Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


32nd Annual Convention; Atlanta, GA; 2006

Event Details

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Symposium #314
Innovative Intervention Strategies for Preschoolers with Special Needs: Puppets, Mapping and Video-Tapes
Monday, May 29, 2006
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Diane M. Sainato (The Ohio State University)
Discussant: Carol Ann Davis (University of Washington)
Abstract: Innovative strategies should be empirically validated before we suggest teachers adopt these practices for their classrooms. This symposium offers three papers. Salmon and Sainato will present their study evaluating a socio-dramatic script training intervention using embedded storybook scripts and puppets designed to increase the social interaction skills of preschool children with autism. In the second paper, Rosenberg and Schwartz present a study teaching hand washing skills to preschoolers using commercially prepared video-tapes. Garfinkle will present her findings on a study using environmental arrangements to decrease problem behaviors in child care settings . Each presenter will address future areas for research. Carl Davis will provide a critique and discussion of the three papers.
Script Training with Storybooks and Puppets: A Social Skills Intervention Package Across Settings for Young Children with Autism.
MARY D. SALMON (Oakstone Academy), Diane M. Sainato (The Ohio State University)
Abstract: A study combining script training and instruction in socio-dramatic play to social-communicative behaviors of preschool children with autism was implemented. Three triads consisting of one child with autism (ranging in age from 53-61 months) and two typically developing peers (39-60 months old) were taught three socio-dramatic scripts. Scripts were embedded in storybooks and the children enacted each script using puppets. Social-communicative initiations and responses, and non-social (non-interactive) behavior were measured. Effects were monitored using a single subject multiple baseline across scripts, replicated across triads. Children learned the socio-dramatic scripts and acted them out with peers with low-rates of adult prompts. Increased social interactions were observed during generality sessions. The mean rate per minute of social initiations across three scripts during baseline sessions for target children ranged from .001 to 1.5. The mean rate per minute of responses ranged from 0 to .12. The mean rate per minute of nonsocial behavior during baseline sessions ranged from .95 to 1.26. Following script training with storybooks and puppets, the mean rate per minute of initiations ranged from 1.62 to 2.77. The mean rate of responses ranged from 1.1 to 1.54 per minute. Interobserver agreement was at least 85% across all experimental conditions.
Helping Early Childhood Professionals Use Environmental Arrangements to Decrease Problem Behaviors in Child Care settings.
ANN N. GARFINKLE (University of Montana)
Abstract: Although information exists to support children’s appropriate behaviors, challenging behavior in preschool-age children is problematic. This multiple baseline study across three childcares answered these questions: 1) can data be collected in a way that facilitates practitioner’s understanding of the environment as a factor in inappropriate behaviors and 2) does making changes to the environment decrease inappropriate behaviors? Across the three classrooms there were a total of 75 children and 7 teachers. Interrater reliability was taken across all three settings in 30% of the observations and in all instances, the raters agreed more than 80% of the time. The results indicate that in all three classrooms the environmental re-arrangement decreased the number if inappropriate behaviors from a baseline rate of at least 1.0 inappropriate behaviors per minute to a rate of .10. Further, the results indicate that the data collected facilitated the teacher’s understanding of the role of the physical environment in inappropriate behavior. The data collection tool, ways to facilitate practitioner’s data collection and the role of the environment will be discussed.
Teaching Preschoolers with Autism to Wash Hands Using Commercially Available Video Modeling Tapes.
NANCY ROSENBERG (University of Washington), Ilene S. Schwartz (University of Washington)
Abstract: Video modeling is an instructional strategy in which a child learns by watching a model perform a skill on a video tape. Typically, no instructions from the adult showing the video tape other than an initial direction to watch the tape and sit quietly are provided. One obstacle to using this effective teaching strategy in homes and schools may be the equipment and expertise necessary to make the video tape for the targeted skill. All previous research has used tapes specifically created for the children in the study. We evaluated the effects of using a commercially available video modeling tape to teach three preschoolers with autism to wash their hands. Two of the three children did not learn from the commercially made tape; subsequently, a personalized tape was made for each of the children. The two children who did not learn from the commercial tape learned to wash their hands from the personalized tapes. The child who responded to the commercial tape showed no further effects from the personalized tape. All three children generalized and maintained the hand washing skill. Interobserver agreement was assessed for over 30% of observations and average 98% across participants.



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