism.
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
DANIEL W. MRUZEK (University of Rochester Medical Center), Tristram Smith (University of Rochester Medical Center), Rafael Klorman (University of Rochester), Jennifer M. Wick (University of Rochester Medical Center), Michael Williams (University of Rochester Medical Center)
Abstract: In this study, the procedural fidelity of discrete-trial teaching (DTT) of children with autism by instructors in five community-based programs was analyzed to investigate (a) overall rate of instructor errors; (b) the relative frequency of instructor errors across key discrete trial steps; and (c) variables that moderate the occurrence of instructor errors (e.g., type of task, extraneous behaviors demonstrated by child). Forty-five videotaped instructional sessions in intensive intervention programs were coded for instructor errors using objective criteria established through review of best practice literature. Inter-rater reliability of coding was established. Results indicate that, although there is significant variability in types of instructor errors, the highest percentage of errors occur during the delivery of consequence of the child’s response, particularly the teacher’s response to the child’s error. Results of this study are discussed in light of current research on best practices and staff training in DTT.
10. The Effect of Staff Training on the Implementation of Behavioral Techniques for the Management of Attention-Maintained Behavior of Children with Autism.
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JAMES W. JACKSON (Southern Illinois University at Carbondale), Jacquelyn M. MacDonald (Southern Illinois University at Carbondale), Mark R. Dixon (Southern Illinois University), Susan Szekely (Illinois Center for Autism)
Abstract: Staff training is a vital component to the management of problem behavior. A training module consisting of pre-test, lecture, model, role play, post-test and in-vivo feedback was assessed in order to determine if staff could consistently manage attention-maintained behavior. Baseline data suggested that staff inconsistently applied appropriate techniques to attention-maintained behavior. After meeting criteria for successful completion of training, on average, staff demonstrated improved performance on identifying situations in which the problem behavior was maintained.. In addition, staff demonstrated improved behavioral techniques for said behavior. Implications will be discussed.
11. Instructing Students to Conduct Discrete-Trials Teaching with Confederates Simulating Children with Autism.
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LINDSAY MAUREEN ARNAL (University of Manitoba & St. Amant Research Center), Daniela Fazzio (University of Manitoba & St. Amant Research Center), Garry L. Martin (University of Manitoba), Dickie C. T. Yu (University of Manitoba & St. Amant Research Center), Lukas Keilback (University of Manitoba & St. Amant Research Center), Mandy Starke (University of Manitoba)
Abstract: An essential component of applied behavior analysis programs for teaching children with autism is discrete-trials teaching. Experiment 1 investigated the effectiveness of a self-instructional manual for teaching university students to correctly apply discrete-trials teaching to teach three tasks to confederates role-playing children with autism. Experiment 2 investigated a training package consisting of the self-instructional manual combined with accurate scoring of a videotape of an experienced tutor conducting discrete-trials teaching with a confederate role-playing a child with autism. The results suggest that self-instructional strategies have considerable potential for instructing participants to conduct discrete-trials teaching.
12. Measuring Indices of Happiness in a Parent Training Program.
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SARAH A. EWING (University of North Texas), Jessica Leslie Broome (University of North Texas), Shahla S. Ala'i-Rosales (University of North Texas), Jesus Rosales-ruiz (University of North Texas), Jaime Goettl (University of North Texas)
Abstract: This study was designed to replicate and extend the research on indices of happiness programs for people with disabilities (e.g. Green & Reid, 1996; Favell, Realon, & Sutton, 1996; Green, Gardener, & Reid, 1997; Ivancic et al., 1997, Logan et al. 1998; Green & Reid, 1999a; Green & Reid, 1999b; Lancioni et al. 2002; Realon et al. 2002; Yu et al., 2002; Lancioni et al.,2003; Davis et al., 2004; Lancioni et al., 2004; Singh et al., 2004; Green et al., 2005; Broome, 2007). Behaviors associated with happiness were defined and counted during baseline and training conditions of a parent-training program for parents of toddlers with autism. Indices of parent happiness are analyzed with respect to changes in child-happiness indices, child progress, and overall parent child engagement. The results suggest that effective parent training can increase those behaviors commonly associated with happiness.
