Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


32nd Annual Convention; Atlanta, GA; 2006

Event Details

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Symposium #25
Driving Behaviors
Saturday, May 27, 2006
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Marisa Snow (Florida State University)
Discussant: Ryan B. Olson (Oregon Health & Science University)
Abstract: Applied and experimental studies have demonstrated both diminished driving ability due to cellular phone usage and increased risk for injury or death when not wearing a seatbelt. The present studies provide further study in the area of driving-related safety behaviors.
Seatbelt and Cellular Phone Usage by Automobile Drivers: A Descriptive Analysis.
MARCO D. TOMASI (Florida State University), Jon S. Bailey (Florida State University)
Abstract: Over four thousand drivers were observed while stopped at traffic lights along a set route in a Southeastern city in this two phase study. During both phases, observations were conducted by research teams driving a 6.9 mile route during peak evening traffic hours. At stoplights the research teams observed the drivers directly to their right. In the first phase of the study seatbelt usage was evaluated before, during, and after the national Click-It-Or-Ticket campaign. The second phase of the study focused on the seatbelt and cellular phone usage of drivers. Researchers collected data on seatbelt and cellular phone usage, gender of the driver, type of vehicle, vehicle color, and weather conditions. Observations were collected over an eight month period to evaluate any possible effects due to changes in student populations. The data were then analyzed to investigate gender differences and differences in vehicle type in relation to the target behaviors.
Increasing Seat Belt Use at an Apartment Complex.
WILLIAM C. VOSS (Florida State University), Nadia E. Raed (Florida State University), Jennifer Rava-Wooten (Florida State University)
Abstract: The Engerman, Austin, and Bailey (1997) article attempted to assess the effectiveness of verbal prompts used at a supermarket to increase the use of seat belts. The current study tried to assess the effectiveness of visual prompt on seat belt use. The lack of a seat belt has been show to be a major factor in death and serious injury in automobile accidents. The average baseline data taken on seat belt usage at the apartment complex was at about 30 percent on average. The current study used a visual prompt, a sign, in an apartment complex in an attempt to assess the effectiveness of signs posted in the natural environment on seat belt usage. Observers will watch driver behavior to record if a seat belt is used from an unobtrusive location. The sign will then be removed for a return to baseline. The sign will be posted after data stabilizes again. The sign will be removed once more for a third baseline before a new condition is conducted; an official government is sign is placed where the sign was most effective. The study is still being conducted. The current condition is a return to baseline. The average seatbelt usage went from 33% during the first baseline, to 56.4% during the first treatment phase, and 22% during the return to baseline.
The Effects of a Variable and Fixed Seatbelt-Gear Delay on Seatbelt Use of 120 Drivers.
RON VAN HOUTEN (Western Michigan University), J. E. Louis Malenfant (Centre for Education and Research in Safety)
Abstract: Van Houten, Malenfant, Austin and Lebbon (2005) found that a seatbelt-gearshift delay that required unbelted drivers to either buckle their seatbelt or wait a specified duration before they could put their vehicle in gear increased seatbelt use in five drivers, and that the duration of the delay that produced relatively consistent seat belt use varied across drivers from 5 to 20 s. In a follow-up study is currently underway with 120 drivers in the U.S. and Canada. This study compares variable interval and fixed interval delays of 8 and 16 s. using a multiple baseline counterbalanced design. The improved device monitors driver seatbelt use and only introduces the delay when a pattern of low use is detected. Once the program is activated the driver can only earn their way off the program by demonstrating consistent seatbelt use. This research is being supported by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and Transport Canada.



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