Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


36th Annual Convention; San Antonio, TX; 2010

Event Details

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Poster Session #204
EDC Poster Session 2
Sunday, May 30, 2010
12:00 PM–1:30 PM
Exhibit Hall A (CC)
108. Defining Criteria for Inclusion: What Repertoires Are Necessary for Success?
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
SANDY PIH (Manhattan Childrens Center), Noelle A. Inzano (Manhattan Childrens Center), Shana J. Sabatini (Manhattan Childrens Center), Patricia Paloma (Manhattan Childrens Center)
Abstract: This study examines the effectiveness of a criterion based assessment on predicting the success of inclusion into a less restrictive educational program with respect to social and verbal behavior repertoires. The independent variable, the criterion based assessment (generated from goals found within the ABLLS-R), consists of 84 items from 7 different social, verbal, and academic categories. Two dependent variables were measured: generalization of learned skills to the inclusion setting and independent participation in inclusion activities. The study implemented a multiple baseline across and within subjects design wherein one group consisted of 3 students who met criterion and a second group that consisted of 3 students who did not meet criterion on the assessment. Results are discussed in terms of the efficacy of a criterion based measure in predicting gains from inclusion programs.
109. A Descriptive Analysis of Outcomes After Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Janice Doney (The ABRITE Organization), Ginger R. Wilson (The ABRITE Organization), REBECCA S. RAAS (The ABRITE Organization)
Abstract: The outcomes of early intensive behavioral intervention on preschool-aged children are described. These children displayed delays in communication, or were considered at-risk for autism, or already had a diagnosis. Children ranged in age from 14 to 34 months at intake. All children exited the program by the age of 3, or exited before the age of 3 if he or she was displaying skills in the normative range. Several assessments were utilized to evaluate a child’s performance after exiting EIBI: 1) The Battelle Developmental Inventory, 2) a trajectory analysis of acquired skills in relation to typically developing peers. Other variables were examined to aid in predicting success in an EIBI program: 1) percentage of IFSP goals met and in progress, 2) implementation of the provider’s recommendations upon exiting the program by the school district. Detailed information is displayed in accordance with each learner, as well as group data to highlight any significant trends in outcomes and predictors of success in the EIBI program.
110. Quality and Quantity of Redirection in Relation to Off Task Behavior
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
NELL MALTMAN (Hope Institute Learning Academy), Tara A. Glavin (Hope Institute Learning Academy)
Abstract: The poster will address the quality and quantity of redirections in relation to off task behavior in the classroom. Within a special needs classroom, off task behavior can be addressed in a number of ways, including both ignoring the student's actions as well as redirecting the student to demonstrate on task behavior. The study will observe off task behavior using the Shared Educational Accountability Program data sheets through the Hope Institute Learning Academy. Redirection will be recorded as the amount of times an off task student was redirected as well as their subsequent behavior in the classroom. Furthermore, the type of redirection will also be recorded as either a positive or negative command, a redirection paired with a reinforcer, an action to obtain the student's attention, or otherwise. Exploration of both quality and quantity of redirection may provide insight into positive educational techniques and ways to improve on task behavior within a special needs population.
111. The Effects of the Speaker Immersion Procedure on the Number of Vocal Verbal Operants Emitted in Non Instructional Settings
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Nirvana Pistoljevic (The Fred S Keller School and Teachers College, Columbia University), Claire S. Cahill (Teachers College, Columbia University), FABIOLA CASARINI (University of Parma)
Abstract: We studied the effects of a Speaker Immersion Procedure on the numbers of vocal verbal operants emitted in the Non-Instructional Settings (NIS) by two preschoolers diagnosed with language delays. The participants were selected for the study because of the low rates of independent vocal verbal behavior emitted when not engaged in direct instruction. The dependent variables in the study were the numbers of vocal verbal operants emitted in three different NIS and numbers of mands emitted in the presence of contrived establishing operations (EOs). The Speaker Immersion Procedure is an instructional tactic that uses multiple contrived and naturally occurring establishing operations to increase opportunities to teach speaker behavior for individuals with limited mand and tact repertoires. The results showed an increase in numbers of vocal verbal operants emitted by both participants in the study following the implementation of Speaker Immersion Procedure.