13. Instructing University Students to Conduct Discrete-Trials Teaching with Confederates Simulating Children with Autism.
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CARLY E. THIESSEN (University of Manitoba & St. Amant Research Center), Daniela Fazzio (University of Manitoba & St. Amant Research Center), Lindsay Maureen Arnal (University of Manitoba & St. Amant Research Center), Garry L. Martin (University of Manitoba), Dickie C. T. Yu (University of Manitoba & St. Amant Research Center), Lukas Keilback (University of Manitoba & St. Amant Research Center)
Abstract: Early intensive behavioral intervention based on applied behavioral analysis (ABA) is the most effective treatment for children with autism. An essential component of ABA programs is discrete-trials teaching (DTT). Fazzio, Arnal, Martin, Yu, and Starke (2007) evaluated a training package with self-instruction (self-instructional manual), and feedback plus demonstration to train instructors to conduct DTT with children with autism. Based on results of their evaluation, the self-instructional manual was improved to enhance participants’ performance in post-manual teaching sessions of 3 tasks. This present study evaluated the new self-instructional manual’s (Fazzio & Martin, 2007) effects on performance of participants’ discrete-trials teaching of 3 tasks to a confederate role-playing a child with autism, and generalization to a child with autism. Results indicate that the improvements in the self-instructional manual resulted in marked improvement in participants’ post-manual DTT performance, compared to Fazzio et al. (2007), with good interobserver agreement, treatment integrity, and social validity results.
14. Discrete Trial Training: A Consultation Approach to Teacher Implementation.
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
DANIEL J. KRENZER (Mississippi State University), Jennifer S. Kazmerski (Mississippi State University), Melanie DuBard (Children's Hospital of Philadelphia), Kristin N. Johnson-Gros (Mississippi State University)
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine treatment integrity and acceptability levels among teachers receiving either verbal or written feedback after implementing discrete trial training intervention. The teacher is given information about the accuracy of their administration of the intervention and data will be taken to identify which method of feedback leads to greater treatment integrity and acceptance. A secondary purpose of this study is to increase the range of appropriate behavior with the implementation of discrete trial training. Three dependent variables, percentage of correct responses during DTT, treatments acceptability, and treatment integrity were assessed. Results, limitations, future research and practitioner use will be discussed.
15. Teacher Training and Consultation Program using Internet for Children with Developmental Disabilities.
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MASAHIKO INOUE (Tottori University Faculty of Medicine)
Abstract: The effects of the teacher training and consultation program using the Internet are assessed. 11 preschool teachers participated. GETA ver.4.11 e-learning software was used. 7 lectures and homework targeted learning of the ABA basics. Then some teachers, with staff support, designed and carried out their child's training program on their own. The teachers had acquired knowledge of ABA and functional analysis. The problem behaviors of the children decreased.
16. The Effects of Video Modeling on Teaching Students with Autism to Offer Assistance to Others.
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
HILLARY WHITESIDE (The Institute for Effective Education), Alicia Ritter Smirallotis (The Institute for Effective Education)
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of using video modeling to teach students with autism to recognize when others need assistance and the skills to determine how and when to offer to help. Acquisition of social skills that are beneficial to others may additionally broaden and enhance participation in the community and inclusive settings. A multiple baseline design across three subjects is currently being conducted in a school setting. All participants display reduced awareness of environmental and social cues which are necessary for offering help to others when it is needed. The video models used in this study show an array of situations in order to facilitate generalization of these skills. In the classroom setting, similar situations in which assistance is needed are contrived and offering help is measured on a per-opportunity basis.
