Association for Behavior Analysis International

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2012 Behavior Change for a Sustainable World Conference

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Poster Session #17
Poster Session 1
Saturday, August 4, 2012
5:15 PM–7:00 PM
Performance Hall
1. Sustainability: Enhanced Waste Diversion Through the Application of Basic Behavioral Principles
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
SCOTT COHN (Western State College of Colorado)
Abstract:

The role that environmental education has had on recycling attitudes and beliefs is well documented; however, several studies have also revealed that newly acquired attitudes and beliefs do not necessarily translate into improved recycling behaviors. In practice, opportunity and convenience produce higher recycling rates than do changes in attitude and beliefs. By observing behavior and using a modified waste auditing procedure to measure actual waste and recycling rates, the current series of field studies evaluated and modified waste-diversion programs (e.g., recycling and composting) in a number of different locations. The locations evaluated included administration buildings, office buildings, performing and studio art centers, institutional food service facilities, and an athletic complex. The behaviorally-oriented modifications made to waste-diversion programs reliably produced an 80-90% reduction in recyclable materials found in the trash. These “low-cost” modifications to waste diversion programs are easy to implement and can dramatically reduce landfill-bound waste while enhancing efforts to collect recyclable materials. Based on normal costs associated with waste removal, improvements in recycling programs (as opposed to other more costly environmental initiatives) can pay for themselves in a matter of months rather than years.

 
2. A Case Study of the BP Deepwater Horizons Oil Spill
Area: CSE; Domain: Theory
Amber Marie Candido (University of Nevada, Reno), Daniel Reimer (University of Nevada, Reno), RAMONA HOUMANFAR (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract:

This poster will provide a behavior analytic overview of organizational leadership of socially significant practices by drawing on cultural units such as metacontingency and macrocontingency. These concepts have been developed to provide an interdisciplinary account of phenomenon at high levels of complexity. The recent conceptualizations of metacontingency have offered a comprehensive set of analyses that highlight the importance of antecedent variables such as cultural milieu, leadership communication, and consumer practices in our analysis of cultural change. This approach is especially helpful when attempting to establish long-term solutions to large-scale problems. Malfunctions on the Deepwater Horizon oil rig provide a recent example of the dangers of the oil industry. Currently the United States Government is attempting to fix the problem by creating regulations to ensure these accidents are not repeated. However, they address the problem at the behavioral level when these problems would be better addressed at the cultural level, the level of the metacontingencies. The purpose of this poster is to demonstrate the utility of the concept of metacontingency in systematic analysis of complex phenomena such as unsafe practices in oil production.

 
4. Using Behavior Analysis to Organize Communities for Environmental Justice
Area: CSE; Domain: Theory
ELIZABETH MILLER (SEEM Collaborative)
Abstract:

Environmental justice is defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency as "the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, color, national origin, or income with respect to the development, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations, and policies." True environmental justice, then, requires the building of strong community networks to address environmental needs and concerns--networks often comprising stakeholders who have not previously been involved with environmental struggles. Building these networks meaningfully requires overcoming barriers built by racism, classism, and disablism, and countering reinforcement histories that work to keep marginalized people disenfranchised. Applied behavior analysis offers a set of tools for community organizing that are rarely utilized as such. A community-level "inconvenience review," from habit reversal procedures (Azrin and Nunn 1973), can provide a shift in motivation. Creating opportunities for small, meetable gains can utilize shaping to build a new history of reinforcement as community changers (Fawcett 1991). Mattaini (1995) suggests that having members essentially conduct a functional analysis by way of contingency diagramming can identify key elements for focus during organizing. Utilizing these concepts and others, this poster will propose a comprehensive behavior analytic model for community organizing.

 
5. Using Global "Go Green" Initiatives to Guide Future Practices Within the US
Area: CSE; Domain: Theory
AMANDA N. KELLY (SEEM Collaborative), Shari Pirnia (SEEM Collaboriative)
Abstract:

An initial review of sustainability practices across the globe reveals a disproportionately small number of “go green” initiatives among first world countries. Many of the noteworthy sustainability efforts have come to life outside of the United States. With the US at the forefront of many other historical achievements, why are we not leading the charge with innovative, global endeavors? This question, as well as others, will be entertained through this investigation. This poster will review sustainability initiatives currently employed in various parts of the world and examine, from a behavior analytic perspective, the underlying factors that appear to influence sustainability practices within the United States. Furthermore, differences in conceptualization and implementation of these practices will be investigated in an attempt to identify tangible suggestions for encouraging sustainability initiatives in the US.

 
6. Walking the Crosswalk in Brasilia (Distrito Federal/Brazil): An Example of a Cultural Intervention
Area: CSE; Domain: Service Delivery
JOAO CLAUDIO TODOROV (Universidade de Brasília, Brazil), Vivica Le Senechal Machado (Faculdades Integradas Pitagoras de Montes Claros)
Abstract:

The study of social phenomena has increasingly awakened the interest and concern of behavior analysts. Since 1997, practically all drivers living in Brasilia (Distrito Federal/Brazil) respect crosswalks. This change in cultural practice happened because of a local campaign involving important social agencies, whose representations got together in the Permanent Forum for Peace on Traffic, organized by the University of Brasilia. The present study described the agency's actions that promoted a cultural intervention, resulting in the new cultural practice of yielding to pedestrians. Through the analysis of documents and realization of interviews this study sought to rebuild the history of this campaign, with the purpose of identifying, analyzing, and interpreting the interlocking behavioral contingencies responsible for such cultural intervention. This social phenomenon was discussed under the macrocontingencies and metacontingencies concepts.

 
7.

Backpacking for a Sustainable World: Teaching Environmental Stewardship in a University Physical Activity Course

Area: CSE; Domain: Service Delivery
SHERRY L. SCHWEIGHARDT (Temple University)
Abstract:

Incorporating behavioral principles into the design of a college physical activity course is a novel way to teach students to care for the environment. Physical activities in green settings expose students to nature's rewards. Direct and immediate reinforcing consequences, such as breathing fresh air, seeing wildlife, and escaping the fast pace of cities, can maintain healthy physical activity and simultaneously improve the environment when participants learn explicit skills to protect and preserve it. This poster will describe techniques for facilitating outdoor exercise and teaching earth-stewardship skills in an introductory university course in backpacking and camping. Specific techniques for shaping and maintaining low-impact wilderness travel, survival skills, and physical fitness will be described, along with examples for on-campus and field settings. Data from students' tests, papers, and course evaluations provide evidence that skills for backpacking and earth stewardship can be taught, while follow-up interviews provide anecdotal evidence of sustained behavior change. The findings suggest that introducing college students to a challenging and fun physical activity in a natural setting is an effective way to teach earth stewardship skills; moreover, the methods outlined here can be implemented easily in a variety of programs for people outside the university setting.

