Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


First International Conference; Italy, 2001

Event Details

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Poster Session #64
#64 Poster Session - EAB
Thursday, November 29, 2001
5:00 PM–6:30 PM
Truss Pavilion
1. Choice under Uncertainty: The Certainty effect observed in Japanese and Indonesian Students
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
TAKAYUKI SAKAGAMI (Keio University), Taku Ishii (Keio University), Thomas D. Hastjarjo (Gadjah Mada University)
Abstract: Twenty-six Japanese and 24 Indonesian students were requested to respond to a computer display on a Web page containing two differently colored choice alternatives. The students were required to choose one of the alternatives in order to earn points exchangeable for money at the end of the experiment. Points could either be earned (Gain trials) or lost (Loss trials). In Phase one (P1), a riskless alternative produced 20 points (gain or loss) with probability 0.90, while a risky alternative produced 36 points (gain or loss) with probability 0.50. In Phase two (P2), the points were doubled and the probabilities halved (i.e. 40 points with probability 0.45 versus 72 points with probability 0.25). Subjects experienced two times each phase, totaling 400 Gain and 400 Loss trials. In P1 compared to P2, 21 Japanese and 17 Indonesian students had more riskless choices in Gain trials, whereas 17 Japanese and 16 Indonesian students had more risky choices in Loss trials. The group data also showed the certainty effect. Moreover the Indonesian students had more riskless choices than the Japanese students, which can in part be explained by the different sensitivities to the exchange rate of money in the two countries.
2. Cocaine Tolerance using an Automaintenance Procedure
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
MICHELLE L. MILLER (University of Florida), Marc N. Branch (University of Florida)
Abstract: Six White Carneaux pigeons were exposed to an automaintenance procedure wherein access to grain was delivered independent of responses to an illuminated key. This procedure successfully established keypecking and, once response rates stabilized, a range of doses of cocaine (0.3-10.0 mg/kg) was administered. The dose that increased rates of responding relative to control rates was subsequently administered prior to each session. An attenuation to the rate-increasing effect was observed. This procedure allowed for assessment of the development of tolerance to the effects of cocaine and may provide a useful strategy to analyze the conditions under which tolerance develops.
3. Corporal Expression and Creativity. Its Social and Empirical Validation
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
VERONICA MARIN (Universidad Central de Venezuela), Hanna Rattia (Universidad Central de Venezuela)
Abstract: This investigation had as objective: the Social Validation of the definition aspects of the Creative Conduct in the Corporal Expression Activity and, the evaluation of the effect of an intervention package on this conduct. In the first stage participated seven personalities of the artistic means, who acted as sworn in the establishment of the criteria that employs the society to evaluate a Corporal Expression activity, as creative. The analysis of the results permitted to illustrate the criteria existence related to the qualification of the corporal expression as creative. In the second stage, participated six preschoolers’ children between three and six years old. The employed design was a A-B with follow-up, with initial and final measures of the dependent variable. The dependent variable was the Creative Conduct, measured through Fluency and Originality. The independent variable consisted of an intervention package composed by various behaviorism techniques. The subjects were trained in the Fluency factor; there were taken measures of the Originality factor to study the generalization between factors. The results evidenced that the execution of the subjects was affected positively by the application of the intervention package, since increased their punctuation in the Fluency factor. It was found that the Originality factor was increasing with the Fluency factor, confirming the Generalization
4. Deterministic Variability in Fixed-Interval Schedules
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
MARK S. HOYERT (Indiana University Northwest)
Abstract: One of the classic problems in behavior analysis involves the examination of moment to moment variability in Fixed-Interval schedules of reinforcement. Some researchers have suggested that this variability is the product of a system of interacting variables. Other researchers have suggested that the variability is the result of stochastic inputs. Similar questions have been addressed recently by researchers in nonlinear dynamics. A number of techniques have been developed that are useful in distinguishing between stochastic and deterministic system. None of the procedures is sufficient to provide proof of the underlying character of the system, but a series of analyses used simultaneously may provide convincing multiple converging evidence. In this paper, I explored the utility of three methods: a) estimation of the correlation dimension, b) calculation of the fractal dimension, and c) attractor reconstruction for examining three types of data. a) Empirical data collected from four pigeons responding to a Fixed-Interval 20 s schedule of reinforcement. b) Theoretical data generated from a system of deterministic equations that model Fixed-Interval performance. c) Theoretical data generated to produce random performance. The techniques were able to identify correctly identify theoretically generated stochastic and deterministic output. They suggest that pigeon performance is
