Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


40th Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2014

Event Details

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Poster Session #98
Saturday, May 24, 2014
5:00 PM–7:00 PM
W375a-d (McCormick Place Convention Center)
84. Affirming Control by Multiple Reinforcers via Progressive Treatment Analysis
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
MAHSHID GHAEMMAGHAMI (Western New England University), Gregory P. Hanley (Western New England University), Chunying S. Jin (Western New England University), Nicholas Vanselow (Salve Regina University)
Abstract: It is common to isolate reinforcement contingencies across several test conditions in functional analyses of problem behavior; however, synthesizing all reinforcement contingencies in a single test condition may also have merit. Following a differentiated functional analysis, which relied on a synthesized test condition, functional communication training (FCT) was applied across the three suspected contingencies of reinforcement to determine the relevance of each. Problem behavior ceased only when all contingencies were addressed via FCT, affirming that problem behavior was controlled by multiple contingencies of reinforcement.
85. A Comparison of the Behavior Analyst Profession in Poland and the US
Area: PRA; Domain: Theory
KINGA WOLOS-ZACHMEIER (Unlocking The Spectrum LLC), Przemyslaw Babel (Jagiellonian University, Institute of Psychology)
Abstract: While the field of behavior analysis—including its core theories, seminal research, and methods of practical application—originated in the US, many other countries, such as Poland, are developing their own systems of professional regulation and education of practitioners. In this poster session the authors will present a brief history of the field of applied behavior analysis and the development of professional structures in Poland, where applied behavior analysis emerged only two decades ago. In spite of its short history, the field is growing rapidly in Poland, and practitioners face many of the same challenges as those faced in the US. The authors will focus on eligibility requirements, certification criteria, professional development, trends, and future directions for the field, and highlight the differences between the two countries. Additionally, the authors will emphasize the importance of international collaboration in developing best practices and high standards of service throughout the world. This poster session will be particularly relevant to those who are interested the development of the field in other countries, as well as to behavior analysts who practice outside of the US.
86. Survey Says: BACB Certificant Perspectives About Certification Experiences
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
AMANDA N. KELLY (Malama Pono Autism Center)
Abstract: 100 BACB candidates completed a survey about their experiences as Behavior Analysts. Respondents of this study included BACB certified individuals representing 26 states across the U.S., as well as certificants from Vietnam and Canada. Respondents of the survey represented all three certification levels (BCaBA, BCBA, and BCBA-D). Survey questions included current position title, level of certification and number of years certified, as well as perspectives related to supervision experiences. Certificants were also surveyed about the number of sittings required to pass the BACB examination, their continuing education habits and current area of interest. While autism reigned as the primary area of interest, sixteen other interest areas were also reported. Lastly, respondents reported on their overall satisfaction with having become behavior analysts. Participants of the survey were recruited via an online appeal through a posting on Behaviorbabes Facebook page. Disclaimer: This survey is not affiliated with the BACB, ABAI, APBA, LMNOP, or anyone other than me individually.
87. The Effects of a Systematic Desensitization Procedure on Treating Arachnophobia
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
SARAH J. PASTRANA (University of British Columbia)
Abstract: Specific phobias are characterized by a persistent, excessive, and irrational fear which is typically disproportional to the actual danger posed by the feared object or situation (Choy, Fyer, & Lipsitz, 2007). Those affected by specific phobias may go to great lengths to avoid the object of the phobia, and may experience marked distress if faced with the object or situation (Choy et al., 2007). In the current case study, the author used a graduated exposure procedure to treat her own phobia of spiders. The author experienced intense psychological anxiety in the presence of spiders and when imagining spiders in her environment, which at times interfered with social and occupational activities and her ability to sleep. The graduated exposure treatment involved viewing or interacting with stimuli arranged in a hierarchy, and publicly sharing progress with friends and family. Results indicated that the author was able to complete the fear hierarchy.
