Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


10th International Conference; Stockholm, Sweden; 2019

Event Details

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Poster Session #61
DDA Poster Session
Sunday, September 29, 2019
5:30 PM–7:00 PM
Stockholm Waterfront Congress Centre, Level 4, Balcony
49. Further Evaluation of the Prevention of Problem Behavior Using a Laboratory Model
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
TARA A. FAHMIE (California State University, Northridge), Anne C. Macaskill (Victoria University of Wellington), Ellie Kazemi (California State University, Northridge), Elizabeth Hernandez (California State University, Northridge)
Abstract: Severe problem behavior among individuals with intellectual disabilities is prevalent, harmful, and costly to treat. It is important for behavior analysts to evaluate how their successful approach to assessment and treatment can be applied to the prevention of severe problem behavior. However, it is difficult to study prevention in applied settings without foregoing experimental control. Laboratory models may provide a convenient, efficient, and safe way to answer basic questions about the prevention of problem behavior. Fahmie, Macaskill, Kazemi, and Elmer (2018) conducted a preliminary evaluation of a laboratory model that compared the preventive efficacy of noncontingent reinforcement and differential reinforcement of alternative behavior. Results showed that both interventions similarly prevented the development of an analogue to problem behavior in undergraduates. The purpose of the current study was to replicate and extend this laboratory model and to address some of its previous limitations. Specifically, we sought to determine whether and under which conditions differential reinforcement produces prevention effects. Results suggest that following training, increasing the probability of reinforcement for alternative behavior results in significantly better prevention effects. Our results have implications for the prevention of problem behavior as well as for basic research of human behavior.
50. The Effects of Individualized Positive Behavior Support on Challenging Behaviors for a Student With Intellectual Disabilities in Special School
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
EUNHEE PAIK (Kongju National Univ.), Changho Kim (Korea Seonjin Special School), Mijum Choi (Kyungmin University), Seungchul Kwak (Kongju National University), Young Hee Seo (BK21 Kongju National University), Byoung In Lee (Dankook University), Bogseon Hwang (Korea Nazarene University)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of individualized positive behavior support(PBS) intervention on problem behaviors of a student with severe intellectual disabilities of special school in South Korea. The target behaviors were three behaviors, hitting and pulling against the elevator door & wall, stuffing the wall with his tongue, or bothering peer while doing classroom activities at school. The functional behavior assessment including MAS, interviews with teachers, direct observation as well as school records led to the hypothesis for challenging behaviors at school. The hypothesis led to the positive behavior support intervention of setting event, antecedent event, alternative behavior, and consequence strategies were implmented. The study utilized multiple baseline design across three behaviors as a research design. The percentage of frequency of student’s problem behavior was measured using partial interval recording. The results of the study were as follows; Firstly, individualized positive behavior support was effective decreasing three behaviors; resisting the elevator door close, stuffing the wall with his tongue, and bothering peer. Secondly, the effects of positive behavior support intervention were maintained two weeks after the intervention. In conclusion, this study indicated that the individualized positive behavior support decreased the target student’s problem behaviors and maintained the effects during the generalization period.
51. The Effect of Positive Behavior Intervention and Support on the Academic Engagement Behavior of Child With Developmental Delay
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
YUNHEE SHIN (Daegu Cyber University), Jung Yeon Cho (Daegu Cyber University)
Abstract: This study was to reduce the problem behavior and increase the engagement behavior of the participant with developmental delay through PBIS in nursery school. PBIS focused on individual has different from behavior modification exclude functional assessment. PBIS consider participant’s function and their environment, for example, background and attendance, and also their motivation. The participant was a boy aged 6 years old and he diagnosed developmental delay in hospital. He has difficult with learning compared normal peers and he’s often saying “no, get a way, I don’t like” – negative words. He also has difficult to make friends and play with long strap alone. He goes to nursery school every day and has problem behaviors – crying, broken rules, wandering around during class hour in the classroom. According PBIS procedure, We decided the participant’s target behavior, and use MAS(motivated assessment scale) and conducted functional assessment and functional behavior analysis. After behavior analysis, we made an intervention plan using modeling and differential reinforcement of incompatible behavior. Data was collected for 4 months, 15 times. It was 4 times in baseline and 11 times in Intervention in the classroom. Data analyzed by partial-interval recording and inter observer reliability was 93%. The participant’s problem behaviors were crying, broken rules, wandering around his classroom, out of seat, and engagement behaviors were raising hands, asking teacher's permission, tell a teacher 'help me'. The result of this study shows A(baseline)-B(intervention) single subject research design. In baseline phase, the number of problem behavior was average 8.25(range from 7 to 9), this number of problem behavior was getting down average 5.27(range from 8-3). The number of engagement behavior was 0 in baseline and until 6 sessions. However, the number has changed on 7 sessions; the average of engagement behavior in intervention was 1.9. In Conclusion, PBIS has a positive effect on problem behavior and engagement of the participants with developmental delay during class hour. However, the effect of the engagement behavior is not powerful. If this study was sustained over 20 sessions, this result would change positively.
52. Functional Communication Training in the Treatment of Problem Behaviors Maintained by Attention
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
MIYUKI NOGUCHI-SATO (Kyoto University of Education), Akiko Iwatani (Mikumo Special Needs School)
Abstract: Studies have indicated that the combination of functional communication training (FCT) and extinction is an effective intervention for reducing severe problem behaviors exhibited by individuals with intellectual disabilities. However, few studies have examined the effect of FCT with extinction on problem behaviors. In the present study, we implemented FCT, along with extinction, and examined its effectiveness in reducing the attention-maintained problem behavior (i.e., kicking and scratching) of a 14-year-old boy with intellectual disabilities in a special needs school. In session 2, the participant’s teacher took day off, and the problem behavior decreased. This indicated that his problem behavior was maintained by teacher’s attention. In the FCT, we taught the participant to show a card to get the teacher’s attention. During the intervention, the teacher gave attention to the participant if he showed a card; however, if the participant exhibited problem behavior to get attention, the teacher did not react. Results showed that the intervention reduced the frequency of problem behavior. These effects maintained until probe phase.

Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior With an Adult With Smith-Magenis Syndrome

Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
TANYA HOUGH (Purdue University; The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Edward Cumella (Purdue University), Jessica Tischner (Purdue University), Natasha Chung (Purdue University)

Smith-Magenis Syndrome (SMS) is a rare genetic disorder. Individuals diagnosed with this disorder often display severe challenging behaviors that can impact their quality of life. Despite the clear need, there is currently a dearth of research using applied behavior analytic techniques to address challenging behavior among individuals with SMS. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) to address attention-maintained elopement and physical aggression in an adult with SMS residing in a community based group home. This study is one of the first assessing applied behavioral techniques to address challenging behaviors maintained by attention in a person with SMS. DRO was demonstrated effective in reducing both target behaviors, resulting in a 100% reduction of elopement and physical aggression. The present study reinforces prior research, suggesting that maladaptive behavior was maintained by environmental factors and can be successfully addressed in adults with SMS. These findings, based on a single subject design, also suggest a need for more behavioral research among those with SMS.

54. A Case Study on the Intervention of a Child Who Doesn’t Swallow and Drool His Saliva
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
JUNG YEON CHO (Daegu Cyber University), Yunhee Shin (Daegu Cyber University)
Abstract: This study was to reduce and eliminate the behavior of keeping saliva in the child’s mouth and drool it. His shirts had stench and drenched his shirt every day. He was getting sick from exposure and his parents and nurturers have difficulties with changing clothes. The participant is a boy, 11 years-old and has dependent personality. He diagnosed developmental disability by doctor and goes to special school in South Korea. The program was conducted by 2 behavior therapists at T center for 40min per session from August to November, 2016. Data collected and analyzed through observational records, video records, and interviews. Total 25 sessions conducted and we collected data in baseline using ABC observation and MAS (motivated assessment scales) and FBA(Functional Behavior Analysis) in ABAB design. The participant’s function was escape from tasks and ecological values were feeding ways from parents, cleaning up his drool, apart from parent in class. Researchers build intervention plan based on E-A-B-C strategy and carried out the plan.In the ecological intervention, Adjustment of environment and situation induction was implemented. In Attendance and behavioral intervention, we adjusted proper of task level, position check, teaching of mouth close, and alternative behavior. In consequence intervention, we had extinction, differential reinforcement, and functional communication training. The result of this study found that the number of target behavior decreased almost 50% from baseline period to maintain period. In Conclusion, the child was getting better to target behavior and control his mouth. The intervention through functional analysis was successful. When the target behavior is not somatic, but functional behavior, multiple environmental adjustment and expressive language or gesture skill are very importance, also it should teach a child to proper behavior for a generalization.
55. The Effect of Intensive Matching to Sample Training Conducted in a Short Time on Adaptive Behavior
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
KENTA KONDO (Meisei University)
Abstract: The purpose of this research is to investigate whether the level of adaptive behavior of children with developmental disorder rise by intervention using applications that can perform efficient sample matching tasks. 6 students with developmental disabilities and intellectual disabilities (males=3, females=3: 6 to 10 years of age) participated in this experiment. Individual intervention by matching to sample tasks done on PC is an independent variable. We evaluated the adaptive function of each participant using Vineland-?, created tasks individually and intervened. The change amount of the evaluation point in Vineland-? of each participant was taken as the dependent variable. By this intervention, Participants who showed a tendency for each region score of Vineland-? to rise was revealed. When the intervention was completed, it was shown that the score of Vineland-? in each participant could decline. From the above, it became clear that intensive intervention by the sample matching task performed on the PC is effective for acquiring the adaptive behaviors of children.

