Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis InternationalĀ® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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35th Annual Convention; Phoenix, AZ; 2009

Event Details


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Symposium #513
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Classroom-Based Behavior Management Strategies to Address Attending and Disruptive Behavior in Children with Developmental Disabilities
Tuesday, May 26, 2009
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
North 125
Area: AUT/EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Stacey Buchanan Williams (Melmark New England)
Discussant: Frank L. Bird (Melmark New England)
CE Instructor: Frank Cicero, Ph.D.
Abstract: There is a rich literature base on behavioral interventions designed to address behavioral excesses and deficits in children with developmental disabilities. This symposium adds to this knowledge and highlights three behavioral interventions used to reduce challenging behavior and increase appropriate behavior in private school and inclusion settings. The first talk shares results from a multi-component treatment package designed to address aggression in two children with autism. In the second talk, a differential reinforcement procedure combined with time out was effective in reducing both verbal and physical stereotypy as well as increasing appropriate behavior in a young boy with autism educated in a private school setting. The symposium will conclude with a presentation on the results of an intervention used to promote self-monitoring and thereby increase attending of a learner in an inclusion setting. Presenters will summarize existing research, describe intervention methodologies, offer empirical examples, and discuss implications within educational settings.
 
Use of a Multi-Component Treatment to Decrease Inappropriate Behaviors and Promote Self-Regulation
STACEY BUCHANAN WILLIAMS (Melmark New England), Keri M. Butters (Melmark New England), Lisa Freedman (Melmark New England)
Abstract: The effects of a differential reinforcement of alternate behavior (DRA) intervention combined with a time out procedure for increasing appropriate behaviors for two students within a private school setting were evaluated. During baseline, both students demonstrated high frequencies of aggression and one student also demonstrated high frequencies of screaming (Student A: aggression M = 31; Student B: aggression M = 34 and screaming M = 99). During treatment, a visual board that depicted a specific rule for accessing tokens and a subsequent reinforcer was introduced. The reverse side of the visual board contained an icon that represented the reinforcer was no longer available. During the DRA procedure, students received tokens for demonstrating appropriate behavior during a predetermined time interval. If the students demonstrated aggression or screaming, the visual board was turned over signaling the time out procedure was in effect. After achieving a calm criterion, the DRA procedure was immediately reinstated. The interval duration per token was systematically increased over time. Frequencies of challenging behavior decreased for Student A (aggression M = 20) and Student B (aggression M = 18 and screaming M = 78) during treatment.
 
Effects of Differential Reinforcement and Time Out to Reduce Vocal and Physical Stereotypy in a Child with Autism
Florence D. DiGennaro Reed (Melmark New England), STACEY BUCHANAN WILLIAMS (Melmark New England)
Abstract: Stereotypic behavior is frequently observed in individuals with autism and is often an area of focus for intervention. Stereotypy has the potential to impede skill development when it occurs at high levels and to stigmatize individuals who engage in this topography of behavior. The purpose of this presentation is to share findings from an investigation in which a multi-component treatment was introduced to reduce the vocal and physical stereotypy of a student with autism served within a private school setting. The percentage of intervals during which the student engaged in verbal (M = 40%) and physical (M = 34%) stereotypy was at moderate levels during baseline. Following treatment consisting of an interval-based DRA and time out procedure, significant reductions in verbal (M =4%) and physical (M = 3%) stereotypy were found during 5-min sessions. Over time, the procedure was introduced across the school day and the interval for receipt of the reinforcer was increased from 50 seconds to 10 minutes. Intervals during which appropriate behavior was exhibited as the time was increased averaged 95%. Implications of these findings as they relate to the development of behavioral interventions to address stereotypic behavior in educational settings will be discussed.
 
Use of a Self-Recording Form to Teach Self-Monitoring of Attending Behaviors in an Inclusion Setting
JESSICA R. EVERETT (Melmark New England), Pat Dennis (Melmark New England)
Abstract: The ability to attend to instruction within a classroom environment is a primary goal of school inclusion. Learning opportunities are increased when students are able to attend to instruction independently and are able to re-direct themselves back to task when needed. For students with deficits in their ability to attend to instruction, specific intervention must be targeted towards teaching these skills. This presentation will highlight a systematic instructional approach to teach students with autism spectrum disorders attending skills using a self-monitoring tool where the student first learns to accurately record his behavior and then learns to generalize the skill in a group instruction format. The approach to be presented includes both fading of instructor support, instruction in self-reinforcement, and systematic increasing of time intervals in which the student self-monitors attending behaviors. Data from clinical case examples will be shared. Procedures for generalization of skill development across environments and instruction will also be discussed.
 

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