|Int'l Symposium - Relational Frame Theory Research on Analogical Reasoning and Coherence
|Monday, May 30, 2005
|10:30 AM–11:50 AM
|Boulevard A (2nd floor)
|Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
|Chair: Serafin Gómez-Martín (University of Almeria, Spain)
|Abstract: This symposium present fourth experimental papers within the context of Relational Frame Theory. Three papers are related with research on analogy. Specifically, there are two papers on the transformation of functions based on analogy and one paper on anology between multiple stimulus relations. Finally, a fourth paper is on coherence within relational networks. It shows how persistent it is the subjects showing coherent performances on equivalence tests.
|Analogy between Multiple-Stimulus Relations, Respondent-Type Training and Transformation of Functions: New Paths in RFT Research on Analogy
|HILARIO MESA MANJON (University of Almeria, Spain), Serafin Gomez-Martin (University of Almeria, Spain), Dermot Barnes-Holmes (National University of Ireland, Maynooth)
|Abstract: In previous studies it was demonstrated analogical reasoning with relations other than those involved in a frame of coordination. Different subjects were exposed to a complex training protocol in which contextual cues for direction (bottom-to-top or top-to-bottom), more than, less than, same and different were established with the aim of generating a series of stimulus networks (e.g., A>B>C; D>E>F; G>H>I). Once these networks were created and analogical reasoning was demonstrated, new stimulus networks (J>K>L; LL>M>N; O>P>K) were presented using a respondent-type training procedure. The present study aims to extend these findings using two conditions in which several types of respondent type-training and Relational Evaluation Procedure were used to train and test the relational network and the analogies. This research may extend the research done so far from on analogy and shed some light on what is analogy and how id develops.
|Equivalence-Equivalence and Transfer of Function: Further Investigations
|SANDRA COYNE (National University of Ireland, Galway), Ian T. Stewart (National University of Ireland, Galway), Dermot Barnes-Holmes (National University of Ireland, Maynooth)
|Abstract: This study provides further investigation into the phenomenon of equivalence-equivalence and transfer of function. Three groups of adults were trained and tested for the formation of four 3-member equivalence relations: A1-B1-C1, A2-B2-C2, A3-B3-C3, and A4-B4-C4. They were then tested for equivalence-equivalence (e.g., matching B1/C1 to B2/C2 rather than B3/C4). Next, they were provided with transfer of function training such that one color function (F1) was attached to compounds of directly trained same-relation stimuli, while a second color function (F2) was attached to directly trained different-relation stimuli. For Group 1, F1 was trained to 1 compound stimulus composed of two directly trained same-relation stimuli, and F2 to 1 compound composed of directly trained different-relation stimuli. Subsequent tests probed for F1 in the presence of compounds containing two equivalent stimuli and F2 in the presence of compounds containing two non-equivalent stimuli. Group 2 received the same number of transfer training trials, but for this group F1was trained to 2 same-relation exemplars and F2 to 2 different-relation exemplars. For Group 3, F1 and F2 were trained to 3 exemplars of trained same and different relation exemplars respectively. Results showed that transformation of function was more likely given greater variety of transfer training exemplars.
|A Transformation of Aversive and Reinforcing Functions Based on Analogy
|SERAFIN GOMEZ-MARTIN (University of Almeria, Spain), Francisca Lopez Ros (University of Almeria, Spain), Hilario Mesa Manjon (University of Almeria, Spain), Dermot Barnes-Holmes (National University of Ireland, Maynooth)
|Abstract: In a previous study it was demonstrated that a derived relation might acquire a new “neutral” function from another similar derived relation, thereby providing a model of how analogy can be the basis for the transformation of stimulus functions. The present research is designed to extend this data incorporating aversive and reinforcing functions and testing the transformation of functions with new equivalence classes. Specifically, subjects were exposed to eight experimental phases: 1) training to form four equivalence classes (i.e., A1-B1-C1, A2-B2-C2, A3-B3-C3, A4-B4-C4); 2) tests for equivalence within the classes; 3) training Function 1 (F1, choosing nice pictures) to relations composed of same class stimulus and training Function 2 (F2, choosing bad pictures) to relations composed of different class stimulus; 4) tests for transformation of stimulus functions to new relations; 5) test to demonstrate analogy within the context of matching to sample; 6) training four new equivalence classes; 7) testing for the transformation of functions based on analogy in these new classes; 8) evaluation using a liker type scale how they like relations associated to F1 (reinforcing function) and to F2 (aversive function). These results may shed light on how psychological functions are transformed in accordance with analogical relations.
|Relational Frame Theory and Coherence: An Experimental Approach
|SERAFIN GOMEZ-MARTIN (University of Almeria, Spain), Maria Jose Garro Espin (University of Almeria, Spain), Dermot Barnes-Holmes (National University of Ireland, Maynooth)
|Abstract: In two previous studies the effects of coherent and incoherent training of equivalence classes on test performance was studied. Specifically, subjects where exposed to coherent (e.g., standard equivalence training) and incoherent training (e.g., the following relations where trained, A1-B1, B1-C1, A2-B2, B2-C2, and A1-B2, B1-C2). Several conditions were arranged varying the order in which incoherent and coherent training were provided. The effect of training using the same stimulus set or multiple stimulus sets was also investigated. Results showed a general tendency in subjects to respond in accordance with coherent patterns of relational responding, especially when the same set was always used. The present research seeks to reexamine incoherent training, focusing in particular on the relative effects of different numbers of incoherent and coherent trials on equivalence test performance. Results will be discussed within the context of Relational Frame Theory and some clinical implications will be outlined.