112. The Effects of Using the Countoons Behavior Management Strategy with Young Children in an Early Childhood Special Education Setting
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
MELISSA K. PUHRMANN (Northwest Area Education Association), William J. Sweeney (University of South Dakota)
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of Countoons on self-monitoring behavior when used with children between the ages of four and five years old who are identified as exhibiting developmental delays and in need of early childhood special education services. Most of the recent research with young children using pictures or illustrations as a means of building behavioral repertoires focuses on developing communication or social skills, such as those used in Picture Exchange Communication Systems (Schwartz, Garfinkle, & Bauer, 1998). However, little research was found using pictorial illustrations, such as Countoons, as a self-management technique for use with young children in early childhood special education settings. The significance of this study is two-fold. First, there is need for current research addressing the impact teaching preschool age children strategies for self-monitoring, which is a component of self-determination. Additionally, this study will focus not only on teaching children Countoons, a self-monitoring strategy, but will also use a visual support displaying the desired behavior and the reward for engaging in the desired behavior as part of the intervention approach. This study will take place at an Early Childhood Special Education classroom in the Upper Midwest of the United States. Data is collected during activities that occur in the Early Childhood Special Education classroom. The primary dependent measures evaluated are on-task behavior and activity completion during both normal school days as compared to class days when the Countoon self-management system is in place. Additionally, the on-task behavior and activity completion measures evaluate the maintenance and generalization effects of the Countoon self-management system. Further, teachers and other caregivers perceptions of the effectiveness and acceptability of the self-management intervention are evaluated in this study. Finally, the implications of the intervention are also discussed as they relate to successfully in increasing time on-task and activity completion with young children in an Early Childhood Special Education classroom.
113. The Effects of Self-Monitoring on a Paraprofessional's Praise Statements
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
JENNIFER SWEENEY (Kent State University), Melody Tankersley (Kent State University), Christine Balan (Kent State University), Carrie E. Yasenosky Miller (Mayfield School District)
Abstract: Positive behavioral supports (PBS) is an approach grounded in the principles of applied behavioral analysis and is used to promote prosocial skills. The focus of PBS is on teaching replacement behaviors which result in a positive behavior change that is both durable and sustainable (Carr et. al., 1999). Behavior change can be achieved by utilizing positive evidence-based strategies such as praise and self-monitoring. Descriptive praise is simple to use, is readily available in the classroom, and does not require special resources or preparation (Kalis, Vannest, & Parker, 2007; Landrum, Tankersley, Callicott, 1998). Self-monitoring is a strategy that promotes independence and self-assessment (Rankin & Reid, 1995). Using a technology such as self-monitoring, to foster an awareness of positive interactions for educators, may lead to increased skill attainment for students. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of a self-monitoring system on praising behaviors of a paraprofessional. The study further assessed the impact of increased praise statements on student behavior.
114. Quality Assurance: Evaluating a Program to Increase Educator Capacity to Apply ABA-Based Classroom Strategies
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
BRIEN MANAGHAN (Child Care Resources), Carolynn Irene Sheehan (Child Care Resources)
Abstract: Successful outcomes of ABA-based instruction techniques are highly dependent upon the ability of educators to implement them correctly and consistently in the classroom. The Autism Spectrum Disorder School Support Program (ASD SSP) is provided by Child Care Resources (CCR) throughout Northern Ontario, Canada. The ASD SSP program provides a consultation service, employing an ABA-based Brief Behavioral Consult service delivery model, to achieve its goal of increasing the capacity of educators to apply ABA-based strategies to meet the needs of students within the autism spectrum. In order to ensure the ASD SSP is effectively achieving its goal, CCR recently revised its Quality Assurance strategy and created a Program Evaluation protocol to monitor factors affecting the success of educators to effectively learn and apply ABA-based strategies. Factors such as professional competency of ASD SSP consultants, procedurally fidelity of service delivery and educator performance feedback were included. The Quality Assurance strategy and the Program Evaluation protocol will be presented. Successes, challenges and practical recommendations relating to the implementation and application of a Quality Assurance strategy and Program Evaluation for this type of program will be discussed and future research directions proposed.