 
8. Getting the Message Across: Reducing The Use of Styrofoam Containers
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
CORY FURROW (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University), E. Scott Geller (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University), Neville Galloway-Williams (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University)
Abstract:

Evidence suggests styrofoam containers are detrimental to the environment, from their production and transportation to their dispersion to landfills and biological niches. This poster will describe a field study comparing the impact of three different messages designed to reduce the use of styrofoam containers in two dining halls located at Virginia Tech. No messages were present during baseline or following the intervention. In Phase II, both locations contained the injuctive message, “Make the right choice and ask for Styrofoam only if you’re taking your meal to-go.” For one location during Phase III, additional information (the descriptive message) was added to the original message. The descriptive message included the number of observed reusable dishes selected in a one-week period. The second location’s message during Phase III paired the descriptive norm with an impact message. The design of the impact message showed how the descriptive message made a positive impact on the environment. The findings suggest that combining the three kinds of statements produced the greatest decrease in the use of styrofoam containers (t=2.101, p=.057). These findings also suggest that combining descriptive and injunctive norms (without an impact statement) is not sufficient to influence behavior (t=1.489, p=.165).

 
9. Paper or Plastic: Which is Greener?
Area: CSE; Domain: Basic Research
SPENCER LI (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University), Cory Furrow (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University), Kelly Kim (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University), E. Scott Geller (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University)
Abstract:

Disposable grocery bags (i.e., plastic and paper) are detrimental to the environment. However, it seems unclear which type of disposable bag is more ecologically friendly. In other words, which type of grocery bag is more socially valid from the customer’s perspective? For a four-week period, we interviewed 701 customers leaving two large grocery stores in Southwest Virginia regarding their view of the ecological impact of paper and plastic bags. 67.1% believed paper to be more ecologically friendly. We asked participants to justify their response and a content analysis of these data is under way. In addition, participants explained their intentions for any additional uses for their grocery bag (e.g., trash can liners or cat litter collection/disposal; fireplace fuel). The surveys informed the development of a flyer designed to encourage grocery store customers to bring cloth re-usable bags to the store for their groceries. The resultant flyer (distributed at one of the stores) contributed to the sale of over 300 cloth bags at this grocery store, and set the stage for a pledge-card commitment intervention that increased the use of reusable bags at the intervention store

 
10. Paper or Plastic: Getting People to Say, “Neither!”
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
KELLY KIM (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University), Cory Furrow (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University), Spencer Li (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University), E. Scott Geller (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University)
Abstract:

All stages in the life cycle of plastic and paper grocery bags are harmful to the environment. The raw materials for producing them cause ecological damage either through deforestation or the extraction of petroleum. Then, when plastic or paper bags are recycled, valuable resources are used in the process. Those that are not recycled cause additional problems. Thus, the ecological answer to a cashier’s question, “Paper or plastic?” is “Neither.” Instead, alternative methods should be used to transport groceries (e.g., reusable cloth bags). We are conducting a field study to evaluate the impact of on-the-spot prompting to reduce the use of disposable grocery bags and increase the use of eco-friendly alternatives at a large grocery store in southwest Virginia. When entering the store, customers received a flyer explaining the environmental impact of disposal bags. Upon exiting the store, participants are offered a hangtag for their rear-view mirror as a reminder to bring re-usable bags for their groceries. Behavioral observations of customers at two grocery stores (intervention and control) are ongoing and will continue until May, 2012. To date, the outcome data are encouraging. Over the first month of the “Say Neither” promotion, the store manager calculated a saving of 33,000 plastic and paper bags, and the purchase of over 300 reusable cloth bags.

 
11. Using Behavior Analysis and Social Psychology to Affect Student Understanding of Sustainability Issues
Area: CSE; Domain: Basic Research
MARCIA J. ROSSI (Alabama State University)
Abstract:

Improving student understanding of howbehavioral principles can be applied to real-world problems can be challenging. Many students are not well informed about the need for sustainable practices or about global climate change, environmental destruction, etc. This poster will describe several assignments and/or class activities that have been used to help students in a social psychology class understand how human behavior in general, and their own behavior in particular, impacts global climate change. One activity involves introducing students to the concepts of short-term consequences and long-term consequences, and involves a discussion of how many social dilemmas result from individuals pursuing short-term gain without regard for long-term negative consequences. Another assignment requires students to write an essay in which they investigate their own ecological footprint, and then apply concepts from social psychology and behavior analysis to analyze how their behavior and others can be changed to improve sustainability.

 
12. Chemistry Education for a Sustainable Future
Area: CSE; Domain: Service Delivery
AMOS ANDERSON (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Kate Anderson (Beyond Benign)
Abstract:

Work in sustainability is broad and encompasses all disciplines. Chemistry is one field that has been conspicuously absent from the sustainability initiatives on American university campuses. As our global society shifts towards more sustainable materials and products in response to the global environmental problems we face today, why are educational institutions slow to respond to this shift in the field of chemistry? Chemistry practiced and applied with the green chemistry principles is inherently better chemistry overall. If we are not factoring in cost, safety and performance into the building blocks of all our materials and processes then we are not creating sustainable products and processes. Much effort has been made by some chemistry instructors to introduce green chemistry concepts into courses and labs. However, a widespread, systematic method for implementing green chemistry throughout educational institutions does not yet exist. This poster will consider how behavior analytical research can move higher learning institutions to move toward green chemistry.

 
13. White Lights, Big City: Promoting Energy Efficiency One Building at a Time
Area: CSE; Domain: Service Delivery
JONATHAN W. KIMBALL (JPF Architectural Products), John Fitzgerald (JPF Architectural Products)
Abstract:

Grant (2011) places tactics for reducing unsustainable behavior into 4 categories: consumption-based, culture-based, regulatory, and dissemination. JPF Architectural Products has bid on replacing lighting in approximately 50 buildings in the Chicago area with bulbs that use up to 75% less energy than those they replace. Companies that purchase the retrofit may not do so because they are environmentally conscientious: they are motivated by cost savings (consumption-based solution), and by additional tax benefits (regulatory solution). Their actions, nonetheless, lead to buildings that place a much smaller footprint on the commons. The poster (a dissemination project) includes representative graphic data showing cost savings over time and/or average expenditures before and after selected retrofit projects; these data can also be described in terms of the reduced carbon emissions they represent. Discussion will touch upon improved technology, effective policy, and the risk of companies spending “green dividends” on additional consumption.

