Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


36th Annual Convention; San Antonio, TX; 2010

Event Details

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Symposium #231
Improving Staff Performance: A Comprehensive Application of OBM Procedures in Human Service Settings
Sunday, May 30, 2010
1:30 PM–2:50 PM
Republic B (Grand Hyatt)
Area: OBM/DDA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Lynn G. Bowman (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Teaching support staff to implement important procedures correctly is integral to consumer success. This symposium provides multiple demonstrations of the comprehensive application of Organizational Behavior Management (OBM) procedures across various human service settings. The four data-based presentations all focus on improving the performance of direct care staff by using effective training and management strategies established in OBM. In the first study, an embedded teaching procedure designed to increase consumer independence was taught to staff in an inclusive setting. The second study evaluated feedback systems for improving staff adherence to a toileting program developed for individuals with developmental disabilities at an intermediate care facility. Our third presentation utilized response cards to teach behavioral principles to newly hired direct care staff in a large inpatient hospital setting. The final presentation describes a long term project that employed a lottery schedule of reinforcement designed to increase direct care staff compliance with hand washing.
Training Staff to Use Embedded Teaching to Increase Independence Among Children With Autism
STEPHANIE TOELKEN (University of South Florida), Raymond G. Miltenberger (University of South Florida)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a brief embedded teaching procedure, involving least-to-most prompting, for two paraprofessional staff in order to increase independent responses of two children diagnosed with autism in an inclusive setting. Training was given using a behavioral skills training approach, involving instructions, modeling, rehearsal, and feedback. The staff were trained to use the SWAT procedure used by Parsons and Reid (in press). A multiple baseline across behaviors was used to evaluate the effects of the embedded teaching procedure for each child. Maintenance of training effects were evaluated two weeks following the end of the study. After training of the brief embedded prompting procedure and during the follow up probes, both students showed increased independence in each skill that staff were trained to teach.
Using Staff Management Procedures to Improve Staff Adherence With a Toileting Program at an Intermediate Care Facility for Individuals With Developmental Disabilities
PAULA ALEXANDRA MATOS (University of South Florida), Raymond G. Miltenberger (University of South Florida)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate feedback systems for improving staff adherence to a toileting program at an intermediate care facility for individuals with developmental disabilities. The facility uses interoffice memos in order to provide their staff with feedback. Following baseline, we evaluated the effectiveness of the memo, memo plus in-service, and memo plus feedback in an ABCDBD reversal design across 4 residences. The results showed that memo plus feedback was the most effective intervention.
A Further Evaluation of Response Cards: Teaching Direct Care Staff Basic Behavioral Principles
MELISSA M. SHULLEETA (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Lynn G. Bowman (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Samantha Hardesty (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Leaora L. Wagner (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Numerous studies have demonstrated the utility of response cards for teaching students in classroom settings (Davis & O’Neill, 2004; Gardner et al., 1994; Marmolejo et al., 2004; Narayan et al., 1990); however, the effectiveness of response cards have yet to be employed in organizational settings. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the use of response cards on staff training in a human service setting. Specifically, newly hired direct care staff was taught basic behavioral principles using two different formats, response cards versus a traditional teaching strategy. Results suggest that individuals who received the response card training were more accurate in answering questions about behavioral concepts and better able to retain this information over time than those who received the standard training. Furthermore, individuals in the response card group had higher overall participation and on-task behavior during the training sessions than those in the standard training group. Results extend previous literature by demonstrating the usefulness of response cards in staff training. Social validity data suggest individuals in the response card group enjoyed the active participation afforded by the response cards. Reliability data were collected for one third of the training sessions and averaged above 90%.
Critical Antecedent Analysis and Measurement of Hand Washing in a Hospital Setting
SAMANTHA HARDESTY (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Lynn G. Bowman (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Melissa M. Shulleeta (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Leaora L. Wagner (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Louis P. Hagopian (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Sigurdur Oli Sigurdsson (University of Maryland, Baltimore County), Jewel Edmonds (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Hand washing is the single most important preventative measure for the reduction of contagious diseases (CDC, 2007). Health care workers are susceptible to transmitting these diseases, but fail to practice good hand-hygiene practices (Pittet, 2000). Training and feedback have been successful at increasing glove wearing and sanitizing within hospital settings; however, studies have not demonstrated maintenance of these skills (Stephens & Ludwig, 2005). The purpose of the current study was to increase compliance with hand washing in a hospital clinic. Participants included approximately 125 employees. Sanitizer dispensers and sinks were conveniently located throughout the facility and annual in-services and signs were present prior to the study. Data were collected overtly and covertly on hand washing. Hand washing occurred on average 10% during baseline. A critical antecedent analysis was conducted in order to identify situations in which hand washing was likely to occur, and results suggested that hand washing rarely occurred. A reinforcement-based procedure (i.e., a lottery) was successful at increasing compliance resulting in 71% on average. However, data collected by covert observers suggested that compliance only increased in the presence of the staff associated with the lottery. Reliability data were collected on approximately 25% of opportunities and averaged about 80%.



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