Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


Fourth International Conference; Australia, 2007

Event Details

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Poster Session #44
#44 International Poster Session - EAB
Monday, August 13, 2007
5:00 PM–6:30 PM
Level 4 Lobby
19. Analysis of Teaching Practice as Individual Performance Socially Regulated.
Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
LILIANA LETICIA DÍAZ GÁMEZ (Universidad de Guadalajara), Maria Elena Rodriguez Perez (Universidad de Guadalajara)
Abstract: Ribes, Moreno and Padilla (1996)* have established a model to understand scientific practice as individual performance in the field of social practices established and consensued in a given epistemological community. Adaptations have been made in order to outline a teaching practice model in which this is considered as a concrete and idiosyncratic activity within an educational project of social and cultural nature. The teaching practice model outlined take into consideration four fundamental elements that interact among each other to comprehend teacher performance: 1. Teachers’ beliefs about how the world is organized and the nature of knowledge. 2. Language-games about education. 3. Teaching abilities and competences. 4. Educational theory and implicit concepts held by teachers. In order to evaluate the teaching model described, an experimental methodology will be used to vary parametrically the different variables regarding the elements of the model. Preliminary results will be discussed. * Ribes E., Moreno, R. and Padilla, A. (1996). Un análisis funcional de la práctica científica: extensiones de un modelo psicológico. Acta comportamentalia, 4, 205-235.
20. Delay Discounting as a Predictor of Response Disruption Following Negative Incentive Shift.
Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
DEAN C. WILLIAMS (University of Kansas), Adam T. Brewer (University of Kansas), Patrick S. Johnson (University of Kansas), Megan McCusker (University of Kansas), Adam D. Pyszczynski (University of Kansas), Gregory J. Madden (University of Kansas)
Abstract: Impulsivity was assessed in 24 Wistar rats. Each rat was exposed to choice between one pellet immediately and three pellets over a series of delays of 15 s, 10 s, 5 s, and 0s. Using an area-under-the-curve analysis, subjects were assigned to high and low impulsive groups (top and bottom 25th percentiles).
21. Effects of Differential Feedback of Verbal Performance in a Conditional Discrimination Task.
Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
MARIA ELENA RODRIGUEZ PEREZ (Universidad de Guadalajara), Mario López Islas (Universidad de Guadalajara)
Abstract: In previous research using descriptions in matching-to-sample tasks, three different types of descriptions have been used: instance descriptions (describing a particular comparison stimulus), modal descriptions (describing the shared properties of matching and comparison stimuli) and relation descriptions (using the words “identical”, “similar” or “different” to describe the relationship between the matching and comparison stimuli). In experiments using descriptions of the second order stimuli or verbal matching responses; there is not a clear relationship between abstract responses and high scores in the task. Moreover, differential training of the different types of descriptions did not successfully establish a preference of verbal responding in transfer tests. The present research used verbal matching response training with and without differential feedback of the types of descriptions in order to evaluate its effects on the preferences of verbal response in intramodal, extramodal and extradimensional transfer tests with verbal matching responses. Results will be discussed in terms of the role of language in the learning of conditional discrimination.
22. Effects of the Number of Required Responses on Win-Shift/Lose-Stay Performances in a Concurrent-Chains Procedure.
Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
TAKU ISHII (Keio University, Japan), Takayuki Sakagami (Keio University, Japan)
Abstract: Pigeons chose between two identical white response keys in a discrete-trial procedure. In each trial, completing a fixed-ratio schedule on either key led to a signaled delay followed by food presentation. The duration of the delay was one second on one key and nine seconds on the other. Because this assignment of the delays was reversed after each trial, pigeons had to stay on the same key after obtaining food with the longer delay (lose-stay) and shift to the other key after obtaining food with the shorter delay (win-shift) in order to pursue the shorter delay of reinforcement. When the pigeons made win-shift choices in five or more successive trials, the assignment of the delays was not reversed probabilistically in one trial, so that the pigeons had opportunities to make lose-stay choices. The number of responses required for the fixed-ratio schedule was changed across conditions. Results showed that the win-shift/lose-stay performances were more accurate when the requirement was moderate than when the number of responses required was too few or too many. This may mean that moderate requirements of responses make choice behavior more discriminable, but this effect is disturbed when more responses are required.
23. Extinction-Induced Variability in Non Contingent Dimensions of a Response.
Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
JAMES MCEWAN (University of Waikato)
Abstract: When an organisms behavior is no longer effective that behaviour will become more variable, sometime referred to as extinction responding. This variability in behaviour is essential if new responses are to be acquired. Most behaviours have more than one dimension for example the pigeon’s peck has force, location, rate and velocity. In a typical extinction experiment the contingent behavioural dimension, typically rate of responding, is examined before and after the removal of reinforcement, but other dimension of the behaviour are not examined. The present study examines more closely what exactly varies during extinction by examine the impact of reinforcement withdrawal on non contingent dimension of the response as well as the contingent dimension.
24. Maternal Nutrition and Choice.
Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
MICHAEL C. DAVISON (University of Auckland), Narisa Evelyn Marrett (University of Auckland)