 
14.

When Ignorance Is Bliss: How Clueless Contingencies Can Help Us Be Green More Often

Area: CSE; Domain: Service Delivery
WILLIAM L. HEWARD (The Ohio State University), Jonathan W. Kimball (JPF Architectural Products)
Abstract:

Clear, predictable “if-then” behavior-reward contingencies can increase green behavior (e.g., “If I ride the bus to work today, then I’ll get a token good for a free ride next week”). But maintenance of the behavior change across time and settings is less likely when the presence or absence of the contingency is easily predicted. (“The game's off. No need to respond now.”) Indiscriminable contingencies (IC) offer one way to solve the maintenance problem. In a well-designed IC, a person cannot tell when or where performing the target behavior will produce a reward, so the best strategy is to “be good” all the time, everywhere. ICs have helped young children offer to share toys (Fowler & Baer, 1981), select healthy snacks (Baer, Williams, Osnes, & Stokes, 1984),andstay on task (Dunlap & Pilenis, 1988); helpedstudentsmaintain improved levels of academic productivity (Freeland & Noell, 2002), andhelpedadult vocational trainees respond appropriately to feedback from co-workers and supervisors (Grossi, Kimball, & Heward, 1994). These studies and others suggest that making effective if-then contingencies across environmentally friendly behaviors (e.g., walking/biking, recycling, reusing) and environments (e.g., home, work, in the community) indiscriminable would increase the occurrence of green behavior. This poster will describe the critical elements of ICs, suggest guidelines for designing and implementing them, and provide examples of how communities and companies could use them to increase the effectiveness of sustainability programs.

 
15. TerraKids: An Interactive Website Where Kids Learn to Save the Environment
Area: CSE; Domain: Service Delivery
JANET S. TWYMAN (University of Massachusetts Medical School Eunice Kennedy Shriver Center)
Abstract:

Any sustained success in combating climate change will require the involvement of the world’s more than 2.2 billion children. “TerraKids” is the name of a website and web-based community (that is, for now, purely fictional) where 8- to 12-year-old kids learn about climate change and become catalysts for a greener Earth. Kids learn about the environment and the role they and their families can play in reducing global warming. While on the site kids can learn about their family’s carbon footprint and what can be done to help reduce it. TerraKids uses principles and procedures from behavior analysis to establish the child as a major agent for changing the green behaviors of other family members, and the virtual community built around the site encourages kids to team up with other ‘‘CarbonBusters’’ to help create and sustain a greener world.

 
16.

Waste Management at a Middle School: Goals of an Environmental Leadership Club

Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
BRIAN COOPER (Stanley Middle School)
Abstract:

The Environmental Leadership Club, a small group of students at M.H. Stanley Middle School in Lafayette, California, meets weekly to further develop a presence of environmental leadership on their campus of 1200 students. The Club’s most ambitious goal is to enhance the school’s existing waste management program and install compost bins. These efforts could result in hundreds of pounds of food waste being diverted from landfill each week. The discarded food could be used to generate methane gas that will help power a wastewater treatment plant. The project appears doable because of the students’ willingness to ask questions, solve problems, and seek out opportunities and support from outside agencies. Members have visited another local middle school that is currently implementing a similar program. They have also networked with many public and private groups, including a non-profit organization that will help conduct a waste audit, the county’s waste management department, and local community groups that are developing sustainable practices. Success depends on collaboration and communication both within the school and with networks outside of the school. Within the school community, it will take effort and care from students, teachers, administrators and the custodial staff. Students from the club will walk with the custodial staff during lunch as they perform their collection routines to see where trash is collected, where new waste stations may be created, and consider how to streamline the process so there is not additional work for the staff. Students are making a video that will outline the new lunch procedures and inspire participation; the video will be shown in all science classes. Student and parent volunteers will be needed to supervise the waste stations during each lunch break to ensure that all wastes are disposed of properly. The poster will include data from the school site’s waste audit. This will show the amounts of recyclables, compostables, and landfill that have been placed or misplaced into the bins. Those data will be compared with the school’s overall volume of trash to make projections on cost savings to the district and to estimate the amount of green waste that can be diverted from the local landfill.

 
17. Plan It for the Planet: Building a Green Elementary Science Curriculum With Conservation Behavior as a Primary Measure
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
JULIA H. FIEBIG (San Ramon Valley Unified School District), Joel Vidovic (San Ramon Valley Unified School District), Rebecca A. Watson (San Ramon Valley Unified School District)
Abstract:

In the song, "The Greatest Love of All," Michael Masser and Linda Creed wrote, "We believe that children are our future, that we must teach them well and let them lead the way." What do we know about methods for effectively getting our children to engage in behaviors that are directly related to conserving resources?B. F. Skinner (1974) wrote that “knowledge which permits a person to describe contingencies is quite different from knowledge identified with the behavior shaped by the contingencies.” While California's state standards-based science curriculum explores topics on conserving resources, it is not clear to what extent this curriculum teaches knowing vs. doing and how it might directly relate to changing behavior. This poster willassessCalifornia state standards-based science curriculum that is intended to target student behavior change (e.g., reduction of plastic use) related to environmental issuesthrough teaching practices and programming across the school environment and make suggestions for curriculum additions that may better target student behavior change. Recent developments of the dissemination of this curriculum and initiation of student projects in school and the surrounding community will also be addressed.

 
18. Walkin’ On Sunshine: Sure Feels Good When a School District Models Environmental Stewardship
Area: CSE; Domain: Service Delivery
REBECCA A. WATSON (San Ramon Valley Unified School District), Heather E. Finn (San Ramon Valley Unified School District), Julia H. Fiebig (San Ramon Valley Unified School District)
Abstract:

In a world confronted with environmental disaster, teaching students about sustainability and the effects of their own behavior on the environment is critical. This poster will address the San Ramon Valley Unified School District’s promotion of human behavior as the most significant factor in energy conservation and energy savings. Information about the district’s efforts to model and teach environmental stewardship to students and the community as a whole will be provided. More specifically, this poster will focus on the impact of installing solar panels across multiple school sites. It will provide information about projected energy cost-savings, the creation of jobs, and how the project actually freed up significant funds for direct support of students and schools. Presentation of this initiative is intended as a model for other school districts also adopting the approach of “conservation as human behavior.” Information about green initiatives in other California school districts will also be discussed.