17. Increasing Food Consumption Using Simultaneous Presentation and Stimulus Fading in the Absence of Escape Extinction.
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
TAIRA LANAGAN (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Adel C. Najdowski (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Katharine Gutshall (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Jonathan J. Tarbox (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Abstract: Simultaneous presentation has been demonstrated to increase food consumption without escape extinction (EE; Ahearn, 2003; Buckley & Newchok, 2005; Piazza et al., 2002) and stimulus fading with EE has been used to fade out the presence of preferred foods used during simultaneous presentation (Kern & Marder, 1996; Mueller, Piazza, Patel, Kelley, & Pruett, 2004). No studies have evaluated whether stimulus fading without EE can be used to fade out the presence of preferred foods. The purpose of this treatment evaluation protocol was to increase one child’s food consumption of nonpreferred foods using simultaneous presentation and determine if we could use stimulus fading to remove the presence of preferred foods, all in the absence of EE, using a multiple baseline across foods design. Results demonstrated that the child began consuming foods during simultaneous presentation and that stimulus fading successfully resulted in the child eating nonpreferred foods alone.
18. Using Video Simulation of Self-Help Skills for Children with ASD.
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
JEONGIL KIM (Lotus Flowers Children Center & Daegu Cyber University), Kyong Bong Kim (Lotus Flowers Children Center, KOREA), Yoon Hee Lee (Lotus Flowers Children Center, KOREA), Soo Ok Song (Lotus Flowers Children Center, KOREA), Ok Ja Lee (Lotus Flowers Children Center, KOREA), Min Jeong Lee (Lotus Flowers Children Center, KOREA), Jee Hyun Shon (Lotus Flowers Children Center, KOREA), Hyun Eu Kim (Lotus Flowers Children Center, KOREA)
Abstract: The present study examined the effect of utilizing a video simulation of daily-life skills to improve independent self-help skills for children with autism. Three boys with autism, in the range of 6–7 years old, who were reported as showing qualitative deficits in self-help skills. Using a mixed experimental design of a multiple baseline design and an alternative-treatments design, self-help skills for each subject were simulated and modeled on a video for the subject. The study had outcomes that the intervention improved self-help skills with all the subjects. Also, the intervention was a cost-effective and time-saving tool compared with other interventions for children with autism.
19. The Use of Video-Modeling to Teach Socio-Dramatic, Reciprocal Play to Children with Autism.
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MARISSA R. MARTINEZ (California State University, Los Angeles), Michele D. Wallace (California State University, Los Angeles), Sebastien Bosch (California Unified Service Providers), Veronica Oneto (California State University, Los Angeles)
Abstract: Children with autism are known to have deficits in social behavior (Pierce & Schreibman, 1995). Socio-dramatic and reciprocal play with peers helps to teach children language, objects manipulation, imitation, and other important skills necessary for socialization. Due to the deficits in social behavior, children with autism do not have the chance to learn such skills in the context of play. The purpose of the present study was to teach children with autism to engage in reciprocal pretend play with a peer with autism (i.e., to teach two children with autism to interact together in socio-dramatic, reciprocal play) through the use of video modeling. Three dyads of children, all diagnosed with autism, participated. A multiple baseline across activities with multiple participants was used to evaluate the effects of video modeling. Results are discussed with respect to the implications of using video modeling to teach socio-dramatic, reciprocal play with children with autism.
20. A Comparison of the Effect of Self- And Other-Video Modeling on the Task Completion of a Girl with Autism.
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
COURTNEY MICHELLE MOODY (Florida Institute of Technology), Joel P. Hundert (Behaviour Institute), Lindsay Robertson (McMaster University)
Abstract: Video self-monitoring is a promising and relatively new approach for teaching a variety of skills to children with autism. It consists of developing and editing a video of a child with autism him or herself performing a target skill (e.g., playing with a peer). A child with autism then would observe the video just before an opportunity to practice the target skill. Although video self-monitoring holds promise, variables that contribute to its effectiveness have not been identified. This poster will present results of a study comparing the effects of video self- versus other-modeling on the acquisition of daily routines by a 12-year-old girl with autism. Using an alternating treatment design, the skill involved in vacuuming and washing dishes were taught using video self-monitoring and video other-modeling. The results indicated that there was no difference in the acquisition or generalization of skills learned under each of the two conditions.
22. Teaching Social Behaviors to Children with Autism - Independent Play.
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ANNA BUDZINSKA (Institute for Child Development in Gdansk), Marta Wojcik (Institute for Child Development)
Abstract: The study shows using the video modeling method in teaching social behaviors - independent play in three boys with autism. Social behaviors were defined as correct manipulation of toys in accordance with their function and the verbal component. Multiple baseline across children was used to assess the effectiveness of the videomodeling method.