5. Discounting of Hypothetical Shared Rewards: Does Discounting Rate Reflect the Degree of Selfishness?
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
DAISUKE SAEKI (JSPS Research Fellow), Masato Ito (Osaka City University)
Abstract: Discounting of shared rewards were examined by questionnaires in which Japanese college students (N=530) were asked to make a series of hypothetical choices between 130,000 yen with sharing and unshared money of variable amount (varied from 130 yen to 130,000 yen). Two groups of different sharing conditions were used (Family and Stranger). In addition, subjects were required to choose to keep 100,000 yen for themselves or share it with other people in social dilemma questionnaire. As a result, the discounting of shared rewards was well described by a hyperbolic function, and the median discounting rate (s) obtained from the Family condition (s=1.29) was significantly lower than that obtained from the Stranger condition (s=1.75). Furthermore, the median discounting rate obtained from the subjects who chose to keep the money in the social dilemma questionnaire (s=1.71) was significantly higher than that obtained from the subjects who chose to share it (s=1.34). These results suggest that the discounting rate obtained from a hyperbolic function reflects the degree of selfishness.
6. Dynamics Of Adaptation Of Preferences In Multiple Schedules
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
OSCAR ZAMORA-AREVALO (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico), Arturo R. Bouzas (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico), Ruben Gonzalez-Olvera (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico)
Abstract: We studied eight pigeons in two similar experiments described below which to have the purpose of to analyze the behavioral adjustment to transition in multiple schedules of reinforcement successive choice. The general procedure of this study was similar in the used by Mazur (1992, 1995 & 1996) with concurrent schedules. In Experiment 1, eight pigeons were exposed to five different conditions of training. During three days the keypecking responses was reinforced according to a variable ratio schedule (VR) for both components. Training sessions were followed by two sessions of transition, where the responses were reinforced according to two different variable ratio schedules (VRx VRy) for every component. Every condition repeats four times. In Experiment 2, eight different pigeons also were exposed to the identical five different conditions of training and transition except that an alternate component (VI 30”) was included and the number session of transition was four. The components of the multiple schedules alternated each 60-sec. and the experimental sessions finished by time (30 min.) or 80 reinforces for Experiment 2. The means of relative response rate are exposed and discussed along transition sessions and were analyzed as the main behavioral adjustment index for each experimental condition.
7. Effects of Positive and Negative Reinforcement upon Avoidance Behavior in Human
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
SAKURA YOSHIHARA (Keio University), Kaname Mochizuki (National Institute of Multimedia Education)
Abstract: The difference of the effect of positive and negative reinforcement on concurrent avoidance behavior was explored in 7 male and 1 female undergraduates. Participants pushed a button to get monetary points on a schedule of mixed VI EXT in the positive reinforcement. In the negative reinforcement, they could postpone periodic reduction of monetary points on the same schedule. Concurrently, they could escape or avoid a loud noise by striking the wooden plate with a hammer on Sidman avoidance schedule. The frequency and the magnitude of avoidance and escape response were measured. In the negative reinforcement, 3 of 8 participants showed a larger number of avoidance and escape responses than in the positive reinforcement. 2 participants showed stronger responses in the negative reinforcement than in the positive one. There was no difference between VI and EXT on measure of frequency and magnitude of avoidance responses. The increase of avoidance and escape responses under the negative reinforcement schedule indicates the emotional side effect of negative reinforcement.
8. Effects of Prior Experience on Free Choice Preference
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
KOICHI ONO (Komazawa University)
Abstract: Preferences in pigeons for free choice over forced choice after three different baseline histories were compared in multiple concurrent-chain schedules of reinforcement. Three groups of pigeons were first exposed to baseline condition and shifted to free (two keys) and forced choice (single keys) condition. There were three baseline conditions. In the first baseline condition, pigeons were engaged in choice between two single-key alternatives after choice between two two-key alternatives. In the second baseline condition, pigeons were engaged in choice between two two-key alternatives after choice between two shingle-key alternatives. In the third baseline condition, pigeons were engaged in alternating condition of single-key alternatives and two-key alternatives in each session. Results showed that when the condition was shifted to free and forced choice condition, pigeons preferred for the alternatives of the latter half of the baseline condition. For example, if pigeons experienced two-key condition in the latter half of the baseline, then pigeons preferred for free choice (two-key alternatives) over forced choice (single-key alternatives).
