|Behavior Analysis in Transportation Safety
|Saturday, May 24, 2008
|2:00 PM–3:20 PM
|Area: CSE/OBM; Domain: Applied Research
|Chair: Nicole Cambridge (Western Michigan University)
|Discussant: Ron Van Houten (Western Michigan University)
|Abstract: This symposium examines the application of applied behavior analysis to three specific problems in transportation safety: Increasing yielding to pedestrians at uncontrolled crosswalks, the behavior of pedestrians and motorists at busy intersections with traffic signals, and the use of checklists by pilots.
|Improving Pedestrians Safety at Crosswalks across America.
|JIM SHURBUTT (Western Michigan University), Ron Van Houten (Western Michigan University)
|Abstract: Technology has had much to offer in the area of pedestrian safety. However, the level of safety should increase as new technology becomes available. The present study evaluates the efficacy of different crossing aides at 24 mid-block crossings across various areas of the country. The locations are two, three, or four lane roadways that are either single or multidirectional. The aides used include traditional circular beacons and newer rectangular LED beacons. The positioning and number of aides are alternated in search of maximum effectiveness. Data have been recorded at some locations for a period exceeding one year. The yielding percentage, distance of yielding, and other measures related to pedestrian safety are reported.
|The Effect of Eliminating Permissive Left Turns on Pedestrian Crossing Behavior and Driver Compliance
|MICHELLE L. ARNOLD (Western Michigan University), Ron Van Houten (Western Michigan University)
|Abstract: This study examined the effects of prohibiting permissive left turns when pedestrian received the WALK indication. The results of this study indicate changing from protected/permissive left turn phasing; to protective/prohibited left turn phasing did not improve the safety of pedestrians. One reason for this outcome was that many pedestrians continued to cross when the cross traffic stopped in violation of the signal even though there was a slight improvement in compliance. The improvement in compliance by pedestrians was more than offset by the high violation rate of drivers during the prohibited left turn phase. A better way to increase the safety of pedestrians at busy intersections may be to use a lagging protected left turn phase rather than a leading protected phase.
|The Effects of Feedback on the Accuracy of Completing Flight Checklists.
|WILLIAM GENE RANTZ (Western Michigan University), Alyce M. Dickinson (Western Michigan University), Gilbert Sinclair (Western Michigan University), Ron Van Houten (Western Michigan University)
|Abstract: This study examined whether pilots completed airplane checklists more accurately when they receive post-flight graphic and verbal feedback. Participants were 8 college students who are pilots with instrument rating. The task consisted of flying a designated flight pattern using a Personal Computer Aviation Training Device. The dependent variables were the number of checklist items completed correctly, incorrectly, and omitted. A multiple baseline across pairs with reversal was used. During baseline, participants were given post-flight technical feedback. During intervention, participants were given post-flight graphic feedback on checklist use and praise for improvements along with the technical feedback. During reversal, baseline conditions were re-instated to determine if performance gains maintained. Participants attended 7-9 one-hour experimental sessions, with a minimum of two sessions per phase. During each session, participants flew the simulated flight pattern three times, and each flight was considered a trial. Data was graphed by trial and visually analyzed.