115. Effects of Multimedia Goal-Setting Instruction on Students’ Knowledge of the SDLMI and Disruptive Behavior
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
VALERIE L. MAZZOTTI (University of North Carolina at Charlotte), David W. Test (University of North Carolina at Charlotte)
Abstract: Students are expected to meet behavior and academic expectations from the time they start school until exiting school-age years. For students at-risk for, or with, emotional disturbance (ED) meeting behavior expectations can be challenging and can lead to negative in-school and post-school outcomes. Currently, students with ED are experiencing poor post-school outcomes in all of life’s domains. If educators fail to implement effective behavioral interventions, students at-risk for, or with, ED will continue to experience negative outcomes. This presentation will provide results of a study that focused on teaching students to self-set classroom behavior goals using the Self-Determined Learning Model of Instruction (SDLMI) as a tool to manage disruptive behavior. A multiple probe across participants design was used to determine if students gained knowledge of the SDLMI process and showed improved behavior as a result of the intervention. Subjects included four students at-risk for, or with, ED. Results will be discussed in terms of a functional relationship between independent and dependent variables. Presentation participants will leave with knowledge of an innovative instructional computer program developed to teach students to self-set behavior goals to improve disruptive classroom behavior. Recommendations, implications for practice, and areas for future research will also be discussed.
116. Fluency Matters: The Relationship Between Response Fluency and Academic Achievement
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
BRITTANY A. CARSTENS (University of Mississippi), Charles Peterson (University of Mississippi), Kate Kellum (University of Mississippi), Jonathan Weinstein (University of Mississippi), Kelly G. Wilson (University of Mississippi)
Abstract: Behavioral based instructional techniques such as Direct Instruction and Fluency-Training have shown tremendous effectiveness in improving academic performance among students who are struggling or below grade level in core subjects like math and reading. It appears that much of this improvement can be attributed to an increase in fluency— the rate of correct responding. The present investigation explored the relationship between response fluency during math and reading tutoring sessions, the number of correct responses, and future academic achievement. Twenty 1st and 2nd grade children enrolled in a fluency-based based after school tutoring program served as participants. Results and implications for the role of fluency in behavioral based academic instruction will be discussed.
117. Effects of Copy-Cover-Compare on Acquisition, Maintenance, and Generalization of Spelling Skills for Children with Disabilities
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
LAUREN A. MOSER (Olentangy Local School District), Katelyn M. Fishley (The Ohio State University), Moira Konrad (The Ohio State University)
Abstract: Spelling is a skill with which many students with disabilities struggle, and remediation of such a problem has proven to be difficult. Previous studies have shown that both rule-based and practice-based methods are effective in teaching spelling. Further studies have shown that immediate feedback and self-correction are also components of effective spelling instruction. The current study examined the effects of the copy, cover, and compare (CCC) self-correction strategy on the acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of spelling sight words for 6 elementary students identified with various disabilities. Specifically, students were taught to practice three or six words at a time using the CCC strategy, and effects were evaluated with a multiple baseline (across word sets) design. Maintenance measures were recorded one and three weeks after intervention, and generalization (i.e., students’ spelling of words within sentences) was measured at least once per phase for each student. Results indicated that CCC was effective in the acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of sight words for all participants. Furthermore, results from student and teacher questionnaires indicate that CCC was a socially valid intervention.
118. Improving the Reading Vocabulary of Students With Learning Difficulties Using Classwide Peer-Mediated Strategy
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
LEFKI KOUREA (European University Cyprus)
Abstract: This paper presents the effects of a classwide peer-mediated intervention on the acquisition of Greek reading vocabulary of 16 third-grade students, some of which showed learning difficulties. Specifically, the cumulative number of word/phrases/idioms learned each day, weekly maintenance scores, and tutor learning of the tutee's words were measured. Treatment integrity, interobserver agreement reliability and social validity data were also collected.
119. It's All Greek to Me! Effects of Repeated Readings on the Reading Development of At-Risk Students
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
LIA PAPANICOLAOU (European University Cyprus), Lefki Kourea (European University Cyprus)
Abstract: This research study examined the effects of repeated readings strategy on the fluency and accuracy of at-risk learners and learners with learning disabilities. Utilizing a multiple-baseline across subjects design, students were trained in the fluency-building strategy over 25 sessions. Results showed a strong functional relationship between the strategy and students' reading fluency and accuracy.