9. Effects of Self-Monitoring through Videotape Feedback on Social Behaviors for Socially Isolated Children at School
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Jeongil Kim (Taegu University), MYONG-HEE YANG (Taegu University)
Abstract: The investigation examined the effects of self-monitoring through videotape feedback on social behaviors for socially isolated children at school. Three elementary school children, who were reported as being socially isolated at school by their teachers and their peers, participated in the study. The children’s behaviors during playtime were recorded on videotape and the children were asked to self-monitor their own behaviors on a video. Their social behaviors were collected in three settings: classroom, hallway, and playground. A time-lagged AB design across subjects was used. The study had three conditions: one was a condition where children were asked to self-monitor their own social behaviors during free playtime on a video. Second, the children self-monitored their own social behaviors on a video during structured playtime under the supervision of the teacher. The data was collected by two observers. The observers measured the percentage of occurrence of the children’s social behaviors in a 20-minute observation session, once per day, using a partial interval time sampling recording system. To assess reliability of the data, interobserver agreement was calculated, and they were 89% for occurrence/ nonoccurrence of the social behaviors. The results of this study showed that the intervention increased the children’s positive social interaction with their peers and decreased negative interaction. Second, three children maintained the increased positive social interaction and the decreased negative interaction in a non-intervention condition, the maintenance condition, when the intervention was withdrawn for a month. This work was supported by the Brain Korea 21 Project in 2001.
10. Energy Budget vs. Temporal Discount as Determinants of Preference in Risky Choice
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
VLADIMIR ORDUNA (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico), Arturo R. Bouzas (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico)
Abstract: Several studies have found that rats and pigeons prefer a variable schedule of reinforcement over a fixed one with the same mean value, with the energy budget playing no role in such preference, contrary to the predictions of the energy budget rule. The experiment reported contrasts this prediction with that of a temporal discount model of choice. The successive encounters procedure was used, which allows to decrement the energy budget in two different ways. Lengthening either, the search or the handling phase decreases the energy budget and therefore, according to the energy budget rule should increase the preference for the variable delay. For a temporal discount model the first manipulation should provoke a tendency to indifference, while the second should provoke more extreme preferences. These predictions were tested using pigeons as subjects and the results support models based on temporal discount.
11. Hypertextual Training and Metaphorical Skills: Experimental an Applied Analysis in Education
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
SILVIA PERINI (Università di Parma), Dolores Rollo (Università di Parma)
Abstract: Moving from a brief theoretical analysis of developmental literature about metaphorical comprehension and production, the study emphasized the main effect of experimental task specific features on metaphorical skills. 64 subjects, aged 8 years, were submitted to two different experimental conditions: the experimental group was trained with hypertextual task and the control group with visual tasks. The main hypothesis was that the first one would be more efficient in improving the metaphorical skills than the second one. The AN.O.Va on the performances pre and post training, tested by Kogna's MTT, shows that really the experimental group obtained a significant improvement of its metaphorical
12. Predicting Relational Responding in 2-choice Matching to Sample
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
GRAYSON OSBORNE (Utah State University), John C. Heath (Utah State University)
Abstract: College students both judged the relational strengths of 80 pairs of operationally defined pictures, and matched to sample 120 stimulus arrays composed of the same pictures with common samples, grouped into six trial types: A(AB), A(AC), A(AD), A(BC), A(BD), and A(CD). Mean (judged) relational strengths of each stimulus pair predicted comparison selection in the matching-to-sample trial types with 90 percent accuracy. Judging relational strengths first increased the predictability of comparison selection.
13. Punishment, Stimulus Control, and Generalization Among Humans and Nonhumans
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
DEAN C. WILLIAMS (University of Kansas), Jennifer M. O'Donnell (University of Kansas), Kathryn Saunders (University of Kansas)
Abstract: Reviews of the experimental punishment literature that discuss stimulus control of punishment commonly conclude that it parallels stimulus control of reinforced behaviors. In a recent study O’Donnell et al (2000, JEAB) described difficulties generating antecedent stimulus control of punishment in human subjects. In the presence of the stimulus signaling punishment, response suppression was readily obtained, but only after delivery of the first punisher. Stimulus control was obtained only under special procedures including delayed delivery of the aversive stimuli, and instructions about the delay procedures. Subsequent generalization gradients were similar to those reported with non-human subjects. The difficulty in producing antecedent stimulus control and the necessity of using special procedures are at variance with reports in the animal literature. Thus, this appeared to be another instance of differences in human and animal subjects. We re-examined the literature on stimulus control of punishment to search for procedural factors that may account for the discrepant results. Procedural characteristics are presented in a table along with whether or not they are associated with successful demonstrations of discriminated punishment. Using the criterion for antecedent control applied to our human data revealed that only a limited number of studies demonstrated unequivocal antecedent stimulus control of punishment using free-operant procedures. A common finding was that suppression followed presentation of a punisher rather than the onset of the antecedent stimulus – as with our human subjects. Thus, it appears that the results of the human studies are consistent with many animal studies. Difficulty in producing stimulus control of punishment raises several conceptual issues about the process of punishment.
