Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


35th Annual Convention; Phoenix, AZ; 2009

Event Details

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Symposium #370
CE Offered: BACB
Instructional programming to promote generative responding and the formation of equivalence classes
Monday, May 25, 2009
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
North 121 A
Area: EDC/TPC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Chris Ninness (Stephen F. Austin State University)
CE Instructor: Gordon A. Defalco, Ph.D.
Abstract: Emergent or generative responding refers to the emergence of a particular skill, or concept, without direct instruction. That is, an emergent behavior is one that arises from the direct training of some other skill. Identifying the conditions that result in emergent skills allows a teacher to be maximally efficient (i.e., teach one set of skills and others will emerge without direct instruction). This symposia provides 4 examples of procedures to promote emergent responding duing instruction in reading, speaking a second language, and identifying experimental designs.
Cross-modal generalization of letter names
TANYA BAYNHAM (University of Kansas), Janna N. Skinner (University of Kansas, Juniper Gardens Children's P), Megan N Stein (University of Kansas), Anna C. Schmidt (University of Kansas), Kathryn Saunders (University of Kansas)
Abstract: Receptive language repertoires tend to be acquired before expressive repertoires (Rosenberg & Abbeduto, 1993). Results of studies measuring generalization across these modalities have yielded mixed results (e.g., Cuvo & Riva, 1980, Guess, 1969, Wynn & Smith, 2003). It is, therefore, important to identify the conditions under which generalization is likely to occur. The current study examined the effects of training receptive letter identification on expressive letter labeling. Three preschoolers were trained to receptively identify letters using a computerized matching-to-sample procedure. Expressive letter naming was measured during probe sessions. For 3 of 3 participants, receptive training resulted in expressive labeling for some, but not all, letters. Expressive generalization was demonstrated less often for letters with features similar to other letters (e.g., b/d and t/f). A second study specifically targeting difficult-to-discriminate letter pairs is underway. Implications of these results for instructional design will be discussed.
Teaching level-1 Braille reading skills within a stimulus equivalence paradigm to children with progressive visual impairments
KAREN A TOUSSAINT (Louisiana State University), Jeff Tiger (Louisiana State University)
Abstract: Approximately 8.5 million Americans suffer from a form of macular degeneration, which results in progressive vision loss and the loss of important skills such as reading. Proactive Braille reading instruction may be one means to ease the transition from sighted to severely visually-impaired. The current study is a preliminary evaluation of a teaching package for level 1 Braille (i.e., individual letter identification) with school-aged children with progressive visual impairments. Following a series of pretests, Braille instruction involved training the selection of printed text letters from an array when presented with tactile Braille letters. We then assessed the emergence of symmetrical and transitive relations between the tactile Braille stimuli, the visual printed letters, and their spoken counterparts. Interobserver agreement was collected during at least 25% of sessions and averaged above 90% for correct responding.
Establishment of bidirectional symmetry via multiple exemplar training in pre-school children
ROCIO ROSALES (Southern Illinois University), Nancy Huffman (Southern Illinois University), Sadie L Lovett (Southern Illinois University), Ruth Anne Rehfeldt (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract: The present investigation evaluated the effectiveness of multiple exemplar training (MET) in the facilitation of bidirectional symmetry for typically developing children (ages 3-4 yrs) whose first language was Spanish. Two experiments were conducted in which a multiple probe design was implemented to introduce exemplar training across 3 four-item stimulus sets. Participants were first trained in object-name relations via either conditional discrimination training (in Experiment 1), or a respondent-type training procedure (in Experiment 2). This training was followed by tests for derived name-object relations (i.e., bidirectional symmetry). If participants failed tests for symmetry, multiple exemplar training was implemented in which symmetry relations were explicitly taught with novel stimulus sets. Following multiple exemplar training, symmetry tests were once again conducted with the original training set. Results of Experiment 1 indicate marked improvements in bidirectional symmetry relations following MET. Preliminary results from Experiment 2 indicate the respondent-type training procedure was effective for establishing bidirectional symmetry, and may be a more efficient technique for establishing these relations.
Using a Stimulus Equivalence Instructional Protocol in the Undergraduate Classroom
CLARISS A. BARNES (Southern Illinois University), Brooke Diane Walker (SIU Carbondale), Ruth Anne Rehfeldt (Southern Illinois University), Adam D. Hahs (Southern Illinois University), Clariss A. Barnes (Southern Illinois University), Emily Irene Bruen (Southern Illinois University), Amy Plichta (Southern Illinois University Carbondale)
Abstract: The purpose of the current research study was to establish derived stimulus relations among course content material in an undergraduate course on disabilities. Specifically, we evaluated whether instruction based on the stimulus equivalence paradigm could be effectively used to teach relationships between the names, definitions, causes, and treatments for various disabilities. Training was delivered in a paper-and-pencil format, which consisted of multiple-choice questionnaires, and taught the name-to-definition, name-to-cause, and cause-to-treatment relations. Pre and post-tests were conducted in a flash-card style fashion and evaluated the definition-to-name, cause-to-name, and treatment-to-name relations. No feedback was delivered during pre and post-test phases, and training continued until mastery. Stability was evaluated at up to three months follow-up. Results suggest that the stimulus equivalence instructional paradigm can be effectively used in a paper-and-pencil format, and enhance class performance in the undergraduate class-room.



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