|Teaching Play, Recreational, and Leisure Skills to Persons with Autism
|Monday, May 30, 2005
|3:00 PM–4:20 PM
|Stevens 5 (Lower Level)
|Chair: Stephanie K. Merker (University of North Texas)
|The Effects of Play Materials on Social Interactions Between Children with Autism and Their Siblings
|Domain: Applied Research
|STEPHANIE K. MERKER (University of North Texas), Shahla S. Ala'i-Rosales (University of North Texas)
|Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the specific types of play materials affect the social interactions between children with autism and their siblings. Two sibling pairs participated in a multi-element analysis of the effects of certain toys and activities on the interactions between each dyad. Three conditions were assessed: free-choice of play materials, Child 1 preferred play materials only, and Child 2 preferred play materials only. Results of the assessment showed that more social interactions occurred between the sibling dyads in certain conditions. An intervention was implemented in the condition with the least amount of play interactions and carry-over into the other two conditions was measured. Reliability assessments of the taped sessions are currently in progress. The results are discussed in terms of the potential of setting events to affect intervention outcomes and the importance of improving relationships between children with autism and their siblings.
|Use of Graduated Guidance to Teach Yoga Skills to Young Children with Developmental Delays
|Domain: Applied Research
|DEBORAH J. GRUBER (Queens College and The Graduate Center, City University of New York), Claire L. Poulson (Queens College and The Graduate Center, City University of New York), Ronald Lee (Queens College and The Graduate Center, City Unive)
|Abstract: The purpose of the present study is to assess the effects of an intervention package to teach children with developmental delays individual exercise skills. These skills were taught with yoga as the method of exercise. The video-modeling baseline procedure consisted of presenting a videotape showing a certified yoga instructor providing verbal instructions and physical demonstrations of each step in a 24-step response chain that make up two yoga poses. The intervention package was implemented by yoga trainers, and consisted of graduated guidance, reinforcement, and instruction, which were introduced in a multiple-baseline-experimental design across three participants. Graduated-guidance procedures were provided to the participant, enabling the participant to execute the correct physical alignment for each step in the response chain. Upon completion of the intervention, results indicate that all participants matched the response chain with 70% accuracy or better. Data also demonstrate that one participant generalized these skills to a setting in which the treatment package was not implemented. Results from this study demonstrating an increase in skills related to physical activity, are consistent with previous research investigating treatment packages that improve physical performance. The need for future research is suggested, given the limited behavior-analytic research in this area.