 
19. Teaching Preschool Children to Recycle
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
CHELSEA WILHITE (University of Nevada, Reno), W. Larry Williams (University of Nevada,Reno)
Abstract:

This poster describes a study comparing different ways of increasing recycling in preschool children. One tactic consisted of having children (in groups) view videos similar to public-service-announcements. One video provided correct information about recycling; another offered instructions on how to recycle; a third showed children engaging in recycling behaviors; and a fourth showed children recycling and receiving positive feedback on their behaviors. The other tactic consisted of in situ training: an adult prompted children (on an individual basis) to recycle material and provided feedback on their behaviors (e.g., approving correct behaviors or prompting corrections of incorrect behaviors). All children were exposed to each video condition and to the in situ condition. While certain videos were effective with some children, the in situ approach got the best results overall. Additional research may determine whether simultaneous combination of in situ training and videos will yield better results.

 
20. Kids Take the Green Bus to a Sustainable World
Area: CSE; Domain: Service Delivery
CHRISTINE S. DUNKEL (Great Lakes Energy Service), Sarah M. Dunkel-Jackson (Great Lakes Energy Service)
Abstract:

Great Lakes Energy Service Inc. (GLES) is a non-profit organization that provides education across the Great Lakes region about the importance of renewable energy and the conservation of resources. Energy professionals, educators, and behavior analysts joined forces to find ways of getting people to embrace a greener lifestyle. One GLES project is the Green Bus, a traveling classroom with interactive activities that help students learn about energy and its conservation. The poster will describe how the Green Bus and other programs operate so that other communities might imitate it and help educate a generation that supports sustainable practices.

 
21. Time Delay and Social Discounting of Environmental Concerns
Area: CSE; Domain: Basic Research
BRENT KAPLAN (University of Kansas), Derek D. Reed (University of Kansas)
Abstract:

Despite the increased focus on environmental concerns in today’s culture, there remains relatively little research focusing on temporal and social factors influencing decisions regarding them. We asked 165 undergraduates in an introductory level psychology course to answer questions related to a vignette pertaining to an environmental issue. Participants rated, on a visual analogue scale, how concerned they were about a specific issue and how much time they would allot to solving the issue. The vignettes differed in the delay of the effects of the environmental issue, as well as the social distance between the decision maker and those the issue affected. Results demonstrate that participants’ ratings followed a discounting function for both delay and social conditions. Longer delays and increased social distance diminished reports of concern and time allotment. Perhaps most interestingly, results also indicated a disparity between reports of concern and time allotment; for a given delay value or social distance, participants regularly rated their concern higher than how much time they would allot to fixing the problem. These results serve as an important first step in isolating and quantifying factors influencing decisions regarding environmental issues, and may prove useful in developing effective environmental interventions.

 
22. Learning to Think About Green Behavior: An Undergrad Psychology Research Practicum on Energy Saving
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
SATORU SHIMAMUNE (Hosei University), Mai Shimura (Hosei University), Wakana Tajiri (Hosei University), Natsuki Ueshima (Hosei University), Yoshiki Ooshima (Hosei University), Shunsuke Kawamura (Hosei University)
Abstract:

Five junior-level undergraduate psychology students enrolled in a research practicum in a Japanese university conducted an experiment on energy saving. Under the supervision of the last author, the students wrote a research proposal, recruited participants, conducted experimental sessions, and analyzed the data they collected. In the experiment, three freshman students observed the wattage meter equipped at their homes, and reported the recordings every day through email. We provided the participants with a list of energy-saving behaviors such as turning off the lights and changing the air-conditioning temperature, and asked them to make a pledge to do some of the things on the list the next day. Although the results of the experiment are not consistent, the practicum students reported learning the connection between the environmental issues and personal behavior, contingency analysis, experimental design, and statistical procedures such as moving (or rolling) averages and standardizing data. The merits of providing a research project on green behavior at a college level will be discussed.

 
23. Using "Big Data" to Combat Global Warming
Area: CSE; Domain: Theory
SATORU SHIMAMUNE (Hosei University)
Abstract:

To stop global warming and make the world sustainable, we need to design, implement, and evaluate interventions on a much larger scale than behavior analysts have usually dealt with. In this study, I applied the visual inspection of cause-effect relationships--a traditional behavior analysis technology--to evaluate governmental policies, regulations, and interventions on consumer behavior. For example, I re-organized time-series data on the installation of solar panels around the world into a multiple-baseline design to show which governmental intervention may be the most effective. Additional examples of "big data" will be demonstrated. Although these kinds of post-hoc analyses are of limited value as a source of scientific evidence, they can provide hypotheses about ways of influencing behavior on a large scale.

 
24. Moving Toward a Sustainable World, 600 Words at a Time
Area: CSE; Domain: Theory
W. JOSEPH WYATT (Marshall University)
Abstract:

Failure to reach the populace has long been an issue for behavior analysts. Our efforts to engage the public through the popular media regarding a greener world are no exception. This poster reviews my efforts as a writer of green-related editorials for a state-wide newspaper, and as a weekly commentator to an AM talk-radio audience, both in West Virginia. The reinforcers may be minimal at times and there are punishers, as well, but it is one way to influence behavior. Methods for sustaining such efforts will be suggested.

 
25. Mother Nature and Self-Control
Area: CSE; Domain: Theory
MEREDITH S. BERRY (Utah State University), Amy Odum (Utah State University), Justice M. Morath (Utah State University), Kerry Jordan (Utah State University)
Abstract:

The purpose of the present experiment was to investigate the effects of natural environments (e.g., forests) on impulsivity. People were given a hypothetical choice between receiving a small amount of money now or a larger amount later. Before making their choice, some people looked at photographs of natural environments (e.g., forests, meadows), some looked at human-made environments (e.g., cities, roads), and some at geometric shapes. The results showed that viewing natural environments resulted in more self-control – that is, willingness to wait for a delayed, but better outcome.

 
26. Clearing the Air: How Behavior Analysis Can Assist Labor's Contribution to a Green Economy
Area: CSE; Domain: Theory
Thomas David Mann (New Brunswick Union of Public and Private Employee), CHARLOTTE MANN (New England Center for Children)
Abstract:

Labor organizations have a proven capacity for influencing public policy and social issues. This poster will propose that the implementation of behavior analytic principles can help labor organizations in their efforts to move toward a greener economy, a movement that helps their membership and society. For example, behavior analysts can help labor leaders develop an operational definition of “green job” and identify ways that green jobs can improve the lives of their members.