23. Comparing the Effectiveness of Two Social Skills Interventions in Teaching Social Skills to Children with Autism.
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SARA J. GERSHFELD (Scripps College), Debra Berry Malmberg (Claremont McKenna College)
Abstract: Video Modeling has a great deal of research validating its use in behavioral treatment of children with autism (e.g., Charlop-Christy, Le & Freeman, 2002), whereas sound research studies on Social Stories are lacking. In the current study, an alternating treatment design with the additional control of a multiple baseline design was used to compare the two interventions in teaching social skills to children with autism. The study assessed each child’s individual needs and targeted specific social skills using the Video Modeling or Social Stories intervention. Video Modeling, which is based on the visual strengths of children, consisted of sessions where the child watched the video, then was observed to see if they engaged in the target behavior displayed in the video. The effectiveness of social stories was assessed after the child listened to the story, then was observed in a natural play setting to see if they engaged in the behavior described by the story. Results showed that Video Modeling resulted in faster acquisition of social skills than Social Stories and also showed positive findings of maintenance and generalization. Interobserver agreement was greater than 80%. Results discuss the importance of using empirical-validated procedures with children with autism.
24. The Use Of Video Modeling To Teach Team Sports To Children with Autism.
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ERIN BURKE (BEACON Services), David Robert Dilley (BEACON Services), Joseph M. Vedora (BEACON Services), Robert K. Ross (BEACON Services)
Abstract: Video modeling has been used to teach children with autism various skills including self-help, play and social skills. This study assessed the effects of video modeling used to teach a team sport and socialization within the sport with a child with autism. This experiment consisted of two phases. During Phase 1, ten steps needed to play wiffle ball were taught through the use of video modeling. In Phase 2, a video model was used to teach socialization (comments) during a game of wiffle ball. The videos depicted the participant’s father, educators, and friend playing waffle ball or making social comments during a game of wiffle ball. Results indicated that the use of video modeling was effective in teaching wiffle ball skills and also had a collateral benefit of increasing social commenting.
25. The Effects of Session Probes before Discrete Trial Teaching on the Acquisition of Receptive Labels in a Child with Autism.
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LYSIANNE D. KOLT (St. Cloud State University), Lara Derksen (Lovaas Institute Midwest), Marci Gorman (Lovaas Institute Midwest), Kimberly A. Schulze (St. Cloud State University)
Abstract: Researchers examined the acquisition of receptive character labels from popular children’s T.V. shows and movies using discrete trial teaching (DTT). The participant was a 4-and-a-half-year-old girl diagnosed with microcephaly and autism receiving 35 hours per week of Intensive Early Behavioral Intervention services for approximately two years. Baseline probes revealed correct identification of three characters with 80% or greater accuracy from the 25 characters probed. Each teaching session began with a probe of the current receptive character to determine if the participant could independently and correctly identify the target character before DTT. Following the implementation of intervention, there was a steady increase in the number of character labels acquired; moreover, there was an increase in the number of characters the participant mastered on probes before any teaching for that target occurred. In addition, responding generalized from receptive to expressive labels in the natural environment, suspending the need for an expressive labeling program for the 25 characters’ labels. Future research could examine how probing targets each session affects an individual’s acquisition rate of receptive and expressive labels in other programs.
26. Teaching Daily Living Skills to Individuals with Autism: A Comparison of Picture and Video Prompts.
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ERIKA KRAUS (Northern Illinois University), Toni R. Van Laarhoven (Northern Illinois University), Jesse W. Johnson (Northern Illinois University)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of video prompting and picture prompting for teaching daily living skills to two young men with autism. Participants were taught two different skills that were identified as instructional priorities in their educational programs. Each task was taught with either video prompts presented on a laptop or picture prompts presented in a booklet and the effects of the instructional conditions were evaluated and compared using an adapted alternating treatments design. Results indicated that video prompting was slightly more effective in terms of independent correct responding and number of prompts to use instructional materials. In addition, when efficiency scores were calculated by considering the ratio of each participant's growth (from pre-test to post-test) to the measured "cost" of minutes required to create instructional materials, video prompting was considerably more efficient than picture prompting. Instructional implications and future research will be discussed.
