Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


35th Annual Convention; Phoenix, AZ; 2009

Program by Continuing Education Events: Monday, May 25, 2009

Manage My Personal Schedule


Tutorial #347
Invited Tutorial: Programmed Instruction and Interteaching Applications to Information Technology Education
Monday, May 25, 2009
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
West 301 CD
Area: TBA/EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Jessica Singer-Dudek (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Presenting Authors: : HENRY H. EMURIAN (University of Maryland, Baltimore Campus)
Abstract: Learning to write a computer program can be very difficult for beginners at all ages, and even entering college students are diverse with respect to their computer skills – some are computer champions, while others may have rarely touched a computer. Although skill in computer programming is acknowledged to be valuable for information science students, educators in the discipline recognize that many students select management information systems and other academic majors to avoid or escape the programming demands of a computer science curriculum. In response to these challenges, the work reported in this presentation attempts to improve information technology instruction for college students, evidenced by progressive gains in their knowledge and self confidence, by combining the use of a programmed instruction tutoring system with interteaching as the initial components in a Java computer programming course. The synergistic relationships among programmed instruction, interteaching, and model-based lecturing will be described and demonstrated as they relate to the adoption of multi-media behavioral tactics having the goal of fostering and managing the transition of all students to a common level of mastery and generalizable skill. Henry H. Emurian is an associate professor of information systems in the College of Engineering and Information Technology at UMBC. He is a licensed clinical psychologist in Maryland, and he also holds a graduate degree in computer science. His research and teaching interests focus primarily upon the applications of programmed instruction and interteaching to help students acquire skill and confidence in computer programming, in particular, and information technology, in general. He also maintains an interest in behavioral systems management of confined microsocieties for spaceflight applications through his affiliation with the Institutes for Behavior Resources, Inc. (IBR) in Baltimore. His work has appeared in Computers in Human Behavior, the International Journal of Information and Communication Technology Education, Information Resources Management Journal, Distance Education Technologies, the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, the Behavior Analyst Today, and others. He is a member of the American Psychological Association, Eastern Psychological Association, and the Association for Behavior Analysis International.
HENRY H. EMURIAN (University of Maryland, Baltimore Campus)
Symposium #348
CE Offered: BACB
Current Research Promoting Maintenance and Generalization of Early Academic Skills with Children Diagnosed with Autism
Monday, May 25, 2009
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
North 124 B
Area: AUT/VRB; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Nicholas L Weatherly (Stony Brook University)
Discussant: James E. Carr (Auburn University)
CE Instructor: Donald Stenhoff, Ph.D.
Abstract: The dissemination and application of maintenance and generalization procedures has always been a fundamental concern for behavior analysts and continues to be an area in need of further analysis. With the success of early behavioral intervention strategies for children diagnosed with developmental disabilities it is important to disseminate current research working to assess ways to better maintain and generalize these early academic skills. Continuing to evaluate the application and conceptual analysis of maintenance and generalization protocols will help identify methods scientifically proven to increase generalization and maintenance when working with individuals with developmental disabilities. This symposium will discuss three studies evaluating the maintenance and generalization of verbal behavior and other early academic skills with children diagnosed with autism. The first paper compares the effects of two maintenance-training methods when used to train early academic skills. The second paper examines generalization of mands for information. The third paper provides an assessment of cross-modal generalization.
A Comparison of Maintenance-Training Methods for Children Diagnosed with Autism
NICHOLAS L WEATHERLY (Stony Brook University), Richard W. Malott (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Properly seeing that skills taught maintain following the termination of treatment is a concern observed across all areas of applied behavior analysis. Smith (1999) noted the general lack of maintenance in many behavioral and non-behavioral programs as a “crucial omission” because skill acquisition during original training does not guarantee continuation of those behaviors after the training is terminated. In terms of early academic skill acquisition, a lack of skill maintenance would defeat the purpose of early intervention. The current study evaluated the effects of two different maintenance-training methods and one control condition on skill maintenance within a public-school classroom for children diagnosed with autism. The two training methods involved the use of either a continuous-reinforcement schedule or a thinned partial-reinforcement schedule during 20 overlearning training sessions following skill acquisition. The control condition did not involve any overlearning following skill acquisition. Three children were each taught two curricular programs, with each program involving the two training methods and the control condition using a multielement design. Results indicated that overlearning using a thinned partial-reinforcement schedule reliably produced greater maintenance across all participants, while there were no consistent differences between the overlearning training method that involved continuous reinforcement and the control condition.
Generalization of Specific and General Mands for Information
M. Alice Shillingsburg (Marcus Institute), AMBER L. VALENTINO (The Marcus Autism Center), Danielle W. Bradley (Marcus Institute)
Abstract: Children with autism often have difficulty acquiring mand repertoires particularly more complex mands such as mands for information. In addition to being difficult to teach, the lack of generalization of mands for information to untaught scenarios is often a clinical concern. Some studies have demonstrated effective teaching procedures to teach mands for information through manipulation of establishing operations (Endicott & Higbee, 2007; Twardosz & Baer, 1973). While many of these procedures have proven effective, the research is limited regarding the maintenance and generalization of these skills. Some researchers evaluated generalization of taught mands across settings (Williams, Donley, & Keller, 2000), to a more naturalistic context (Secan, Egel & Tilley, 1989) and to untrained items (Sundberg, Loeb, Hale, & Eigenheer, 2002). The purpose of the present study was to examine generalization of mands for information. A multiple probe design was used to teach three children with autism four forms of mands for information. Results indicated that generalization occurred in at least two forms of the mand when a generic response was required, whereas when a specific response was required only one form resulted in generalization for one participant, with most forms requiring separate teaching.
Procedures to Promote Generalization Between Receptive Identification and Tacting: A More Efficient Teaching Strategy?
M. Alice Shillingsburg (Marcus Institute), CAITLIN V HERZINGER (The Marcus Institute), Danielle W. Bradley (Marcus Institute), Andrew A Fulton (The Marcus Institute)
Abstract: In a review of the existing literature, Goldstein (1993) noted the need to better understand the relationships that exist between language modalities in order to better facilitate generalization across these modalities. Improved generalization is a key component of efficient teaching strategies. Many treatment guides for children with autism recommend first teaching receptive language skills before introducing related expressive skills; however, this suggestion is not clearly indicated by the current literature. The current study is an assessment of cross-modal generalization from receptive to tact and the reverse, similar to that of Wynn and Smith (2003). The purpose of the study was to assess whether responses generalize across modalities more efficiently based on which modality is taught first and to assess the effectiveness of a procedure to promote generalization when it did not occur. The procedure consisted of teaching receptive or tact targets using errorless prompting. Following mastery of the target in one modality, generalization probes in the other modality were conducted. If generalization across language modalities did not occur, an additional response requirement (ARR) was added to the teaching session and generalization probes were continued.
Symposium #349
CE Offered: BACB
Assessment and Treatment of Vocal Stereotypy
Monday, May 25, 2009
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
North 125
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: John T. Rapp (St. Cloud State University)
CE Instructor: Marlene J Cohen, Ed.D.
Abstract: This symposium includes a series of presentations on the assessment and treatment of vocal stereotypy displayed by children with autism spectrum disorders. The the first presentation, Colon, Bowza, Clark, and Ahearn evaluated the effects of mand and tact training on vocal stereotypy and appropriate vocalizations. The results from two experiments indicated that mand and tact training increased appropriate vocalizations for most of the participants; however, a response interruption and redirection procedure was necessary to decrease vocal stereotypy for many of the participants. Lomas, Shillingsburg, and Bradley noted that a consistent limitation of interventions for vocal stereotypy is that such interventions are not easily tranported to classroom setting. Thus, Lomas et al. provide data on a treatment that was implemented in the typical enviroment of two individuals who displayed vocal stereotypy. Lanovaz and Rapp evaluated the effects of structurally matched and unmatched stimulation on the vocal stereotypy of four children who were diagnosed with ASD. Specifically, this study evaluated the extent to which preferred items that were structurally matched or unmatched to vocal stereotypy functioned as motivating operations for immediate (when the preferred items were present) and subsequent (after the preferred items were removed) vocal stereotypy for each participant. Finally, Fletcher and Rapp conducted a further evaluation of structurally matched and unmatched stimuli on vocal stereotypy displayed by children with ASD. The results of this study indicated labeling a stimulus as being structurally matched to stereotypy did not necessarily predict that it was functionally matched to stereotypy.
Treatment of Inappropriate Vocalizations Maintained by Automatic Reinforcement in Analogue and Classroom Setting
Joanna Lomas (Marcus Institute), M. ALICE SHILLINGSBURG (Marcus Institute), Danielle W. Bradley (Marcus Institute)
Abstract: Children diagnosed with autism often engage repetitive, nonfunctional behaviors such as vocal stereotypy. Although these behaviors may not result in harm to the individual or others, these behaviors can impede academic instruction and acquisition of adaptive skills and may lead to social isolation and/or placement in a more restrictive academic setting. The majority of research on treatments for vocal stereotypy provides treatment options that may not be socially acceptable or feasible in the everyday environment. For example, research has shown that vocal stereotypy can be reduced when the individual is given access to a preferred activity, such as listening to music, and subsequently loses access to the activity if he or she engages in the problem behavior (Falcomata et al., 2004). Thus, treatment for vocal stereotypy involves access to the preferred activity for extended periods of time resulting in limited time spent in academic and adaptive instruction and activities of daily living. The purpose of the present study is to demonstrate treatment of vocal stereotypy that easily transitions to the everyday environment with two children with automatically maintained aberrant vocalizations. Two treatments were evaluated and transitioned to the classroom setting.
Treating vocal stereotypy: The effects of verbal operant training
CANDACE COLON (N.E. University & The New England Center for Children), Katherin Bowza (New England Center for Children), Kathy Clark (The New England Center for Children), William H. Ahearn (The New England Center for Children)
Abstract: Past research has shown that response blocking and redirection effectively decelerates automatically reinforced behavior. Ahearn et al. (2007) found that interrupting vocal stereotypy (VS) also increased appropriate behavior. Given this finding, it might be possible to decrease VS by directly training of verbal operants such as tacts and mands. This study examined the effects of verbal operant training on VS and appropriate speech in children with autism. In study 1, subsequent to a baseline condition three participants were trained to mand with an autoclitic frame. The effects of mand training were assessed using a non-concurrent multiple baseline across participants. Mand training reduced VS and increased language for only 1 participant and the implementation of a response interruption and redirection (RIRD) procedure was necessary to decrease VS for the other two participants. Appropriate vocalizations increased for all 3 participants. Study 2 was identical to study 1 except 3 children were trained to tact with an autoclitic frame. Results indicated that tact training alone produced slightly lower levels of VS and increased appropriate vocalizations for all 3 participants. The introduction of the RIRD procedure was necessary to decrease VS to acceptable levels for two participants.
Using component distributions to identify immediate and subsequent effects of unmatched and matched stimuli on stereotypy
MARC LANOVAZ (Centre de Réadaptation Lisette-Dupras), John T. Rapp (St. Cloud State University)
Abstract: The effects of unmatched and matched stimuli on the immediate and subsequent stereotypy of four children with autism spectrum disorders were evaluated using a three-component multiple-schedule combined with a brief reversal design. The use of component distributions (i.e., graphs of the proportion of sessions stereotypy was lowest and highest in each component and higher in the first than in the third component) to present and analyze the data from the multiple-schedules was compared with the use of brief reversal graphs and line graphs. The data showed that access to stimuli (matched only or multiple unmatched and matched) provided during the second component decreased immediate vocal stereotypy for three of four participants and produced a modest abolishing operation for all four participants’ subsequent engagement in vocal stereotypy. The results are discussed in terms of the utility of using component distributions to identify stimuli with abative and evocative effects on stereotypy.
The Effects of Matched and Unmatched Stimulation on Stereotypy in Children with Autism
SARAH ELIZABETH FLETCHER (UK Young Autism Project), John T. Rapp (St. Cloud State University)
Abstract: A three-component multiple-schedule with a brief reversal design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of matched, unmatched and music stimulation on the immediate and subsequent levels of vocal stereotypy. Results indicated that for all participants matched stimulation and music decreased the immediate levels of stereotypy but unmatched stimulation only decreased immediate levels in two of three participants. For two of the participants, music acted as an EO for subsequent levels of stereotypy but the effects of matched and unmatched stimulation on subsequent levels were unclear. For one participant the matched stimulation acted as an AO for the subsequent levels of stereotypy.
Symposium #350
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Assessment and treatment of problem behavior individuals with autism and developmental disability
Monday, May 25, 2009
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
North 124 A
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Mark F. O'Reilly (University of Texas at Austin)
CE Instructor: Stephen Ray Flora, Ph.D.
Abstract: A substantial proportion of individuals with autism and other developmental disabilities exhibit problem behaviors such as self-injury, aggression, and property destruction. Services such as schools and clinics are required to allocate a substantial amount of resources to support such individuals. Research to develop effective assessment and intervention strategies with this population continues to be a priority for behavior analysts. In this symposium we present recent findings on functional and preference assessments and the use of antecedent interventions to reduce challenging behavior with individuals with autism and developmental disabilities.
Predicting the Need for Mand Availability During Stimulus Fading
JESSICA FRIEDER (Utah State University), Stephanie M. Peterson (Idaho State University), Carrie M. Brower-Breitwieser (Idaho State University), Elizabeth Dayton (Idaho State University), Stuart M Mullins (Idaho State University), Shilo Smith-Ruiz (College of Southern Idaho)
Abstract: Applied researchers have examined the use of a concurrent-schedules arrangement, most typically involving two concurrently available response options, on the choice-making behavior for individuals with problem behavior (e.g., Harding et al., 1999; Horner & Day, 1991, Peck et al., 1996; Piazza et al., 1997; Richman et al., 2001). An Institute for Education Sciences grant project is currently evaluating the effects of a concurrent schedules of reinforcement arrangement in which three response options are available: compliance, mands, and problem behavior. The hypothesis is that the addition of a third response option (i.e., mands) may result in fewer bursts of problem behavior during a stimulus fading intervention. Results of this ongoing investigation have suggested that a three choice concurrent schedule may not be necessary for all participants during stimulus fading. During this presentation, data will be presented on a subset of participants that address the question of whether we can predict for whom the addition of a mand responses during stimulus fading is necessary for intervention success. Discussion will focus on whether an initial differential reinforcement of alternate behavior phase can serve as an effective assessment to determine later and ongoing treatment needs for individuals who exhibit escape-maintained problem behavior.
Evaluating Long-Term Preference for Leisure Items in Individuals with Problem Behaviors Maintained by Automatic Reinforcement
ANURADHA SALIL KUMAR DUTT (University of Iowa), Wendy K. Berg (University of Iowa), Jason M. Stricker (The University of Iowa), Kelly M. Vinquist (University of Iowa), David P. Wacker (University of Iowa), Joel Eric Ringdahl (University of Iowa), Jeffrey R. Luke (University of Iowa)
Abstract: Identifying preferred stimuli is an important component of behavioral programs for persons with developmental disabilities. Previous studies have evaluated the stability of participants’ selections during preference assessments over time and found that the stability of preferences varied across individuals (Hanley et al., 2006; Zhou et al., 2001). We conducted periodic preference assessments with five individuals diagnosed with developmental disabilities who engaged in problem behavior that was maintained by automatic reinforcement. Free-operant preference assessments with five to six leisure items were conducted on a monthly schedule over a 7 to 12 month period (M = 10.8 months). Items to include within the preference assessment were initially selected based on care-provider’s suggestions and/or the observations of therapists. Results support previous findings and show that participants varied in the stability of their preferences over time. A summary of the results for the 5 participants will be presented and variations in selection over time will be discussed. Interobserver agreement data were collected for 30% of the sessions and averaged above 90% for problem behavior.
The Effects of Prior Exposure to Antecedent Events as Motivating Operations on Automatically Reinforced Challenging Behavior and Appropriate Task Responding
YI-CHIEH CHUNG (The Ohio State University), Helen I. Cannella-Malone (The Ohio State University)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of prior exposure to three antecedent events—attention, response blocking, and/or automatically maintained behavior—on later engagement in the automatically maintained challenging behavior and correct task responding in four individuals with significant intellectual disabilities. A modified multi-element design (Phase 1) and a combined alternating treatment design with multiple-baseline design across participants (Phase 2) were used. A functional analysis was conducted with all participants and their behavior was found to be maintained (at least in part) by automatic reinforcement. Results from Phase 1 indicated that pre-session attention (for two participants) and pre-session response blocking (for one participant) acted as an establishing operation for challenging behavior. Pre-session response blocking (for three participants) and pre-session access to the challenging behavior (for one participant) acted as an abolishing operation for challenging behavior. Using the results from Phase 1, we then examined the effect of providing pre-session access to the condition that acted as an abolishing operation on correct responding on a work task. The results indicated that access to the pre-session condition that acted as an abolishing
Effects of Motivating Operations on Aberrant Behavior and Academic Engagement during Classroom Instruction for Students with Autism
MANDY J. RISPOLI (University of Texas at Austin), Mark F. O'Reilly (University of Texas at Austin), Wendy A. Machalicek (Portland State University), Austin Molloy (University of Texas at Austin)
Abstract: The manipulation of motivating operations represents a promising intervention for the treatment of aberrant behavior in applied settings. In this study, we examined the effects of motivating operations on aberrant behavior and academic engagement during typical classroom instruction with six students with autism. Functional analyses revealed that aberrant behavior was maintained, at least in part, by access to specific tangible items for all participants. During classroom sessions two to four peers were seated near the participant during routine classroom instruction. The participant’s preferred tangible was in sight but out of reach during these sessions. Each participant had access to instructional materials as well as teacher attention and aberrant behavior was placed on extinction. Classroom sessions were preceded by access or no access to the tangible functionally related to aberrant behavior. The influence of these presession conditions was evaluated in an alternating treatments design. Results suggest that presession access may result in lower levels of aberrant behavior and higher levels of academic engagement during classroom instruction. Suggestions for future research and implications for
Symposium #351
CE Offered: BACB
Increasing Peer Interactions in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders Across the Age Range
Monday, May 25, 2009
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
North 120 BC
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Michael J. Morrier (Emory University School of Medicine)
Discussant: Gail G. McGee (Emory University School of Medicine)
CE Instructor: John Eshleman, Ed.D.
Abstract: Deficits in social interaction skills are the hallmark of receiving a diagnosis of an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), yet little research has focused on how to train teachers to implement social curricula. Traditional treatment protocols have historically focused on language and cognitive gains (Harris & Handleman, 2000; Lovaas, 1987; McEachin et al., 1993), and have paid little attention to peer-related social skills. This symposium will describe ways to increase social skills in individuals with ASD ages 15 months – 25 years. The first presentation will describe a personnel preparation system that quickly trains teachers to implement peer social curriculum with an inclusive preschool group. The second will describe a social curriculum that increases peer social skills in middle school students with ASD. The third will describe a social skills curriculum for young adults with ASD that focuses on increasing social interaction skills and participation in community social events. Data presented will demonstrate how to prepare teachers to teach age-appropriate social skills and how to increase social skills in natural environments. Benchmarks for social skill goals and objectives will be presented for young adults will ASD. Symposium participants will be able to use benchmark data and program descriptions to implement effective social skills curricula in their community-based settings.
Training Teachers to Implement a Social Skills Curriculum in an Inclusive Preschool Classroom
Gail G. McGee (Emory University School of Medicine), Michael J. Morrier (Emory University School of Medicine), SHARON T. HYNES (Emory University)
Abstract: Preparation of teachers for preschoolers with autism requires a specific protocol in order to promote positive social gains in this population (McGee & Morrier, 2005). The task becomes more difficult since personnel preparation research has no studies that specifically address how to train teachers to implement curricula designed at promoting peer interactions. Preschoolers with autism require hour intensive treatment to remediate the social and language deficits inherent in the disorder (NRC, 2001). Teaching staff to implement language instruction requires the adult to be physically present and attending to the needs of each child, while social skill instruction requires teachers to fade their presence as quickly as possible to ensure that child-child interactions focus on one another rather than on the adults (Strain, McGee, & Kohler, 2001). This presentation will describe the evaluation of a staff training system designed to quickly enable teachers to teach an inclusive group of children with autism and their typical peers. Data (additional to be collected) will be presented that compares the two training systems and the impact on children’s social interactions during ongoing classroom activities. Results will help inform trainers of how to train staff to promote child social interaction skills in children with autism.
Improving Playground Interactions Between Included Students with ASD in Public Schools Through the STAR Program
SHEILA J. WAGNER (Emory University), Patricia Buckley (DeKalb County Public Schools)
Abstract: Research has demonstrated that inclusive programming offers valuable social opportunities for students with autism to learn socially appropriate behaviors (Owen-DeSchryver et. al., 2008). However, during regularly scheduled recess many of these same students remain socially isolated from their typically developing peers. Research has also shown that proximity alone does not guarantee increased interactions in a recess setting (Anderson et al., 2004) and that peer training is helpful in increasing the interactions between disabled students and non-disabled students (Kohler et al., 1995; Lee & Odom, 1996). In an effort to increase peer initiations to students with autism at recess, findings will replicate those of previous evaluations of the STAR Program (Boyd et al., 2008) (data to be collected) as demonstrated using a multiple probe single subject design on three dyads of students. Each dyad consisted of one student with an autism spectrum disorder and one student who was non-disabled. The results show increased numbers of interactions between the students with ASD and their non-disabled classmates. These results will be discussed in light of inclusive programming and strategies that can be used within public and private schools.
Helping Young Adults with ASD “Get a Life”: Increasing Social Interactions with Typical Same-Aged Peers
ALISON MCKAY OLIVER (Emory Autism Center), Toni Thomas (Emory Autism Center), Michael J. Morrier (Emory University School of Medicine), Gail G. McGee (Emory University School of Medicine)
Abstract: Adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are characterized by deficits in reciprocal social interactions, communication, and interests and behaviors (APA, 2000). To date, little research has been conducted on how to remediate these deficits and assist young adults to participate in community activities. Research on the differences in social behavior in natural settings between typical adults and adults with ASD has not been conducted. Following Todd Risley’s (1996) premise that treatment for adults should help them “Get a Life!”, a treatment package has been developed to assist adults with ASD to develop and to use age-appropriate social skills. The package involves weekly small group instruction and monthly practice of social skills during social events with typically-developing college- aged students. This presentation will describe the social treatment developed, as well as present data on the differences between 10 adults with ASD and 10 typical peers. Data (additional data to be collected) to be presented includes self-reports of social skills and contacts with friends, structured behavioral observations collected during social events, and the perceived importance of these skills for “Getting a Life”. Discussion will focus on implementing this protocol in community-based activities and areas of future research for adults with ASD.
Symposium #352
CE Offered: BACB
Teaching Functional Skills to Adolescent and Adult Learners with Autism
Monday, May 25, 2009
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
North 126
Area: AUT/EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Hannah E. Hoch (REED Academy)
Discussant: Peter F. Gerhardt (Organization for Autism Research)
CE Instructor: Michele R. Bishop, Ph.D.
Abstract: As individuals with autism approach adulthood, it becomes increasingly important to focus on skills that will promote social and vocational success. There is an ongoing need for the development of effective strategies that will enable these learners to learn the functional skills necessary to participate independently in community and vocational settings. In this symposium, 3 studies will be presented describing teaching procedures and instructional modifications geared towards increasing skills necessary for productive vocational performance and community integration for adolescents and adults with autism.
Teaching Adolescents with Autism to Mand for Materials During Vocational Tasks
KARISSA MASUICCA (Alpine Learning Group), Erin B. Richard (Alpine Learning Group), Hannah E. Hoch (REED Academy), Bridget A. Taylor (Alpine Learning Group)
Abstract: An important employment goal for individuals with autism is to utilize natural supports (e.g., coworkers) found at the job site. A necessary step in reaching that goal is to teach adolescent learners to approach job supervisors for assistance, such as when the learner does not have enough of a material to complete the assigned task. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of an audio taped prompt to teach learners with autism to ask for more materials during vocational tasks. The participants were four adolescents with autism who attended a behaviorally-based school program for learners with autism. Graduated guidance was used to teach the participants to approach an adult. An audio taped stimulus was used to prompt learners to ask for more materials when the materials ran out while completing a vocational task. The audio taped prompt was eventually faded. A multiple baseline design was used across four learners. Results indicated that after intervention, learners were more likely to independently approach an adult and request assistance. Interobserver agreement data were collected during 30% of sessions and averaged over 90%. Results are discussed in terms of future research for increasing learners’ independence in job settings.