 
27. Transition to a Sustainable World Through Early Intervention
Area: CSE; Domain: Service Delivery
WAN-YU JENNY LIN (University of Cincinnati)
Abstract:

Sustainability is a long-term maintenance of well-being. In a society, sustainability is determined by the performance of every member of the society. By maximizing the potential of all members of society, we will free up resources that can be used to improve the quality of life for all. One way to do this is through early-intervention programs. In this poster I will review findings from studies on early interventions. For example, Reynolds (2005) found early education program promote skills and competencies for adult well-being. Longitudinal studies found early education and intervention programs produce prosocial behavior, higher academic achievement, employment, and family stability (Schweinhart & Weikart, 1997). Studies also found early education and intervention programs produce long-term effects in reducing crime, delinquency, teenage pregnancy, and welfare dependency (Parks, 2000). It is important to take a better look at the early education and intervention programs and discuss how to improve those programs to help the world become a more sufficient and sustainable place.

 
28. A Walk in the Park to Save the World
Area: CSE; Domain: Service Delivery
SHERRY L. SCHWEIGHARDT (Temple University)
Abstract:

At the same time over-consumption depletes the earth's resources, the incidence and prevalence of "lifestyle diseases" are rising dramatically. Getting people to eat less and exercise more would both improve their health and slow the depletion of natural resources, but these behavioral repertoires are difficult to shape and maintain due to the delay of reinforcers, such as weight loss and improved fitness. There is plenty of evidence that both physical activity and exposure to naturecan be rewarding. A review of recent literature on outdoor exercise and exposure to nature, suggests that physical activity in natural areas can be self-maintaining, thereby improving health and helping the environment. Examples of the kinds of settings and rewards that can be effective will be described, along with specific techniques individuals and communities can use to maintain the exercise. Behavior analysts are well-equipped to work with health care professionals, community recreation organizations, and parks/open space managers to help them improve the health and well-being of both people and natural habitats.

 
29. CANCELED: Using Einstein's Maxim: How to Solve Problems With More Complex Thinking Than Created Them
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
SARA NORA ROSS (Antioch University Midwest)
Abstract:

The development of more adequately-complex decisions and of new behaviors that follow from them is essential for a sustainable world. Decisions play integral roles in such systemic change. To illustrate how multi-perspective approaches to complex decisions lead to more complex behaviors, two issues are presented. One relates to initial decisions to even engage in addressing climate change; one is about official and voluntary commitment to restrictions on residential water use as potable water resources dry up. The frameworks people developed for democratic deliberative decisions are developmentally designed to support increased complexity of understanding and behavior choices.

Through these two issues, the issue analysis and decision making processes in The Integral Process for Complex Issues (TIP) are introduced. TIP’s behavioral development processes incorporate and address various scales of behavior development in social perspective-taking, analysis, complex decision making, and action necessary to address complex issues. In a study to test TIP’s effects, the average increase in complexity of related measures was significant at p < .01, one-tailed, with large effect size. Such increases in individual and social task complexity can be developed while and by addressing complex issues when such social processes incorporate developmentally-designed complexity.

 
30. Interpersonal Behavior of Health Workers in the Cultural Practice of the Municipal Program for Dengue Control - Brazil
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
TATIANA NUNES AMARAL (Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo), Elizeu Batista Borloti (Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo)
Abstract:

Behavior change to fight human-made threats to world sustainability requires simultaneous actions affecting large populations. The present work describes comments and criticizes the public program of Governador Valadares, Brazil, for control of the dengue mosquito. Dengue is a serious problem in tropical countries. The mosquito breeds in still waters, such as those resulting from excess watering of flower pots, plants like bromelias that naturally retain water from rain, and old tires abandoned in yards. The way to avoid mosquito breeding is to guarantee that everyone is alert to the problem. Informer public health problems, like vaccination, governments all over the world used to rely on coercion to foster behavior change. For problems like dengue, coercion didn’t work. It would be too expensive to have agents of the state visit every home, establishment, building, etc., continuously and with police characteristics in their action. The program in Governador Valadares tried to convince people that by avoiding still waters in the home they would be protecting themselves, their family and neighbors from dengue. To change citizens' behavior, the program had to change the behavior of state agents first. In spite of the new rules, government representatives continued with old, coercive, cultural practices. The present work involved examination of documents and interviews to analyze the program using the concepts of macrocontingencies and metacontingencies. It is suggested that in any large-scale program aimed at changing individual behavior each citizen be involved through clear statements of the consequences of his or her behavior.

 
31. Making Recycling Clear and Easy: The Effects of Prompts and Response Effort Interventions
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
ELIAN ALJADEFF-ABERGEL (Western Michigan University), Kathryn M. Kestner (Western Michigan University), Yannick Schenk (Western Michigan University)
Abstract:

This poster will describe a study designed to evaluate the effectiveness of two interventions for increasing appropriate recycling and trash sorting in a university classroom and office building. The first intervention will use visual prompts (cues) appearing over the existing recycling and trash stations in the hallways on the first and second floors of Wood Hall. These prompts will include more detailed waste-sorting information in order to increase appropriate recycling and decrease errors. The second intervention will be the addition of lids on top of existing classroom trash cans to increase the effort of throwing material into those trash cans and thereby encourage individuals to instead choose the less effortful recycling/trash centers in the hallway. An additional prompt will appear on the classroom trash cans to indicate that recyclable materials should be disposed of in the appropriate cans in the hallway. There are no recycling receptacles in the classrooms; individuals using the receptacles in the hallway will come in contact with the opportunity to recycle. Our hypothesis is that providing detailed waste sorting information in the hallway receptacles will increase appropriate sorting. We hypothesize that the additional component of increasing the response effort involved in the use of the classrooms trash cans will further increase appropriate recycling and waste disposal.

 
32. That's Not Trash! The Impact of Receptacle Design, Centralized Placement, and Signage on Recycling Rates
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
Katherine Binder (Western Michigan University), DANIEL FLACK (Western Michigan University)
Abstract:

This poster will describe a study designed to improve recycling. Waste audits on Western Michigan University’s campus revealed that approximately 25% of landfill waste was recyclable material. In an effort to address this issue, I designed a pilot study to test alternative collection methods on four floors of an academic building. The study will compare the effects of centrally located, comprehensive recycling and landfill receptacles with those from dispersed classroom trash and recycling bins. Utilizing the findings of recycling research within the field of behavior analysis, I developed a treatment package that includes a newly designed comprehensive bin along with detailed, consistent signs containing information about exactly what can be recycled in each location. The primary dependent measure will bethe percentage of trash that is comprised of inaccurately sorted recyclable material. Secondary dependent measures will include the total mass of waste from each floor of the building along with the weights of landfill waste, paper/cardboard waste, and plastic/glass/metal waste. In order to evaluate the effects of the treatment package itself, along with the adjustment period on each floor, the treatment package will be implemented progressively. The results of the study will be used to aid a campus-wide collaboration among Waste Reduction and Recycling Services, Custodial Services, and the Office for Sustainability, to streamline and systemize the campus waste and recycling programs. The broader implications of this research program and campus-wide collaboration will also be discussed.