27. Using Video Modeling to Increase Social Interactions during Play for Children with Autism.
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
DANIELLE OSTROWSKY (The New England Center for Children), Nicole S. Fouts (The New England Center for Children), Rebecca P. F. MacDonald (The New England Center for Children)
Abstract: Video modeling has been shown to be an effective procedure for increasing cooperative play between children with autism and their typically developing peers. The purpose of the present study was to teach two children with autism to engage in reciprocal pretend play using video modeling. Scripted play scenarios involving various verbalizations and play actions with adults as models were videotaped. Two children with autism were paired and a multiple-probe design across three play sets was used to evaluate the effects of the video modeling procedure. Results indicated that both children with autism acquired the sequences of scripted verbalizations and play actions quickly and maintained this performance during follow up probes. In addition, social interactions between children increased in all three play sets. Interobserver agreement for verbalizations ranged between 88.8% and 100% and interobserver agreement for play actions was 100%. These findings will be discussed as they relate to the development of reciprocal pretend play repertoires in young children with autism.
28. The Use of Adaptive Equipment to Teach Daily Living Skills.
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MICHELLE HARRINGTON (Judge Rotenberg Center), Jill Hunt (Judge Rotenberg Center), Matthew L. Israel (Judge Rotenberg Center)
Abstract: In this study, we will discuss the use of specially created adaptive equipment in teaching daily living skills. These skills include buttoning, unbuttoning, tying and untying shoes. We developed models with large scale representations of the final product, such as a shirt or a shoe. Students became fluent on the skills, using these large items, and using small, pre-determined steps, are taught to complete the skills with a regular shirt or shoe. Data will be plotted on a standard celeration chart. We will examine the generalization and long term retention of the skills taught using this adaptive equipment.
29. The Effects of Social Skills Instruction and Video Self-Monitoring on a Young Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KATIE M. KREIMER (Missouri State University), Linda G. Garrison-Kane (Missouri State University), Jane E. Doelling (Missouri State University), David Wayne Mitchell (Missouri State University), David Goodwin (Missouri State University)
Abstract: This study examined the effectiveness of teaching social skills through direct instruction, video and self-monitoring on a preschooler diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. The dependent variables of initiation, response, turn-taking, and eye contact were assessed with a multielement reversal design. Formal and informal assessments specific to children with autism were administered to assess the types of communication deficits that the participant exhibited. (A) Baseline data was collected to assess the occurrence of initiating, responding, turn-taking and eye contact with adults and peer within his classroom environment. The first treatment phase (B) involved direct instruction of social behaviors using a social skills curriculum developed by Juniper Gardens Research Project. The second treatment phase (C) employed the same social skills curriculum employed in phase two (B) with the addition of video modeling using an iMac laptop. The third treatment phase (D) combined video modeling and self-monitoring of the dependent variables. A final reversal phase (A2) was implemented to assess the possible generalization of the independent variables on the dependent variables. All treatment phases showed increases in all dependent variables with greater increases in the treatment phases of direct instruction with video modeling and direct instruction with video modeling and self-monitoring.
30. Effects of Video Feedback on Reducing Problem Behavior in Children with Autism.
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CHARLIE CHEN (SEEK Education Inc. Taipei, Taiwan), Hui Hung Chen (SEEK Education Inc. Taipei, Taiwan), Chia-Yu Chou (SEEK Education Inc. Taipei, Taiwan)
Abstract: This study is to investigate the effects of video feedback on reducing problem behavior in children with autism. This study is conducted in an institute setting in Taipei, Taiwan. One single-participant experiments with multiple baselines and withdrawals across problem behaviors is used in this study. The collected data is mostly analyzed by using the visual analysis. The results are discussed with previous research and implication of practice.