Increasing accuracy with vocational tasks: Using a stimulus prompt to teach numeral to quantity correspondence
ERIN B. RICHARD (Alpine Learning Group), Barbara Hoffmann (Alpine Learning Group), Melissa Kahn (Alpine Learning Group), Caroline Elizabeth LaMere (Alpine Leaning Group), Bridget A. Taylor (Alpine Learning Group)
Abstract: Adolescents with autism may have limited opportunities for vocational activities due to the lack of prerequisites of certain academic skills. For example, an inability to match quantity to numeral can prohibit a learner from participating in tasks that require him to attend to amounts of items (e.g., restocking supplies). A reversal design was used to investigate the use of a tally counter as a stimulus prompt to teach three adolescents with autism to match quantity to numeral when getting a designated number of items during vocational tasks. During baseline, each learner was presented with a box of items (e.g., spoons), a numeral card, and an instruction to get the amount and place the items in a bin. During intervention, learners used a tally counter to “mark” each item as they placed it in the bin, and continue until the number on the tally counter matched the number on the card. Results indicated that use of the tally counter enabled participants to accurately match quantities to larger numerals when completing vocational tasks.
The Effect of Rate Building of Component Fine Motor Skills on Productivity on the Job Site
MARLENE COHEN (Rutgers University - DDDC), Christopher Manente (Rutgers University, DDDC)
Abstract: Adults with autism are entitled to a productive life. This includes the right to employment in the community. This paper will examine the effects of fine motor skill rate building on task completion durations in a community job site. The effects on three employment tasks (wiping tables, setting tables, and sweeping floor) will be demonstrated. Conclusions and implications for future research will also be discussed.
Symposium #355
CE Offered: BACB
Expanding the Scope of ABA: Diagnosing & Treating Children With Psychological Disorders & Emotional Behaviors
Monday, May 25, 2009
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
North 222 C
Area: CBM/EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Jeannie Golden (East Carolina University)
CE Instructor: John M. Guercio, Ph.D.
Abstract: Over the course of the past decade, the field of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) has become synonymous with treatment of autism in the eyes of many parents, teachers and clinicians from other disciplines. Many professionals in ABA do not fully welcome a narrow view of this applied science. The lack of the identification of ABA as the most empirically effective treatment for other areas (e.g., psychological and emotional disorders) may stem from a range of factors including: our discomfort with the difficulty in controlling the variables, the absence of efficacy studies in these domains, challenges in defining “emotional behavior” and others. If we hope to expand the application beyond DD and autism, we must identify and confront these impediments to broader application. The presenters will address the issue of operationally defining “emotional” behaviors and specific behavioral assessment and intervention strategies for diagnosing and treating children who have been diagnosed with psychological disorders.
Children With Severe Emotional & Behavioral Problems: The Impact of Maladaptive Learning Histories
JEANNIE GOLDEN (East Carolina University)
Abstract: Many children in the child welfare system are at-risk of developing severe emotional and behavioral problems due to learning histories associated with early abuse/neglect, multiple placements and multiple caregivers. The impact that this may have on the child’s behavior is likely to cause continued problems for the child and those providing care and treatment. Inappropriate behaviors may be related to learning histories and contingencies that are not observable in the immediate environment. Feelings may be establishing operations for the salience of particular reinforcers and punishers. Certain adult and peer behaviors may be discriminative stimuli for particular reinforcers and punishers in children’s learning histories. Negative peer models and naïve adults may provide inadvertent reinforcement for inappropriate behaviors such as lying, stealing and cheating. The presenter will discuss the impact that this learning history has on current behavior and the effectiveness of behavioral treatments as well as offer alternative types of treatment.
Using Functional Behavioral Assessments of Emotional Behaviors to Assist in the Differential Diagnosis of Psychological Disorders
ENNIO C. CIPANI (National University), Jeannie Golden (East Carolina University)
Abstract: Traditional psychologists use clinical interviews and symptom checklists to diagnosis psychological disorders. Behaviorists know that it is essential to ascertain the function as well as the topology of behavior in order to effectively treat problem behavior. A functional behavioral assessment, including direct observation in natural environments, is a tool that can aid in going beyond a simple description of problem behavior to the identification of the maintaining variables. This can help to differentially diagnose the psychological disorder. In a functional behavioral treatment, the function of the presenting problem needs to be disabled, while an alternate function (that is more acceptable) needs to be enabled (Cipani & Schock, 2007). To determine how such consequences should be altered, a functional behavioral assessment is needed in order to ascertain the social and environmental function of the presenting problem. In this presentation, functional behavioral assessments are presented as tools for differential diagnosis of children presenting severe behavior problems.
Applying ABA in Public School: Interventions to Reduce Anxiety and Other Emotional Behaviors
Abstract: Many children demonstrate behavioral and emotional responses to academic challenges and non-preferred social conditions at school. The current case studies provided in this presentation describe the use of behavior analytic descriptions and behavioral interventions designed to address the accompanying skill deficits. Operational definitions are provided for “emotional” behaviors. These definitions and objective baseline data were used to establish teaching procedures designed to develop adaptive responses to academic and social challenges. The interventions were implemented by public school personnel with periodic consultation support from a Board Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA). The data demonstrate a rapid reduction in “emotional” behaviors and dramatic increases in academic participation and acquisition of targeted academic and social content. The results are discussed both in terms of the procedures implemented and their effect on target behaviors as well as the process the team used to ensure effective staff training and reliable implementation across classroom teachers and school settings.
Childhood Trauma and Attachment Issues: Toward Rational Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Abused Children
WALTER WITTY PRATHER (Barry University), Jeannie Golden (East Carolina University)
Abstract: Attachment theory provides a useful conceptual framework for understanding trauma and the treatment of abuse in children. This presenter will examine childhood trauma and attachment issues from the perspective of behavior analysis, and provides a theoretical basis for a rational cognitive behavioral treatment approach for previously abused children and their foster or adoptive parents. This new treatment approach is based on the integration of attachment theory and basic concepts and principles of relativity and behavior analysis. This model provides both dyadic and cognitive behavioral interventions that encourage behavior change with foster children who have been abused or neglected as part of their early experiences. The role of emotion in behavioral causation and the teaching and learning of different behavior are central to the treatment process, just as they are central features in healthy parent child relationships. Conclusions are reached that “familial and therapeutic environments” in which perception and previous learning guide parent child interaction are more important than diagnostic orientation, and implications for specific cognitive and behavioral interventions are suggested.
Symposium #360
CE Offered: BACB
Assessment and treatment of problem behavior exhibited by individuals with high functioning autism and Asperger's syndrome
Monday, May 25, 2009
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
North 120 A
Area: DDA/AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Henry S. Roane (University of Nebraska Medical Center & Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Discussant: Dorothea C. Lerman (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
CE Instructor: Claire St Peter Pipkin, Ph.D.
Abstract: Although destructive behavior among individuals with autism and related disorders has received considerable attention in the extant literature, few investigations have examined the occurrence of destructive behavior in individuals with high functioning autism (HFA) or Asperger’s Disorder (AD). These diagnoses present unique clinical challenges as those individuals generally have relatively high IQ scores (i.e., 70 or higher) and relatively well-developed verbal repertoires, while also exhibiting impaired social functioning and maladaptive behavior. The current symposium is designed to highlight current research with this population. The first study describes the successful treatment of perseverative conversations through the use of a signaled DRO paradigm. The second study describes a discrimination training procedure in which participant mands were only reinforced in the presence of a specific discriminative stimulus while destructive behavior was placed on extinction. In the final study, a social skills training procedure was used to augment schedule thinning within the treatment of destructive behavior. These studies will be discussed with specific regard to treatment considerations for individuals with HFA and AD and within the general context of reinforcement-based treatments for destructive behavior.
Treatment of Perseverative Comments in a Child Diagnosed with High Functioning Autism
KASEY STEPHENSON (Munroe-Meyer Institute; UNMC), Henry S. Roane (University of Nebraska Medical Center & Munroe-Meyer Institute), Rebecca A. Veenstra (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: Individuals with high functioning autism (HFA) exhibit a variety of repetitive behaviors such as engaging in perseverative speech (Rehfeldt & Chambers, 2003). In the current study a signaled differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) procedure was implemented with a child diagnosed with HFA who engaged in near exclusive perseverative vocalizations on a restricted set of topics (e.g., Star Wars, Kimonos, and Tea). Specifically, in the DRO contingency access to and reinforcement of perseverative vocalizations was delivered contingent upon the omission of perseverative comments for a pre-specified interval (ranging from 60 to 300 s). In addition, separate discriminative stimuli were employed to signal when perseverative comments (i.e., pictures of the topics of perseverative topics) or when alternative comments (i.e., pictures of topics deemed socially appropriate) would be differentially reinforced. The intervention successfully decreased perseverative vocalizations and increased appropriate vocalizations across three different sets of therapists. In addition, the number of conversational topics increased during treatment relative to baseline. Two-week follow-up data indicate treatment maintenance. Results suggested that the signaled DRO functioned as an effective means for not only reducing perseverative vocalizations but also increasing appropriate vocalizations.
The Boss Hat protocol: A treatment for destructive behavior reinforced by increased caregiver compliance with the child's mands
REBECCA A. VEENSTRA (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Wayne Fisher (Munroe-Meyer Institute, UNMC), Henry S. Roane (University of Nebraska Medical Center & Munroe-Meyer Institute), Terry Falcomata (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Kelly J. Bouxsein (UNMC), Joanna Lomas (Marcus Institute)
Abstract: Individuals diagnosed with high functioning autism (HFA) typically have well-developed verbal behavior repertoires with which to request both proximal (e.g., “Give me that.”) and distal (e.g., “Take me to the zoo.”) reinforcers. Previous research has shown that intense destructive behavior may be evoked when such requests (or mands) are denied and may function to increase the probability of reinforcement of mands (i.e., destructive behavior functioning as a pre-current response for mands; e.g., Bowman et al., 1997). The current research investigated the effects of a discrimination training procedure in which participant mands were only reinforced in the presence of a specific discriminative stimulus while destructive behavior was placed on extinction. Specifically, a discriminative stimulus (e.g., a hat or necklace) was used to signal to the participants when they were in “control” of the situation (i.e., others would comply with his or her mands) and when they are not in “control” of the situation (i.e., he or she was required to comply with other’s mands and destructive behavior was not reinforced). Results indicate that this procedure was effective at decreasing destructive behavior while allowing caregivers to limit when and which child mands would produce reinforcement.
Social Skills Training in the Treatment of Problem Behavior in an Individual with Asperger’s Syndrome
HEATHER K. JENNETT (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Ainsley Thompson (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: One of the primary diagnostic characteristics of Asperger’s Syndrome is a deficit in social skills (DSM-IV, 2000). Individuals who engage in problem behavior such as aggression, self-injury, or property destruction may do so because of deficits in social skills (Duncan, Matson, Bamburg, Cherry, & Buckley, 1999). Therefore, teaching social skills to these individuals may help to improve problem behavior by altering the establishing operation for the problem behavior. The current study will focus on teaching social skills as an adjunct to typical reinforcement based treatments. An individual diagnosed with Asperger’s Syndrome participated and was treated for aggression and property destruction. Following functional analyses, an initial treatment consisting of a multiple schedule of reinforcement was developed and found to be effective in reducing problem behavior. However, when reinforcement thinning was initiated, the reduction did not maintain. After three relevant social skills were taught, reinforcement thinning was continued and a subsequent reduction in problem behavior was observed.
Symposium #368
CE Offered: BACB
Intervening Effectively in Schools: Developing Systems for Implementation of Function-based Interventions
Monday, May 25, 2009
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
North 121 BC
Area: EDC/CSE; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Cynthia M. Anderson (University of Oregon)
Discussant: Teri Palmer (Private Practice)
CE Instructor: Jeffrey H. Tiger, Ph.D.
Abstract: Research suggests that interventions derived from a functional assessment are more likely to be effective than those that are not and a growing body of research documents the utility of function-based interventions in schools and community settings and with individuals presenting with a variety of problems. Further, the technology of functional assessment has evolved such that a range of methods now are available to fit various contexts and presenting problems. In spite of these advances however, function-based support is not widespread in schools. Many schools attest to doing functional assessments however methods often are not implemented with fidelity or not used to develop function-based interventions. One reason for this lack of implementation may be that systems for implementing function-based supports in school settings have not been clearly defined. In this presentation we describe key features necessary for implementation of function-based interventions in school settings based on work across three states, Florida, Oregon, and Washington. Data from schools and school districts documenting outcomes of systems-change will be provided. In addition, implications for behavior analysts working in school settings will be discussed.
Scaling behavior analysis: Implementing function-based support across schools and districts
CYNTHIA M. ANDERSON (University of Oregon), Nadia Katul-Sampson (University of Oregon), Renee K. Van Norman (University of Oregon)
Abstract: Although function-based interventions are demonstrably effective, behavior analysts have not been successful in guiding schools to implement this technology at scale (i.e., across entire schools, school districts, and states) in a manner that is efficacious, efficient, and sustainable. Systems for implementing function-based support in schools are necessary to enhance fidelity and sustainability. In this presentation we describe a framework for schools attempting to support the social behavior of all students. The framework, “Intensive Positive Behavior Support” builds off a universal, school-wide intervention and consists of two additional tiers, secondary and tertiary interventions. Secondary interventions are group interventions designed to be implemented quickly when a need is identified and tertiary interventions require a pre-treatment functional assessment. We delineate key practices (e.g., multiple-methods of functional assessment), systems (e.g., teams, training, levels of expertise required), and outcome measures (i.e., data-based decision-making and progress monitoring) needed for successful implementation of a three-tiered framework in schools. Finally, we provide outcome data documenting (a) fidelity of implementation, (b) changes in student behavior, and (c) social validity across multiple school districts.
Prevent-Teach-Reinforce: An Effective and Efficient Process for Schools
DONALD K. KINCAID (University of South Florida), Rose Iovannone (University of South Florida/Florida Mental Health)
Abstract: Prevent-Teach-Reinforce is a standardized ABA process that allows teachers, with the assistance of a behavior consultant, to guide the development and implementation of behavioral interventions for students. A randomized control group design was used to investigate whether PTR is more effective than typical interventions used in school settings. The sample included over 200 K-8 students who exhibited severe problem behavior. PTR includes a process for developing a function-based intervention plan that includes three core components: (a) preventing problem behaviors; (b) teaching new replacement behaviors; and (c) reinforcing appropriate replacement behaviors. Interventions were selected and implemented by teachers, who received direct coaching to implement the plan. Outcome measures included fidelity of implementation, impact of contextual conditions, and student change in problem, social, and academic behaviors. Data analysis indicates that students who received PTR showed significantly greater improvements in problem behaviors, social skills and academic engaged time than the comparison group. Teachers gave the PTR intervention high social validity ratings. This research project contributes to the field by providing data that are obtained from both experimental randomized group and single subject designs and school personnel with a collaborative problem-solving ABA process that is effective and efficient.
Scaling the Pyramid: Linking ongoing professional development to increase support for students with problem behavior
CAROL ANN DAVIS (University of Washington), Annie McLaughlin (University of Washington)
Abstract: The purposes this presentation are to: a) describe a model that develops a sustainable system that can be used by schools and teachers when providing individualized supports for students with chronic behavior problems, and b) present initial implementation data on fidelity of practice and initial child outcomes. This model provides training in the main components of developing and implementing a behavior plan. Data will be provided on: the percent of functional behavioral assessment that are written with fidelity, the percentage and proportion of behavior intervention plans that address the function of the problem behavior, the percentage behavior plans implemented with fidelity in the classroom. In addition, two individual behavior plans will be implemented and data on student outcomes will be presented.
Panel #369
CE Offered: BACB
Sustaining the Impact of ABA Programs
Monday, May 25, 2009
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
North 122 A
Area: EDC/CSE; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CE Instructor: Kimberly V. Beck, M.A.
Chair: Dan Hursh (West Virginia University)
VICCI TUCCI (Tucci Learning Solutions, Inc.)
L. KEITH MILLER (University of Kansas)
RICHARD E. LAITINEN (Tucci Learning Solutions, Inc.)
DAN HURSH (West Virginia University)
Abstract: ABA has developed powerful tools for serving individuals with learning challenges and addressing various personal, social, educational, and vocational needs. The challenge for ABA professionals is how to assure that the persons who are responsible for serving those individuals and addressing those needs use these tools. The expert consultation or applied research approaches have had only limited and short-term impact. The expert consultation approach fails to utilize the relevant expertise of the persons who experience the learner everyday, the ones who have the most relevant details needed to design effective interventions and programs. The results of applied research may have only limited transfer to everyday situations because experimental arrangements necessary to valid research are not available in most everyday circumstances. Collaborative consultation, coaching, and programming for ongoing implementation are approaches that can contribute to the sustained impact of ABA practices. The panelists each have more than 30 years experience working on sustaining the impact of programs they have designed (e.g., the Competent Learner Model and Sunflower House). The discussion will focus on the common features of the successes the panelists have experienced in these efforts.
Symposium #370
CE Offered: BACB
Instructional programming to promote generative responding and the formation of equivalence classes
Monday, May 25, 2009
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
North 121 A
Area: EDC/TPC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Chris Ninness (Stephen F. Austin State University)
CE Instructor: Gordon A. Defalco, Ph.D.
Abstract: Emergent or generative responding refers to the emergence of a particular skill, or concept, without direct instruction. That is, an emergent behavior is one that arises from the direct training of some other skill. Identifying the conditions that result in emergent skills allows a teacher to be maximally efficient (i.e., teach one set of skills and others will emerge without direct instruction). This symposia provides 4 examples of procedures to promote emergent responding duing instruction in reading, speaking a second language, and identifying experimental designs.
Cross-modal generalization of letter names
TANYA BAYNHAM (University of Kansas), Janna N. Skinner (University of Kansas, Juniper Gardens Children's P), Megan N Stein (University of Kansas), Anna C. Schmidt (University of Kansas), Kathryn Saunders (University of Kansas)
Abstract: Receptive language repertoires tend to be acquired before expressive repertoires (Rosenberg & Abbeduto, 1993). Results of studies measuring generalization across these modalities have yielded mixed results (e.g., Cuvo & Riva, 1980, Guess, 1969, Wynn & Smith, 2003). It is, therefore, important to identify the conditions under which generalization is likely to occur. The current study examined the effects of training receptive letter identification on expressive letter labeling. Three preschoolers were trained to receptively identify letters using a computerized matching-to-sample procedure. Expressive letter naming was measured during probe sessions. For 3 of 3 participants, receptive training resulted in expressive labeling for some, but not all, letters. Expressive generalization was demonstrated less often for letters with features similar to other letters (e.g., b/d and t/f). A second study specifically targeting difficult-to-discriminate letter pairs is underway. Implications of these results for instructional design will be discussed.
Teaching level-1 Braille reading skills within a stimulus equivalence paradigm to children with progressive visual impairments
KAREN A TOUSSAINT (Louisiana State University), Jeff Tiger (Louisiana State University)
Abstract: Approximately 8.5 million Americans suffer from a form of macular degeneration, which results in progressive vision loss and the loss of important skills such as reading. Proactive Braille reading instruction may be one means to ease the transition from sighted to severely visually-impaired. The current study is a preliminary evaluation of a teaching package for level 1 Braille (i.e., individual letter identification) with school-aged children with progressive visual impairments. Following a series of pretests, Braille instruction involved training the selection of printed text letters from an array when presented with tactile Braille letters. We then assessed the emergence of symmetrical and transitive relations between the tactile Braille stimuli, the visual printed letters, and their spoken counterparts. Interobserver agreement was collected during at least 25% of sessions and averaged above 90% for correct responding.
Establishment of bidirectional symmetry via multiple exemplar training in pre-school children
ROCIO ROSALES (Southern Illinois University), Nancy Huffman (Southern Illinois University), Sadie L Lovett (Southern Illinois University), Ruth Anne Rehfeldt (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract: The present investigation evaluated the effectiveness of multiple exemplar training (MET) in the facilitation of bidirectional symmetry for typically developing children (ages 3-4 yrs) whose first language was Spanish. Two experiments were conducted in which a multiple probe design was implemented to introduce exemplar training across 3 four-item stimulus sets. Participants were first trained in object-name relations via either conditional discrimination training (in Experiment 1), or a respondent-type training procedure (in Experiment 2). This training was followed by tests for derived name-object relations (i.e., bidirectional symmetry). If participants failed tests for symmetry, multiple exemplar training was implemented in which symmetry relations were explicitly taught with novel stimulus sets. Following multiple exemplar training, symmetry tests were once again conducted with the original training set. Results of Experiment 1 indicate marked improvements in bidirectional symmetry relations following MET. Preliminary results from Experiment 2 indicate the respondent-type training procedure was effective for establishing bidirectional symmetry, and may be a more efficient technique for establishing these relations.
Using a Stimulus Equivalence Instructional Protocol in the Undergraduate Classroom
CLARISS A. BARNES (Southern Illinois University), Brooke Diane Walker (SIU Carbondale), Ruth Anne Rehfeldt (Southern Illinois University), Adam D. Hahs (Southern Illinois University), Clariss A. Barnes (Southern Illinois University), Emily Irene Bruen (Southern Illinois University), Amy Plichta (Southern Illinois University Carbondale)
Abstract: The purpose of the current research study was to establish derived stimulus relations among course content material in an undergraduate course on disabilities. Specifically, we evaluated whether instruction based on the stimulus equivalence paradigm could be effectively used to teach relationships between the names, definitions, causes, and treatments for various disabilities. Training was delivered in a paper-and-pencil format, which consisted of multiple-choice questionnaires, and taught the name-to-definition, name-to-cause, and cause-to-treatment relations. Pre and post-tests were conducted in a flash-card style fashion and evaluated the definition-to-name, cause-to-name, and treatment-to-name relations. No feedback was delivered during pre and post-test phases, and training continued until mastery. Stability was evaluated at up to three months follow-up. Results suggest that the stimulus equivalence instructional paradigm can be effectively used in a paper-and-pencil format, and enhance class performance in the undergraduate class-room.
Symposium #373
CE Offered: BACB
Relationships Between Unconditioned and Reflexive Motivating Operations and Problem Behavior
Monday, May 25, 2009
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
North 120 D
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Jose A. Martinez-Diaz (Florida Institute of Technology)
Discussant: Ernest A. Vargas (B. F. Skinner Foundation)
CE Instructor: Nicole L. Hausman, Ph.D.
Abstract: Three different papers explore the relationship between unconditioned and reflexive motivating operations and problem behavior. The first paper provides a conceptual framework for the assessment and treatment of problem behavior maintained by socially mediated negative reinforcement. The importance of assessing motivating operations and discriminative stimuli prior to treatment, and manipulating them in treatment, is emphasized. In addition, it provides examples of applications from the author's clinical practice. The second paper presents two laboratory studies on the effects of sleep deprivation, and its interaction with temperature changes, on nocifensive behaviors. These studies also will show how motivating operations also relate to respondent behavior. The third study presents descriptive assessment data on possible relations between seizures and problem behavior in 3 adults with developmental disabilities. Implications for the potential role of seizures as motivating operations that increase the probability of problem behavior within specific time periods are discussed, and future directions of research are presented.
Motivating Operations and Discriminative Stimuli in Problem Behavior Maintained by Socially Mediated Negative Reinforcement
JOSE A. MARTINEZ-DIAZ (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: I will explore the role of motivating operations and discriminative stimuli in the assessment and treatment of behavior maintained by social negative reinforcement. My paper begins with a conceptual scheme to clarify the difference between motivational and discriminative variables and how they interact with each other. I will expound on the relationship between motivating operations and escape/avoidance contingencies, and how establishing operations may evoke challenging behavior. I will discuss why discriminated avoidance is a misleading term, clarifying the true role of discriminative stimuli in escape/avoidance behavior. I will conclude with implications for the treatment of challenging behavior. Case studies provide examples of the conceptual framework.
