Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


32nd Annual Convention; Atlanta, GA; 2006

Event Details

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Symposium #187
Using Self-Managed Low-Tech Interventions to Improve Academic Skills
Sunday, May 28, 2006
1:30 PM–2:50 PM
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Christopher Skinner (University of Tennessee)
Discussant: Phillip J. Belfiore (Mercyhurst College)
Abstract: Preventing and remedying academic skill deficits requires effective and time-efficient interventions that enhance student learning rates. Interventions must often be conducted by teachers in their classrooms. Therefore, educators would prefer interventions requiring little time and resources. Researchers have developed various interventions that can be implemented across classes, individually, or by students themselves. One class of these interventions uses audiotapes to enhance rates of accurate academic responding. Reading and mathematics are two academic areas that have been targeted using these interventions. The current series of experiments extends this area of research by using low-tech interventions (e.g., with audiotapes) to enhance academic performance. The first study shows that the Taped-Words intervention can improve the sight-word recognition of a student learning English as a second language. A variation of the Taped-Words intervention is used in the second study, which describes a classwide application of the Taped-Problems intervention to mathematic fact fluency. The third study compared the effects of the Taped-Problems intervention with the Cover, Copy, Compare intervention on the mathematics performance of a student with mental retardation. Results from all studies demonstrate the effectiveness of using audiotapes to enhance learning. Discussion focuses on effective components of these interventions and future directions for research.
Effects of a Taped-Timed Intervention on Dolch Sight Word Recognition.
STACY L. BLISS FUDGE (University of Tennessee), Christopher Skinner (University of Tennessee), Regina Adams (Knox County Public Schools)
Abstract: A multiple baseline across tasks design was used to measure the effects of the taped-words intervention with a student who speaks English as a second language. Dolch words were divided into four mutually exclusive sets of words. Several tapes were created for each set of words, and each set of words was randomly ordered on each tape. The subject was given a cassette player, headphones, and one of the tapes. He was instructed to listen to the audiotape each day at a convenient time. As the student listened to the tape, he followed along in a corresponding packet. He attempted to beat the tape by correctly pronouncing the word before it was given on the tape. Assessments were conducted two to three times weekly to determine learning rate. Results show a significant increase in the learning of words when each list was targeted. Additionally, the subject maintained his recognition of words upon completion of one list and the initiation of another. He showed generalization of words within the context of classroom materials and displayed more willingness to read, as reported by his primary teacher
The Taped-Problems Intervention: Increasing Multiplication Fact Fluency Using a Low-Tech, Class-Wide, Time-Delay Intervention.
ELIZABETH MCCALLUM (University of Tennessee), Christopher Skinner (University of Tennessee), Haley Crisp Turner (University of Tennessee), Lee B. Saecker (University of Tennessee)
Abstract: Taped Problems is an audiotape-paced procedure that occasions high rates of AAA responding. A multiple-probes-across-tasks design was used to evaluate the effects of the Taped-Problems (TP) intervention on the multiplication fact fluency of 18 students from an intact general education third-grade classroom. During the classwide TP intervention, students were given lists of problems and instructed to attempt to complete each problem before an audiotape player provided the correct answer. Varying time-delay procedures were used as the intervals between problem and answer presentations were adjusted. Initially, there was a brief time delay between problems and answers. During each session, as the series of problems was repeated, the interval was first increased and then reduced. Across all three sets of problems, results showed immediate and sustained increases in multiplication fact fluency after the intervention was applied. Discussion focuses on future research related to the TP intervention and the need for the development and empirical validation of effective, efficient, and acceptable class-wide interventions.
Evaluating and Comparing Two Interventions to Enhance Mathematics Fluency in a Student with Mental Retardation: Cover, Copy, and Compare and Taped-Problems.
ERIN E. CARROLL (University of Tennessee), Christopher Skinner (University of Tennessee), Haley Crisp Turner (University of Tennessee), Elizabeth McCallum (University of Tennessee)
Abstract: An adapted alternating treatments design was used to evaluate and compare the effects of two interventions on the addition fact performance of a fifth-grade student with mild mental retardation. During cover, copy, compare (CCC) the student was given a packet of problems and answers and instructed to; read the problem and answer, cover the problem and answer, write the problem and answer, and check her response. During the Taped Problems (TP) intervention, the student received a packet of problems and was instructed to complete each problem before the answer was provided by an experimenter-constructed audiotape. A third set of problems served as the control set. Audiotapes were used for both interventions to hold time and conditions constant. Results showed that both interventions resulted in rapid increases in math performance, with TP yielding more rapid increases in skill development (e.g., accuracy and fluency). Discussion focuses on the importance of measuring learning rates and directions for future applied research.



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