31. Teaching Reading Comprehension to an 8-Year-Old Deaf Boy with Autism.
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
GILAH HABER (BEACON Services), Joseph M. Vedora (BEACON Services)
Abstract: Many children with autism learn to read isolated words but struggle to demonstrate reading comprehension. The present study examined the effectiveness of directly teaching reading comprehension and then assessing emergent reading performances in a deaf boy with autism. The participant entered the study proficient at naming objects (signing) and matching objects to their signed name. He was directly taught to match printed words to objects. Results indicated that reading (signing) printed words emerged without explicit instruction and suggested the formation of an equivalence class of stimuli.
32. Establishing Creativity in Coloring in a 3-Year-Old with Autism.
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
STEVEN RIVERS (BEACON Services), Trisha D. Ripton (BEACON Services), Robert K. Ross (BEACON Services)
Abstract: A common criticism of Applied Behavior Analytic (ABA) programming for children with autism is that it may result in rote or robotic responding. One strategy that has been shown to increase variability in responding is through directly reinforcing the occurrence of novel responses (Goetz & Baer 1973). The current expands on this strategy by demonstrating how a sequence of instruction was used to establish basic coloring skills. Once the basic coloring skills were established, a reinforcement procedure that only reinforced novel coloring performances was implemented. The results demonstrate that the student was able to vary from the rote routine and color using new colors, and to color in ways that were not directly taught.
33. Using Tactile Reinforcement to Increase Appropriate Marker Use in a 3-Year-Old with Autism.
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SHARA SECUNDO (BEACON Services), Mary Beth Weston (BEACON Services), Steven Rivers (BEACON Services), Robert K. Ross (BEACON Services)
Abstract: The incorrect use of markers or crayons (e.g., writing on oneself, coloring inappropriate items) is a commonly observed behavior in young children when learning how to color. Procedures used to address this problem often focus on interrupting and correcting the behavior(s) in question. The current study began by identifying the functional reinforcer for incorrect marker use (tactile reinforcement), and then using this reinforcer as a consequence for correct marker use. An errorless instructional procedure was implemented to establish the Stimulus- Response- Consequence sequence where the instruction to color was provided along with the motor support to use the marker correctly (color) and then tactile reinforcement (in the form of the child’s father picking up the child and swinging him) was immediately delivered. The results show that correct marker use increased significantly over baseline levels and incorrect marker use dropped to near zero rates and maintained these levels over time.
34. Teaching a Child with Autism to Color Using a Visual Supports Fading Procedure.
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
TRISHA D. RIPTON (BEACON Services), Steven Rivers (BEACON Services), Robert K. Ross (BEACON Services)
Abstract: Teaching children how to color is a common task for many pre-school children. In many cases, children begin to color by selecting a crayon and scribbling on paper without regard to the form on the page. In this study, a 3-and-½-year-old child with autism was taught to select a specific colored crayon, color inside a shape, and repeat this process until an entire picture was completed. The student was first taught to select the correct color by visual cues on the page (if the shape had a yellow border, the child must select the yellow crayon). The child was then taught to color inside of that shape, with minimal coloring outside the borders of the shape. A new shape was then presented and each time a different colored crayon was required to complete the task. After each step was taught, then all shapes and crayons were presented and the children colored the entire picture using multiple crayons. Data demonstrate that the procedure was successful in acquiring the desired responses and that the child was able to learn to generalize the color selection without the additional visual cues (colored borders).
35. Teaching Quantity Concepts without Naming.
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CAMMARIE JOHNSON (The New England Center for Children), Hannorah Thurman (The New England Center for Children), Susan N. Langer (The New England Center for Children)
Abstract: Conditional discriminations related to quantities were taught to an 8-year-old boy with autism. Although pretests showed intact conditional identity matching of printed numerals and quantities 4, 5, and 6, arbitrary sample/S+ relations among these stimuli and their spoken names were not demonstrated. Arbitrary matching of quantities was taught with match-to-sample procedures using a progressive time delay procedure and differential reinforcement. A correct trial was recorded when the comparison stimulus with the same quantity (but different arrangement) of dots as the sample was selected. After each relation was learned (e.g., Arrangement 1 to Arrangement 2), probes were conducted for the symmetrical relation (e.g., Arrangement 2 to Arrangement 1) and generalization to novel arrangements (e.g., Arrangement 1 to Arrangement X). Accuracy on symmetry probes was at or close to 100%. Emergent relations with novel arrangements were only observed after the direct teaching of 3 arrangements. Concepts of quantities 4-6 were established without directly teaching spoken number name-to-quantity relations and despite inconsistent and often incorrect tacts by the participant in the presence of same-quantity exemplars.