Using a Dual Respondent Task to Examine the Individualistic and Conjoint Effects of Motivating Operations
MARK T. HARVEY (Florida Institute of Technology), Craig H. Kennedy (Vanderbilt University), Robert Kline (Veterans Administration Hospital at Vanderbilt University)
Abstract: Two studies will be presented to orient the audience to a respondent paradigm for studying motivating operations (e.g., pain nociception and sleep disruption). Investigators measured duration and latency of hind limb withdrawal when rats were subjected to (a) REM sleep deprivation for 48 hours, (b) 48 hours of sleep fragmentation, or (c) housed in their home cage. Study 1 demonstrated that 44°C was noxious to animals across all conditions while sleep disruption resulted in increased nocifensive behaviors. Study 2 conducted a brief parametric analysis of cooled/heated temperatures to determine equal allocation across two adjacent temperature controlled pads. Nocifensive behaviors occurred when the animals occupied both sides of the dual respondent chamber, but equal allocation occurred when the heated side was 44.7°C and the second side was cooled to 1.3°C. Subsequently the dual respondent paradigm was used to evaluate the effects of sleep disruption on pain sensation; sleep deprived animals allocated more time to a heated plate despite previous research demonstrating its aversiveness. Sleep disruption proved to be a powerful motivating operation which changed duration allocation by increasing the noxious value of pain sensation related to cold. Clinical implications of pain sensation and sleep disruption on operant and respondent behavior will be reviewed.
Descriptive Analysis of Epileptic Seizures and Problem Behavior in Adults with Developmental Disabilities
ADA C. HARVEY (Florida Institute of Technology), Paul J. Yoder (Vanderbilt University), Craig H. Kennedy (Vanderbilt University)
Abstract: The authors studied possible relations between seizures and problem behavior in 3 adults with developmental disabilities. Each person was observed for between 56 and 92 days to record occurrences of seizures and problem behavior. Results of our descriptive analysis indicated an association between seizures and problem behavior for each participant. For Stan, most problem behavior occurred following absence seizures. For Tom, problem behavior only occurred before tonic-clonic seizures but showed no relation to absence seizures. For Mick, problem behavior began before absence seizures, but no consistent relation was established between problem behavior and tonic-clonic seizures. Findings suggest that seizures and problem behavior may be associated, but these patterns appear to be highly idiosyncratic across individuals. Implications for the potential role of seizures as motivating operations that increase the probability of problem behavior within specific time periods are discussed, and future directions of research are presented.
Tutorial #378
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
The Quantitative Analysis of Behavior
Monday, May 25, 2009
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
West 301 CD
Area: TPC/EAB; Domain: Theory
PSY/BACB CE Offered. CE Instructor: Tom Sharpe, Ed.D.
Chair: Sam Leigland (Gonzaga University)
Presenting Authors: : MICHAEL C. DAVISON (University of Auckland)
Abstract: What is the quantitative analysis of behavior? How do we parse a piece of verbal or nonverbal behavior to determine whether it was, or was not, a member of this operant class? Which should come first, the behaviors or the class definition—or should these co-develop dynamically? This talk is a personal and idiosyncratic view of what I think are, or should be, the topographies that satisfy this class and be reinforced by the scientific community. In particular, I will go to some pains to make clear that “quantitative” is not an alternative to “experimental” (thus, the better term for what I want to do is the “Quantitative Experimental Analysis of Behavior”)—because there does exist a non-experimental quantitative analysis of behavior, about which I shall wonder. What are the benefits of a quantitative approach relative to other approaches—is it better, or just harder? How might we convince audiences that are quantitatively unsophisticated that there are reinforcers to be gained from such behavior? Can this be done by giving invited talks at ABAI on the quantitative analysis of behavior? Michael Davison is Professor of Psychology, Honorary Professor in The Liggins Institute, and Director of the Experimental Analysis of Behaviour Research Unit, at Auckland University, New Zealand. He has been at Auckland for too many years. He got a Ph.D. from Otago University, NZ, and a D.Sc. from Auckland. He is a Fellow of ABAI and current Chair of the Fellows’ Committee; he is a Fellow of the Royal Society of New Zealand and was awarded their Silver Medal for Research. He served a term as International Director on the ABAI Council, and on the SABA Board. He was given a SABA Award for the International Dissemination of Behavior Analysis in 2004, and the lab he directs will receive the SABA Award for Enduring Programmatic Contributions in Behavior Analysis in 2009. He has been on the Board of Editors of JEAB too many times to count, and has also been an Action Editor for JEAB. His interests are in the quantitative experimental analysis of choice and behavior allocation, and in the application of quantitative technologies to questions in Neuroscience. He has had a number of other interests: Potting, self-sufficiency, poetry, recorder music, and he intends, soon, to give up behavior analysis completely and to learn wood turning.
MICHAEL C. DAVISON (University of Auckland)
Symposium #380
CE Offered: BACB
Increasing the applications of the Picture Exchange Communication System: Staff and Peer Training Approaches
Monday, May 25, 2009
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
North 120 BC
Area: AUT/EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Jill A. Szalony (Rutgers - DDDC)
Discussant: Andrew S. Bondy (Pyramid Educational Consultants)
CE Instructor: Alicia MacAleese, Ph.D.
Abstract: The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a communication system for non-vocal and pre-vocal individuals with autism that has been shown to be highly effective. A primary issue in PECS is ensuring that the listener community is adequately trained. Staff members need to be trained in the essential elements and components of PECS. Treatment integrity is a significant concern. Therefore, staff training is of utmost importance. In the first paper, a behavioral skills training program will be discussed, in which a Behavioral Skills Training package was used to teach core staff skills. Specifically, video, verbal and written directions, modeling, rehearsal, and feedback were used as strategies in training. The second paper addresses the concern that PECS training is often done in a group based format, and presents an individualized approach to assessing treatment integrity for the components of PECS. Another listener community essential to the success of PECS as a communication system is peers. The third paper examines a step-wise model for peer training in PECS, examining both the impact of training in the receipt of PECS communications and pairing with reinforcement in increasing social interactions between students with autism and their typically developing peers in a preschool setting.
The Effects of Behavioral Skills Training on the Implementation of the Picture Exchange Communication System
ROCIO ROSALES (Southern Illinois University), Karen Stone (Southern Illinois University), Ruth Anne Rehfeldt (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract: The effectiveness of a behavioral skills training (BST) package to teach the implementation of the first three phases of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) was evaluated with three adults who had no history teaching any functional communication system. A multiple baseline across participants design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the training package, which consisted of a video, written and verbal instructions, modeling, rehearsal, and feedback. Results showed significant improvements relative to baseline in a short amount of training time, and that skills generalized to a learner with a severe developmental disability. Skills were maintained at one month follow-up for one participant.
Effects of a training model on acquiring the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS)
GLENN M. SLOMAN (University of Florida), Cara L. Phillips (University of Florida), Tina Smith-Bonahue (University of Florida), Kimberly Sloman (University of Florida)
Abstract: Based on Skinner’s Verbal Behavior (1957), the picture exchange communication system (PECS) is designed to teach children with autism functional verbal behavior. Much research has demonstrated the effectiveness and efficiency of PECS in building verbal behavior. However, because PECS consultation services are typically presented in a group format and later discontinued (Howlin et al.; 2007), there may be decreases in treatment integrity resulting in loss of effectiveness and durability. Hence, more intensive approaches may be necessary to establish, generalize, and maintain PECS delivery skills for educators beyond those demonstrated in workshop or group consultation trainings. Therefore, the purpose of the study is to examine the effects of a feedback model developed by Marcus, Swanson, and Vollmer (2001) to teach paraprofessionals to implement PECS with a high degree of integrity using single subject design methodology. Data will be presented on continuously monitored performance of paraprofessionals and students, component analyses, as well as generalization and maintenance of PECs implementation. Implications for PECS training, and PECS protocol will be discussed related to the necessary and sufficient conditions establishing and maintaining PECS delivery with integrity.
The impact of training in PECS and of pairing peers with reinforcement in increasing interactions
JILL A. SZALONY (Rutgers - DDDC), Mary Jane Weiss (Rutgers University), Meredith Bamond (Rutgers University)
Abstract: One of the primary challenges in an integrated program is facilitating social interaction between typically developing peers and children with autism. It can be especially difficult to integrate children with autism who have communication challenges, as social overtures may not be responded to and initiations might not be understood. Students using the Picture Exchange Communication System to communicate have a functional system for social interactions. However, young peers may not understand the communication messages. They need to be taught how to respond to the social interactions used by these children with autism. In particular, they need to be trained to receive the PECS communication strips. The model used in this peer training description teaches these skills and adds a component of pairing to enhance peer reinforcing value. We will discuss the step-wise implementation of this PECS training and peer pairing procedure used with three typically developing students in an integrated preschool environment.
Symposium #381
CE Offered: BACB
Recent Findings on the Use of TAGteach in Children with Autism
Monday, May 25, 2009
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
North 124 B
Area: AUT/EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Theresa Mckeon (TAGteach International)
Discussant: Julie S. Vargas (B. F. Skinner Foundation)
CE Instructor: Michael J. Morrier, Ph.D.
Abstract: Applied Behavior Analysts are dedicated to finding effective ways to teach skills to participants with autism and related disorders. Standard teaching curricula are typically based on the use of prompting and shaping procedures. One way to augment standard prompting and shaping procedures is to pair an auditory or visual event with the delivery of reinforcement to ‘mark’ the correct response. TAGteach is a technology based on the use of ‘markers’ or auditory stimuli paired with the delivery of reinforcement to shape new behaviors. “TAG” stands for Teaching with Acoustical Guidance and is a direct descendent of the clicker technology presented by Karen Pryor in her book Don’t Shoot the Dog. Practitioners of TAGteach argue for its effectiveness in many endeavors designed to teach motor skills such as gymnastics and dancing. The three data-based papers presented here successfully demonstrate how to incorporate aspects of TAGteach technology into some of our standard curriculum to teach basic motor skills with participants for whom prior attempts have been unsuccessful.
The Use of TAG to Improve the Acquisition of Instruction Following in Young Children with Autism
MARIDITH R GUTIERREZ (Applied Behavior Consultants, Inc)
Abstract: The use of TAG (Teaching with Acoustical Guidance) was examined in the acquisition of Receptive Instructions in children with autism. Receptive skills can be difficult for children with autism to acquire and the discrimination of different instructions is often an observed deficit. Four students at a non-public school for children with autism participated in the study. The students had not acquired the skill of following instructions in a structured teaching environment using standard discrete trial teaching nor through incidental teaching (e.g., within routine contexts). A multiple baseline across subjects design was used to examine whether the insertion of TAG, used to reinforce the target response prior to receipt of the highly preferred item, led to an increase in the acquisition of the skill. Students were exposed to a Receptive Instructions lesson with standard discrete trial teaching (i.e., SD-R-SR) during baseline. The use of TAG was implemented with each student in a staggered fashion and inserted immediately after a correct response.
Evaluating the Maintaining Effects of TAGteach on the Social Skills of an Individual with Autism
Abstract: There have been many noted interventions utilized in teaching social skills to children with Autism. TAGteach or Teaching with Acoustical Guidance incorporates the use of a tagger (audible marker) while pairing it with positive reinforcement and shaping in order to quickly teach a vast repertoire of skills to individuals in a variety of populations. The current study focused on analyzing the maintaining effects of TAGteach on the social skills (e.g., eye contact during manding and close proximity to peers) of a 7-year-old male diagnosed with Autism. Previously, eye contact while manding and close proximity to peers had been targeted and increased utilizing TAGteach compared to a more commonly used method. Maintenance data showed that the target behaviors did not maintain; however, required considerably less time to reacquire the skills utilizing TAGteach.
An Auditory Marker as a Secondary Reinforcer in the Shaping of Specific Behaviors in Children with Autism
REGINA L. MAENDLER (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract: This study examined the training of two behaviors (maintaining proximity and eye contact) in six children with Autism. An auditory marker, or TAG (Teaching with Acoustical Guidance) was employed as a secondary reinforcer for shaping the desired behaviors. The intervention followed the tenet of Applied Behavior Analysis and learning theory. The study was directed by personnel with TAGteach certification A multiple single case design with a multiple baseline across behaviors design was utilized to implement the intervention, as well as increase the ease of collecting data. The interventions took place in a natural environmental setting where each child’s behaviors were ecologically balanced. The data supported the efficacy of the intervention, but only in the context of training a child with Autism. Following full implementation, the rate of reinforcement was methodically reduced. The data indicated that the behaviors could be maintained at a level well above baseline. The implications of these results are discussed.
Symposium #382
CE Offered: BACB
Expanding the Social Reinforcer Repertoire of Young Children with Autism
Monday, May 25, 2009
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
North 124 A
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Cynthia G. Simpson (Sam Houston State University)
Discussant: Ruth M. DeBar (Sam Houston State University)
Abstract: One of the defining characteristics of children with autism is a narrow range of effective reinforcers, especially social reinforcers. Social reinforcers can be defined as an activity in which the interaction with another person is the source of the reinforcement. It is possible to teach young children with autism to find social interaction to be a source of reinforcement and there are many benefits to making it an integral part of an early intervention program. How to teach activity-based social reinforcers as well as different types of activity-based reinforcers will be discussed.
Teaching Young Children with Autism Activity-Based Social Reinforcers: A Case Study
BARBARA A. METZGER (Sam Houston State University)
Abstract: Children with autism often have a limited reinforcer repertoire, especially for social reinforcers. Two young children with autism, both involved in a home-based intensive early intervention program, were systematically exposed to a wide variety of activity-based, social activities. Tutors collected data on the child’s reaction to the activity, with a score of 1 indicating the child did not enjoy the activity and a score of 3 indicating that child greatly enjoyed the activity. Activities which received a consistent score of two or three were then used as reinforcers for table work. The data were analyzed according to the total number of new activities taught and those which were subsequently used as reinforcers. During the first year and a half of treatment, both children began treatment with a small repertoire of effective social reinforcers and showed large increases in the number and variety of effective activity-based, social reinforcers. These data suggest that it is possible to teach children with autism to find social interaction to be a source of reinforcement.
How to Teach Activity-Based, Social Reinforcers to Young Children with Autism
ANGELA L. POLETTI (Linn Benton Lincoln Education Service District), Barbara A. Metzger (Sam Houston State University)
Abstract: One of the major characteristics of autism is the presence of deficits in social interaction; as a result these individuals often have very few social reinforcers without specific teaching. Reinforcers can be divided into those that are non-social and those that are social. A non-social reinforcer can be defined as an item or activity that the presence or interaction of another person does not increase the reinforcing value of that item or activity. Some examples of non-social reinforcers include food, drink, and watching television. The value of these items is not increased or mediated through interaction with another individual. A social reinforcer can be defined as an activity in which the reinforcer is dependent upon the interaction of another person. While many ABA practitioners use social reinforcers such as tickles, kisses or verbal praise, it is uncommon to see the use of activity-based social reinforcers because they often require teaching. Specific methods of teaching activity-based social reinforcers, data collection and the variety of possible activity-based social reinforcers will be presented.
Expanding the Reinforcer Repertoire of Children with Autism: Pretend Trouble as a Social Reinforcemer
CHARISH MAHONEY (Spring Independent School District), Barbara A. Metzger (Sam Houston State University)
Abstract: Teaching children with autism to find a wide variety of activities to be sources of reinforcement is an important component of an early intervention program. Four young children with autism were exposed to a variety of social activities, including pretend trouble. Pretend trouble includes reprimands from another individual, usually an adult, being directed towards inanimate objects like teddy bears and dolls. For example, an adult gives the inanimate object an instruction, and then manipulates the object so that it does not to follow the adult instruction. The adult then verbally reprimands, warns or scolds the inanimate object or the object is given a punishment such as sitting in time out. The child enjoys watching the inanimate object getting into trouble. The children were then exposed to a stimulus preference assessment in the form of a forced choice between pictures of the social activities. Finally, the children were exposed to a reinforcer assessment in the form of pressing a clicker for the opportunity to engage in the social activities. Inconsistent with previous studies, there were discrepancies between the results of the preference assessment and the reinforcer assessment. Although the children showed individual preferences, overall pretend trouble was the most effective reinforcer.
Symposium #383
CE Offered: BACB
How We Finally Got There: Analytical Decisions Supported by the Standard Celeration Chart to Help Students Gain New Skills
Monday, May 25, 2009
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
North 125
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Kelly J. Ferris (Organization for Research and Learning)
CE Instructor: Meeta R. Patel, Ph.D.
Abstract: The Standard Celeration Chart is a rigorous measurement tool that aids behavior analyst in making critical data-based decisions regarding the celeration, frequency, and bounce of students’ data. While teaching any range of skills to learners with autism and related developmental disabilities, behavior analysts must be highly attuned to the learner’s individual needs and must be able to adjust learning sequences according to the learner’s ever-changing performance data. Traditional sequences of instruction are often ineffective in establishing new skills for learners with autism. When student performance slows or stops, teachers must analyze the data to identify which variables to manipulate for the desired outcome in the most efficient manner. This symposium will present four papers illustrating the effects of manipulating schedules of reinforcement as well as altering various stimulus conditions to achieve important learning objectives for learners with developmental disabilities of various skill levels. All four papers utilize fluency based instruction as an independent variable with student performance data charted on the Standard Celeration Chart.
Treating Schedules of Reinforcement as Critical Features of Instruction to Increase the Frequency of Responding During Instruction in a Child with Phelan-McDermid Syndrome
KELLY J. FERRIS (Organization for Research and Learning)
Abstract: In fluency based instruction teaching arrangements, reinforcement schedules are often treated as variable features of instruction, fluidly changing from timing to timing and from day to day based on changes in the student’s frequency of corrects, frequency of errors, and environmental conditions. With the analysis of in-session charted data, precision teachers are able to act as phenomenal shapers; they are masters of adjusting student feedback between fixed ratios of reinforcement and differential reinforcement of higher rates of behavior (DRH). This presentation will share performance data on a learner with Phelan-McDermind Syndrome whose behavior required more systematic and controlled changes to schedules of reinforcement to accelerate his frequency of responding. Multiple charts will be shown illustrating a replicated success of treating schedules of reinforcement as critical features of instruction: when schedules of reinforcement were gradually thinned through multiple fixed ratio schedules eventually to variable ratio schedules, student frequency of corrects increased, number of timings completed increased, and overall happiness with instruction increased.
Altering Stimulus Control and Variable Instructional Features While Teaching Intermediate/Advanced Language Skills
HOLLY ALMON-MORRIS (Organization for Research and Learning)
Abstract: While teaching intermediate/advanced language skills to students with autism, there are often “roadblocks” that occur while navigating the previously-set instructional path. While teaching tact/intraverbals repertoires, teachers much be responsive to the data and adjust instructional sequences as needed. This presentation will highlight performance data from at least two students with autism and demonstrate how their performance data on the Standard Celeration Chart were analyzed to alter stimulus control or variable features of instruction, and the improvements in performance that resulted from those instructional changes. Independent variables include timed practice combined with daily improvement goals, differential reinforcement of higher rates of behavior (DRH), and Modified Mathetics error correction procedures (Gilbert, 1962). Dependent variables include various intermediate/advanced language skills within the tact/intraverbal repertoire areas. In addition to the performance data mentioned above, supplementary data will be collected before this symposium submission takes place. Further relational aspects of modifying stimulus control and variable instructional features will also be discussed.
If you give me a reason, I can show you what I know
KRISTA ZAMBOLIN (Organization for Research and Learning), Michael Fabrizio (Organization for Research and Learning)
Abstract: Securing student assent and happiness during instruction is an essential component of effective and efficient behavior analytic programming. Collecting data on student’s choosing to participate willing in instruction should be collected as a dependent variable illustrating effective programming for all learners. This paper will describe how data analysis and analysis of the student’s perspective helped in problem solving an effective instructional sequence for teaching a very young learner with autism imitation skills and receptive language skills. The student was a 3 year-old girl who had been involved in a home-based behavior analytic program since 2007. Utilizing fluency based instructional arrangement and data displayed on the Standard Celeration Chart, the instructional team identified critical features of instruction necessary to gain happy student participation. Data will show how manipulating different stimulus and reinforcement conditions were tested across both see/do imitation and hear/touch and hear/do learning channel repertoires. Charted student learning data will illustrate how the teachers finally identified the student’s definition of “functional” to gain her assent and consistent participation and learning during instruction.
Altering stimulus control to establish early language skills in children with autism.
ELIZABETH GRACE LEFEBRE (Organization for Research and Learning), Kelly J. Ferris (Organization for Research and Learning)
Abstract: Establishing early language skill repertoires in children with autism requires carefully planned sequences of instruction. It can be additionally challenging when the proposed instructional sequence is at first, unsuccessful. Quality programming should ensure that skills come under the intended stimulus control. Planning for appropriate stimulus control by ensuring critical and variable features of instruction are addressed is an essential step in the design of effective instructional programs. Purposely using inappropriate stimulus control to elicit responses in new repertoire areas is often conducted through by inserting extrinsic prompts into a teaching sequence. Creating inappropriate stimulus control by manipulating different degrees of variable features in instructional materials is less commonly used as a teaching strategy. The presentation will examine the use of inappropriate stimulus control to elicit new responses by systematically graduating the range of variable features from mostly shared to few shared to shape student responding in visual and receptive language tasks. Student learning data will be displayed on the Standard Celeration Chart.
Symposium #384
CE Offered: BACB
Effective Error Correction Strategies and their Relative Preference for Children with Autism in Discrete Trial Training
Monday, May 25, 2009
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
North 126
Area: AUT/VRB; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Michelle Turan (University of Windsor)
CE Instructor: Amy Kenzer, Ph.D.
Abstract: Four studies will be presented regarding the effectiveness and preference for error correction in discrete trial training for children with autism. Error correction procedures have been researched insufficiently in the literature, yet clinical practice includes daily adherence to particular procedures. The purpose of the studies in this symposium is to examine the relative effectiveness of one error correction procedure for several children using receptive language tasks, subsequently with tacting responses. The relative preference for the error correction procedures will be assessed in the final study to examine whether an inverse relation exists.
Investigating the Use of an Independent Probe Trial following Error Correction in Discrete Trial Teaching
Natalie P. Croteau (Surrey Place), Lianne M. Moroz (Surrey Place Centre), Michelle Turan (University of Windsor), NATALIE P. CROTEAU (Surrey Place)
Abstract: This study will examine the effectiveness of a post-error distractor trial and probe for a child with autism. This method is seen and practiced in clinical settings in Ontario, yet there is no existing empirical support. The child will be taught to receptively identify novel flashcards and errors that are made during the teaching will result in one of two prompting procedures. The study will follow an across session alternating treatments design. A re-administration of the task with a higher level of prompting and then move to the next trial (in an interspersed data presentation) compared with a re-administration of the task with a higher level of prompting, followed by an immediate distractor trial, and then a test trial with prompts removed. The effectiveness of the prompting procedure will be measured by trials to criterion. The most effective procedure is to be replicated in the final phase. Data is to be collected although organizational approval has been received.
A Replication of an Error Correction Effectiveness Study
Michelle Turan (University of Windsor), Lianne M. Moroz (Surrey Place Centre), Natalie P. Croteau (Surrey Place), MICHELLE TURAN (University of Windsor)
Abstract: This study will examine the effectiveness of a post-error distractor trial and probe for 6 children with autism. This study is a replication of an earlier study conducted previously. The children will be taught to receptively identify novel flashcards and errors that are made during the teaching will result in one of two prompting procedures. The study will follow an across session alternating treatments design. A re-administration of the task with a higher level of prompting and then move to the next trial (in an interspersed data presentation) compared with a re-administration of the task with a higher level of prompting, followed by an immediate distractor trial, and then a test trial with prompts removed. The effectiveness of the prompting procedure will be measured by trials to criterion. The most effective procedure is to be replicated in the final phase. Data is to be collected although organizational approval has been received.