88. An Automated Training Program to Teach Observers to Accurately Measure Problem Behavior using an Accelerated Fast Forwarding Measurement System
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
MYCHAL MACHADO (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Kevin C. Luczynski ( Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: Training observers to score problem behavior in naturally occurring situations has been conducted, for example, to describe interactions between caregivers and children and to gather information for the design of experimental analyses (e.g., Borrero, Woods, Borrero, Masler, & Lesser, 2010). Advances in camera systems and storage capacity have increased the opportunity to collect extended observation samples; however, the time required to accurately score large video records presents practical barriers. We evaluated the efficacy of an automated training program, which consisted of presenting multiple examples of problem behavior, repeated practice scoring problem behavior, and automated feedback. Participants viewed multiple examples of problem behavior at 5x normal speed without feedback. Participants then scored multiple instances of problem behavior at 5x normal speed with automated feedback. We measured omission and commission errors and the total duration of scoring time to determine the observers accuracy and efficiency, respectively. We used a multiple-baseline design across subjects to evaluate the efficacy of the training program. Following training, all observers scored instances of problem behavior with less than 10% error. These data suggest that the training program can teach observers to accurately and efficiently use a fast-forwarding measurement system to score problem behavior from larger observation samples.
89. A Translational Evaluation of Renewal of Responding
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
AURELIA RIBEIRO (Florida Institute of Technology), Clare Liddon (Florida Institute of Technology), Michael E. Kelley (The Scott Center for Autism Treatment, Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: Treatment relapse refers to the failure of an intervention to maintain across time or contexts. Resurgence, reinstatement, and renewal are types of treatment relapse that have implications for developing and maintaining interventions for individuals with developmental disabilities. Previous research with non-human animals has shown a phenomenon known as the "renewal effect." Renewal arrangements include a combination of (a) sequential phases of reinforcement, extinction, and extinction and (b) context manipulations. We exposed 2 children's responding to "ABA" renewal, in which A and B were different associated contexts. Sequentially, participants were exposed to reinforcement in context A, extinction in context B, and extinction in context A. Results suggested that context changes produced pronounced effects on responding in the last extinction phase. That is, responding reemerged in the final extinction phase as a function of the return to the reinforcement context. This effect occurred despite the continued exposure to extinction in the second A phase. Results are discussed in terms of treatment relapse.
90. The Practice and Prevalence of Priming
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
NATALIA GARRIDO (University of Nevada, Reno), Patrick M. Ghezzi (University of Nevada, Reno), W. Larry Williams (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: Behavior analysis is a science that, like other sciences, is reliant on its language to clearly express and perpetuate its terms and techniques. Clear, unambiguous speaking (and writing) are generally important for a science that has to rely on words rather than mathematics to characterize its key concepts and principles. Inconsistent application leads to decreased treatment integrity and can hurt public perception of the science. Priming has been defined across multiple settings in a variety of ways. While there is no apparent consensus for the meaning of priming it is still used regularly in a variety of methods. This poster discusses the uses of and prevalence of priming.
91. Technology To The Rescue: Providing Behavioral Intervention Services and Parent Feedback Through The Use of a FlipCam, Motivaider and Dropbox
Area: PRA; Domain: Service Delivery
ELIZABETH HERRERA (University of the Pacific), Holly Ayn White (University of the Pacific), Heather Zerger (University of the Pacific)
Abstract: Behavioral services were provided to a 7-year-old female diagnosed with Autism, referred for repetitive hand movement. A functional analysis identified attention from her mother as the maintaining variable. A non-contingent reinforcement intervention was implemented by the mother with coaching from a graduate student. The mother was then trained to use a FlipCam to record 5-10 minute sessions, with prompting provided through a MotivAider. Videos were then uploaded to DropBox, a file hosting service, which allowed the videos to be reviewed and coded remotely. Treatment decisions were provided to the parent via text messages. The childs engagement in repetitive movement decreased from 73% of intervals at baseline to 7.5% of intervals across 28 sessions. The schedule of reinforcement was thinned from a fixed 20 second to a variable 5 minute schedule. Initially, engagement with activities occurred during 0% of intervals, however, engagement increased to 99.5% of intervals across the 28 sessions. IOA was 92% across 27% of sessions (range, 88% to 95%). While this intervention is not novel, this poster presents an innovative way to use technology and still allow for data based decisions to be made with an intervention being implemented by parents.