 
33. Design for a University Course Sequence in Green Behavior
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
THOMAS WADE BROWN (University of Nevada, Reno), William D. Newsome (University of Nevada, Reno), Mark P. Alavosius (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract:

Education of students about detrimental behaviors that contribute to global warming and consideration of climate-related issues from a psychological perspective is important in building a sustainable culture. This poster describes a course model implemented at the University of Nevada, Reno designed to instruct students on the implications of climate change and the impact of human behavior. The sequence is to be offered within the context of an undergraduate psychology curriculum. Green practices and guidelines for sustainability are described from a behavioral approach. In addition, didactic components of the course are outlined and described, including course objectives, competencies, and assignment design. A discussion of community projects is presented as a technique for students to gain research experience and also disseminate green practices into the surrounding university community. Guidelines and recommendations for replication of course design are encouraged to incorporate behavioral technologies of instruction into community settings and build sustainable and eco-friendly cultural practices.

 
34. Sustainability and Reducing the Negative Impact of Tourism
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
EMILY MICHELLE LEEMING (University of Nevada, Reno), David Hansen (Embassy Suites Lake Tahoe Hotel & Ski Resort), Mark P. Alavosius (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract:

Lake Tahoe, the largest alpine lake in North America and surrounded by the Sierra Nevada Mountains, is widely regarded as a premier vacation destination offering year-round activities. The Lake Tahoe Basin is home to approximately 66,000 permanent residents with approximately 3,000,000 visitors annually. Lake Tahoe provides a high visibility laboratory to study climate change and human behavior and is routinely monitored to create a record of change in one of the world’s most beautiful and vulnerable alpine lakes. The Embassy Suites Lake Tahoe, a Hilton Corporation hotel located in South Lake Tahoe, California, has become a leader in sustainable lodging using behavior based programs to encourage guests and employees to engage in ecologically friendly practices, installing technological upgrades, and influencing local individuals and business to adopt similar initiatives. This poster will elaborate on the innovative sustainability efforts within the Embassy Suites Lake Tahoe resort as a practical, cost effective, and profitable example of environmental stewardship. The impacts of these efforts indicate that investments in sustainable technologies and practices have a positive impact on the environment, as local and visiting populations are invited to participate and learn about the sustainability efforts at the resort. Additionally the environmental initiatives described align with community values towards preservation and positive business outcomes.

 
35. Green Conferences: Can We Get Together in an Eco-friendly Way?
Area: CSE; Domain: Theory
KENNETH J. KILLINGSWORTH (University of Nevada, Reno), Mark P. Alavosius (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract:

The longstanding tradition of professional conferences offer a medium by which people share information, theories, results, and ideas for future directions. While several benefits are afforded to the conference attendee and the professional association, these benefits come at a price in the form of a carbon footprint. This poster explains the environmental cost of conference attendance, and provides suggestions for shrinking their carbon footprint. The main sections of analysis will be the green initiatives of the 2012 conference, Behavior Change for a Sustainable World; the green initiatives of other conferences and mass meetings; suggestions for improvement; and a rough framework for a virtual conference. The data generated by an analysis of the environmental impact of hosting a conference will help inform organizations concerned about the status of the environment, and could shape the practices of businesses marketing to these organizations (e.g., hotels, restaurants, transportation). Ultimately, ABAI has the potential to lead the development of green practices within other professional associations.

 
36. A Gallon to Burn
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
WILLIAM D. NEWSOME (University of Nevada, Reno), Mark P. Alavosius (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract:

The costs of unsustainable consumption of fossil fuels include environmental degradation, social injustice, political and economic instability, and more. Motor vehicle operation is a salient means by which individuals contribute to these unsavory ends. While engineers do the work of developing more efficient vehicles, it is up to behavior scientists to develop the technology for shaping more efficient drivers. This poster will present data from an ongoing investigation of the effects of feedback and self-generated rules on driving efficiency. With the assistance of on-board-computers, various combinations of real time aggregate feedback streams are systematically introduced such that their effects on efficiency may be observed and compared. Tracking of self-generated rules throughout the study should show how the rules are influenced by the various feedback conditions. Implications for driver training, vehicle design and public policy will be discussed.

 
37. "The Patch" Cooperative Gardening Project
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
William D. Newsome (University of Nevada, Reno), TODD A. WARD (Univeristy of Nevada, Reno), Brooke M. Berry (University of Nevada, Reno), Timothy C. Fuller (University of Nevada, Reno), Kendra L. Brooks Rickard (Fit Learning), Greg Smith (University of Nevada, Reno), Estes Ward (By the Yard Organics), Mark P. Alavosius (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract:

The Patch cooperative was built on the shared needs and values of its members. Its goals are to provide an affordable source of fresh produce in a way that is environmentally friendly and sustainable. In the first season, The Patch provided its members with a slightly better than 2:1 return on investment based on local retail prices of comparable organically cultivated produce. The total edible yield from that year was just shy of 200 pounds of tomatoes, peppers, eggplant, etc. The Patch also maintained a minimal ecological footprint thanks to a simple water recycling system and lack of any transportation or cultivation-related emissions. Despite the small scale of the Patch project, its potential for stimulating large-scale pro-environmental behavior is provocative. With some enthusiasm and ingenuity, any small group of citizens can meet their collective needs and pursue their shared environmental values in a way that is financially viable, ecologically friendly, sustainable, and replicable. Thanks to the high degree of flexibility with which cooperative principles can be applied, those wishing to begin their own small collective ventures need only understand some basic cooperative principles. This poster will present cost-benefit data and some practical guidelines helpful in the development of cooperative efforts.