36. The Effect of Frequency of Embedded Instruction Trials on the Skill Acquisition and Generalization of a Boy with Autism in a Full Inclusion Educational Program.
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
DONNA C. CHANEY (Behaviour Institute), Joel P. Hundert (Behaviour Institute), Karen Edwards (Behaviour Institute)
Abstract: Unless we find practical and effective ways of teaching students with autism within the routines of general education classrooms, efforts to include these students may fail. One promising approach is to teach selected individualized objectives to a student with autism embedding into the general education class instructional day. Embedded instruction has been successfully used by general education classroom teachers and paraprofessionals to teach students with autism a variety of academic skills within inclusive settings. However, there have been no studies indicating whether faster skill acquisition and better generalization of skills to new settings would occur with an increase in the number of embedded instructional trials. This poster will present data from a study conducted with a 11-year-old boy attending a full-inclusion general education classroom. Using an alternating treatment design, a random half of a set of 20 vocabulary words were taught using a total of 30 embedded instruction trials daily and the other half taught using 60 embedded instructional trials daily. Quicker skill acquisition was associated with higher frequency of embedded instruction trials but there was no difference in the generalization of trained items to a different instructor between high and low frequency of embedded instructional trials.
37. Educational Trial Applications of Applied Behavior Analysis.
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CHRISTOPHER MUSTAKAS (Wagner College/New York Center for Autism Charter School), Elizabeth Peckenham (New York Center for Autism Charter School), Jessica R. DeLia (New York Center for Autism Charter School), Mapy Chavez-Brown (Wagner College)
Abstract: The study being presented looks at the effectiveness of Applied Behavior Analysis practices in implementing a program with a student who is diagnosed with Autism. The participant in this study is seven years old and attends a charter school located in a major metropolitan area. The instructional program targeted seeks to teach the participant to identify objects within a specific environment. His non-contextual vocalizations, crying, and laughing which are listed in his Behavior Intervention Plan prove to be a challenge in instruction; more details are outlined within the study. Results will be discussed in regards to the effectiveness of teaching strategies.
38. Comparison of Traditional Flashcard and Computer-Based Instruction for Improving Receptive Vocabulary of Children with Autism.
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
E. AMANDA BOUTOT (Texas State University), Amanda Marriott (Eanes Independent School District)
Abstract: This poster session will present results from a single-subject study comparing the effectiveness of traditional flashcard instruction and a computer-based system for increasing the receptive vocabulary of four children with autism. Subjects are ages 3–7 with a diagnosis of autism; one student has Fragile X. All subjects were taught using a discrete trial training in a public school once per day for four weeks using either flashcards or a computer- based program. Selection vocabulary words unknown to the students resulted in a total of eight words each; these were randomly assigned to either the flashcard or the computer-based treatment so that four words were taught in each. An alternating treatments design was used to obtain 20 data points per child. Subjects were randomly assigned to each treatment on day one, and treatments were counter-balanced daily thereafter. A discrimination probe was done each day following intervention and frequency data as well as level of prompt data were taken on each vocabulary word. A full description of both treatments, graphed data depicting outcomes of the study, and anecdotal generalization information will be provided at this poster presentation.