92. Generalized Matching in Professional Sports: Ice Hockey & Major League Baseball
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
VAL SAINI (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Michael Fantetti (Western New England University, Brohavior  )
Abstract: Previous research has demonstrated the utility of the generalized matching equation (GME) across a variety of settings including elite sport competition. Specifically, it has been demonstrated that play calling in the National Football League (NFL) was sensitive to matching across a variety of domains. The purpose of this poster is to demonstrate that sensitivity to matching extends to other professional sports. Specifically we looked to examine the extent to which goalie selection in the National Hockey League (NHL) and pitch selection in Major League Baseball (MLB) could be analyzed as operant choice responding.
93. The Relation between Bilateral Knee Muscle Strength and Gait Behavior after Stroke
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
MAKOTO WATANABE (Kitasato University), Makoto Suzuki (Kitasato University), Takayuki Kawaguchi (Kitasato University), Kayoko Narita (Kitasato University), Aki Watanabe (Kitasato University), Akie Kawamura (Kitasato University), Michinari Fukuda (Kitasato University)
Abstract: Gait is among the important behavior affected after the occurrence of a stroke. However, the threshold level of both paretic and nonparetic lower limb strength to predict gait independently is unknown in stroke patients. We assessed the relations between bilateral knee extension strengths and gait behavior in subjects with post-stroke hemiparesis and to predict gait behavior by the paretic and nonparetic knee extension strength. Two hundred thirty eight consecutive inpatients with post-stroke hemiparesis were enrolled. Knee extensor muscle strengths in paretic and nonparetic lower limbs were measured with a hand-held dynamometer, and the presence or absence of impaired gait was also determined. Discriminant analysis classified the difference between the possibility and impossibility of gait by knee extensor muscle strength (P < 0.0001). Thus, paretic and nonparetic knee extension strengths were integrated in the strength index. A threshold level of 2.0 provided the best balance between positive and negative predictive values for the strength index (positive predictive value, 0.74; negative predictive value, 0.69). The results indicated that both paretic and nonparetic knee extension strengths were related to gait behavior. The strength index deduced from bilateral knee extension strengths may serve as a clinically meaningful index for rehabilitation assessment and training.
94. Using Video to Bridge the Gap Between Behavior and Delayed Consequences
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
SARA COPPAGE (The University of Memphis), James Meindl (The University of Memphis)
Abstract: It is understood in the field of behavior analysis that the amount of time that passes between a behavior and its consequence weakens the effectiveness of the consequence. Delayed consequences are unavoidable, at times (i.e., in the classroom or on public outings). A rule or behavioral statement may be made when delivering the delayed consequence to connect the behavior to the consequence. The present study uses video to help to connect tantrum behavior and the delivery of a delayed timeout. Participants included a young child with an emotional disability and a child diagnosed with Apraxia. A reversal design was used to identify the effect of video viewing of problem behavior immediately prior to the delivery of a delayed timeout. The sessions consisted of the therapist engaging the participant in some type of activity or demand. During baseline, no consequences were delivered. During the intervention sessions in which tantrum behavior occurred at any level, the participant was returned to the activity setting following a fifteen-minute delay period. A video of the participants problem behavior was shown and was followed by a three to five minute timeout. The therapist stated no other description of the behavior or rule. For both participants, following two exposures to the video and timeout procedure, the data demonstrated a downward trend. Upon the return to baseline condition, the behavior began to increase and returned slightly below the original baseline condition. Being able to use video to strengthen delayed consequences could allow for their use to be more effective and assist in making more permanent behavior change when delivered.