Abstract: Four different groups of 8 rats were compared, of various combinations of nutritional and diet-based interventions. The overnutrition control (ONC) group of rats was exposed to an early post-natal nutritional increase; the Ad-Lib control (ADC) group of rats was exposed to no increase, the Overnutrition-HighFat (ONH) to an increase plus a high-fat diet, and the Ad-Lib HighFat (ADH) to a high-fat diet. The rats were exposed to three 31-step PRBS schedules that varied reinforcer magnitude, reinforcer delay, and reinforcer rate. Lag 0 sensitivity was greatest for reinforcer rate, and least for reinforcer delay. Local changes after delayed reinforcers showed a difference between ADC rats and all other groups, but there were no other obvious differences.
25. Preference Pulses: The Effects of Post-Reinforcer Blackouts.
Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
MICHELLE E. BANICEVICH (University of Auckland), Michael C. Davison (University of Auckland), Douglas Elliffe (University of Auckland)
Abstract: Preference pulses are short-term and often extreme changes in choice following reinforcement, normally for the just-reinforced response. While initially interpreted as a local effect of the last reinforcer location, recent research has reported pulses towards the not-just-reinforced response. This experiment shows the effect on preference pulses of 5 durations (2.5, 5, 10, 20, and 30 s) of blackout – periods where no reinforcers are delivered, signaled by the offset of all experimental stimuli. It was found that increasing blackout duration creates pulses that are increasingly nondifferential towards the richer (as opposed to most recent) alternative. A possible explanation of the corresponding change in probability of reinforcement immediately after blackout is also investigated.
26. Schedule Performance in African Penguins (Spheniscus Demersus).
Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
KAZUCHIKA MANABE (Nihon University, Japan), Takashi Kawashima (Nihon University, Japan), Kiyoshi Asahina (Nihon University, Japan), Kenji Okutu (Yokohama Hakkeijima Sea Paradice )
Abstract: Two African penguins were trained to turn on a joy-stick using their beaks under VI-20S and FI-20S schedules. Additional penguins were trained to respond to four different manipulandum, joy-stick, chain, foot-switch and a touch switch using infra-red, under a concurrent schedule. Their responses were similar to those of the other species under the similar reinforcement schedules.
28. The Effect of Session Length on the Performance of Hens Under Fixed Ratio Schedules.
Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
JENNIFER M. KINLOCH (University of Waikato, New Zealand), Therese Mary Foster (University of Waikato, New Zealand), Catherine E. Sumpter (University of Waikato, New Zealand), William Temple (University of Waikato, New Zealand)
Abstract: Hens responded under fixed ratio schedules with a range of session lengths: 2 hr, 1 hr, 40 min, and 10 min. In each cycle the fixed ratio requirement started at 1 and was doubled each session until a hen received no reinforcers in a session, the fixed ratio was then returned to 20 for that hen for the next few sessions, until all hens had completed that fixed ratio cycle. There were two cycles of fixed ratios at each session length. Comparison of response patterns under early and late parts of the different length sessions will be presented, together with a demand analysis of these data.
29. The Efficacy of Behavioral Contracting in Increasing Compliance in Students Having Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
PHILIP M. KANFUSH (Saint Vincent College)
Abstract: An investigation of the effectiveness of behavioral contracting as an intervention strategy for increasing compliance in students having ADHD, this study, using an ABAB design, illustrates the use of behavioral contracting in managing the non-compliant behavior of an 11 year old Caucasian male having Down Syndrome and ADHD.
30. The Reinforcing Properties of an Imprinted Stimulus for Chicks: II. An Imprinted Stimulus as a Conditioned Stimulus.
Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
TETSUMI MORIYAMA (Tokiwa University, Japan), Shun Goto (Tokiwa University, Japan)
Abstract: An imprinted stimulus functions as a reinforcer of an arbitrary operant response. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the reinforcing properties of the imprinted stimulus comparing with those of food for chicks. This study replicated our previous study. The chicks’ behaviors investigated in the present study were their preferences for each reinforcer and the key-peck operant response reinforced by each stimulus. The results showed that newly hatched chicks preferred the red moving box as the imprinted stimulus to food. However, the rates of key-peck responses were lower in the case of the imprinted stimulus than in the case of the food. Further, the pattern of key-peck responses reinforced by the imprinted stimulus was sporadic and different from that of the key-peck responses reinforced by food. Rather the pattern was similar to that of the key-peck responses reinforced by the conditioned reinforcer associated by food. These results were exactly same as those of our previous study. Thus we conclude that the reinforcing properties of the imprinted stimulus are different from those of food for chicks.
31. The Sensitivity of Behavior for the Change of Contingency Which Was Acquired without Error.
Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
KANAME MOCHIZUKI (Teikyo University, Japan)
Abstract: Eight undergraduates acquired a stimulus relation with the following three methods: (1) Direct training with matching to sample (MTS) procedure, (2) Verbally instructed with a graphical illustration, (3) Emerged as a transitivity relation by the stimulus equivalence relations which was trained with MTS. After they acquired the original stimulus relation completely, they were trained a new stimulus relation with MTS. The sensitivity for the new relation was measured by the number of trials required for training and the number of errors. The sensitivity was high in both direct training and emerged group and low in verbally instructed group. The results suggests that the experience of error in original learning has an influence on the sensitivity for the change of contingency.



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