14. Reformative Self-Control and Discounting of Reward Value by Delay or Effort
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
HIROKO SUGIWAKA (Nara University of Education), Hiroto Okouchi (Osaka Kyoiku University)
Abstract: Relations between reformative self-control and discounting of reward value by delay or effort were examined. Thirty-two Japanese undergraduates were selected on the basis of their scores on a standardized pencil and paper test of self-control, the Redressive- Reformative Self-Control Scale (Sugiwaka, 1995). The subjects indicated their preference (a) between a hypothetical 100,000 yen reward available with various delays and a certain reward of variable amount available immediately, or (b) between a hypothetical 100,000 yen reward available with various efforts and a certain reward of variable amount available without effort. The discounting of delayed reward value was described well by a hyperbolic function proposed by Mazur (1987). The slopes of the delayed discounting curves were steeper for subjects scored low on the Reformative Self-Control, which is a measure of reformative self-control and a subscale of the Redressive-Reformative Self-Control Scale, than others. The discounting by effort also was described well by the hyperbolic function. The slopes of the effortful discounting curves did not correlate with those of the delayed discounting curves or with scores on the measure of reformative self-control.
15. The Dynamics of Transitions in Fixed-Ratio Schedules
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
DIANA POSADAS-SÁNCHEZ (Arizona State University), Mark P. Reilly (Arizona State University), Peter Killeen (Arizona State University)
Abstract: Bizo and Killeen (1997) developed a model for behavior under ratio schedules of reinforcement that predicts a bitonic response rate function over ratio value. A large number of sessions are required to generate this function. The reliability of the function determined by stability of behavior over changing ratio values has not yet been established. The current study was conducted to analyze and compare the stability of behavior following various ratio value transitions. Four pigeons were repeatedly exposed to four fixed-ratio schedules (5, 20, 50, 100) until behavior was deemed stable, as defined by Killeen's stability criteria (Killeen, 1978). Preliminary data analyses showed that response rates under small and large fixed-ratio values were unstable compared with intermediate fixed-ratio values. A general model will be advanced to describe the dynamics of transitions.
16. Training Discrimination, Reflexivity, Mixed Identity Matching, Generalized Identity Matching, and Arbitrary Matching in Infants: Towards the "Emergence" of Stimulus
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
JANET LUBIAN (Florida International University), Martha Pelaez (Florida International University), William J. McIlvane (E.K. Shriver Center), William V. Dube (E.K. Shriver Center)
Abstract: Using innovative computer technology and methods these are the first of a series of experiments ultimately seeking to: (1) demonstrate the behavioral prerequisites for stimulus equivalence, exclusion, and contingency classes in the infant population; (2) examine the possibility that stimulus equivalence-class formation may be demonstrable in infants with minimum expressive language skills. The major objective of this program of research is to search for the formation of stimulus equivalence and its precursors in infants who are just developing or have not yet developed language. No one as yet has tried to meet the logistical and methodological challenges of conducting such research with a fairly large infant cohort. We have initiated such studies, using three groups of 10 infants each aged 15-16 mos, 12-13 mos., and 9-10 mos, respectively. The procedures of the first experiment will be reported and include: (1) using a variable rather than fixed sample location during discrimination training; (2) using 10 stimuli; (3) overstraining prerequisite baseline Matching-to-Sample (MTS) relations; (4) use of auditory-visual computer provided reinforcement contingencies, and (5) systematic, computer- presented, stimuli presentations, that permit the implementation of stimulus control shaping techniques. Training and testing required the use of a touchscreen monitor and a laptop computer with a special software program, designed to meet the specific needs of infants. The procedure consisted of a systematic process, starting from the training of touching the screen response, then discrimination, reflexivity (identity matching ), mixed identity matching, generalized identity matching, and arbitrary matching. Visual display of the data will be presented.



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