 
38. An Interdisciplinary Approach to Sustainable Practices
Area: CSE; Domain: Theory
MOLLI LUKE (University of Nevada, Reno), Mark P. Alavosius (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract:

Research related to creating a sustainable world has increased over the past few years in many scientific disciplines. This research informs practices, products and systems that can help the sustainability movement in a variety of ways. Each science has a distinct subject matter but all sciences are looking at events in the natural world. Therefore, an interdisciplinary approach to sustainability has potential for a more thorough and effective approach to creating long-lasting change. For instance, it is not within the scope of behavior analysts to measure regional kilowatts per hour and it is not for the engineer to study how a person’s learning history interacts within his/her home environment to affect behavior. However, by combining their skills they can link a person’s behavior within the home and the kilowatt hours of energy used to produce metrics by which interventions can be measured. This poster provides points of contact between behavior science and other sciences as well as areas that behavior analysts can contribute to impacting sustainability.

 
39. The Icky Antecedents and Consequences of Recycling at Work
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
AMY MCCARTY (Haworth, Inc.)
Abstract:

Do the sights and smells of others’ awful offal thwart efforts for encouraging recycling? Who wants to touch that? We are taking a look at the sensory antecedents and consequences of recycling in the workplace, and how to eliminate factors that discourage the behavior we want to occur. Along the way, we’re also looking at other aspects of the physical and cultural environment that could influence recycling behavior. A dependent variable is the ratio of desired recycling behaviors to the recycling opportunities. A second dependent variable is the proportion of recyclable, compostable, waste-to-energy, and waste-to-landfill materials. Independent variables include changes to the physical environment (designed to reduce perception of unpleasantness associated with recycling; to heighten visibility of its positive aspects; and to prompt appropriate sorting, disposal, etc.) and communications to employees explaining the changes and encouraging them to recycle. A multiple-baseline design will be employed, with observations performed periodically over several months at recycling stations throughout the organization’s office, manufacturing, and/or distribution facilities.

 
40. Reduce, Reuse, Remember! Promoting Energy Saving by Sorority Students
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
NICOLE SCHULTZ (University of the Pacific), Carolynn S. Kohn (University of the Pacific), Kelly Rush (University of the Pacific)
Abstract:

Studies have demonstrated short-term energy reduction through various behavioral interventions (e.g., Bekker et al., 2010). However, few studies have examined the long-term (e.g., several months) effects of these methods. The purpose of the present study was twofold: (1) replicate a recent study that used visual prompts, feedback, and incentives to reduce energy consumption on a college campus, and (2) follow participants after the intervention to assess the durability of its effects. Two campus sorority houses (an intervention and a control house) were selected to participate. Data were collected daily over a 7-week period (3-week baseline, 4-week intervention) by reading each house’s energy meter. The intervention phase consisted of placing signs in all rooms suggesting methods to reduce energy consumption. Furthermore, a “savings thermometer” placed in the main room and updated daily displayed the cumulative monetary savings (toward an end goal) accrued throughout the intervention phase. Results indicated that the intervention house saved 12% ($108) , whereas the control house saved less than 1%. Thus, in the short-term the intervention package effectively reduced energy consumption. Data collected through March, 2012 will indicate whether this behavior change has persisted.

 
42. Making Recycling Accessible: A Test of Bin Location at the University of Guam
Area: CSE; Domain: Basic Research
Diana C. Carlos (University of Guam), MICHAEL B. EHLERT (University of Guam)
Abstract:

In 2009, the University of Guam founded the Center for Island Sustainability. “UOG Green” became a major initiative for the campus with an annual conference and research grants. Disappointedly, most activities focus on large‐scale and infrastructure changes; no presentations focused on behavior changes at the last Island Sustainability Conference (April 2011). Behavior analysts understand that changing behavior is vital for a sustainable future (see Skinner, 1974). This project investigated the effects of simple stimulus changes on large‐scale conservation. We used an ABA design to explore the effect of bin locations. Each condition was in effect for a week and recycled aluminum cans and plastic bottles were counted and weighed daily. The standard arrangement at the University of Guam is to have large bins located in the hallways only (Condition A). During Condition B, the researchers placed boldly labeled recycle bins beside standard trash bins in two classrooms. The recycle bins were removed during the second Condition A. During Condition B, recycling in the classrooms increased and about 50% fewer recyclable items were discarded in the trash bins. These results suggest that recycling disposal shifted to the classroom from the hallway while overall recycling increased.

 
43. The Meaning of "Green": Consumer Trends of Green Labeled Products
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
Jeanine Stratton (Furman University), HALEY JONES (Furman University)
Abstract:

Consumers often report interest in purchasing products that are better for the environment. The 2010 Terra Group report identified recent steep trends in consumer goods being advertised as sustainable. Such labels include descriptors including the word “green.” However, the word “green” is often misunderstood, since it doesn`t specify how or how much the product helps the environment. The poster will present various categories of consumer goods with evidence of such labeling practices. A conceptual analysis of products in each category will be presented to describe recent consumption trends of durable and nondurable goods. Discussion will include marketing practices of products using such labels with or without verifiable evidence of “green” function, “green” source of materials, or profits on the purchase towards “green” initiatives. Implications for consumers, manufacturers, and suppliers involved in such labeling practices and consumer demand of goods will be discussed.

 
44. Spatial Characterization and Analysis of the Campus Residential Waste Stream at a Small Private Liberal Arts Institution
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
Erika Baldwin (Furman University), WESTON DRIPPS (Furman University)
Abstract:

The generation and management of solid waste on college campuses have presented challenges to pursuing institutional sustainability. Characterizing, analyzing, and understanding the composition of a campus residential-waste stream is a critical first step toward developing successful and effective waste-management strategies across university campuses. This study presents a multi-year (2008-11) assessment of the composition and spatial variability of the residential waste stream, by both weight and volume, at Furman University, a small private liberal arts institution in Greenville, SC. Waste audits were conducted on a dumpster-by-dumpster basis during the three-year period. Garbage was sorted into eight waste categories. Of the total 1,292.2 pounds and 524.4 cubic feet of residential waste sampled, 25% by weight and 41% by volume could have been recycled under the university's current waste-management program, and 61% by weight and 63% by volume could have been diverted from the landfill through a combination of the university's recycling plan, the county's recycling program, and the composting of food waste. Distinct spatial differences were found in the composition of the waste stream with regard to the glass, compost material, and cardboard content among the different housing complexes. Our analysis found the observed variability to be the result of differences in the age and class of the student residents, the meal plans of the residents, social patterns of alcohol consumption and Greek life within the residence halls, and the presence or absence and quantity of kitchens in each building. Design of an efficient waste-management program requires not only an assessment of the waste stream, but also an understanding of the mechanisms and behaviors responsible for generating this garbage. The utility of site specific audits lies within their ability to capture these spatial differences in campus residential-waste streams, allowing for specific recommendations for individual residential buildings on strategies for minimizing waste and improving recycling efforts.