95. Time Course of Change in Movement Structure During Learning of Goal-directed Behavior
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
TAKAYUKI KAWAGUCHI (Kitasato University), Makoto Suzuki (Kitasato University), Makoto Watanabe (Kitasato University), Kayoko Takahashi (Kitasato University), Aki Watanabe (Kitasato University), Akie Kawamura (Kitasato University), Michinari Fukuda (Kitasato University)
Abstract: Parsing behavior into submovements is important in behavioral learning. This study examined the time course of changes in kinematics and electromyography (EMG) parameters for primary (an initial impulse toward the target) and secondary (a late corrective adjustment near the target) submovements associated with the learning of a goal-directed aiming behavioral task. The subjects comprised 9 neurologically normal adults. They were instructed to make horizontal planar behavior of elbow flexion that were both fast and accurate. The learning session comprised 20 blocks of 10 behaviors. Our research found that the kinematic- and EMG-related parameters of the antagonistic triceps brachii muscle gradually changed over the course of the learning period and reached a plateau that fitted an exponential function. However, the EMG-parameters of the agonistic biceps brachii muscle did not markedly change. Moreover, the kinematic- and EMG-related parameters for the primary and secondary submovements varied with different rates during the behavioral learning. Our findings may facilitate the understanding of the basic building blocks of learning of a goal-directed aiming behavior in sports and rehabilitation settings.
96. Examining Components of a Training Package Designed to Train Parents to Enhance Social Skills in Children With Developmental Delays
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
KELLY D. SCHLEISMANN (Auburn University), Jennifer M. Gillis Mattson (Binghamton)
Abstract: Social skills deficits are related to a myriad of other social, developmental, and psychological challenges (Rogers, 2000). As such, it is important to identify means of teaching social skills to children with ASD. A number of interventions may be effective; however, generalization of these skills remains problematic (Stahmer, 1995). Training parents to deliver social skills intervention would provide maximum exposure to naturalistic learning opportunities and may improve generalization (Schreibman & Koegel, 1996). Studies have demonstrated successful training of parents in various behavioral interventions (e.g., Lafasakis & Sturmey, 2007; Wang, 2008; Kroeger & Sorenses, 2010); however, the mechanisms of change in these treatment packages have not been identified. The current study examined methods for training parents to implement a behavioral social engagement procedure and analyzed the components of the parent-training package to identify possible mechanisms of change. A non-concurrent multiple baseline design was used to examine the effects of the training package, and each component was presented systematically to analyze its relative contribution. Results indicated that treatment fidelity of all participants improved following training and that feedback may account for the majority of change observed in parent behavior. Possible reasons for observed changes and clinical implications are discussed.
97. Reduction of Screaming Associated with Ridgid Play and Item Arrangement
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
KELLY D. SCHLEISMANN (Auburn University), Amie Collins (Marcus Autism Center), Cassondra M Gayman (Marcus Autism Center), Nicole M. Powell (Nationwide Children's Hopsital Center for Autism Spectrum Disorders), M. Alice Shillingsburg (Marcus Autism Center, Emory University School of Medicine)
Abstract: The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorders lists repetitive patterns of behavior as a primary qualitative characteristic of children with the disorder. Repetitive or stereotypic behaviors can include restricted patterns of interest that are abnormal in their intensity, excessive preoccupation with objects, or an inflexible adherence to routines. Such behaviors may interfere with an individual’s daily functioning if not managed. While the success of treatments such as response blocking or functional communication training has been demonstrated (Foa et. al., 1984; Kuhn, Hardesty, & Sweeny, 2009), these treatments are not always practical or appropriate. The current study aimed to evaluate a treatment for rigid behavior that did not use response blocking or mand training. Two males diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder participated. Both exhibited intense screaming when ritualistic play or item arrangement was disrupted. Treatment involved differential reinforcement of other behaviors plus extinction of screaming. Data show that screaming was reduced by greater than 80% from baseline for both participants. Following treatment and demand fading, participants were able to tolerate removal of items for 10 s at a time and comply with three to six demands.