120. The Differential Effects of SAFMEDS and Practice Sheets on Math Facts Acquisition and Physiological Measures Equated to Test Anxiety
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
LAUREN HOPKINS (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), John W. Eshleman (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Diana J. Walker (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract: Flashcards designated as SAFMEDS (Say All Fast a Minute Every Day Shuffled) are a Precision Teaching procedure used to promote fluency of a verbal repertoire. Although empirical studies have used the Precision Teaching paradigm to consistently produce learning (as defined by positive celeration) in a variety of subjects, the effect of SAFMEDS alone on rate of response or celerations has not been widely investigated. The current study used a multiple-baseline across participants experimental design to explore the isolated effect of SAFMEDS on the acquisition of math facts in students aged 7-15 as compared to math facts learned through daily practice worksheets. Additionally, periodic measures of heart rate were taken during testing situations to determine the effects of each procedure on a common measure of anxiety. Using heart rate as an additional dependent variable represented an attempt to discern whether or not either procedure could decrease anxiety during stress-inducing situations - specially during math tests - a socially significant problem for many students. Key Words: SAFMEDS, Precision Teaching, heart rate, frequency, celeration, practice, worksheets, anxiety, testing, children.
121. Increasing Appropriate Classroom Behavior by Moderating Barriers to Learning
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
JESSICA GAMBA (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Tara A. Glavin (Hope Institute Learning Academy)
Abstract: In the applied classroom setting and elsewhere, an increase in on-task behavior is associated with a decrease in inappropriate behaviors associated with barriers to learning (Ayllon & Roberts, 1974). Target barriers include inattentiveness and avoidance of tasks. As such, specifically stated contingencies of reinforcement have been put into place in conjunction with a token economy based on individual performance. Participants are students aged 15 in a special education classroom at a Chicago public school. Target levels of appropriate classroom behaviors such as independent work, waiting, and asking for help are consequated daily on a FR schedule with student-chosen activities. Levels of on-task behavior beyond the target are consequated with a student-chosen consumable item out of an array during each classroom period, with the goal of increasing rate of responding beyond stated requirements. While the requirement for terminal student-chosen activity will remain at 90% of available tokens earned, target rate of responding will gradually be increased from three per period. Data to be collected should indicate maintaining higher-than-baseline levels of appropriate classroom behaviors during every period throughout the school day.
122. The Effect of TAPS ICG on Math Performance and On-Task Behavior
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CLAUDIA L. RIDDELL (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Diana J. Walker (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract: Research has shown a negative correlation between off-task behaviors and academic performance. Gilbertson, Duhon, Witt and Dufrene (2008) suggested that off-task behaviors may be a function of task difficulty. Research also suggests that teaching problem solving skills and prerequisite skills of the given task, may increase task persistence and improve academic performance. This study examines the effect of teaching problem solving skills using Think Aloud Problem Solving (TAPS) in a general education classroom to six high school students in Chicago. Specifically, this study measures the effect of TAPS with and without interdependent group contingencies (IGC) on academic performance and on-task behaviors. A multiple probe design across participants was used. The precurrent problem solving skills, pre-requisite task skills and accuracy on math worksheets were measured over time. The Math tasks presented were based on a mastery based curriculum. Students were given a pre-test and post-test on their problem solving abilities. An instructional program that uses TAPS and a mastery based curriculum, may maximize the accuracy on problem solving in Math and decrease off- task behaviors.
123. Effects of Methylphenidate on Motivation in Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Area: EDC; Domain: Experimental Analysis
JOHN J. CHELONIS (National Center for Toxicological Research), Teresa A. Johnson (University of Arkansas at Little Rock), Sherry A. Ferguson (National Center for Toxicological Research), Brian M. Kubacak (University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences), Mark C. Edwards (University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences), Merle G. Paule (National Center for Toxicological Research)
Abstract: This research examined the effects of methylphenidate (MPH) on motivation in children who were prescribed MPH for the treatment of ADHD using a progressive ratio (PR) task. Twenty-three children 7 to 12 years of age completed two test sessions, one on medication and one off. During each session, children pressed a lever to earn nickel reinforcers, where the first press resulted in a reinforcer and ten additional presses were required for each subsequent reinforcer. Children on MPH made significantly more responses during than when off medication. This MPH-associated response increase was reflected in a significant decrease in the inter-response times (IRT). Further, MPH administration resulted in a significant decrease in the variability of IRTs. In contrast, the MPH administration had no significant effects on the means and variability of post-reinforcement pause durations. These results suggest that MPH increased motivation in children being treated for ADHD. However, the inability of MPH to significantly reduce post-reinforcement pauses while simultaneously decreasing IRTs suggests that while MPH may increase motivation to perform an ongoing task, it may have little effect on the initiation of a task.



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