 
45. The Overlooked Stepchild of Sustainability: Occupational Safety and Health
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
THOMAS R. CUNNINGHAM (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health)
Abstract:

Meeting the environmental challenges that confront us, particularly the depletion of natural resources and climate change, requires major changes in human behavior. Despite the importance of this effort, many people in the business community are not supportive, focusing instead on developing business practices with short-term financial benefits. However, if it can be shown that the environmental movement can increase profits, businesses are likely to “go green” (e.g., www.carrotmob.org.) One way of doing this may be to show businesses that techniques used to get people to adopt green practices may be used to get workers to behave in ways that increase profits. For example, the expense of work-related injuries and illnesses can be substantially reduced by getting workers to reliably use safety equipment and follow certain protocols. This poster will describe research aimed at identifying behavior change techniques used in the green movement that businesses may find useful in the workplace. I will describe the results of interviews conducted with the owners of 18 small construction companies, including some who consider their companies to be “green.” The questions asked were about both sustainability and occupational health and safety. For example, I asked, What does green mean to you? What does health and safety mean? What do you do to support the green movement? What do you do to improve the safety and health of your employees? Why do you do these things? What barriers block your efforts? And so on. I intend to use the data from these interviews to develop a survey that will identify practices derived from the green movement that businesses may find profitable in the workplace by reducing the costs of work-related injuries and illnesses. The result may be improved health for employees, greater profits for businesses, and more support of the sustainability movement among companies.

 
46. Don't Shoot the Messenger: Integrating Behavior Analysis, Climate Science, and Advertising Tools to Achieve Policy Reform
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
JOSHUA K. PRITCHARD (Florida Institute of Technology), Ken Lindeman (Florida Institute of Technology), Anita Li (Florida Institute of Technology), Lauren Dame (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract:

Climate change science is difficult to convey to non-scientists, especially when the message includes the need for behavioral adaptations that involve near-term costs. The combination of complexity and adverse consequences makes rejecting the reality of climate change appealing. That rejection, in turn, means we lose the opportunity to take effective action. In this poster we will report on efforts to interpret scientific explanation in terms of behavioral principles. Interdisciplinary tools are being employed to identify system archetypes including information from environmental NGO campaigns, climate denial outlets, advertising firms, and scientific organizations. The latter institutions are concerned about the trend towards dogma that climate change denial is taking, increasing hostility towards climate scientists, and the underlying causes of these developments. We will provide tools for improved messaging and further applied behavioral research with a focus on sea level rise adaptation. Peeling back the mechanisms behind these trends and developing responses that work on the ground are essential for many reasons, particularly since the next UN IPCC reports will generate complex scientific predictions that suggest even faster and more challenging behavioral adaptations are increasingly overdue.

 
47. How Culture Blocks the Road to Sustainability: The Case of Africa
Area: CSE; Domain: Basic Research
JULIUS WARINDU (North Attleboro Public Schools)
Abstract:

Research on environmental degradation in Africa frequently emphasizes a variety of causes including socio-political factors, effects of global changes associated with international industrial activities, and the irregularity in weather patterns It is true that these factors play major roles, for example, in determining land policies, preservation of forests, and commercialization of natural resources. However, there are often immediate, yet ignored cultural contingencies that affect the ways in which local populations try to adapt to the rapidly changing world. The appropriate metaphor here is fighting new wars with old weapons. Often, it is a losing battle. Africans who are exposed to new and unfamiliar conditions often find themselves constrained more by ethnic and cultural norms than by governmental policy. While these cultural norms are mostly inadequate at proscribing effective solutions, they are, nonetheless, full of prohibitions of the very changes that might lead to the solutions. The problem here is not a lack of cultural change; indeed, there have been significant cultural changes over the years. The problem is that the rate at which cultural evolution occurs at the local level is significantly slower than the pace of change in the global and geopolitical environment. This poster will review some of the African cultural practices that may be considered impediment to the rapid adaptation of modern practices necessary for survival in a highly dynamic world. In addition, the poster will suggest the means with which individuals in African societies could accelerate the pace of cultural evolution.

 
48. Working Together on Green, Part I: An Annotated Bibliography
Area: CSE; Domain: Theory
THOMAS WADE BROWN (University of Nevada, Reno), Kenneth J. Killingsworth (University of Nevada, Reno), Michael A. Magoon (NORC at the University of Chicago), Zachary H. Morford (University of Nevada, Reno), Emily Michelle Leeming (University of Nevada, Reno), Verle-Ranae L. Hoskins (Center for Advanced Learning), Mark P. Alavosius (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract:

This poster will present the first of a two-part project aimed at facilitating collaboration between behavior analysts and environmental organizations (see Poster 17097). It will describe the methods used to conduct a comprehensive literature search of the work behavior analysts have done to address green behavior. That work is wide and varied, and goes back several decades. The results from the search are categorized by their contribution to theory, research, methods, practice, and results or some combination of these. The poster presents a sampling of the results by category, and the complete results will be available in a handout.

 
49. Working Together on Green, Part II: Developing a Searchable Database to Facilitate Collaboration
Area: CSE; Domain: Service Delivery
MICHAEL A. MAGOON (NORC at the University of Chicago), Julia H. Fiebig (San Ramon Valley Unified School District), Joel Vidovic (Autism M.O.D.E.L. School), Kenneth J. Killingsworth (University of Nevada, Reno), Kathleen Kelly (California State University, Los Angeles), Angela Sanguinetti (University of California, Irvine), Stephanie Stilling (Western Michigan University)
Abstract:

This poster will present the second of a two-part project aimed at facilitating collaboration between behavior analysts and environmental organizations (see Poster17903). It will describe a searchable database which allows the user to identify organizations from across the country whose mission is, at least in part, to address green behavior change. It will describe the methods used to develop search and inclusion criteria, the process used for searching, and the development of a typology for organizing the results. It will also present a sampling of organizations according to the typology.

 
50. Behavior Analysis for Sustainable Societies Special Interest Group
Area: CSE; Domain: Service Delivery
JULIA H. FIEBIG (San Ramon Valley Unified School District), Mark P. Alavosius (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract:

The Behavior Analysis for Sustainable Societies (BASS) Special Interest Group was established to advance applications of behavior analysis to environmental issues and contribute to the development of solutions to climate change, pollution, over consumption of resources, and imbalances in environmental sustainability. Information on BASS's mission, events, membership, and other pertinent information will be presented in poster format.

 
 

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