Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


32nd Annual Convention; Atlanta, GA; 2006

Event Details

Previous Page


Symposium #434
Skill Acquisition Training for Young and Developmentally Disabled Children
Tuesday, May 30, 2006
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
International Ballroom North
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Lynn G. Bowman (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Dorothea C. Lerman (University of Houston, Clear Lake)
Abstract: Young children and individuals with developmental disabilities oftentimes lack specific skills that may be necessary to enjoy optimal health and quality of life. Three presentations will describe methodologies for facilitating skill acquisition in the areas of leisure activities, long-term medical regimen adherence, and oral medication consumption. In the first study, differential reinforcement procedures were utilized to develop toy play skills in children diagnosed with severe mental retardation and autism who had relatively low toy interaction in baseline. In the second study, behavioral training was implemented with 4 preschool children to increase developmentally appropriate participation in a medical self-care regimen using Bilevel Positive Airway Pressure (BiPAP) for treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea. to teach children with severe disabilities to swallow medication. Results will be discussed in relation to the need for children and individuals with developmental disabilities to be provided with systematic and effective training for skills that will enhance their ability to achieve their highest potential and quality of life.
Increasing Appropriate Play Skills in Individuals Diagnosed with Autism.
DAVID E. KUHN (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Louis P. Hagopian (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Anna E. Chirighin (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Stereotypic behavior and inappropriate toy interaction are behaviors characteristic of individuals diagnosed with pervasive developmental disorders. These behaviors can interfere with the development of appropriate social behavior and other adaptive skills. In the current study, appropriate toy interaction and engagement was increased in 3 individuals diagnosed with autism, using differential reinforcement procedures. The effects of the intervention were evaluated in a multiple-baseline design across toys for each participant. Initially, baseline levels of item interaction were collected for each toy, defined as touching the toy. Item interactions were initially low to zero for all participants. Intervention one consisted of reinforcing appropriate toy touching with a preferred edible. Once high and stable levels of interaction were observed, intervention two was initiated, consisting of reinforcement for appropriate toy engagement (i.e., using the toy in the way in which it was designed). Significant increases in toy engagement were observed and maintained during schedule thinning. Interobserver agreement data were collected during at least 33% of all sessions. In addition to the observed increases in toy play with the toys targeted during treatment, increases in appropriate engagement with non-targeted toys was observed for 2 of the 3 participants.
Behavioral Training for Increasing Cooperation with Positive Airway Pressure for Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Preschool Children.
KEITH J. SLIFER (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Deborah Kruglak (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Ethan Benore (Akron Children's Hospital), Kimberly D. Bellipanni (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Adrianna M. Amari (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Melissa H. Beck (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Behavioral training was implemented to increase compliance with Positive Airway Pressure (PAP) for Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) in four preschool children. The training employed distraction, counterconditioning, graduated exposure, differential reinforcement, and escape extinction. A multiple baseline design was used to demonstrate program effects. Initially, the children displayed distress and escape-avoidance behavior when PAP was attempted. With training, all four children tolerated PAP while sleeping for durations consistent with age norms. For the three children with home follow-up data, the parents maintained benefits. The results are discussed in relation to behavior principles, child health and common barriers to PAP adherence.
Increasing Compliance with Pill Swallowing in Individuals with Developmental Disabilities and Behavior Problems.
STEPHANIE A. CONTRUCCI KUHN (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Lynn G. Bowman (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Individuals with mental retardation and behavior problems are commonly prescribed medication to target problem behavior. Oftentimes, these individuals are not compliant with consumption of the prescribed medication. This may lead to adherence problems, limitations on the types of medications that can be prescribed, and restricted access to potentially beneficial medications. Ghuman et al. (2004) implemented a fading procedure in four children diagnosed with Autism who had difficulty with pill swallowing. Three out of four children successfully swallowed pills at the completion of the study. However, one limitation of the Ghuman et al. study was the absence of detailed data collection, an adequate experimental design, and reliability data. The current study replicates and extends the findings from Ghuman et al. to individuals with mental retardation and behavior problems. In addition, a multiple baseline across subjects design was used to evaluate the effects of the procedures, detailed data collection was implemented, and reliability data were collected.



Back to Top
Modifed by Eddie Soh