98. The Impact of Liquid Preference in the Treatment of Liquid Refusal
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
ALISON KOZLOWSKI (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Denise Dieter (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Evan Raines (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Tessa Christine Taylor (Kennedy Krieger Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Peter Girolami (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: A variety of factors are often considered when selecting which caloric drink should be provided to a child during treatment of liquid refusal, including child preference, nutritional value, formula composition, and accessibility. Although the child’s drink preference is frequently considered informally (e.g., choosing a formula reported or assumed to have a more preferable flavor), its actual impact on the treatment of liquid refusal is not commonly examined. The current study investigated the impact of child drink preference on mealtime behaviors throughout a liquids treatment analysis for a 3-year-old boy using an alternating treatments design with two caloric drinks. Paired-choice preference assessments of the two drinks were routinely conducted throughout the liquids treatment analysis. Although a preference for one drink over the other occurred during the preference assessment when the child was required to consume at least one of the drinks, behavioral treatments targeting the identified functions of refusal (i.e., escape, attention, and tangible) were equally effective in increasing acceptance and swallowing and decreasing inappropriate mealtime behaviors for both drinks regardless of this preference. Therefore, within the context of treatment, other deciding factors, such as nutritional value, may take precedence over child preference without a negative impact on successful treatment.
99. Function-Based Treatment of Inappropriate Mealtime Behavior in the Context of Choice
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
TONYA LAMBERT (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Tessa Christine Taylor (Kennedy Krieger Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Alison Kozlowski (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Melissa Luke Gonzalez (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Food refusal is often maintained by escape, and can be multiply-maintained. While escape extinction is a common treatment component, choice may incorporated as an antecedent-based intervention. The current study investigated how the potency of functional reinforcers may vary at differing demand levels (high, moderate, and least preferred foods) in the context of choice for a two-year-old male admitted to an intensive day treatment feeding program. A functional analysis demonstrated tangible and escape functions. Choices between less preferred (target) foods and more preferred foods were provided. Results showed low levels of choosing and consuming target foods with contingent access to a preferred tangible. When escape extinction was added, only consumption of the moderately preferred food increased. Follow-up preference assessments indicated a preference for edibles compared to tangibles, and increased preference for the moderately preferred food. Contingent access to preferred edibles for consuming the least preferred food did not increase consumption. When choice was removed, consumption of nonpreferred foods occurred at high levels under escape extinction. In summary, when choice was present, nonedible and edible tangible-based treatment did not increase consumption of nonpreferred foods, and increased consumption of moderately preferred foods only when escape extinction was added.
100. A Program Evaluation of a University Reading Intervention Clinic
Area: PRA; Domain: Service Delivery
ANDREW COOK (Central Michigan University ), Jessica Sevecke (Central Michigan University), Maria Alejandra Ramirez (Central Michigan University ), Heidi Fisher (Central Michigan University), Valerie Weber (Central Michigan University)
Abstract: A program evaluation of a university reading clinic was performed. The clinic provided evidence-based direct instruction techniques to remediate reading difficulties for students ages 5 to 19 as well as supervised training for undergraduate and graduate students. The purpose of the evaluation was to evaluate remediation effectiveness, examine perceptions of interventionists, survey caregiver perceptions of service, investigate the costs and benefits, and provide program recommendations for future development of the clinic. The results showed significant, large improvement in clients standardized reading scores after receiving services; positive ratings and comments from interventionists in terms of treatment effectiveness and service delivery; high satisfaction from caregivers; and an estimated service delivery cost that exceeded client fees. Recommendations from the evaluation included improved data collection, storage, and monitoring to facilitate future LAC services, evaluations, and research; increased consistency in training and supervision to enhance the experiences of interventionists; increased caregiver involvement to further improve caregiver satisfaction and student outcomes; and more sustainable attempts to replicate the program by implementing a higher, more consistent fee schedule.



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