39. An Innovative Computer Game to Study Attention to Linguistic and Other Stimuli in Low Functioning Autistic Children.
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
BERTRAM O. PLOOG (College of Staten Island, City University of New York), Jessica Winder (College of Staten Island, City University of New York), Snigdha Banerjee (College of Staten Island, City University of New York), Daniel Gelardi (College of Staten Island, City University of New York), Patricia Brooks (College of Staten Island, City University of New York)
Abstract: Our main goal has been to establish a paradigm for the systematic evaluation of selective attention to the various components of multi-dimensional stimuli in individuals with autism. The video game was designed to allow for many manipulations (e.g., stimuli could be varied in modality, intensity, affect, and complexity). Time parameters and reinforcement types and rates can be changed. Our initial study using this paradigm presented speech stimuli varying with respect to prosody and content. In the game, the child observes a bird flying through a forest and controls the bird’s movement using the computer mouse. Periodically, two nuts appear. The child orients the bird towards the nut on that side, and one of two prerecorded sentences is played. If the child selects the target sentence (S+), a reward (movie clip) is presented. Selection of the other sentence (S–) is unrewarded. At testing, children hear re-combinations of the content and prosodic features of the training stimuli. Typically developing children showed a bias toward content whereas autistic children showed equal preference toward prosody and content. We suspect that children with autism will display a variety of atypical patterns of attention to stimuli that potentially can be remedied using our video-game paradigm.
40. A Comparison of Two Procedures to Train Functional Conditional Discriminations in Individuals with a Pervasive Developmental Disability.
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JOSLYN N. CYNKUS (Louisiana State University), Michael E. Kelley (University of Southern Maine), Laura D. Fredrick (Georgia State University), Crystal N. Bowen (Marcus Autism Center), George H. Noell (Louisiana State University)
Abstract: Conditional discriminations are an important part of human behavior. Thus, it is crucial to identify an efficient methodology for teaching conditional discriminations to individuals who do not naturally acquire such discriminations, such as children diagnosed with autism. Previous research looking at conditional discriminations has tended to be basic in nature and has used arbitrary stimuli. The current investigation extends basic research by focusing on functional discriminations and compared the use differential reinforcement alone with a procedure that included error correction contingent on an incorrect response and differential reinforcement. The results of the current investigation were idiosyncratic across participants. Nevertheless, stimulus generalization was observed for each participant. Overall, the results were not as clear as previous studies that found error correction with differential reinforcement to be highly effective ( e.g., Linton & Singh, 1984; Ollendick et al., 1980; Singh & Singh, 1986; Stewart & Singh, 1986). Results are discussed in terms of clinical significance and related to previous research.
41. The Effects of Interspersing Tasks on Skill Acquisition and Competing Behaviors for Children with Autism.
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KERRY O'CONNOR (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Rachel S. F. Tarbox (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Traci M. Cihon (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Candice A. Gizewski (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract: Research has demonstrated that manipulating task presentation affects the attending behaviors and skill acquisition of individuals with autism and other developmental disabilities. Interspersing mastered and target tasks has been shown to be beneficial in both increasing the number of target items learned as well as in decreasing aberrant behaviors. It has been suggested that increases in reinforcement density and decreases in task difficulty contribute to these results. However, no study has been conducted in which both skill acquisition and attending behaviors were objectively measured. Furthermore, limitations in the measurement tools used in the studies may have influenced the results obtained. The purpose of the current investigation is to objectively evaluate the effectiveness of interspersing tasks on skill acquisition and competing behaviors for children with autism.
43. Using NLP to Teach Action Words to Young Children with Autism.
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MIKE CARPENTER (Nyansa Learning Corporation), Tesa T. Dahl (Nyansa Learning Corporation), Hsiaoying Chen (Nyansa Learning Corporation)
Abstract: The Natural Language Teaching Paradigm (NLP) is a naturalistic teaching procedure that has been used to promote vocalizations (Koegel, O’Dell, & Koegel, 1987; Laski, Charlop, & Schreibman, 1988), and articulation (Koegel et al., 1998) in children with autism. NLP has also been described as a procedure that can promote the action words (Charlop-Christy & Kelso, 1997). The present study examined the use of NLP to promote the display of action words during play in three children with autism. In study one, a multiple baseline design across and within children was used to assess the acquisition and generalization of the target responses. Results indicated that both children acquired their target responses. In study two, a multiple baseline design across behaviors (actions) with one child was used to assess the acquisition of multiple action words. Results indicated that the child was able to acquire multiple action words using NLP. Generalization was assessed by children’s ability to label actions depicted in pictures and actions of others. Variations in the display of generalization, rate of acquisition, and task variation will be discussed in terms of best practice for teaching and assessing children’s acquisition and generalization of verbs.



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