Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


Fourth International Conference; Australia, 2007

Event Details

Previous Page


Paper Session #74
International Paper Session - Research on Contextual Variables, Living Skills, and Physical Activity in People with Developmental Disabilities
Tuesday, August 14, 2007
1:00 PM–1:50 PM
L2 Room 4
Area: DDA
Chair: Dean C. Williams (University of Kansas)
Contextual Variables that Produce Problem Behaviors during Transitions: Reinforcer Magnitude, Task Parameters, and Information.
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
DEAN C. WILLIAMS (University of Kansas), Kathryn Saunders (University of Kansas), Adam T. Brewer (University of Kansas), Michael Perone (West Virginia University)
Abstract: Many behavioral problems occur in the context of transitions from one activity to the next. Such behaviors are frequently seen in persons with autism, and other developmental disabilities, and function as negatively reinforced escape behaviors or may be elicited by the transitional context. The conditions that make transitions aversive are not known and there are several conflicting studies in the autism and DD literature. One area of dispute is the role of providing the individual with information on the upcoming task. One hypothesis is that the aversiveness of transitions is related to uncertainty about the upcoming activity. Information of the upcoming activity should reduce uncertainty and reduce problem behaviors during transition. Studies are mixed on this issue, however. Basic research with animal and human subjects indicates that tasks that readily maintain adaptive behaviors can become aversive under certain contexts of changing conditions of positive reinforcement. Thus, usually benign activities or tasks can engender maladaptive escape behaviors when conditions are right. In addition, signaling the upcoming task can promote maladaptive escape behavior in our laboratory and naturalistic studies.
Teaching Daily Living Skills to Adults with Mental Retardation Using Computer-Based Video Modeling.
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
NURAY ONCUL (Anadolu University), Serife Yucesoy Ozkan (Anadolu University)
Abstract: This study was designed to investigate the effectiveness of computer-based video modeling in teaching daily living skills (brushing teeth, menstrual care and identifying money) to adults with mental retardation. In addition, generalization and maintenance data were collected. The experimental design of the study was multiple probe design with probe conditions across subjects. Three female adults with mental disabilities were participated to study as subject. They ranged in age from 23 to 37. All adults stayed at a residential center for women with mental retardation. Training was conducted in the participants’ room and bathroom. All training sessions occurred through computer-based video modeling. The intervention consisted of watching a video from computer (training), and then performing the skill which is watched (practice opportunity). Probe sessions were conducted immediately prior to each training sessions except first training sessions. Both dependent reliability and independent reliability data are collected. Graphical analysis is used to determine the effectiveness of computer-based video modeling, however the results have not been analyzed yet.



Back to Top
Modifed by Eddie Soh