Effectiveness of Error Correction Strategies in Tact Training
LIANNE M. MOROZ (Surrey Place Centre), Michelle Turan (University of Windsor), Natalie P. Croteau (Surrey Place)
Abstract: This study will examine 2 different error correction procedures during tact training with 6 children with autism. The children will be taught to tact unknown items and will be provided with 1 of 2 error correction procedures presented across sessions in an alternating treatments design. A re-administration of the task with a higher level of prompting and then a move to the next trial (in an interspersed data presentation) compared with a re-administration of the task with a higher level of prompting, followed by an immediate distractor trial, and then a test trial with prompts removed. The effectiveness of the prompting procedure will be measured by trials to criterion. The procedure that is demonstrated to be effective for each individual child will be re-presented in a final phase. The effects of the error correction procedure on in-session behaviour will also be examined and discussed.
Preference for Error Correction: An Examination of an Expected Inverse Relationship
MICHELLE TURAN (University of Windsor), Natalie P. Croteau (Surrey Place), Lianne M. Moroz (Surrey Place Centre)
Abstract: The final study will examine the preference of the error correction methods in relation to its effectiveness for 6 children with autism. This study will be conducted by signaling the use of one error correction method versus another prior to instructional delivery. The signaling exposure will be instituted in the baseline phase. Treatment sessions will involve choice for error correction method. A within-session alternating treatments design will be used to measure the relative preference of error correction procedures, by allowing the child to choose the error correction procedures throughout the session. The relative preferences will then be compared to individual student’s success with the particular strategy. Implications for the results in terms of the preference of individual participants and their relative effectiveness in correcting behaviour will be discussed.
Symposium #389
CE Offered: BACB
Issues and Outcomes in Crisis Management
Monday, May 25, 2009
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
North 131 A
Area: CSE; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Merrill Winston (Professional Crisis Management, Inc.)
CE Instructor: Mark T. Harvey, Ph.D.
Abstract: Crisis management is an important and often controversial aspect of providing treatment services to consumers in a variety of settings. Many state and local governmental bodies, as well as private organizations, are currently considering or re-considering policies that will have far reaching affects on consumers and providers, in a time of heightened sensitivity to safety and dignity issues. The potential for misinformation about true dangers and potential benefits of crisis management and restraint procedures is great and may have serious consequences for the field. Practitioners and administrators alike need realistic information on true risks and benefits to guide policy and practice. This symposium presents information on the need for effective crisis management practices and potential risks and problems associated with them. Various ways these procedures have benefitted consumers and ways that their use has been reduced in two programs as a result of emphasis on prevention and de-escalation strategies will be described and evaluated.
Could More Intrusive be Less Restrictive?; The Debate of Physical Management
MARTA T. FIOL (Behavior Services of Brevard), Karen R. Wagner (Behavior Services of Brevard, Inc/UCF)
Abstract: If popular opinion holds that time spent in the community is the most preferred activity for individuals with DD according to advocacy and parental groups then this research could be utilized as a quality indicator for meaningful day activities. Programs for individuals with significant behavior challenges are typically seen as the most restrictive placement that an individual can attend, as demonstrated in Individual Support Documentation that indicate the goal is to transition individuals into a less restrictive environment. An analysis of the proportion of time an individual spends in restraint versus other meaningful day activities, including access to the community, was conducted for adults diagnosed with various developmental disabilities attending an Intensive Behavioral Adult Day Training Center in Central Florida. Individuals that attend this IB-ADT are unable to attend or have been terminated from other settings due to the frequency, intensity and magnitude of the dangerous and challenging behaviors displayed. These data will show that although individuals are subject to criterion based physical interventions than many individuals in other ADT’s may not be, they are able to access meaningful activities, including access to the community, at unexpectedly higher rates than one would suppose due to the nature of their behaviors.
Highlighting Behavior Management to Reduce the Need for Crisis Management
JOHN BEETAR (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Aaron Parsons (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Susan Villani (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Knowing when and how to use behavior management is crucial in educational settings, particularly those that deal exclusively with special needs students. Children and adolescents with persistent and severe mental and behavioral health disorders presently receive treatment on a daily basis in special educational schools. This phenomena has been due in part to currently managed health care and short hospital stays. In addition, the Individual with Disabilities Educational Act (IDEA) states that all children must have access to an education regardless of their disability. As such, special education schools have become treatment facilities for children and adolescents who struggle on a daily basis with psychiatric disorders. Kennedy Krieger School Programs, a nonpublic special education facility in Baltimore, Maryland, has reduced the use of restraint and seclusion of students with an emphasis on the prevention and de-escalation of crises. Data will be presented and include the number of restraints and locked-door seclusions over a 7-year period. Overall, a transdisciplinary approach that includes intensive staff training, comprehensive behavioral and cognitive assessments, and ongoing monitoring are critical elements in the effective behavioral management of special education students.
The Eventual Elimination of all Seclusion and Restraint; The Perfect Plan for the Perfect World
MERRILL WINSTON (Professional Crisis Management, Inc.), Neal N. Fleisig (Professional Crisis Management, Inc.)
Abstract: This presentation examines some recent language introduced into a Florida Legislative Bill. The paper examines some language of the bill and the implications of this language for practice in behavior analysis. This presentation attempts to correct some of the misconceptions about the use of restraint and attempts to elucidate some of the unseen benefits of restraint that go beyond the simple provision of momentary safety for an individual with disabilities. There will be a behavioral discussion of the meaning of “self-control” and how this class of behaviors can develop through the transfer of stimulus control through a fading procedure in which there is a transfer of control from actual physical holding to the mere presence of the individuals that have been paired with holding. There is also a discussion of pros and cons of various forms of restraint, the implications of not using restraint, and the difference between numerical and clinically meaningful reduction of restraint usage.
Recognizing Ineffective, Counterproductive and Dangerous Crisis Management Procedures
NEAL N. FLEISIG (Professional Crisis Management, Inc.), Merrill Winston (Professional Crisis Management, Inc.), Laraine Winston (Professional Crisis Management Association, Inc.)
Abstract: Organizations delivering behavioral support services for individuals across educational and clinical settings often are required to use planned and reactive intervention strategies that include a variety of non-physical (gestural and verbal) interactions and physical holding. It is critical that these organizations employ these strategies in an effective and safe manner. Crisis intervention strategies may be dangerous when they are trained, designed, and implemented in such a manner that results in direct injury to the individual receiving services. Crisis intervention strategies are ineffective and or counterproductive when non-specific strategies are applied to very specific behaviors requiring a different and sometimes contrasting intervention. When this occurs, targeted crisis behaviors may increase in intensity and duration or may fail to respond at all. This presentation will present the most common ineffective, counterproductive and dangerous crisis intervention errors that educators and human service providers tend to make, and explores some ways to avoid them.
Symposium #393
CE Offered: BACB
Recent Developments in the Experimental Analysis of Human Behavior
Monday, May 25, 2009
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
North 225
Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
Chair: Amy Kenzer (Center for Autism and Related Disorders)
Discussant: Amy Kenzer (Center for Autism and Related Disorders)
CE Instructor: Matthew Normand, Ph.D.
Abstract: This symposium will consist of three presentations on the experimental analysis of human behavior. Each presentation will address a different behavioral phenomenon, including resurgence, conjugate reinforcement, and extinction-induced variability. Current data from research on each topic will be reviewed and implications for future research and practice will be presented.
Resurgence of Operant Variability
MICHELE R. BISHOP (Center for Autism and Related Disorders), Patrick M. Ghezzi (University of Nevada)
Abstract: Resurgence is the reemergence of a previously reinforced and eliminated behavior following the contingency of reinforcement for a more recently reinforced behavior. The present study was designed to investigate if resurgence is a specific form of extinction-induced variability, or if resurgence is observed in the absence of other extinction-induced responses. This study examined the resurgence of a repertoire of variable responding with human participants using a computer-based experimental preparation. Results demonstrated, 1) the resurgence of operant variability, 2) that the resurgence of operant variability was repeatable over time, 3) that the magnitude of resurgence decreased as a function of repeated condition, 4) that as the number of control icons present on the visual display increased the magnitude of resurgence decreased, and 5) that several other responses not recorded by the experimental apparatus occurred when participants were not earning points. A discussion about the relationship between the resurgence of operant variability, extinction-induced variability, and problem solving will be presented.
What Behavior Analysts Need to Know About Conjugate Reinforcement: New Examinations and Possibilities
KENNETH MACALEESE (University of Nevada, Reno), Patrick M. Ghezzi (University of Nevada)
Abstract: Conjugate reinforcement is a fixed ratio 1 schedule with the added feature that the intensity of the reinforcer is proportional to the rate and/or intensity of responding. The effects of conjugate reinforcement on the responding of college students was examined in four experiments. Using a reversal design in the first three experiments, conjugate reinforcement was alternated with extinction, a reverse conjugate arrangement, and conjugate noise, respectively. In the fourth experiment, the percentage of intensity change was alternated and evaluated within a multiple schedule format. The results of the four experiments will be presented and discussed in relation to a recent call for the re-examination of conjugate reinforcement as it relates to "difficult to treat" automatically reinforcement behaviors (Rapp, 2008). Implications for further research on conjugate reinforcement will be discussed.
Extinction-induced Response Variability in Young Children with Autism
VALERIE R. ROGERS (University of Nevada, Reno), Patrick M. Ghezzi (University of Nevada)
Abstract: Response variability is an integral part of an organism’s interactions with its surrounding environment. Children with autism are often characterized as lacking variability in their responses. This decrement may be result of a limited amount of extinction-induced response variability. A procedure was developed to determine the extent with which children with autism demonstrate extinction-induced variability with respect to response location. Results suggest that the participants with autism demonstrated more extinction-induced variability with respect to response location than the participants of typical development. Conversely, the participants with autism demonstrated less extinction-induced variability with respect to non-location response topographies when compared to the participants of typical development. The results are discussed in terms of the utility of variable response topographies and the need for directly reinforcing response variability in children with autism. Suggestions for future research are provided.
Symposium #397
CE Offered: BACB
Engineering Discovery Learning: Generativity and Contingency Adduction
Monday, May 25, 2009
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
North 121 A
Area: EDC/EAB; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Kent Johnson (Morningside Academy)
CE Instructor: Terence Blackwell, M.S., S.A.S.
Abstract: The study of generativity is the study of conditions that occasion the emergence of novel behavior and complex behavior without directly programing them. Many behavior analysts are interested in generativity, and approach it from a variety of perspectives and procedures, including equivalence relations, rule-governed behavior, relational frame theory, recombinative generalization, interconnecting repertoires, and contingency adduction. This symposium will focus upon contingency adduction and interventions that promote it. In presentation #1, Johnson will define generativity and contingency adduction; provide examples of contingency adduction in the classroom, and everyday life; and describe data on the arrangement and occurrence of contingency adduction. In presentation #2, Robbins will describe generative repertoires and two technologies for establishing them: a self-questioning procedure we call Fluent Thinking Skills (FTS), and a problem solving routine called Talk Aloud Problem Solving (TAPS). In presentation #3, Rickard will review basic research in each of the generativity approaches, and describe the necessary and sufficient conditions for each. In presentation #4, Layng will describe how stimulus control relations can explained by examining their dimensional stimulus control (what is responded to), and abstractional/instructional stimulus control (how one responds), and how these two aspects of stimulus control and their relation to contingency adduction further our understanding of novel behavior such as perspective-changing, insight, and metaphorical extension.
Generativity and Contingency Adduction Defined
KENT JOHNSON (Morningside Academy)
Abstract: Generativity can be understood by examining the process of contingency adduction. Contingency adduction is the recombination of prior learning to meet the requirements of new contingency contexts. Behaviors learned under separate conditions are recruited under new conditions to form new combinations or blends that serve a new or different function. Repertoires selected from the combination and recombination of previous selections become part of the selecting environment for further repertoires, and so on, to produce increasingly complex behavior. In this way, complex behavior can be viewed as the evolving outcomes of a learner’s environmental selection history. I will give examples of student repertoires adduced by contingencies in our classrooms, and some experimental data collected while programing early reading behaviors. Contingency adduction may be promoted in at least 3 ways: careful sequencing of instructional objectives, delayed prompting from teachers and peers, and explicitly teaching generative repertoires. I will briefly outline these approaches. Our Generative Instruction procedures and the phenomenon of contingency adduction make explicit some of the conditions that produce novel behavior, complex behavior, and discovery learning.
Generative Repertoires in a Morningside Classroom
JOANNE K. ROBBINS (Morningside Academy)
Abstract: The thinking skills "movement" is over twenty-five years old with educators and psychologists approaching classroom instruction and thinking from a long menu of options. As behavior analysts we can draw upon Arthur Costa’s analysis of how to best promote teaching and learning of this repertoire we call thinking: should the teacher teach for thinking; of thinking; about thinking? However, another expert in this field, Edward de Bono, cautioned us about blending approaches, “There are many great cuisines in the world: French, Chinese, Italian - and you seem to be trying to make a great stew out of all of them.” Behavior analysts are in a unique position to both draw upon others' work, yet make sure the derived procedures are effective. Using a contingency analysis, we can examine the relations between teacher and student, between students and instructional materials, between students using self-questioning, as in our Fluent Thinking Skills program, and acquisition of prerequisite skills, and between acquisition of the qualities shaped using our TAPS program and successful problem solving.  By analyzing contingencies, we examine how self-generated stimuli restrict response alternatives and  “provide an occasion for repertoires that may be relevant to ‘finding a solution,’ or stated differently, to making patterns, or combinations of patterns, candidates for contingency adduction” (Layng). Everyday school examples will be provided of how contingencies combine, overlap and ultimately define generative repertoires.
Understanding Generativity: An Analysis of the Necessary and Sufficient Conditions for Producing Emergent Outcomes
KENDRA L. RICKARD (University of Nevada, Reno - Center for Advanced L)
Abstract: The description of conditions and learning histories essential to give rise to novel behavior or new combinations of previously learned behaviors has implications for the understanding of complex human phenomena such as creativity, problem solving, and the generative nature of language. Many areas of basic research examine such emergent repertoires, and different principles, processes and terms have been put forth to describe and/or account for them. The current presentation will discuss basic research concerned with emergent or generative outcomes. Specifically, processes of interconnecting repertoires, contingency adduction, recombinative generalization, rule-governed behavior and stimulus equivalence will be considered. The necessary and sufficient conditions in each of these generative approaches will be discussed.
The Importance of Dimensional and Abstractional/Instructional Stimulus Control to Analyzing Complex Behavior and Designing Generative Instruction
T. V. JOE LAYNG (Headsprout)
Abstract: Central to our understanding of generative instruction is the occasion – behavior relation. These relations can be described as alternative stimulus control topographies (SCTs) from which some are selected and other are not. As Ray & Sidman (1970) noted, however, an SCT must first occur before it can be selected by reinforcement. There is much more involved than simply reinforcing behavior in the presence of a stimulus. This presentation will examine how SCTs can be understood in terms of dimensional stimulus control (what is responded to) and abstractional/instructional stimulus control (how one responds), and how certain SCTs can be rapidly established. It will also describe how the relation between dimensional control, abstractional/instructional control, and contingency adduction can further our understanding of such “generative” topics as change in perspective, insight, reorganization of behavior, metaphor, relational responding, and stimulus class.
Symposium #401
CE Offered: BACB
Applying OBM to promote system-wide effects in Autism and General Early Intervention Service Providers
Monday, May 25, 2009
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
North 221 C
Area: OBM/AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Steven Woolf (BEACON Services)
Discussant: Robert F Littleton Jr (Evergreen Center)
CE Instructor: Jose Martinez-Diaz, Ph.D.
Abstract: Human services agencies that utilize principles of Organizational Behavior Management (OBM) objectively define staff behaviors, design specific interventions to achieve goals, and regularly measure progress to assess effectiveness. According to Daniels and Daniels (2004), successful agency business models are defined by the ability to produce measurable results. This symposium examines three human services agencies with individually designed performance management models used to support clinically effective practice, the self-management of staff service productivity goals, and behavior-based quality assurance.
Using OBM to Increase Levels of ABA Service Intensity for Children with PDD/Autism
STEVEN WOOLF (BEACON Services), Robert F Littleton Jr (Evergreen Center)
Abstract: Research has demonstrated the effectiveness of providing early and intensive behavior-based educational programming to young children with autism (Howard, Sparkman, Cohen, Green, & Stanislaw, 2005; Reed, Osborne, & Corness, 2007). Many states have supported early intervention home-based services to treat young children with autism/PDD. Some funding models include features that discourage adoption of preferred levels of service intensity and clinical designs. This presentation will discuss options available to encourage and motivate behavioral educators to adopt intensive ABA service models. An incentive system was designed to reinforce staff for providing home-based ABA services consistent with best practice. The presentation will review data and discuss the effects of extending incentives to clinical supervisors and the effects of visual posting on service intensity levels.
Because it Works: The Systematic Application of a Performance Management Program in a Non-Profit Setting
MICHAEL SANTASIERI (Human Services Management Corp.), Robert F Littleton Jr (Evergreen Center)
Abstract: Improving staff performance at all organizational levels increases the likelihood of achieving organizational outcomes and mission(s). The non-profit operating environment is increasingly faced with challenges manifested by increasing regulatory demands, staff recruitment, retention, and training issues, and economic scarcity, and is fertile ground for the introduction of a behavior based management system that works to effectively and efficiently improve staff performance. This presentation will examine the elements that support the implementation of a Performance Management Program in a non-profit setting. These elements include identifying staff and organizational performance related issues, establishing performance indicators, implementing measurable action plans, assessing action plan outcomes, providing staff and organizational feedback and reinforcement, and continuous quality improvement evaluation. Sample forms, data collection, and reporting tools will be presented. In addition, this presentation will also examine implementation strategies and processes that are valuable in building an organizational culture that embraces a behavior-based approach to performance management.
The Effects of Self-Management of Productivity Goals in a General Early Intervention Service Delivery System
JOANN OTLIN (Criterion Child Enrichment), Robert F Littleton Jr (Evergreen Center)
Abstract: Many human service agencies are challenged to provide quality services while maintaining financial viability. This presentation will chronicle the implementation of a management system designed to increase individual staff productivity when working with young children at risk for developmental delays. The presentation will review outcome data based on individual and group productivity monitoring systems utilizing the principles of organizational behavior management (OBM). The presentation will discuss targeted staff behavior, operationally defined production goals, compliance monitoring, and outcomes of financially based incentive programs on staff behavior.
Tutorial #409
CE Offered: BACB
Mindfulness for Two: An Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Approach to Mindfulness in Psychotherapy
Monday, May 25, 2009
11:00 AM–11:50 AM
West 301 CD
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
BACB CE Offered. CE Instructor: Caio Miguel, Ph.D.
Chair: Ann Branstetter-Rost (Missouri State University)
Presenting Authors: : KELLY G. WILSON (University of Mississippi)
Abstract: The most obvious ACT connection to mindfulness is in the here-and-now quality of mindfulness. We bring attention to bear in a flexible and focused way in the present moment. The non-judgmental posture of mindfulness is captured by the acceptance dimension of ACT. In being mindful, many things arise. All are met with equanimity. We bear witness with acceptance: to thoughts, emotions, memories, urges, and, paradoxically, even to the judgments that surely arise. In coaching an accepting and open awareness of thoughts-as-thoughts, of emotional-reactions-as-emotional-reactions, of sensations-as-sensations, we notice these things as ongoing processes, rather than being caught by the contents of awareness. This latter is an example of defusion. When a client returns again and again to the present moment, witnessing with equanimity each thing that arises in awareness, they make contact with a sense of self that is distinct from the contents of awareness—what is called in ACT, self-as-context. The tutorial will provide a behavioral analysis of mindfulness, the role it plays in ACT, and finally, technical means by which we can bring the kind, careful attention found in a mindfulness practice directly into a therapeutic dialogue. Video materials will be used to demonstrate mindfulness for two in ACT.. Kelly G. Wilson, Ph.D., is an Associate Professor of psychology at the University at Mississippi. He is Past President of the Association for Contextual Behavioral Science, Representative-at-Large of the Society for a Science of Clinical Psychology, and is one of the co-developers of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. Dr. Wilson received his B.A. from Gonzaga University and his Ph.D. at the University of Nevada, Reno. He joined the faculty at the University of Mississippi in 2000 where he established the Mississippi Center for Contextual Psychology. Dr. Wilson has devoted himself to the development and dissemination of ACT and its underlying theory and philosophy for the past 19 years, publishing 34 articles, 28 chapters, and 5 books including Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: An Experiential Approach to Behavior Change and the forthcoming Mindfulness for Two: An Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Approach to Mindfulness in Psychotherapy. He has central interests in the application of behavioral principles to understanding topics such as purpose, meaning and values, therapeutic relationship, and present moment focused work. Dr. Wilson has presented workshops to more than 18 countries, and has participated as co-investigator in a wide range of research projects in the U.S., Sweden, Romania, and the United Kingdom.
KELLY G. WILSON (University of Mississippi)
Panel #410
CE Offered: BACB
A New Concept of Experience in Learning and Development
Monday, May 25, 2009
11:00 AM–11:50 AM
North 132 BC
Area: DEV/TPC; Domain: Theory
CE Instructor: Michael C. Clayton, Ph.D.
Chair: Jacob L. Gewirtz (Florida International University)
LINDA J. COOPER-BROWN (The University of Iowa)
JACOB L. GEWIRTZ (Florida International University)
GARY D. NOVAK (California State University, Stanislaus)
PETER MCGILL (Tizard Centre, University of Kent)
Abstract: In the invited B. F. Skinner lecture, Celia Moore will make the case that development occurs through constructive processes that use available resources that are either endogenous to the organism as well as incorporated from its own natural environment. She will argue that reliable resources for development are provided by conditions essential for life found in the physical and social world of an organism and functions of its own body. (These conditions are assumed to generate experience, which seem to operate through neurosensory, neuromotor, and hormonal activity to affect developmental outcomes). From this view, experience encompasses heterogeneous contributors functioning at molecular, cellular, anatomical, physiological, and behavioral levels in a developing system. The panelists will discuss whether this broad concept of experience can help resolve difficulties inherent in nature-nurture issue and understand human behavioral development.
Tutorial #420
CE Offered: BACB
A Systemic Change in a Health Care Organization
Monday, May 25, 2009
1:30 PM–2:20 PM
West 301 CD
Area: OBM; Domain: Service Delivery
BACB CE Offered. CE Instructor: Cheryl Davis, M.S.Ed.
Chair: Heather M. McGee (Western Michigan University)
Presenting Authors: : KAROLYN A SMALLEY (The Performance Puzzle)
Abstract: Today’s health care environment is tumultuous, uncertain and costly. Governmental regulations and fee structures change frequently. Pharmaceutical and device companies create new products and technologies. Professional medical associations develop new guidelines and protocols to meet these changes. How does a medical practice improve or maintain profitability in the face of these changes? Practice leadership knows the practice must become more efficient. Usually there is no lack of ideas or solutions on how to do this. However, what is less well known are which variables to select and monitor in order to determine success. This presentation is about one practice that had seen a steady increase in overhead and a 3-year trend of reduced net income for physicians. A reasonable solution had been identified. However, the practice had a history of poorly implementing solutions. Consultants were hired to help determine if the practice had identified the correct solution and to recommend implementation strategies and tactics that would enable the practice to succeed. One and a half years after the consultants made their recommendations, the practice saw a 299% increase in profitability. In addition, the administrator could supply anecdotal information that demonstrated the practice had learned to identify the correct variables, collect data and implement an appropriate solution. Karolyn A. Smalley, a Performance and Instructional Systems Consultant, is a graduate of Michigan State University, the programmed-learning workshop of the University of Michigan, and the MA program in Industrial / Organizational Psychology at Western Michigan University. She helps improve performance at the organization, process and the job level for large, medium and small business organizations. She specializes in process improvement projects, performance management systems, and instructional systems. Karolyn combines her understanding of performance systems and instruction to define organizational change strategies and tactics that provide sustainable results to the organization. In addition, she has successfully, developed, mentored and coached individuals at all levels of the organization.
KAROLYN A SMALLEY (The Performance Puzzle)
Symposium #421
CE Offered: BACB
The Effects of Procedural Integrity on Skill Acquisition and Implementation of Behavior Intervention Plans.