Training of Clothes Selection in According With the Room Temperature in Child With Autism

Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
MAKO ITO (Meisei University), Koji Takeuchi (Meisei University)

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to allow ASD children with intellectual disabilities to be able to pick out participant child clothes according to room temperature by environment control and discrimination training so that he can wear it. Setting: This study was conducted in house of participant. Participant: A 14 years old child (male) diagnosed with ASD and intellectual disabilities (IQ 40) participated. Procedures: In the B.L., we measured that the child picked his clothes suitable for the room temperature in his chest. As an intervention, we conducted environment control and discrimination training. Environment control is the disposition of clothes in an easy to select place. Discrimination training is to reinforcement pick out he clothes according to room temperature. We classified according to matched the room temperature and then did training. After that, we evaluated generalization to untrained clothes. Results: It became possible to pick out the suitable clothes from the chest and change it. He was also selected the right pick out the clothes in the generalization scene.


Behavioral and Academic Interventions for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students With Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: A Review of the Literature

Area: DDA; Domain: Theory
CLAUDIA M DUNN (Texas A&M University ), Julie L. Thompson (Texas A&M University), Heather Dulas (Texas A&M University ), Kristina Ingles (Texas A&M University)

Research has consistently demonstrated that behavioral and academic interventions are effective to improve academic outcomes for students with or at risk of emotional and behavioral disorders (Rogevich & Perin, 2008). However, very few studies adapt behavioral and academic interventions for linguistically diverse students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). The assumption is that adaptations addressing values, culture, and language will increase the effectiveness and sustainability of these interventions (Cabassa & Baumann, 2013). Yet, this has not been confirmed via a systematic review of the literature. The purpose of this systematic literature review was to examine to what extent linguistically diverse students with emotional and behavioral disorders in pre-k to 12th grade were included in behavioral and academic intervention studies, whether adaptations of research-based practices using different cultural variables to support those students were used, and to what extent linguistically diverse participants benefitted from these adaptations. Implications for linguistically diverse students with or at risk of EBD, professionals, and educators will be discussed. Additionally, recommendations for future research will be provided.

58. Self-Evaluation to Improve Complex Job Performance in a Dynamic Work Environment
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
TRACY EILEEN SINCLAIR (The University of Oklahoma)
Abstract: Transition-age individuals with disabilities continue to lag behind same-age peers in postsecondary outcomes of education, employment, and independent living skills. The role of self-determination in postsecondary success has been thoroughly researched, acknowledged, and proven to be a predictor of postsecondary goal attainment (Test et al., 2009). Skills of self-determination include goal-setting and attainment, self-observation, evaluation, and reinforcement, and independence (Wehmeyer, 2007). Self-management strategies, such as self-evaluation, are a demonstrated evidence-based practive for students with developmental disabilities (Carr et al., 2014). This multiple baseline across participant dyads study examined the application of self-evaluation on overall work performance ratings for students with developmental disabilities in an authentic work environment. Scores of self-evaluation were compared to ratings by job coaches, and over time, student scores and job coach scores showed an emergence of convergence one prompting was used in conjunction with self-evaluation procedures and then faded. This study incorporated the use of a technology-based self-evaluation form. Social validity results demonstrate both students and job coaches involved in the study found self-evaluation to be beneficial to work performance and expressed enjoyment. Furthermore students felt more independent and in control of their work environments, and job coaches felt the students improved in independent living skills and taking ownership of their actions and work behaviors. Implications for practice suggest the incorporation of self-evaluation in the community work setting can positively benefit work performance and increase skills of self-awareness.
59. Considerations When Selecting Stimulus Preference Assessment Procedures
Area: DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
JORDAN DAVID LILL (University of Nebraska Medical Center’s Munroe-Meyer Institute for Genetics and Rehabilitation), Mark D. Shriver (University of Nebraska Medical Center’s Munroe-Meyer Institute for Genetics and Rehabilitation)
Abstract: Graff and Karsten (2012) reported that nine in ten Board Certified Behavior Analysts and Associate Behavior Analysts frequently use stimulus preference assessment (SPA) procedures. There are six distinct empirically-derived SPA procedures available to behavior analysts to evaluate preference. However, guidance on how to select optimal SPA procedures are limited which may lead to the selection of less efficacious SPA procedures and failure to identify reinforcers (Steinhilber & Johnston, 2007). This presentation will highlight the strengths and limitations of two decision-making models for selecting SPA procedures currently available (Karsten, Lepper, & Carr, 2011; Virues-Ortega et al., 2014). A decision-making model for selecting SPA procedures will be presented that will address the limitations of previous models by considering the characteristics of the client, stimuli, and setting. The decision-making model will also consider motivating operations and outcome agreement across procedures. Practitioners will be able to identify efficacious SPA procedures that best fit the context of the environment, client, and stimuli using an easy-to-follow flowchart.



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