Monday, May 25, 2009
1:30 PM–2:50 PM
North 124 B
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Shawn E. Kenyon (NECC)
Discussant: Ronnie Detrich (Wing Institute)
Abstract: The term procedural integrity refers to the implementation of an intervention as intended (Codding, Feinberg, Dunn, & Pace, 2005) or as the inter-observer agreement measures on the occurrence or non-occurrence of the independent variables (Billingsley, White, & Munson, 1980). High procedural integrity involves an experimenter measuring what they intended to measure, or implementing a treatment plan exactly as it was intended. The current symposium addresses the issue of procedural integrity with respect to skill acquisition and behavior plan implementation. The first study examines varying levels of procedural integrity with respect to prompt delays and the observed effect on the acquisition of visual-visual match to sample tasks. Results from this study suggest a correlation between low integrity levels and the number of errors committed. The two other studies examine systems for improving procedural integrity regarding behavior plan implementation. A system of monitoring staff performance was developed and performance feedback based on the integrity with which behavior plans were implemented was chosen as an intervention. Results from both studies further confirm that performance feedback is an effective intervention for improving procedural integrity.
Varying Procedural Integrity Using Progressive Prompt Delay to Teach Visual-Visual Stimulus Relations
PAULA RIBEIRO BRAGA-KENYON (NECC), Katherine Helen Yates (New England Center for Children)
Abstract: Procedural integrity is a measure of how the independent variables are implemented and is an important component of behavior analytic application and research. This study examined the effects of varying levels of procedural integrity (i.e., 100%, 45%, and 0%) on discrimination training using a progressive prompt delay procedure (i.e., 0 seconds, 3 seconds, and 5 seconds) to teach visual-visual stimulus relations. Three typical adults, who had received previous training on implementing match-to-sample discrete trial procedures, took part in the study. An alternating treatments design was used to counterbalance conditions across the three participants. Inter-observer agreement (IOA) was collected for 100% of the sessions and agreement was 100%. Results showed that: 1) the frequency of errors emitted was higher when integrity was reduced to levels below 100%; 2) discriminations were acquired slower when integrity levels were lower; and 3) one of the participants did not reach the mastery criterion during the 0% integrity condition.
The Effect of Performance Feedback on the Program-Wide Integrity of Plan Implementation
FRANCES A. PERRIN (Bancroft NeuroHealth), Denise Marzullo (Bancroft Neurohealth)
Abstract: An evaluation of the source of treatment failures is necessary to successful remediation. Two possible sources of treatment failure include intervention ineffectiveness and lack of implementation integrity. When an intervention is implemented inconsistently, the primary goal is to correct the problem prior to making any changes to the intervention itself. However, monitoring and maintaining high levels of treatment integrity in an applied setting can be challenging. Research on performance feedback has shown it to be a more effective method than traditional consultation for increasing implementation of academic and behavioral interventions (Noell et al., 2005). In the present study, we developed a program-wide system for monitoring treatment integrity in a behavioral stabilization program. The performance of all staff working in the program was monitored regularly by 16 supervisors trained to evaluate treatment integrity and to provide performance feedback. Performance feedback was evaluated in a multiple baseline across living units design. Results demonstrated the effectiveness of this system to increase the integrity with which staff implemented components of behavior and service plans.
An Evaluation of a Program-Wide Process for Improving Treatment Integrity
CHRISTINA M. VORNDRAN (Bancroft NeuroHealth), Alfred Brewin, IV (Bancroft NeuroHealth), Jenna Taylor (Bancroft Neurohealth)
Abstract: Behavior Intervention Plans (BIPs) designed to decrease problem behaviors and increase functional replacement behaviors are commonly developed for individuals with developmental disabilities. When a BIP is reported to be ineffective it can be difficult to determine the cause particularly if levels of treatment integrity are unknown or believed to be low. Research has established effective procedures for monitoring and improving treatment integrity of BIPs (Codding, Feinberg, Dunn, & Pace, 2005). In the present study, a multiple baseline across program design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of individualized and group performance feedback for increasing treatment integrity among staff working in two programs for individuals with disabilities. Results indicated that individualized performance feedback immediately produced significant improvement in all components of treatment implementation. Additional data analysis identified treatment components frequently implemented incorrectly by many of the program staff. Group performance feedback was then provided and shown to further improve treatment implementation. Results were shown to maintain for up to a year. These results replicate and extend the performance feedback literature.
Symposium #422
CE Offered: BACB
Researchers, Educators, and Practitioners: Training Professionals to Support Students with Autism.
Monday, May 25, 2009
1:30 PM–2:50 PM
North 124 A
Area: AUT/EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Jennifer B. Symon (California State University, Los Angeles)
Discussant: Jennifer B. Symon (California State University, Los Angeles)
CE Instructor: Jennifer Copeland, M.S.
Abstract: Many educators and professionals who support students with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) do not receive adequate or specialized training in autism. California State University, Los Angeles (CSULA) offers specialized training programs in autism, including a university certificate and masters degree in special education with an emphasis in autism. The training programs promote multidisciplinary collaboration between special educators and related personnel to effectively support students with ASD. The preservice training program will be described followed by outcome data from a five-year Office of Special Education federally funded grant project. Then, three research studies will be presented that targeted improvements in social interactions with peers and on-task classroom behaviors. Antecedent strategies, including offering choices and providing visual supports, were used in each of the three research presentations. Results indicated improvements in these social skills and behaviors. This symposium demonstrates the value of providing clinical and research training to educators and other team members who can design, implement, and evaluate evidence-based practices.
Teaching initiations and generalizing skills: Reaching levels comparable to typical peers
ELIKA SHAHRESTANI (CSULA), Jennifer B. Symon (California State University, Los Angeles), Randy V. Campbell (California State University, Los Angeles)
Abstract: Children with autism have difficulty in the area of social interaction. Specifically, individuals with autism have difficulty reading social cues and understanding the perspective of others (Attwood, 2000). These deficits not only impede the individual’s development but also may lead to social withdrawal and rejection from peers (Delano & Snell, 2006). Much of the research in the area of social skills has focused on intervention strategies to promote initiating and responding to peers in an effort to increase socially appropriate behaviors. Of all the social skill strategies described in the literature, the efficacy of social stories has been least consistent. In the present study, social story interventions were used in combination with reinforcement to teach social initiations in children with autism. Three children with autism participated in a multiple baseline across participants research design. Results indicated that none of the participants’ initiations increased following Intervention A, social stories alone; however, once reinforcement was added to the social story (Intervention B), all three participants engaged in significantly more initiations as compared to baseline. Peer comparison data were collected to determine the levels appropriate for peers. Results indicated that participants not only reached levels comparable to peers, but also generalized their skills to the school setting.
Using Antecedent Strategies to Improve Behaviors for Children with Autism
YUN-YI TSAI (CSULA), Randy V. Campbell (California State University, Los Angeles), Jennifer B. Symon (California State University, Los Angeles)
Abstract: Antecedent interventions have been implemented to improve classroom behaviors for children with disabilities, including Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This study evaluated the effects of using picture activity schedules with and without choice making components on task engagement behaviors of three children with autism in a special education day care center. An alternating treatment design (Barlow & Hersen, 1984) was used to compare the effectiveness of two different interventions (using activity schedules only and using activity schedules with choice-making opportunities). A preference assessment based on the response-restriction (RR) analysis (Hanley, Iwata, Lindberg, & Conners, 2003) was conducted to determine the differential preference levels of activity choices for each participant before the data collection. Momentary time sampling procedure was used to record all participants’ on-task and off-task behaviors during three independent activities. Observation took place during 15-minute sessions twice per observation day. In addition, a frequency recording method was used to record the number of the adult’s prompts necessary to maintain participants’ task engagement. The results show the participants demonstrated significant decreases in off-task behavior with choice making opportunities. In addition, the number of the adult prompts decreased when choice making opportunities were provided.
Generalizing the Effects of Choice as an Antecedent Strategy to Children in a General Education Classroom
SEBOUH J. SERABIAN (CSULA-school, Behavioral Building Blocks-work), Michele D. Wallace (California State University, Los Angeles), Jennifer B. Symon (California State University, Los Angeles)
Abstract: Providing opportunities to make choices has received increasing support as an antecedent intervention to improve the performance of students with disabilities. Additional research is this area is needed to determine under what circumstances the application of choice making as a curricular intervention is appropriate and produces meaningful outcomes. The present study extended this line of research and investigated whether providing choice opportunities to three children in a general education classroom would impact their performance during independent academic tasks (journal and spelling). In addition to examining the effects of choice on disruptive and on-task and behaviors, this study also examined the effects of choice on task completion and on latency to respond. An ABAB reversal design showed that the choice making conditions increased on-task behaviors, increased task completion, decreased latency to respond and decreased disruptive behaviors. The results of this study not only extends the literature on choice making as a beneficial component of behavioral support, but also broaden the generality of interventions using choice to populations beyond those with developmental disabilities.
Symposium #423
CE Offered: BACB
An Analysis of Teaching and Prompting Strategies for Children with Autism and Developmental Disabilities
Monday, May 25, 2009
1:30 PM–2:50 PM
North 126
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Julie S. Weiss (New England Center for Children)
CE Instructor: Dan Hursh, Ph.D.
Abstract: Four presentations analyzing the effectiveness and efficiency of various teaching and prompting strategies on the acquisition of behavior chains will be presented. The first presentation will discuss a comparison of backward and forward chaining on the acquisition of a play construction model using most-to-least prompting with a fixed delay. The effectiveness of the 2 chaining strategies was evaluated with a multi-element design. Results showed that the efficiency and effectiveness of the chaining procedures varied across learners. The second presentation investigated if independently established related repertoires would emerge as a single chain of behavior when an opportunity was provided for them to occur simultaneously. For all participants, the independent repertoires did occur as a single chain when the opportunity was provided. The third presentation assessed the effects of an intervention package to teach children with developmental delays individual exercise skills in the form of yoga.. . Video modeling and parents training using graduated guidance were utilized to teach the skills. All participants acquired the chains with two participants demonstrating generalization to new videos of yoga exercises. The fourth presentation involves transfer of instructional control to written task sets. Although there have been several investigations of the use of visual prompts with task analyses, none of these clearly demonstrated control by the prompts. Two four year old children with autism spectrum disorders have participated in this study to date. Participants were taught to follow 4, five-step instructional sets using textual prompts and a least to most prompt hierarchy. Although neither participant showed generalization across sets, the single instruction training was never required by the third set and both showed significant savings effects across sets.
A Comparison of Backward and Forward Chaining on the Acquisition of Play and Vocational Skills
EMILY BENNETT (The New England Center for Children), Julie S. Weiss (New England Center for Children), Myrna E. Libby (New England Center for Children), William H. Ahearn (The New England Center for Children)
Abstract: The purpose of the study was to compare the effects of a forward chaining versus backward chaining sequence on the rate of acquisition of a behavior chain. Three individuals diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder participated and the dependent variable was the number of trials to acquisition for three different behavior chains: two 8-step play construct figures, two 12 step play construct figures and two vocational tasks. Each session consisted of one probe trial and 10 training trials. Generalization probes across a novel teacher and one new setting were conducted after acquisition. Most-to-least prompting with a constant delay was utilized for all conditions. Results showed that both training procedures were effective. Efficiency varied across participants but was consistent across replications with play constructs. Findings generalized across new teachers and settings. Additional data will be collected on vocational tasks. IOA data were collected for at least 40% of sessions and averaged 95%. Procedural integrity data were taken for at least 40% of sessions and averaged 95%.
Generating Novel Play and Vocational Skills Sequences of Responding by Teaching Components: Adduction
KERRI P. SHANAHAN (New England Center for Children), Julie S. Weiss (New England Center for Children), Myrna E. Libby (New England Center for Children), William H. Ahearn (The New England Center for Children)
Abstract: Three individuals diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder were taught two separate but related play and vocational behavior chains. Participants were then given the opportunity to combine the two related units into a longer, previously untrained sequential chain of behaviors. All participants independently generated a novel chain of behaviors for the play skills after acquiring all components. Furthermore, this skill generalized across novel play materials. Data will be collected on the vocational tasks. All sessions were videotaped. IOA data were collected for at least 40% of sessions and averaged 95%. Procedural integrity data were collected for at least 40% of sessions and averaged 95%.
Teaching Yoga Skills to Young Children with Developmental Delays with Parents as Intervention Agents
DEBORAH J. GRUBER (Queens College and The Graduate Center CUNY), Claire L. Poulson (Queens College/CUNY)
Abstract: Children with disabilities often lack the skills required to participate in physical fitness activities. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of an intervention package to teach children with developmental delays individual exercise skills. These skills were taught with yoga as the method of exercise. The study was conducted in the home environment, with parents teaching the yoga skills. The video-modeling baseline procedure consisted of presenting a videotape showing a certified yoga instructor providing verbal instructions and physical demonstrations of each step in a 24-step response chain that made up two yoga poses. The experimenter trained the parents to use graduated guidance and reinforcement procedures. The intervention was introduced in a multiple-baseline-experimental design across three participants. The graduated-guidance procedure was provided to the participant, enabling the participant to execute the correct physical alignment for each step in the response chain. Baseline data indicated correct matching of the yoga response chain occurred with no greater that 17% accuracy. Systematically with the introduction of treatment, all participants matched the response chain with 71% accuracy or better. Correct implementation of the graduated guidance procedure occurred for all three parents with the introduction of parent training.
Stimulus Control by Textual Prompts When Completing Task Sequences
CARA L. PHILLIPS (University of Florida), Timothy R. Vollmer (University of Florida)
Abstract: Stimulus control by textual prompts for task sequence completion might facilitate independence, maintenance, and generalization of tasks. Although there have been several investigations of the use of visual prompts with task analyses, none of these clearly demonstrated control by the prompts. Two four year old children with autism spectrum disorders have participated in this study to date. Participants were taught to follow 4, five-step instructional sets using textual prompts and a least to most prompt hierarchy. The sets consisted of independent toy play responses that could be arranged in any sequence. For each set, after initial training in a single response sequence, a novel sequence of the same responses was probed. Single instruction training followed (textual prompts were presented one at a time in any order) if needed. A novel order probe followed. The multiple probe experimental design allowed for tests of both stimulus control by the textual prompts and generalization within and across sets. Although neither participant showed generalization across sets, the single instruction training was never required by the third set and both showed significant savings effects across sets.
Symposium #424
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
The Use of Priming in Supported Inclusion of Children With Autism in General Education Classrooms
Monday, May 25, 2009
1:30 PM–2:50 PM
North 125
Area: AUT/CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Joel P. Hundert (Behaviour Institute)
CE Instructor: Helena Maguire, Master's
Abstract: There is little reason to expect that placement of children with autism in general education classrooms will automatically result in their improved academic performance or social behaviors. Without specific interventions, children with autism in general education classrooms have difficulty learning the class curriculum, attending to teacher instruction, following classroom routines independently, or interacting positively with peers. Unfortunately, there is much more known about how to design and deliver interventions for children with autism in special than general education settings. Interventions to support children with autism in general education classrooms need to be both effective in bringing about improvement of children with autism, but also practical to conduct in a general education setting. One intervention that holds promise is priming, which consists of pre-exposing a child with autism to a problem situation (e.g., following classroom routines, completing seat work assignments) in one setting (e.g., resource room at school, home) that improves the child’s performance in a target setting (e.g., general education classroom). This symposium will explore the use of priming as an intervention to support children with autism in general education classrooms.
The Effect of Priming Conducted At Home on Classroom Routine-Following of Children With Autism
JOEL P. HUNDERT (Behaviour Institute), Miranda Sim (Behaviour Institute)
Abstract: Priming consists of exposing an individual to a problem situation before the situation occurs that improves how the individual performs in a target setting without addition interventions being introduced in that setting. Priming holds promises as an effective intervention to support children with autism in general education classrooms because the intervention is implemented in a setting other than the general education classroom. This paper will present the results of a study in which priming was introduced at home to improve the routine-following behavior of two five-year old boys with autism attending a general education classroom. Two types of priming sessions were conducted. One priming session consisted of each boy being taught to raise his hand and answering questions to a video of the classroom teacher teaching a “calendar time” lesson. The second priming session consisted of each boy practicing giving a social greeting (e.g., “hi”) to a video of a peer initiating a greeting. Effects on participants’ behaviors in the classroom was assessed by a multiple-baseline design across participants. Priming produced a increase in the target behaviors of participants in the classroom without addition interventions being introduced at school.
Limitations In The Use of Embedded Instruction for Supported Inclusion of Children With Autism
DONNA C. CHANEY (Behaviour Institute), Joel P. Hundert (Behaviour Institute)
Abstract: Embedded instruction consists of embedding teaching trials into the regular routine of a general education classroom and has been shown to be effective in teaching IEP objectives to children with autism in general education classrooms. However, in the studies that have been conducted, children with autism typically have received only between 15 and 30 embedded instruction trials in a school day. It has not been demonstrated that it is possible to embed a sufficiently high number of trials into the routines of a general education classroom to address the significant deficits of a child with autism, nor that increasing the number of embedded instruction trials delivered in a school day will increase the performance of children with autism. This paper will present the results of a study comparing the number of embedded instruction trials delivered to a 12-year old boy with autism by: a) a paraprofessional in a resource room; b) a special education teacher in a resource room; and, c) a general education teacher in a general education classroom.
The Use of Video Priming With Social Script Training To Increase the Peer Interaction of Children With Autism
JANE LEE (Behaviour Institute), Joel P. Hundert (Behaviour Institute), Erin Harrison (McMaster University)
Abstract: Social script training has been used to increase the peer interaction of children with autism with their peers in general education settings. Social skills training consists of introducing a structured play interaction sequence that is of interest and within the abilities of a child with autism and his or her peers. Typically, two adults are needed to teach script-following, one for the child with autism and the other for the play partner. Video priming (a video of a social script taken from the perspective of the child with autism) may be a more efficient strategy than adult prompting and praising to teach script-following and increase the interactive play of children with autism. This paper will present the results of a study in which video priming was used to introduce social script training for two children with autism attending general education classrooms. Using a multiple-baseline design effects were evaluated on the interactive play of children with autism both during target play sessions in which the video priming and social skill training were introduced, and during generalization play sessions in which these interventions were not introduced.
The Effect Of Selected Parameters On The Effect Of Priming For Children With Autism In a Classroom Setting
NICOLE WALTON-ALLEN (Behaviour Institute), Joel P. Hundert (Behaviour Institute), Brooke MacKinnon (McMaster University), Faria Sana (McMaster University), Naomi Wheeler (Behaviour Institute)
Abstract: Priming is typically conducted in one settings such as a child’s home or in a resource room at school and its effects are measured at a later time when the child uses the primed performance to handle a problem situation (e.g., following classroom routines) in another setting (e.g., in a general education classroom). It is unclear whether the length of the interval between the delivery of priming and its application by a child will influence the effect of priming. Similarly, it is unknown if the effects of priming would be enhanced by conducting priming in a setting similar to that in which the priming would be used. This paper will present the results of two studies in which a parameter of priming was varied and the resultant effects on the performance of a child with autism in a general education classroom evaluated. One study compared the effects of a 30-minute to a 3-hour delay between priming and its implementation in a classroom for two children with autism. A second study compared the effects of priming conducted in a 1:1 setting to priming conducted in the same classroom setting on the routine-following performance of two children with autism.
Symposium #425
CE Offered: BACB
The Use of Video Modeling to Increase Social Behaviors for People Who Have ASD and Their Families
Monday, May 25, 2009
1:30 PM–2:50 PM
North 120 BC
Area: AUT/EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Mark T. Harvey (Florida Institute of Technology)
Discussant: Lynn Kern Koegel (University of California, Santa Barbara)
CE Instructor: Michelle Turan, Master's
Abstract: From Kanner’s (1943) original conceptualization to the most recent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, social skills deficits have been included among the primary defining characteristics in the complex disorder of Autism. Deficits in social relatedness are observed across the lifespan, and present some of the most debilitating barriers to successful integration of individuals diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Research in the area of video modeling has shown that this approach can be an effective strategy for the acquisition and generalization of appropriate social behavioral repertoires. Utilizing this approach usually entails the creation of videos incorporating confederates (adults, peers, and/or self) who demonstrate examples and/or non-examples of targeted behaviors. After completion, the videos are shown to participants in a training environment (e.g., classroom, home, or community) and measurements of targeted behaviors taken. Results from video modeling interventions have shown great promise in the acquisition, transfer, and maintenance of behaviors. This symposium examines the use of video modeling to increase social skills engagement. The use of video modeling increased play skills for pre-school aged children, conversation skills of young adults, and parent-child interactions for children who have autism. Future directions and integration of video modeling will be presented.
Increasing Playtime Initiations for Children Who have ASD using Video Self- Modeling (VSM)
JORDAN P BOUDREAU (Florida Institute of Technology), Mark T. Harvey (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: The effects of video self modeling (VSM) on social initiations for three children who have autism were investigated using a multiple baseline design. A VSM tape was developed showing the child initiating play activities with peers. Students viewed the VSM videos in their classroom prior to going to a playroom with a dyad of peers. Social initiations during “playtime” were measured and compared to levels exhibited by a typically developing peer within each student grouping. Use of VSM led to an increase in initiation for all participants with two out of three individuals increasing social initiations to levels above typically developing peers. VSM was shown to be an efficacious means for increasing initiations for leisure activities for children who have ASD.
Improving Social Conversation in Young Adults with Asperger’s Syndrome using Video Self-modeling.
WHITNEY J SMITH (Eli and Edythe L. Broad Asperger Center Koegel Autism Center), Lynn Kern Koegel (University of California, Santa Barbara)
Abstract: Young adults with Asperger’s Syndrome (AS) often display a marked impairment in social interaction, particularly social conversation with peers. This can interfere with the initiation and maintenance of peer relationships. Video self-modeling has been shown to be an effective technique for teaching social behaviors. We examined the effects of video self-modeling of social communicative behaviors during social conversation. A multiple baseline design across participants was employed to target question-asking, which was at low levels at baseline, during social conversation. Results showed that video self-modeling was an effective technique for teaching question-asking during social conversation. In addition, generalization to new peers occurred. Social validation measures also indicated that the number of peer interactions in untreated community settings increased following intervention. Results are discussed in terms of advancing intervention techniques to target more complex social goals for older individuals with AS. This presentation will include video-taped clips of baseline, video self-modeling sessions, and post-intervention social conversations.
Effects of Generic Video Modeling on Parent-Child Interaction of Families with a Child with Autism
HUI-TING WANG (University of Washington), Ilene S. Schwartz (University of Washington)
Abstract: Video modeling is an evidence-based instructional strategy in which a child learns a target behavior from watching a model performing the skill on a video tape. Video modeling, although extremely effective and efficient for children with autism, has not been used widely because of its difficulty in implementation. Moreover, all of the video modeling tapes in existing research studies are individualized with either familiar models or/and familiar settings. It would be difficult and time-consuming for educators to make different tapes for different students and for different skills. An exploration of more cost-effective video modeling strategies is needed. There is only one video modeling study focusing on teaching the parents of the children with autism (Reamer, Brady & Hawkins, 1998). Thus, this study was designed to further investigate the effects of video modeling on training parents as well as their children with autism by watching the generic video modeling tape together to improve parent-child interaction, which is considered a critical cornerstone for developing children's other social relationships. A multiple baseline probe design across the four parent and child dyads was used.
Symposium #426
CE Offered: BACB
The Big Picture: Research Reviews on Parent Training, Safety, Naturalistic Teaching, and Intervention for Older ASD Children
Monday, May 25, 2009
1:30 PM–2:50 PM
North 127
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Ryan Bergstrom (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
CE Instructor: Jon Bailey, Ph.D.
Abstract: Empirical studies provide the data that drive applied behavior analysis but focusing solely on particular studies often allows one to “miss the forest for the trees.” That is, only by surveying the full range of research conducted in a particular area can one get a clear picture of the breadth of scientific knowledge available in that area. Reviews of literature are useful to clinicians because they summarize results in a consumable format. In addition, literature reviews are useful to scientists because they take stock of the current status of literature in a given area and provide useful directions for future research. The four review papers contained in this symposium review behavioral research on parent training, safety skills interventions, naturalistic behavioral approaches to teaching children with autism, and finally, behavioral interventions for older children with autism, ages 8-21.
Train the People Who Live it Every Day: A Review of Research on Parent Training
VARDUI CHILINGARYAN (Center For Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Dennis Dixon (Center for Autism and Related Disorders)
Abstract: Much research has been published in the thirty years since Stokes & Baer (1977) called for actively programming for generalization. However, the degree to which the field of behavior analysis has responded to this call is questionable. One area in which this may be directly evaluated is the degree to which research studies discuss and describe the process of generalizing treatment effects to caregivers and training those caregivers to effectively implement interventions. The purpose of the current study was to review the articles published in JABA over the past 10 years (1998-2008) and evaluate the prevalence and form of parent training provided. A total of 597 articles were reviewed to determine possible inclusion. 61 articles were included in this review. Results are discussed in regards to the form of parent training and overall trends.
Older Kids Learn Too: Research on Behavioral Intervention for Older Children with Autism
Jonathan J. Tarbox (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Betty Tia (Center For Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Romolea Manucal (CARD, Inc.), Ellen Kong (CARD, Inc.), Wendy Sanchez (Center for Autism and Related Disorders), MEGAN D. NOLLET (Center For Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Abstract: A commonly held misconception is that applied behavior analytic intervention is primarily for young children with autism. ABA for younger children currently receives the most public attention but a very substantial amount of research has been conducted on ABA treatment for older children and adolescents with autism. However, hundreds of studies have been published in peer-reviewed journals on the application of ABA procedures to improving the functioning of older children and adolescents with ASDs. This presentation reviews all research on ABA for children with autism published in Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, Behavioral Interventions, Research in Developmental Disabilities, and Behavior Modification in the last 20 years.
A Review of Research on Natural Environment Training with Children with Autism
SUSIE BALASANYAN (Center For Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Adel C. Najdowski (Center For Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Abstract: Natural environment training (NET) is a term that refers to naturalistic behavioral approaches to teaching. Several different teaching strategies fall under this classification, including incidental teaching, milieu teaching, and pivotal response training. Generally NET approaches are designed to mimic typical adult-child interactions and maximize naturally occurring learning opportunities. As the name implies, NET focuses on teaching skills in an environment and format that more closely resembles the typical daily activities that a young child may encounter. In addition to the loosely structured format of instruction, NET differs from DTT in that learning trials are initiated by the learner, rather than therapist. This paper reviews research on several different approaches to implementing NET with children with autism.
Teaching Safety Skills to Individuals with Developmental Disabilities: A Review of Published Research
RYAN BERGSTROM (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Dennis Dixon (Center For Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Abstract: Persons with developmental disabilities are at a greater risk of harm/injuries due to accidents, fires, and are more likely to be victims of crimes such as sexual assault. There are a wide array of behaviors that can be taught to increase one’s safety and accident prevention skills. A review of the literature on teaching safety skills to individuals with developmental disabilities was conducted. This yielded a number of studies that taught a wide array of skills from crossing the street, to exiting a building during a fire, to prevention of sexual abuse. Methods and results of these studies are discussed. Preliminary data for a current sexual abuse prevention protocol will be presented as well as recommendations for future direction.
Symposium #432
CE Offered: BACB
Behavior Therapies with Juvenile Offenders: Fire, Sex, and Violence
Monday, May 25, 2009
1:30 PM–2:50 PM
North 222 C
Area: CBM/CSE; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Kirk A.B. Newring (Kirk A. B. Newring, PhD, LLC)
Discussant: Halina Dziewolska (Private Practice/ Behavior Analyst Online)
CE Instructor: Rob Holdsambeck, Ed.D.
Abstract: Recently, the court system has directed much attention to juvenile firesetters. Behavioral treatments built from social learning theory have empirical support. In addition, several behavioral rating scales exist to estimate risk with this population. As the judicial branch has directed more resources towards juvenile offenders, including firesetters, several legislative bodies are increasing their focus on juveniles adjudicated as sexual offenders. A review of the research suggests that early intervention can provide a meaningful impact for the youthful sexual offender. What’s a clinical behavior analyst got to do with all of this? A skillful integration of the best practices sex offender assessment and 3rd wave behavior therapies couples what works with what matters in the treatment of the juvenile sexual offender. In closing, we offer a comprehensive review of the role of applied behavior analysis in the assessment and management of juvenile offenders will be presented. Emerging theoretical trends and evidenced-based practices will be discussed.
Evidence based practices with juvenile fire setters: A social learning note for behavior analysts
JOSEPH D. CAUTILLI (Behavior Analysis and Therapy Partners)
Abstract: Juvenile firesetters is a population that has received much attention recently from the court system. Behavioral treatments built from social learning theory have empirical support. In addition, several behavioral rating scales exist to estimate risk with this population. This symposium offers information on the basics of assessment and intervention for this group.
Recidivism Risk Reduction Therapy (3RT) and the Juvenile Sex Offender
KIRK A.B. NEWRING (Kirk A. B. Newing, PhD, LLC), Jennifer Wheeler (Private Practice)
Abstract: Juvenile sex offenders are the focus of several recent legislative initiatives. A review of the research suggests that early intervention can provide a meaningful impact for the youthful sexual offender. What’s a clinical behavior analyst got to do with all of this? A skillful integration of the best practices sex offender assessment and 3rd wave behavior therapies couples what works (evidence-based practice) with what matters (empirically-derived risk factors) in the treatment of the juvenile sexual offender.
Behavior Therapies with Juvenile Offenders
MICHAEL WEINBERG (Orlando Behavior Health Services, LLC)
Abstract: This presentation will focus on behaviorally-based treatment approaches for court adjudicated juvenile sex offenders. Current literature and program interventions in treatment settings will be presented and discussed. Also, use of CBA approaches to evaluating these sex offenders will be presented. In addition, a comparison of behaviorally based approaches to the standard clinical approaches will be presented and discussed.
Symposium #434
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Further Analyses of the Sensitivity of Partial Interval Recording and Momentary Time Sampling for Detecting Behavior Changes
Monday, May 25, 2009
1:30 PM–2:50 PM
North 129 A
Area: DDA/AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: John T. Rapp (St. Cloud State University)
Abstract: This symposium includes four presentations on the sensitivity of partial interval recording (PIR) and momentary time sampling (MTS) for detecting changes in actual or simulated behavioral events. In the first study, Devine and Rapp generated simulated data to target sessions with various percentages (e.g., 25%, 50%, 75%) of an event and subsequently evaluated the extent to which each interval size of PIR and MTS detected small, moderate, or large behavior changes. In addition, Devine and Rapp evaluated whether 10-min, 30-min, or 60-min sessions increased the sensitivity of each interval size of PIR or MTS for detecting small or moderate behavior changes. Finally, Devine and Rapp also evaluated the extent to which PIR and MTS produced false positives when evaluating changes in duration events and whether interval methods generated trends that did not exist in the respective CDR data paths. Testa and Rapp conducted a study that was similar the Devine and Rapp study; however, they focused on evaluating changes in frequency (discrete) events with PIR and MTS. In the third study, Carrol and Rapp evaluated whether the sensitivity of MTS for detecting small or moderate behavior changes could be enhanced using (a) combinations of MTS and PIR, (b) combinations of MTS and whole interval recording, and (c) variable intervals sizes of MTS. In the final presentation, Delmolino et al. evaluated the extent to which various interval sizes of PIR and MTS detected the same behavior function as continuous measures based on the results from functional assessments for several individuals.
Evaluating the Accuracy of Interval Recording Methods in Estimating Duration Events: Assessing the Effect of Session Length
SHERISE L. DEVINE (St. Cloud State University and St. Amant), John T. Rapp (St. Cloud State University)
Abstract: This study extends upon the body of research that exists in assessing the accuracy of partial-interval recording (PIR) and momentary time sampling (MTS) in estimating duration events. Simulated data were generated to produce various absolute durations of behavior (25%, 33%, 50%, 66% and 75%) for various session lengths (10 min, 30 min, and 60 min). Inter-response times (IRT) were simulated for low, medium, or high ratios for each percentage of behavior. The generated data were scored using continuous duration recording (CDR) and graphed into ABAB reversal designs. Subsequently, the generated data were re-scored using PIR and MTS with interval sizes set at 10 s, 20 s, 30 s, 1 min, and 2 min. Results were graphed accordingly into ABAB reversal designs and visually inspected for functional control otherwise depicted in the CDR measures. Overall, increased session length yielded increased sensitivity for most interval recording methods examined, with exception to PIR interval sizes set at 30-s or higher. Increased session length allowed MTS with interval sizes up to 30-s to detect a slightly higher proportion of small behavior changes than 10-s MTS when using shorter sessions.
Evaluating the Sensitivity of Interval Recording Methods for Detecting Changes in Frequency Events: The Effect of Session Length
JENNIFER TESTA (St Cloud State University), John T. Rapp (St. Cloud State University)
Abstract: This study extends the findings on the accuracy of using partial interval recording (PIR) and momentary time sampling (MTS) to estimate frequency events by investigating the effects of session length. Using simulated data, continuous frequency records (CFR) were generated for events at different rates (approximately 0.75, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 6.0, 8.0, 13.0, and 20.0 rpm) and session lengths (10, 30, and 60 min). Thereafter, CFR were converted into PIR and MTS records with 10-s, 20-s, 30-s, 1-min, and 2-min intervals. Data were depicted on line graphs and analyzed within ABAB reversal design. The results indicated that the sensitivity of various interval sizes of MTS increased as the session length increase and that some interval methods generate trends that do not appear in the CFR data paths.
Detecting Changes in Simulated Events: Using Variations of Momentary Time-Sampling to Measure Changes in Duration Events
REGINA A CARROLL (Saint Cloud State University), John T. Rapp (St. Cloud State University)
Abstract: The extent to which a greater proportion of small behavior changes could be detected with momentary time-sampling (MTS) was evaluated by (a) combining various interval sizes of partial-interval recording (PIR) with specific interval sizes of MTS and (b) using variable interval sizes of MTS that were based on means of 20 s and 1 min. For each targeted percentage, low, moderate, and high interresponse times to event-run ratios were compared with reversal designs to determine whether sensitivity increased with either variation of MTS. The results showed that (a) combinations of MTS and PIR and MTS and WIR yielded increased sensitivity over MTS alone; however, the increased sensitivity was offset by an increased probability of generating false positives and (b) variable-interval MTS produced comparable sensitivity to fixed-interval MTS. Thus, none of the three variations of MTS yielded increased detection of small behavior changes.
Comparison of data obtained via continuous and interval recording methods during functional behavior assessment and treatment evaluation for stereotyped behavior.
SUZANNAH J. FERRAIOLI (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutger), Lara M. Delmolino (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutger), Robert LaRue (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutger), Kate E. Fiske (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Meredith Bamond (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutger), Kimberly Sloman (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutger)
Abstract: A number of studies have demonstrated that the use of partial interval recording (PIR) overestimates the occurrence of stereotyped behavior in clinical settings, whereas momentary time-sampling (MTS) more closely matches the relative duration of the behavior as measured by continuous observation and recording. (Delmolino, Fiske & Dackis, 2008; Gardenier, MacDonald, & Green, 2004). Further, it has been demonstrated that the selection of interval length and rate of the behavior impact the accuracy of both PIR and MTS (Fiske, Delmolino & Ferraioli, 2008; Gardenier et al., 2004 . Despite these findings, PIR data is often utilized for measurement of stereotyped behavior. In related research, Meany-Daboul, Roscoe, Bourret and Ahearn (2007) compared continuous frequency and duration data with PIR and MTS data within a treatment analysis and found that methods generated similar conclusions regarding data trends and response to treatment, although frequency data more closely matched PIR and duration data more closely matched MTS. The current study extends this line of research by comparing the data produced by continuous duration recording with PIR and MTS at various interval lengths for stereotypy exhibited by children with autism across functional behavior assessment sessions. Visual analysis will examine whether the same behavioral function is identified using each data method during functional assessment within a multi-element design. Subsequent data produced in treatment evaluation sessions with each observation method will also be compared to evaluate whether interpretations regarding response to treatment are influenced by data type. This line of research helps to highlight the need for calibration of data collection methods to ensure the most accurate data to guide data-based clinical decisions, particularly in relation to stereotyped behavior.
Symposium #435
CE Offered: BACB
Further Analysis of Variables that Influence Mand Training
Monday, May 25, 2009
1:30 PM–2:50 PM
North 128
Area: DDA/AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Lisa C. Winborn-Kemmerer (West Virginia University)
Discussant: Joel Eric Ringdahl (University of Iowa)
CE Instructor: Bryan Davey, Ph.D.
Abstract: Individuals with developmental disabilities and autism often present a variety of communication deficits. This can include the use of vocal sounds or babbling and the absence of vocal speech. Depending on the individual’s existing communication skills, different topographies of mands (e.g., vocal sounds, manual signs, communication cards, microswitch devices) may be targeted for training and alternative strategies may be needed to effectively increase communication. For example, training and reinforcing more than one mand may increase the individual’s functional communicative repertoire. In addition, training mands across multiple settings and functional contexts may affect the errors made with mands, the individual’s ability to generalize mands, and the amount of problem behavior displayed during training. In this symposium, the presenters will discuss the role of several variables (e.g., training multiple mands, extinction of mands, mand errors, stimulus generalization, and use of lag schedules of reinforcement) that may influence mand training and the use of functional communication skills.
Stimulus Generalization and Extinction of Mands During Functional Communication Training
LISA C. WINBORN-KEMMERER (West Virginia University), Jennifer Wolfe (University of Louisville), Allison Cheek (University of Louisville)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stimulus generalization of two mand topographies across settings and to further evaluate problem behavior and mands when one of the mands was placed on extinction. Two children with developmental disabilities and autism participated in this study. A functional analysis was conducted across one setting to identify the reinforcers for problem behavior. Next, problem behavior was assessed for the escape condition of the functional analysis in an alternative setting. Concurrent FCT programs were then implemented across both settings for problem behavior maintained by negative reinforcement. A microswitch was trained in one setting and a communication card was trained in the other. Following FCT, stimulus generalization (novel setting) was assessed for each mand. Finally, both mands were available for reinforcement in each setting, however, extinction was provided for one of the mands. All phases of this study were conducted within a multielement and reversal designs. Results showed that both mands generalized to novel settings and that the children used the alternative mand, when one of the mands was placed on extinction without increased problem behavior. Interobserver agreement was obtained across 30% of sessions and averaged above 80%.
An Evaluation of Mand Errors Across Functional Contexts During Functional Communication Training.
TERRY FALCOMATA (University of Iowa), David P. Wacker (University of Iowa), Joel Eric Ringdahl (University of Iowa), Kelly M. Vinquist (University of Iowa), Anuradha Salil Kumar Dutt (University of Iowa)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate stimulus generalization errors during and following FCT and to examine the conditions under which errors were most likely to occur. Specifically, we evaluated the occurrence of stimulus generalization errors in manding across functional contexts in which one or more functions of problem behavior were identified. Errors were evaluated across three functional contexts (i.e., restricted tangible, attention, and demand) to allow for a direct evaluation of stimulus generalization within and across reinforcement classes (i.e., positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement) and functional contexts. We first conducted functional analyses to identify the function(s) of problem behavior with three children diagnosed with developmental disabilities. Next, we implemented FCT in which three novel manual signs across three respective functional contexts (i.e., tangible, attention, demand) were trained and the occurrence of stimulus generalization errors was evaluated across all three functional contexts. The results suggested that variables relating to reinforcement class affected patterns of stimulus generalization regardless of the presence or absence of functions of problem behavior within respective functional contexts. Interobserver agreement was obtained during at least 30% of sessions and averaged above 90%.
The Use of Lag Schedules of Reinforcement to Increase the Variability of Vocal Production in Children with Developmental Disabilities
ALLISON TETREAULT (West Virginia University), Claire St. Peter Pipkin (West Virginia University), Brittany Glass (West Virginia University)
Abstract: Children diagnosed with developmental disabilities present a wide range of communication deficits. These deficits may range from complete mutism and nonuse of words to mild grammar deviations. While there is abundant literature on teaching strategies for children who use words, less attention has been given to strategies for subjects who engage in only the production of sounds. Intuitively, shaping procedures that reinforce successive approximations to the target behavior (here, a word) would seem to be a useful strategy. However, some children do not imitate vocal sounds and do not produce enough sounds to allow for the selection of a shapeable vocal unit (e.g., “eat” or “candy” cannot be shaped from the sounds /b/ or /p/). We investigated a lag reinforcement schedule to increase the vocal variability of young pre-verbal children with autism. By increasing variable vocal production, a wider array of sounds developed in the children’s vocal repertoire, which can be selected from and shaped into functional words. Future applications of this technology are suggested. Interobserver agreement was obtained for 30% of sessions and averaged above 80%.
Symposium #436
CE Offered: BACB
Recent Research in Training Mediators of Behavior Change Programs
Monday, May 25, 2009
1:30 PM–2:50 PM
North 120 A
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Kristen Lein (CSU, Fresno and BEST Consulting)
Discussant: Linda A. LeBlanc (Auburn University)
CE Instructor: Daniel J Moran, Ph.D.
Abstract: Most research on behavior intervention procedures involves implementation of procedures by expert clinicians and/or experimenters. While this tradition is likely to contribute to procedural fidelity, in the real lives of clients, it is often parents, teachers, siblings, or others, who will need to be able to implement interventions. Therefore, research on effective methods for training others is needed. This symposium contains four studies on training. The first study examines the use of feedback in the training of paraeducators. The second paper describes the development of a program designed to include siblings in behavioral intervention for children with autism and will present preliminary data. The third study looked at the effects of contextualized treatment on parental adherence to behavior protocols with children diagnosed with developmental disabilities. The symposium will conclude with a discussion by Dr. Linda LeBlanc.
Sibling Sessions: Training Siblings to Participate in Sessions at a Center Based Program for Children with Autism.
KRISTEN LEIN (CSU, Fresno and BEST Consulting), Amanda N. Adams (California State University, Fresno), Jessica Akers (California State University. Fresno), Ashley Yaugher (California State University. Fresno)
Abstract: Children with autism benefit from programs that contain significant family involvement. Siblings of children with autism are not only present in the household, but may carry additional caretaking responsibilities for their sibling or may feel some neglect at the attention a sibling in a treatment program receives. Siblings are often willing and present peers, and can make excellent peer trainers. This allows the sibling an opportunity to take an active and important role in their brother or sisters program, increases their understanding of the process, provides the child with autism a constant trained peer (or near peer) in their home environment providing multiple opportunities for generalization, and, thought not proven, may improve family dynamics. The Central California Autism Center at California State University, Fresno has implemented a sibling session program with these goals in mind. This presentation will include information on how the program was developed, how the siblings were trained, results from pre and post tests, data form the training sessions and the ongoing sibling session design.
Evaluation of an eLearning Tool for Training Behavioral Therapists in Academic Knowledge of Applied Behavior Analysis
CATHERINE PETERS (Center For Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Doreen Granpeesheh (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Jonathan J. Tarbox (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Kathy Thompson (Center For Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Abstract: Effective treatment programs depend on top-quality training of staff. Training is often costly, time-consuming, and can be especially inaccessible for persons living in rural locations. Self-instructional computer-based training programs, also known as electronic learning (eLearning), offer an alternative or supplement to traditional classroom training formats. The eLearning format provides increased accessibility to training by allowing individuals to experience training anywhere in the world with a computer with internet access. This study evaluated the effectiveness of an eLearning program as a supplement to in-person instruction, for training new behavioral therapists on academic knowledge of basic applied behavior analytic principles and procedures. Results are discussed in regards to the overall efficacy and efficiency of the eLearning training format and the implications for global dissemination of behavior analysis.
Evaluating Parental Adherence to Behavioral Intervention for Children with Developmental Disabilities
RYAN P GUTTERSON (Behavioral Building Blocks/California State Univer), Carolyn Hitch (California State University, Los Angeles)
Abstract: This study looked at the effects of contextualized treatment on parental adherence to behavior protocols with children diagnosed with developmental disabilities, and the collateral effects on the child’s behavior. The contextualized treatment included an emphasis on collaborative goal setting within a family-chosen routine. Two dependent variables were measured: (a) percentage of parental adherence (number of steps implemented appropriately over the total number of steps), and (b) frequency of the child’s target response (i.e., functional communication and/or compliance). Results are discussed with respect to the benefits of contextualized parent training approaches for parents of children with developmental disabilities.
Symposium #439
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Goodbye Trainer: The Role of Rule Governed Behavior in Faculty Training
Monday, May 25, 2009
1:30 PM–2:50 PM
North 121 BC
Area: EDC/AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Kelly A. Hobbins (Hawthorne Country Day School)
CE Instructor: Lisa Britton, Ph.D.
Abstract: The higher-order class of behaviors that characterize rule governed behavior play a role in traditional and novel forms of faculty training in schools. Because of the economical nature, and practicality generated by instruction-following, many complex behaviors of school staff are shaped by the verbal community. While many traditional approaches to faculty training involve instruction following, these instructed performances are often insensitive to the consequences experienced in a classroom. The four papers presented in this symposium will provide instructional tactics for ensuring such skilled performance with faculty that allow a combination of both rule governed and contingency shaped experiences through the use of PSI, module systems of training, as well as a teacher performance rate accuracy tool. Further, the papers will examine the contingencies that maintain instruction following, as well as the relationship between verbal formulations and nonverbal contingencies. Results discussed from each of the aforementioned studies will also examine the contingencies that maintain instruction-following with respect to faculty training.
The Economics and Outcomes of PSI in Faculty Training
AMY J. DAVIES LACKEY (Hawthorne Country Day School), Virginia S. Wong (Hawthorne Country Day School), Jean Korchma (Hawthorne Country Day School)
Abstract: The personalized system of instruction (PSI) developed by Keller and his colleagues has been demonstrated to be effective in collegiate settings. Whether this system can be effective in the workplace (specifically a school setting) may depend on the economics of time and student outcomes as a result of this type of training. Procedures described by Keller (1968) were employed with the training of school staff in a behavior analytic school setting, and compared with a traditional lecture method used in workshops and staff training. A within-subjects design was used in which half of the faculty participants experienced the PSI condition and half experienced the traditional lecture method. Following the training sequence, employees were to demonstrate the skills they acquired by running instructional programs in a discrete trial format. Accuracy and rate, as well as teacher and student performance were measured through the use of a Teacher Performance Rate Accuracy Form, or TPRA (Greer), and functioned as the dependent variable of the study.
Using a Self-Management Script with an Embedded Task Analysis to Prompt Teacher Completion of Performance Goals and Collateral Effects on Student Behavior
TINA MARIE COVINGTON (Hawthorne Foundation), Daren Cerrone (Hawthorne Country Day School), Jason Cory Rosenfeld (Hawthorne Country Day School), Amanda W Doll (Manhattanville College), Jean Korchma (Hawthorne Country Day School)
Abstract: In three studies we investigated the effects of a self-management script on the cumulative number of performance goals completed by teachers. Teachers were given a set of 5 performance goals related to increasing verbal behavior; contingency shaped behavior, and verbally mediated skills in ABA. Supervisors through quizzes, spot checks and classroom meetings monitored progress. During intervention, teachers were given a self-management script, which listed the behaviors necessary to identify, organize, set up a timeline, and monitor the completion of performance goals. Results showed that the textual script correlated with an increase in the number of performance goals completed weekly by the participants. Positive effects on student behavior were evident and suggested further investigation on the collateral effects of the completion of the performance goals.
The Effects of Supervisor-Delivered Feedback and Video Self-Observation with the Teacher Performance Rate/Accuracy (TPRA) Measurement
AMANDA W DOLL (Manhattanville College), Daren Cerrone (Hawthorne Country Day School), Jason Cory Rosenfeld (Hawthorne Country Day School)
Abstract: Previous research has demonstrated that teachers in special education settings make superior improvements in their instruction when they are provided with repeated observations and specific, rather than general feedback (Ingham & Greer, 1992) that addresses both their own behavior and their students’ behavior simultaneously, such as with the TPRA (Selinske, Greer, & Lodhi (1991). The present multiple baseline across teachers study used the TPRA measure within a special school environment to provide written and graphic feedback to teachers and teaching assistants during a baseline condition. Those staff identified as requiring support on the basis of their pre-intervention performance were invited to participate. These staff were taught to code videotaped instructional segments until they were calibrated observers to the training tape. Finally, teachers recorded their own teaching and were then taught to perform TPRA observations on themselves and to apply decision rules and goal-setting to their own graphed performances. A functional relationship between video self-observation was demonstrated for several of the teachers.
Teaching machines for teachers - The Legacy of BF Skinner
JEREMY H. GREENBERG (Applied Behavioral Consulting Services, LLC)
Abstract: There has been an increase in the use of computers and technology over the recent years in the instruction of students. Video modeling has demonstrated positive results for many students. Teachers and supervisors can benefit as well from technological enhanced instruction. Schools for students that use applied behavior analysis have a need for consistent training procedures. Some examples of computer-based training will be discussed as well as potential benefits.
Symposium #441
CE Offered: BACB
Quality Assurance Systems: Using OBM to Monitor Critical Clinical Service Delivery Components of ABA Programs
Monday, May 25, 2009
1:30 PM–2:50 PM
North 221 AB
Area: OBM/AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Gordon A. DeFalco (Evergreen Center)
Discussant: Robert F Littleton Jr (Evergreen Center)
CE Instructor: Michael Miklos, M.S.
Abstract: Applied behavior analysis continues to expand and refine effective procedures for producing behavior change. Training and maintaining staff skills in these procedures have become increasingly demanding and labor intensive. Another challenge to the field is service delivery models that involve consultation by staff in off site locations such as schools and home settings. To accommodate these challenges, many companies have developed system-wide management interventions to address the need to effectively impact all clients, insure staff training and skill maintenance, and staff fidelity in procedural implementation. This symposium will describe system-wide interventions that have been designed to address critical training issues in a community residential school and in a community-based consultation and autism services delivery model. The first presentation describes a research study that compared the effectiveness of classroom presentations and online training presentation called Training on Demand (TOD). The second presentation focuses on a critical task for applied behavior analysts, that of graphing data. A systems approach to collecting data, submitting graphs, and monitoring/reviewing compliance will be described. The final presentation describes a supervisory feedback system and the effects of its implementation on supervisor and staff teaching behavior over a 1-year period in a home-based service model.
A Comparison of Web-based versus Live Training on Staff Skill Acquisition.
DIANA LOUISE FISHBACK (Evergreen Center), Gordon A. DeFalco (Evergreen Center)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of 2 staff teaching formats, live presentation and online computer presentation. Approximately 200 experienced and inexperienced employees were randomly assigned to either a traditional classroom or web-based presentation on wheelchair van safety procedures using identical power point and video information. Staff acquisition was assessed on a written test administered immediately after the presentation and a behavior checklist assessing staff performance of safety skills on a wheelchair van. Results indicated minimal differences between the classroom trained and web based trained staff on the written quiz and behavior checklist. All staff also completed a survey evaluating their satisfaction with the presentation format. Satisfaction was measured using a 5-point Likert scale. Results indicate favorable ratings for both online and live presentations with each group averaging 4.0 in all areas. Given the similarity in performance between classroom and web based instruction advantages and limitations of these 2 instructional formats will be discussed. Directions for future research will be considered
Increasing Submission of Graphical Data for Home Based Autism Services
STEVEN WOOLF (BEACON Services), Robert F Littleton Jr (Evergreen Center)
Abstract: The graphic display of data is an essential feature of applied behavior analysis that sets it apart from many other human services and educational professions. Graphs are used by behavior analysts to organize data, determine treatment effectiveness, communicate treatment outcomes to others, and examine the effects of particular interventions on human behavior (Copper, Heron, & Heward, 2007). There is significant research supporting the effectiveness of using graphs to communicate and interpret behavioral/educational data (Parsonson & Baer, 1992). Despite this empirical support, it is often difficult for large human services/educational organizations to maintain and collect graphed data on a consistent basis (Fox & Davis, 2005). This presentation describes the systems used by an agency serving over 300 children receiving home based ABA services. The processes of collecting data, submitting graphs, and monitoring/reviewing compliance will be described. Data will be presented on system implementation and discussed in terms of the effects of system supports, compliance monitoring, visual posting, and incentives relative to graph submission behavior.
Effects of a Supervision Monitoring System on Written Supervisory Feedback
ANN FILER (BEACON Services), Robert K. Ross (BEACON Services), Robert F Littleton Jr (Evergreen Center)
Abstract: Providing quality home based services to children with autism presents a number of challenges. Among those are ensuring that staff training results in competent implementation of complex procedures. In order to accomplish the goals of providing effective supervision, maintaining or remediating teacher performance, systems supports are required. Green, Rollyson, Passante, & Reid, (2002) suggested that “direct feedback” was related to high levels of staff performance. This study also suggested that specific feedback was a critical element of effective supervisory behavior. The present study looks at the effects of the implementation of a formal system to provide objective and subjective feedback on staff implementation of ABA programming in home based settings. The presentation will review the components of a written feedback system and the effects of its implementation on supervisor and staff behavior over a one year period. The data indicate that the overall ratings of staff performance increased. Additionally, the use of the system resulted in higher frequencies of “specific” performance feedback and lower frequencies of “general” feedback statements over time. These data suggest that implementation of a formal supervision feedback system may shape the behavior of supervisors and, in turn, the staff they supervise.
Symposium #443
CE Offered: BACB
Current Issues in Graduate Training in Behavior Analysis
Monday, May 25, 2009
1:30 PM–2:50 PM
North 129 B
Area: TBA/AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Jonathan J. Tarbox (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
CE Instructor: Kyong-Mee Chung, Ph.D.
Abstract: The field of behavior analysis is expanding at a rapid pace, as is evidenced by the growing membership of the Association for Behavior Analysis International and the growing number of Board Certified Behavior Analysts. This is encouraging for the health and vitality of the field but important issues related to the professional quality and scientific foundation of the field, as well as to the availability of qualified experts to meet clinical demand, remain. This symposium consists of four papers discussing various issues related to graduate training in behavior analysis, the manner in which it is currently being conducted, the outlook in terms of supply and demand for individuals with graduate degrees in behavior analysis, and the implications for the quality of the field.
The Graduate Training Crisis in Autism and Applied Behavior Analysis
JONATHAN J. TARBOX (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Abstract: A crisis is currently raging in autism and applied behavior analysis: There simply are not enough masters and PhD-level expert clinicians to meet the clinical demand. Gone are the days when behavior analysts had to beg for funding to work with children with autism. Many top quality agencies now have scores or even hundreds of families languishing on their waitlists, with funding in hand, but for whom there is no one available to supervise their children’s services. This situation is so commonplace that many in the field of applied behavior analysis have come to accept it as a given – but deprivation from effective treatment is anything but a given to the families who desperately need it. Unfortunately, the outlook is bleak. The rate at which new graduate training programs are developing is not sufficient and no solution appears to be on the horizon. This paper will discuss the nature of the problem and some potential steps toward a solution. The case will be made that a significant change in the way in which the problem is currently conceptualized will be necessary if any significant progress is to be made.
Current Issues Associated with Graduate Training in Applied Behavior Analysis
ELLIE KAZEMI (California State University, Northridge)
Abstract: Successful graduate training in Applied Behavior Analysis involves teaching the use of concepts and principles of ABA within the framework of scientific methodology and design. The gap between science and practice has been evident in the field of clinical psychology with a distinction made between professionals who develop, conduct, and publish research (i.e., PhDs) versus professionals who consume and interpret research findings for practice (i.e., PsyDs). Applied Behavior Analysts, however, are scientists in practice, requiring graduate training that fuses these seemingly disparate fields. At CSUN, we find the majority of candidates who currently seek post-MA coursework in behavior analysis either enter our program with previous strengths in scientific methodology and design or in clinical practice. The diverse background of candidates enriches classroom discussion but also serves as a challenge. Furthermore, supervised fieldwork experience is typically conducted at local behavioral agencies or schools limiting overall quality control. I will discuss some of these challenges, how CSUN proposes to deal with some of these challenges, the role of BACB, and changes needed to implement the “Gold Standard Strategy” discussed by Shook, Rosales and Glenn (2002).
Challenges and Opportunities for Graduate Training in ABA in Ireland
KRISTEN A. MAGLIERI (Trinity College Dublin), Rita Honan (Trinity College Dublin), Maeve Bracken (Trinity College Dublin), Claire E. McDowell (University of Ulster), Sinead Smyth (University of Ulster, Coleraine)
Abstract: Behavior Analysis has a long and influential history in Ireland and Northern Ireland, but interest in the application of behavior analysis in education and healthcare has grown considerably in recent years. To meet this growing need, graduate training programs in Applied Behavior Analysis have developed across the island. Training is now available at all levels, from board certified associate behavior analyst to doctoral behavior analyst. This presentation will discuss the benefits and challenges of providing graduate education in ABA as Ireland actively considers how best to implement psychological and special needs services at a national level. Trinity College Dublin developed the first board certified training program at the associate level in Ireland and the course has responded to a variety of challenges during this time. This presentation will review the responses to these challenges and the lessons learned. We will also present perspectives on developing support for ABA services in Ireland and Northern Ireland in general.
Is Graduate Training in Applied Behavior Analysis Possible for Individuals Who Work Full-time?
RACHEL S. F. TARBOX (Chicago School of Professional Psychology, Los Ang), Michele Nealon-Woods (The Chicago School of Psychology, Los Angeles)
Abstract: As the field of behavior analysis continues to grow, the need to provide high quality graduate training has increased. Funding agencies are increasingly requiring that professionals are Board Certified Behavior Analysts, and in some cases, that individuals also hold a doctoral degree. There are a number of well-established graduate training programs in behavior analysis; however, programs are not typically designed to meet the needs of a full-time working professional. There are several reasons why an individual may chose to attend graduate school while maintaining a professional career including; financial constraints, a desire to work in the field while engaging in the learning process, advanced degree requirements at their current place of employment, and more. Although there are some potential drawbacks to attending graduate school under these conditions, there are several potential benefits such as the type of learning environment that is created in the classroom when the students bring their applied experience to the table. The purpose of this talk is to describe a model of graduate training that has been designed to meet the needs of these individuals. Three programs will be described; certificate program for meeting the course requirements for the Behavior Analysis Certification Board, a terminal Masters degree, and a Doctoral degree.
Tutorial #446
CE Offered: BACB
On the Relation Between Stimulus Equivalence, the Naming Hypothesis, and Relational Frame Theory in the Analysis of Verbal behavior and Cognition
Monday, May 25, 2009
2:30 PM–3:20 PM
West 301 CD
Area: DEV/VRB; Domain: Theory
BACB CE Offered. CE Instructor: Jeffrey H. Tiger, Ph.D.
Chair: Ramona Houmanfar (University of Nevada, Reno)
Presenting Authors: : RUTH ANNE REHFELDT (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract: The phenomenon known as derived stimulus relations holds a number of important implications for the understanding of human language and cognition, leading some researchers to suggest that relational learning repertoires are the basis of most, if not all, of complex human behavior. This tutorial will first describe the relation between derived stimulus relations and emerging language repertoires, and will then discuss three current theoretical perspectives on derived stimulus relations. These include Sidman’s (1994) stimulus equivalence paradigm, Horne and Lowe’s (1996) Naming Hypothesis, and Relational Frame Theory (Hayes, Barnes-Holmes, & Roche, 2001). Similarities and differences between the three theoretical positions will be discussed within the context of language development in children, along with the experimental procedures and results of studies in support of each position. Strategies for programming for the emergence of rudimentary verbal repertoires that have been inspired by each theoretical framework, separately and in conjunction, will also be discussed. Dr. Ruth Anne Rehfeldt has had an ongoing interest in derived stimulus relations since she was an undergraduate at the University of Puget Sound, where she did an independent study on the topic with a child with autism. She studied under Dr. Linda Hayes at the University of Nevada, where the two collaborated on a number of basic laboratory investigations of stimulus equivalence. After working directly with individuals with autism and other intellectual disabilities, Dr. Rehfeldt’s interests in derived stimulus relations shifted from the laboratory to educational and habilitation settings. Her interests in refining a technology based upon derived stimulus relations has evolved further since joining the faculty in the Rehabilitation Services and Behavior Analysis and Therapy programs at Southern Illinois University. To this end, Ruth Anne co-edited an upcoming book with Yvonne Barnes-Holmes entitled Derived Relational Responding: Applications for Learners with Autism and other Developmental Disabilities: A Progressive Guide to Change, which features a number of internationally recognized contributors in the area of relational learning. Ruth Anne has published over 70 scientific papers and book chapters. She is currently the Editor of The Psychological Record, and is an editorial board member for Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, and The Behavior Analyst.
RUTH ANNE REHFELDT (Southern Illinois University)
Symposium #460
CE Offered: BACB
Diverse research and clinical activities in a new behavior intervention clinic in Korea
Monday, May 25, 2009
3:00 PM–4:20 PM
North 129 A
Area: DDA/AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Kyong-Mee Chung (Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea)
CE Instructor: Katharin Gutshall, M.A..
Abstract: A new behavior intervention clinic was open in at the Seoul Children’s municipal hospital in 2008. The clinic provides assessment and treatment services for children with various developmental disabilities and their families. Also, the clinic has been provided consultation services to the related fields including inpatient unit. This symposium consisted of 4 research activities based on clinical services conducted at the clinic over the past 6 months. Although continuous efforts have to be made for research and clinical areas, these presentations suggest that this clinic so far contributed the establishment of ABA in Korea both research and clinical areas. Suggestions for the future will be discussed.
Effectiveness of group behavior intervention program for parents of children with developmental delays and autism spectrum disorders
KYONG-MEE CHUNG (Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate effectiveness of group behavior intervention program for mothers of children with autism spectrum disorders and mental retardation. Participants were 23 mothers whose child ages from four to six years. They were randomly assigned to two groups: Theory-Based Group (TBG) vs. Practice-Based Group (PBG). The parent training, lasting 8 weeks for 1 1/2 hours per session, targeted 12 basic skills to increase positive behaviors and reduce problematic behaviors. The only difference was mothers of the PBG group actually developed and implemented a behavior management program for their own child and received feedback from the therapist. The training effectiveness was evaluated through direct observation using an observational coding system as well as self-report questionnaires. For both groups, less problem behaviors and more positive behaviors were observed during the post-treatment and 3 month follow-up. However, TBG group performed better than the PBG group in reducing problem behaviors during task and play condition. These results suggested that, theory learning is more effective for improving mothers’ and children’ behaviors during task and play settings. Clinical and research implications and future directions were discussed.
The Effectiveness of Positive behavior support(PBS) for children with developmental disabilities in an inpatient unit.
SEUNG-AH LEE (Yonsei University), Hyeonsuk Jang (Seoul municipal children's hospital), Dongsoo Suh (Seoul Children’s municipal hospital)
Abstract: The present study evaluated the effectiveness of PBS implemented by 12 staffs for 23 children with developmental disabilities in an inpatient unit of a city hospital. Children engaged in a variety of problem behaviors including self-injury, tantrums and noncompliance. The staffs consisted of nurses and assistant nurses working in 3 shifts. Trained graduate students used a behavioral checklist to collect data on the behaviors of children and staff through partial interval recording(10-second interval for one child and 60-second interval for one staff, respectively). After baseline measurements, an instructional session was provided to inform staff about PBS and underlying basic behavioral principles. The staffs were advised to give praise and attention for children’s positive behaviors and ignore any problem behavior. Weekly training sessions were also held and feedbacks were provided on their behavioral progress. The results showed that children’s problem behavior decreased while the level of positive behavior remained the same. In addition, staff’s positive interactive behavior increased while negative behavior decreased. The use of PBS has barely been assessed in unit setting. With reduced problem behaviors of children, it would be possible to expect cost-effective management of unit by saving time and labor for taking care of problem behaviors.
The Effect of Individual Parent-Training on Discrete Trial Training (DTT) for Mothers of Children with Developmental Disorders
U-JIN LEE (Yonsei University), Yeon-Jin Jo (Seoul Children’s municipal hospital)
Abstract: This study investigated the effects of individual parent-training on DTT for mothers of children with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) and autism aged from 2 to 4 years (1 boy and 2girls). A multiple baseline design across subjects and behaviors were used. During treatment phase, individual parent-training on DTT was provided focusing on three target behaviors; compliance with instructions (B1), imitation (B2), and eye-contact (B3). Performance of mothers was measured by a checklist consisting of 4 subscales; prompting, reinforcement, procedure, and data-collecting. Results demonstrated that the individual parent-training was effective to improve levels of performance of mothers on DTT. The maintenance effect was also reported from follow-up data for one mother. Three mothers demonstrated generalization of acquired skills to trained target behaviors. Additionally, children showed improvement in a few target behaviors. This result implies that individual DTT training for parents has the advantage of generalization and cost effect.
The Effectiveness of Using Stimulus Control in Treatment for Problem Behaviors with Diverse Functions
JEAN H CHOI (Yonsei University), You-na Kim (Seoul Children’s municipal hospital), Hyeonsuk Jang (Seoul municipal children's hospital)
Abstract: The aim of present study was to examine the effectiveness of treatment package including stimulus control for problem behaviors with diverse functions. The participants were 3 boys with multiple problem behaviors. P1, a 16-year-old boy who was showing self-injurious behaviors (SIBs), P2, an 8-year-old boy who was referred for aggression, and P3, an 11-year-old boy referred for severe SIBs, aggression, and stereotypic behaviors. Functional Analyses (FA) were conducted, and indicated that P1’s SIBs were maintained by demand, attention, and escape. P2’s aggression was mainly maintained by pursuit of sensory stimuli. P3’s problematic behaviors were also maintained by escape and demand. Changing criterion design was used for all three participants’ treatments. Treatment package for P1 and P3 included stimulus control, three-step prompts (verbal, gesture, and physical), Treatment and Education of Autistic and related Communication Handicapped children (TEACCH), extinction, and parental training; P2’s treatment contained stimulus control, three-step prompts, vocal control practice, and extinction. The results showed successful reduction of problematic behaviors in all of the three participants and indicated the effectiveness of stimulus control regardless of functions of behaviors. Several suggestions and practical issues are also discussed.
Panel #462
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Professional Development Series: Understanding the Publication Process
Monday, May 25, 2009
3:00 PM–4:20 PM
North 121 BC
Area: EDC; Domain: Theory
CE Instructor: Tom Sharpe, Ed.D.
Chair: Kelly M. Vinquist (University of Iowa)
GREGORY J. MADDEN (University of Kansas)
DOROTHEA C. LERMAN (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
GREGORY P. HANLEY (Western New England College)
JENNIFER R. ZARCONE (University of Rochester Medical Center)
Abstract: The publication process is essential in the development, expansion, and dissemination of research in behavior analysis. During this event, panelists will describe the publication process and provide the audience with useful tips to help authors publish their work.
Symposium #463
CE Offered: BACB
ABA in the schools: Using behavioral techniques to help students in general education classrooms
Monday, May 25, 2009
3:00 PM–4:20 PM
North 121 A
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Monika M. Suchowierska (Warsaw School of Social Psychology)
Discussant: Linda S. Heitzman-Powell (University of Kansas)
CE Instructor: Steven Ward, Master's
Abstract: This symposium will consist of three presentations and remarks from the discussant. The first presentation will provide a review of applications of ABA in the schools and will create conceptual and empirical background for the following two presentations. Four main teaching paradigms that have been derived from behavior analysis will be discussed. Challenges to the wide use of ABA in the schools will be presented. The second presentation will show data on implementing a training package to improve behavior management skills of one teacher and the effects of the changes in the teacher’s behavior on the students’ behavior. The last presentation will show data on using behavioral techniques to improve academic skills and participation in the lessons of three typically-developing children attending first and third grades of public general education classrooms. The discussant will be asked to remark on the three presentations and conclude with comments on the role of behavior analysts in the schools.
Review of applications of ABA in the schools
MONIKA M. SUCHOWIERSKA (Warsaw School of Social Psychology)
Abstract: This presentation will provide an overview of using behavioral techniques to improve students’ performance and teaching methods as well as to reduce problem behavior in the general education classrooms. Four main teaching paradigms that have been derived from behavior analysis will be discussed (i.e., programmed instruction, personalized system of instruction, direct instruction and precision teaching). Major accomplishments of ABA in general education classrooms and challenges to the wide use of ABA in the schools will be presented.
The effectiveness of implementing a training package on the behavior management skills of one teacher
RAFAL J. KAWA (University of Warsaw), Monika M. Suchowierska (Warsaw School of Social Psychology)
Abstract: The study was aimed at testing the effectiveness of a training package on the behavior management skills of one teacher working in public general education classrooms. A training package describing the principles of reinforcement and extinction was used to improve a teacher’s skills and to reduce problem behavior in four students. The results show that the teacher learned to use effectively reinforcement and extinction and the change in her behavior positively affected the students’ behavior. Social validity measures confirm the positive results.
The use of behavioral techniques to teach academic skills and to increase the level of participation in the lessons by three children in elementary school
MONIKA M. SUCHOWIERSKA (Warsaw School of Social Psychology)
Abstract: The study was aimed at testing the effectiveness of using behavioral techniques to teach three 8- and 9-year-old typically-developing children language and math skills and to increase their participation in the lessons. Children were taught language and math skills during individual sessions. The results show that participants achieved significantly higher scores on achievement tests and they also participated more often in the lesson activities relating to the taught skills but not to other, untrained skills.
Symposium #465
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Managing your Organization: Taking a Systemic Approach for Optimal Success
Monday, May 25, 2009
3:00 PM–4:20 PM
North 221 AB
Area: OBM/AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: H. Keith Massel (Vista Center for Behavior Analysis)
Discussant: Manuel A. Rodriguez (CLG)
CE Instructor: Allen Karsina, M.S.
Abstract: Managing an organization requires the understanding and appreciation of many internal and external variables, which interact in complex ways. For an organization to reach its full potential, these variables must be accounted for and managed. External variables, such as third party payment systems, industry best practices, and governmental regulations, to name a few, regularly effect the ways that agencies take on new clients and provide services. Internal variables such as goals and strategies, staff training, hiring & recruiting, consequences & feedback, and management practices can affect the quality, timeliness and cost of services. In order to effectively manage an agency that meets the demands of its cliental while achieving it’s mission, the interactions and influences of these external and internal variables must be measured and managed. This symposium will begin with a brief overview of a systems perspective of an organization and an introduction to the tools required to establish an Optimal Performance System. This paper will be followed by an example of the application of these tools within an ABA service provider agency, and finally the presentation will conclude with first hand accounts and testimonials from employees working within the agency. After seeing Optimal’s approach to system management and seeing the results of its application, audience members should leave with a rudimentary understanding of a systems perspective to organizational management and an understanding of the potential for such an approach, in a clinical ABA program.
Optimal’s Approach to System Management
SHANE D. ISLEY (Optimal), Donnie M. Staff (Optimal)
Abstract: Optimal encourages the application of evidence-based approaches, which enlists tools from human performance technology (HPT). These tools drive the analysis and design of systems that can be maintained by employees within the organization. The goal of a system design should be to provide agencies with a strong infrastructure that will support highly proficient, sustainable services, prevent inefficient processes, and as a result, minimize costs. Optimal emphasizes a value-adding, results-driven, systemic, partnership approach to system design, and specializes in establishing a comprehensive performance improvement culture for organizations, which encourages ongoing performance enhancing efforts long after Optimal has completed its intervention efforts. Organizations who adopt comprehensive performance-centered systems effectively generate services and link adaptively to their environment. Organizational and performance deficiencies occur when essential workplace variables (mission-goals, process quality, feedback systems, and alignment among organizational levels) interfere with performance. Understanding and appreciating an organization’s systemic nature is the key to a successful design of a successful organization. Brethower, D. M. (1995.) Specifying a Human Performance Technology Knowledgebase. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 8(2), 17-39.
Vista Center for Behavior Analysis: Implementing an Optimal Performance System to Individuals with Autism and their Families
H. KEITH MASSEL (Vista Center for Behavior Analysis), Shane D. Isley (Optimal)
Abstract: Providing highly effective, consistent, and sustainable services to individuals with autism and their families requires more than skilled clinicians and willing clients. While it is an often-overlooked feature of effective services delivery, providing such services requires comprehensive performance analysis and improvement efforts at all levels of an agency. Recognizing this, Vista initiated an agency-wide reorganization, based on a comprehensive performance analysis of their organization. In a desire to expand, Vista began to deconstruct and rebuild their organization’s foundation, in accordance with the methods and practices of human performance technology (HPT) and systems theory. These efforts began with a functional mission statement collaboratively created between Vista employees and Optimal. Disseminated throughout the agency, the mission statement was the beginning of an entire agency re-alignment that allowed the managerial staff of Vista to direct their performance improvement efforts towards a resolute outcome. Employees’ performance goals and decisions can be steered and evaluated by this organization-wide objective. This was followed by objective and quantifiable work outputs developed for all job levels, designed to align with and support the elements of Vista’s new mission statement. Phase I of the reorganization also involved the development of a restructured client scheduling process that is efficient, streamlined, tested and was systematically rolled out in order to insure its sustainability. Continuing efforts include the streamlining and systemizing of other key internal processes, as well as an advanced measurement and employee reimbursement process.
The Effects of a Reorganized System on Vista Center for Behavior Analysis’ Clinical Staff and Services
MARIA G. JIMENEZ (Vista Center for Behavior Analysis), Mario Vega (Vista Center for Behavior Analysis), H. Keith Massel (Vista Center for Behavior Analysis)
Abstract: True systemic interventions create noticeable changes throughout an organization. When internal and external variables are being measured and manipulated throughout the organization, employees and clients at all levels should be able detect these changes. The emphasis on organizational alignment during performance improvement efforts exists for several reasons, one of them being so that employees and clients are directly tied into the inner workings of the agency at all times. When this occurs, it provides employees and clients with a direct and immediate feedback loop concerning the effectiveness of services. During this section of the symposium, Vista’s Program Managers will report on the effectiveness of Vista’s performance improvement efforts, allowing audience members the opportunity to see the systemic effects of such efforts, as well as an example of an efficient and well-managed human service organization.
Symposium #470
CE Offered: BACB
Skill Acquisition: Alternatives for Teaching Tooth Brushing to Children Diagnosed With an Autism Spectrum Disorder
Monday, May 25, 2009
3:30 PM–4:50 PM
North 124 B
Area: AUT/EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Paula Ribeiro Braga-Kenyon (NECC)
Discussant: Cynthia R. Blackledge (UHS Schools, Inc.)
CE Instructor: Joel Hundert, Ph.D.
Abstract: Tooth brushing is an important skill for increasing independence among individuals diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. Commonly used training methods for teaching tooth brushing include forward or backward chaining but are not always effective. The current symposium will describe three teaching procedures for training teenagers diagnosed with autism to brush their teeth. The first study describes the use of frequent training sessions and a modified task analysis, one that isolates a few steps from the total sequence to be taught. The second study evaluates whether isolating skill deficits prior to training the tooth brushing sequence would be helpful. Deficits identified were problems with fine motor skills and the occurrence of an incompatible behavior. The third study evaluates the utility of video prompting for teaching tooth brushing. All three studies have positive results.
Tooth Brushing: Overcoming Interfering Behaviors
LEAH KARA (The New England Center for Children), Sorrel Ryan (New England Center for Children), Paul Mahoney (New England Center for Children), Paula Ribeiro Braga-Kenyon (NECC)
Abstract: The current study presents a method for training tooth brushing for two teenagers diagnosed with autism. The participants engaged in stereotypy (e.g., water play and turning on and off faucets) that interfered with skill acquisition. Tooth-brushing task analyses were modified by excluding tooth-brushing preparation steps (e.g., turning on the water and applying toothpaste). In addition, participants were required to complete multiple trials per day. Task analyses were conducted every hour during the school day. Results indicated that the inclusion of mass trials and removal of preparatory tooth-brushing steps resulted in both participants efficiently acquiring the steps of a tooth-brushing task analysis. The steps that were removed from the task analysis during skill acquisition are currently being re-introduced as part of the routine, and both students continue to make progress.
Tooth Brushing: Overcoming a Fine Motor Skill Deficit and an Incompatible Behaviors
PAUL MAHONEY (New England Center for Children), Paula Ribeiro Braga-Kenyon (NECC), Leah Kara (The New England Center for Children), Sorrel Ryan (New England Center for Children)
Abstract: The current study presents alternatives for teaching tooth brushing to one 9-year-old female diagnosed with autism. The participant was being trained on a tooth brushing sequence using a forward chain task analysis. The participant presented fine motor deficits that interfered with acquiring the step of turning the toothbrush from bottom teeth to upper teeth. In addition, the participant engaged in the incompatible behavior of sucking on the toothbrush. The specific tooth brushing steps associated with poor performance were isolated and re-trained, using a new strategy to turn the tooth brush (rolling the toothbrush on fingers instead of moving wrist); and the sequence was trained multiple times per day in a different setting, the classroom. Removal of the water was also implemented to address sucking on the toothbrush. After the two identified steps were trained to criteria, and the student met mastery criteria in the new setting, the entire task, including preparatory and terminal steps, was transferred to the natural environment; and water was again added to the sequence. Results of this study showed that identifying deficits in performance and modifying the training program to target there areas led to independent acquisition of the tooth brushing task analysis for this participant.
Tooth Brushing: Overcoming Lack of Motivation Related to a Task
SORREL RYAN (New England Center for Children), Paul Mahoney (New England Center for Children), Paula Ribeiro Braga-Kenyon (NECC), Leah Kara (The New England Center for Children)
Abstract: The current study evaluated the utility of video prompting to teach a 9-year-old boy diagnosed with autism to complete the steps of a tooth brushing chain. Forward and backward chaining procedures had been attempted and found ineffective. It was hypothesized that lack of motivation and attention to the stimuli were interfering with acquisition. At times, the student would also engage in incompatible behaviors, such as biting on the toothbrush. Direct observation indicated that the student enjoyed watching videos, suggesting the use of video prompting. Results showed that the participant learned to perform most of the steps of the tooth brushing behavior chain independently using the video prompts. In addition, progress was faster than previously attempted procedures and mastered steps were maintained over time.
Symposium #471
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Practice-based evidence in public education: systematic on-site consultation and special education for students with autism.
Monday, May 25, 2009
3:30 PM–4:50 PM
North 124 A
Area: AUT/VRB; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Michael Miklos (Pennsylvania Training and Technical Assistance Net)
CE Instructor: Keith D. Allen, Ph.D.
Abstract: Technical support to special education teachers often consists of verbal “stand and deliver” trainings removed from classroom environments. Teachers often attend didactic trainings in order to receive continuing education credit without a systematic process for transferring verbal training to actual repertoires in the classroom setting. The brief reports included in this symposium will highlight efforts to provide direct on-site training to special education staff. Each report will review components of a system of technical support driven by procedural integrity and supporting data based systems of instruction. Data summarizing a variety of consultative efforts will be presented. Primary emphasis of discussion will be on explicit procedural processes for instructional staff that generate evidence of individual student performance. The range of processes to be discussed include training in single subject design to enhance instructional skills of teachers, use of procedural descriptions of consultation to improve instructional fidelity, third party review of instructional implementation as a system of classroom organizational management, and explicit feedback as a means to training instructional fidelity for discrete trial instruction.
Getting the analysis in public special education through single-subject case study requirements
MICHAEL MIKLOS (Pennsylvania Training and Technical Assistance Net)
Abstract: This presentation will review data collected for formal case studies completed over the past two years within Pennsylvania public education autism support classes participating in the Pennsylvania Verbal Behavior Project. Approximately 40 case studies per year have been developed in participating classrooms. Summary data for case studies from the past two years will be discussed. The case studies have required public education classrooms to develop, implement and review case studies with increasingly empirical designs. The process to be reviewed involves submission of a case study proposal including consideration of study design to demonstrate functional relations, verification of both dependent and independent variable definitions, and steps to ensure treatment fidelity. The proposal is then implemented in the classroom. Case studies are summarized and an informal review with public presentation of findings is completed. The case study format allows teachers and other special education staff to come in contact with the process of scientific verification of instructional interventions.
Systematic feedback and procedural descriptions of consultation outcomes: the value of written consultation reports in relation to student outcomes.
AMIRIS DIPUGLIA (PaTTAN/ PA Verbal Behavior Project)
Abstract: Multiple written procedural descriptions derived from data based observations will be described in relation to student performance in autism support classes within the Pennsylvania Verbal Behavior Project. Procedures for classroom organization, teaching mands, tacts, and intraverbals as well as problem behavior reduction plans will be highlighted. The session will include description of the integration of assessment systems used in consultation with formal observation, data review, and intervention development. Included will be a description of a format for consultative reports that specifies the consultative issues in objective terms while requiring relevant behavioral data review, an interpretation of the data, and specific recommendations based on the data. The report format serves to reduce ambiguity in the consultative process while increasing the probability of consultation functioning to alter student repertoires. Several examples of the written reports from actual classroom consultations will be presented. The value of written notes as means of increasing procedural compliance will be discussed.
Formal site review of classroom implementation and its relation to planning instructional delivery: does telling them what they do lead to changes in what they do?
DEBRA NAMEY (Pa Verbal Behavior Project)
Abstract: Through the process of delineating performance criteria for classroom teachers serving students with autism, targeted priorities for behavioral consultation can be developed. Outcomes suggesting the relation between site review data, specific instructional design, consultation and changes in classroom practice will be summarized. The PA Verbal Behavior Project site review form includes ratings of: 1. classroom organization 2. data systems 3. consultation and training processes 4. instruction including mand training, intensive teaching, group instruction, and social skills 5. problem behavior interventions. Ratings in each domain specify instructional behaviors that, if not in place for participating classrooms, are targeted for development through systematic consultation. Data on the reliability of the site review process and change in levels of implementation will be presented. The session will describe how the information from site reviews is used to guide the behavior of consultants in the PA Verbal Behavior Project. Implications for planning individual student programming will be considered.
Integration of manualization and direct feedback processes for training intensive teaching of the verbal operants.
MARY L. BARBERA (PA Verbal Behavior Project)
Abstract: Through transcription of instructional behavior, direct feedback can be provided to instructors in relation to established discrete trial procedures. Examples of this process will be provided. This report will describe implementation of a system for feedback based on direct observation of teacher behavior as a training system and its relation to student skill acquisition. The model of discrete trial instruction used includes interspersed trials, with balanced high probability and low probability tasks, errorless procedures for instructional acquisition targets, and focuses primarily on acquisition of the verbal operants as identified in Skinner, 1957. The transcription process involves coding instructional behavior of discrete trial instructors in relation to student behavior with formalized codes. The staff training procedure to be described here will include four components: 1. Viewing and documenting a training DVD which specifies the components of the discrete trial teaching process. 2. Practicing presenting discrete trials with guided practice 3. Receiving direct feedback on actual teaching practice with data derived from the transcription process 4. Continuous process of student acquisition of skills taught through the discrete trial teaching.
Symposium #472
CE Offered: BACB
Contemporary Assessment and Treatment Interventions for Autism Spectrum Disorders
Monday, May 25, 2009
3:30 PM–4:50 PM
North 126
Area: AUT/CBM; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Melanie Mills (Judevine Center for Autism)
Discussant: Rebecca Rubie (Judevine Center for Autism)
CE Instructor: Michael Weinberg, Ph.D.
Abstract: The assessment and treatment of autism spectrum disorders are becoming increasingly more relevant given the drastic increase in the diagnosis of the disorder. The following symposium will target some key issues in the assessment process that will lead the clinician to the implementation of more efficacious interventions. In addition to addressing key assessment issues, the symposium will also target the parenting aspect of effective autism interventions. Parent training is a crucial aspect of autism treatment that helps to facilitate generalization and maintenance of behavioral gains. This topic will be discussed in the context of competency based training and testing, as well as video and audio coaching strategies for parents of children with autism. The final talk in this symposium will detail a behavioral system for providing behavior analytic services in a public school system, discuss barriers to successful implementation, as well as show clear clinical improvements in individual students – when the organizational system is in sync with clinical goals.
Assessing Preference for Attention in Children Diagnosed with Autism
JODI NUERNBERGER (University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire), Cierra Ann Micke (University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire), Kelly Paulson (University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire), Carrie Haessly (University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire), Kevin J Schlichenmeyer (University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire), Matthew Newquist (University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire), Kevin P. Klatt (University of Wisconsin, Eau Claire)
Abstract: The social skills of children with autism are an area of focus for most professionals working in this population. Some of the core deficits of children that are on the autism spectrum include a lack of spontaneous eye contact or joint attention skills. Children with autism will typically fail to seek out social attention or to share in social experiences with peers or family. The following project will assess the preferences that children with autism have as it relates to attention. Given some of the deficit areas of this disorder and how they impact the level of attention that is requested can be key determinants of tretament strategies for children that are on the spectrum. Issues with joint attention have been shown to be related to the intensity of the social skills deficits that some of these kids demonstrate. The manner in which attention is delivered and the types of attention were examined in this study.
Competency Based Parent Training for Autism Spectrum Disorders
JOHN M. GUERCIO (Judevine Center for Autism), Melanie Mills (Judevine Center for Autism), Brooke Diane Walker (SIU Carbondale)
Abstract: The project will assess the effects of a 3-week staff/parent autism training program. The program is comprised of a series of workshops, videotaped modeling, and feedback geared towards successful intervention with individuals with an autism spectrum disorder. Each module of the training is accompanied by a competency based post test. Each trainee had to score at or above a pre-set criterion score in order to move on to the next module. The teaching skills of each of 3 parent dyads will be assessed via a multiple baseline design across parents. A variety of dependent measures will be used to assess treatment efficacy for the parent training package described above. The measures that will be used will include the frequency of specific contingency statements, correct implementation of reinforcement protocols, and the frequency of inappropriate responding observed across 20 minute therapy sessions. Results showed that each family dyad demonstrated an increase in appropriate teaching and therapeutic scales as well as decreases in subjective measures of stress and anxiety.
Performance Management in Schools Serving Children with Autism
CHRISTINA A. WEISE (Southern Illinois University Carbondale), Mark R. Dixon (Southern Illinois University), Dawn J. Scheff (Southern Illinois University - Carbondale)
Abstract: Clinical interventions for children with autism have been highly successful over the past decade. Demand is increasing as well as the supply of BCBAs. Unfortunately, the organizational system that needs to adopt the newly developed behavioral programming is often far from adequate to support the increased work requirements of teachers and associated staff. This presentation will present a behavioral system for providing behavior analytic services in a public school system, discuss barriers to successful implementation, as well as show clear clinical improvements in individual students – when the organizational system is in sync with clinical goals.
Symposium #476
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
ACT and RFT: New Directions in Clinical and Educational Work
Monday, May 25, 2009
3:30 PM–4:50 PM
North 222 C
Area: CBM/EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Chad Drake (Portland Psychotherapy Clinic, Research, and Train)
Discussant: Chad Drake (Portland Psychotherapy Clinic, Research, and Train)
CE Instructor: Janet Ellis, Ph.D.
Abstract: Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Relational Frame Theory have made significant strides in applied science endeavors of significant social concern and interest. The technology involved in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Relational Frame Theory assists in understanding complex issues such as the influences on high risk behaviors and fantasizing responses. In addition, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Relational Frame Theory concepts and applications can demonstrate how value directed behavior can improve academic achievement. Each of the presenters will show how experiential avoidance can influence individuals to engage in various clinically relevant behaviors. The presenters from each team will also describe the relational conditioning processes that set the occasion for complex human repertories. The discussion among all of the presenting teams will have focus on how normal verbal processes lead to psychological struggle and seemingly unconventional and high risk behavior. Where relevant, treatment implications will be discussed as well as avenues for further research.
A Relational Frame Theory Account of the Emergence and Maintenance of Rape Fantasies
FAWNA STOCKWELL (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Daniel J. Moran (Trinity Services)
Abstract: A sexual fantasy is a series of private events which either evoke or increase sexual arousal. Current research indicates that as many as 33% of women report experiencing at least one sexually arousing rape fantasy in their lifetime, and 10% engage in this fantasy as often as once a month (Shulman & Horne, 2006). This paper will provide a primer on Relational Frame Theory and how the normal processes involved in classical, operant, and relational conditioning can build more complex repertoires that eventually influence the emergence of private stimuli, which may appear taboo or unconventional, to take on reinforcing properties. The influence of metaphorical relating will be discussed. This presentation will develop an account of how sexual fantasy is a type of covert verbal responding which can lead to more complex repertoires, and how rape fantasies can be a selected feature of a person’s repertoire as a result of normal verbal processes.
Experiential avoidance and at-risk behavior patterns
SUSAN E. CLARKE (Dorset Healthcare NHS Trust), Jessica Kingston (University of Southampton), Bob Remington (University of Southampton)
Abstract: Many maladaptive behavior patterns (e.g., deliberate self-harm, drug use, risky sexual practices, excessive exercise, binge eating) are of social concern. Well documented risk factors for such problem behaviors include childhood trauma (an environmental risk factor) and negative affect intensity (a temperamental risk factor). According to Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), however, the relationship between such risk factors and maladaptive behavior is mediated by Experiential Avoidance (EA), the tendency to avoid unwanted private events (e.g., thoughts, feelings, memories). This study used a cross-sectional design to test these hypothesized relations using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). An opportunity sample of 690 volunteers completed the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ), the Maladaptive Behavior Questionnaire (MBQ), a reliable and validated composite measure of problem behaviors developed by the authors, and two self-report measures of key risk factors (the Affect Intensity Measure-Negative Intensity Scale and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire). SEM analysis revealed that EA fully mediated the relationship between negative affect intensity and the MBQ scores, and partially mediated the relationship between childhood trauma and the MBQ measure. These findings implicate EA as a key process through which childhood adversity and negative affect intensity impacts on maladaptive behavior.
Psychological Flexibility, Academic Success, and Valued Living
A. NICKI JEANE (University of Mississippi), Emily Kennison Sandoz (University of Mississippi), Kelly G. Wilson (University of Mississippi), Kate Kellum (The University of Mississippi)
Abstract: College is a difficult venture. Increased academic, social, and practical demands associated with the adjustment to college make academic success a challenge for most. The significant implications of successfully navigating those demands likely make it worse. Behavior analysis has had a hand in improving educational environments for all ages and academic levels. Through operant and relational conditioning processes, school can come to exert aversive control, which can make avoidance increasingly likely, and success increasingly elusive. The authors will discuss how experiential and emotional avoidance can have a significant impact, not only on vaule directed behavior, but also on important academic achievement scores. Emerging behavior therapies (e.g., Acceptance and Commitment Therapy) suggest that interventions on school success might be improved by focusing on increasing flexibility with school-related stimuli, and contact with chosen values. The current study examines the relationship between psychological flexibility, academic success, and valued living. Further directions will be discussed.
Symposium #479
Language: Its Role in Indigenous Education, Poverty, and Culture
Monday, May 25, 2009
3:30 PM–4:50 PM
North 122 A
Area: EDC/CSE; Domain: Experimental Analysis
Chair: Abigail B. Calkin (Calkin Consulting Center)
Abstract: Indigenous and minority education has not kept pace with the educational progress of Western Europeans in the same regions. Confronted by language and cultural losses, indigenous and minority people try to meld yet retain their way of life. Looking at the circumpolar nations’ practices as well as Native and minority cultures, we notice that cultural practices and language have often been snatched away in favor of the more dominant, western way of life. These small groups and the governments around the Northern Hemisphere have begun to look at the impact of these practices and how to preserve Native integrity while blending into the local, national pot. Is this even possible? Yes, but the results and potential for success hinge on the role central government plays and on increasing the present low language skills through programs such as Direct Instruction and Language for Learning. The participants, who work with the education of minority groups, will share standardized and standard celeration charted data from their work with Native Americans, First Nations, African Americans, and Hispanics. Data collected and analyzed from thousands of students show that we can educate people at the 80th percentile while retaining cultural heritages.
Indigenous Education in the Far North and the Lower 48
ABIGAIL B. CALKIN (Calkin Consulting Center)
Abstract: Tribe in Canada’s Yukon Territory asked what were the academic achievement levels of other peoples in the Circumpolar Regions. This question has many answers—some areas have high achievement, others do not, and on top of any answer given is the cultural overlay. In the Far North of Russia, Alaska, Canada, Greenland, and Scandinavia, education systems have been used to acculturate native populations as well as destroy the local native culture. Even though countries do not use the same yardstick, we can begin to glimpse cross-national and cross-cultural comparisons by using standard scores, researched, authoritative opinions, and achievement test scores. In an effort to help indigenous populations in the Far North and southern areas cross the bridge to Western culture and achievement, village and tribal schools in many areas have used the Morningside Academy model. Two schools showing significant achievement growth are in British In 2003, Chief Darren Isaac of the Selkirk First Nations band of the Northern Tutchone Columbia and Oklahoma.
The Intersection and Culture
KRISTINE F. MELROE (Morningside Academy)
Abstract: Native nations in the US are facing a critical juncture to assimilate or maintain their culture. Historically, education, a discipline that can have a profound effect on social change, has played a destructive role in U.S. Native cultures and languages. Two saving options are to become proficient in English and move off the reservation to be economically stable, or stay on the reservation with few job opportunities yet surrounded by native culture. In order to move forward into positive educational and cultural developments, we offer a historical review of the role educational systems have played. This presentation examines the effects that the loss of language has on culture. Through surveys and interviews, we share the concerns of parents and community and their vision of the role education should play in saving the language and culture. We compare this to what has been written about the various cultures and languages. The behavior analyst’s understanding of human behavior places us in a unique position to make substantial contributions in creating an array of successful interventions for social change. An applied behavior analysis approach to education helps determine the appropriate interventions that support the culture and language so students can move between the cultures.
Low Language Skills = Low Learning
DEBORAH L. BROWN (SCOE/Morningside Academy)
Abstract: The cultural and educational history of bilingual students often shows they have low language skills and proficiency in both languages. Because of these low skills, their social and academic achievement are the lowest in the country. In Hart & Risley’s longitidunal study, the lower the socio-economic status, the lower the oral language. In early childhood, meaning is often communicated within a common social context and understanding. When contextual language is used out of context, e.g., in a bilingual situation, however, language cannot be understood. Therefore these young people are not prepared to interact in an educational setting with the context of language and cannot comprehend written text. As a result, the vocabulary gap between professional people and lower SES groups is huge and continues to grow larger.
Language for Learning
CATHY L. WATKINS (California State University, Stanislaus)
Abstract: Language for Learning is a Direct Instruction language development program designed to teach language, concepts, information, and knowledge that will benefit children in the classroom. The program was designed to address the needs of children who entered the school system without having mastered ‘the language of instruction.’ Language for Learning is used to teach oral language skills to children whose language is inadequately developed, including students for whom English is their second language, special education students, and children in speech/language classes. There is a strong foundation of research supporting both the Direct Instruction method and the Language for Learning program. This presentation will provide an overview of the content of Language for Learning and outcomes for various learners.
Panel #482
CE Offered: BACB
Licensing of Behavior Analysis: Protecting the Profession and the Public
Monday, May 25, 2009
4:00 PM–4:50 PM
North 120 D
Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Cheryl Davis, M.S.Ed.
Chair: Michael Weinberg (Orlando Behavior Health Services, LLC)
MICHAEL F. DORSEY (The Vinfen Corporation and Endicott College)
THOMAS L. ZANE (Sage Colleges)
MICHAEL WEINBERG (Orlando Behavior Health Services, LLC)
Abstract: Panelists in this presentation will discuss future directions for the field with regard to licensure of behavior analysts. The panel will discuss why the time has come in the evolution of the field to pursue licensure as the next step in the process. An examination and discussion of legal and ethical issues will be presented along with how to pursue proposing and passing licensure legislation, how licensure ensures protection of the public, and requirements and standards being proposed for becoming licensed as a behavior analyst. The presentation will include activities to date by the Practice Board to achieve licensure status, as well as discuss ways to achieve third party payment for behavior analysis services.



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