Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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36th Annual Convention; San Antonio, TX; 2010

Program by Continuing Education Events: Tuesday, June 1, 2010


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Invited Tutorial #491
CE Offered: BACB
Incorporating Elements of the Derived Stimulus Relations Research Program Into Educational Curricula for Learners With Autism and Other Disabilities
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
Ballroom A (CC)
Area: AUT/VRB; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
BACB CE Offered. CE Instructor: Gregory Hanley, Ph.D.PhD
Chair: Dorothea C. Lerman (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
Presenting Authors: : RUTH ANNE REHFELDT (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract: Basic laboratory research on derived stimulus relations has far outnumbered applied investigations on the topic, but incorporating elements of the derived stimulus relations research program into educational curricula for learners with autism and other developmental disabilities may be an economic and efficient means of expanding basic language repertoires. Moreover, such an approach may be consistent with best practices in education articulated by Skinner (2003), as well as be particularly appropriate in light of current school legislation. The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the aspects of the derived stimulus relations research program that are relevant for inclusion into educational curricula. I will focus on how practitioners might program for the emergence of relational repertoires within the framework of other curricular approaches, and how such a technology may be used to construct basic language, reading, spelling, and other relational repertoires. The tutorial will include practitioner strategies and recommendations that are presented in Derived Relational Responding: Applications for Learners with Autism and other Developmental Disabilities: A Progressive Guide to Change.
 
RUTH ANNE REHFELDT (Southern Illinois University)
Dr. Ruth Anne Rehfeldt is a Professor in the Rehabilitation Services undergraduate program and an affiliated faculty in the Behavior Analysis and Therapy program. She holds a Ph.D. (1998) and M.A. (1995) from the Behavior Analysis Program (in Psychology) at the University of Nevada, and a B.A. (1993) in psychology from the University of Puget Sound. She is also a Board Certified Behavior Analyst. Dr. Rehfeldt currently teaches courses in single-subject research design, behavioral assessment and observation methods and Radical Behaviorism. Dr. Rehfeldt has authored over 60 articles and book chapters, primarily in the areas of stimulus equivalence and verbal relations, autism, developmental disabilities and verbal behavior. Dr. Rehfeldt is currently the Editor of The Psychological Record and an editorial board member for the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behaviour, the Behavior Analyst and Education and Treatment of Children. Dr. Rehfeldt's book, co-edited with Yvonne Barnes-Holmes, is entitled Derived Relational Responding: Applications for Learners with Autism and other Developmental Disabilities: A Progressive Guide to Change. New Harbinger: Oakland, CA, 2009.
 
 
Symposium #497
CE Offered: BACB
Examining Prompting Strategies for Teaching Verbal Behavior
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
202AB (CC)
Area: AUT/VRB; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Kathleen M. Clark (New England Center For Children)
CE Instructor: James Johnston, Ph.D.
Abstract: Effective instructional techniques for establishing verbal behavior with children with autism spectrum disorders or related disabilities have been receiving increased attention over the past decade. The purpose of this symposium is to examine prompting procedures for teaching verbal behavior. Four papers will be delivered in this symposium chaired by Kathy Clark of the New England Center for Children. The first paper, presented by Tiffany Cook of the New England Center for Children, compares echoic and textual prompting for teaching intraverbal behavior. The second paper, presented by Einar Ingvarsson of the University of North Texas, examines echoic, tact, and textual prompts for teaching intraverbal responding as well as assessing participant preference across the prompting techniques. The third paper, presented by Patrick Romani of the University of Iowa, examines the effect of prompt density and the modality of mand for establishing manding for individuals with severe communicative impairments. The last paper, presented by Sean Peterson of Texas Christian University, examines the effects of identity matching and echoic prompting on the acquisition of auditory-visual conditional discriminations.
 
Echoic Prompts Are as Good as or Better Than Textual Prompts for Teaching Intraverbal Behavior
TIFFANY COOK (The New England Center for Children), Lynn Keenan (Loudoun County Public Schools), William H. Ahearn (The New England Center for Children), Caio F. Miguel (California State University, Sacramento)
Abstract: Finkel and Williams (2001) found that textual prompts were more effective than echoic prompts for teaching intraverbal responses to a child with an ASD. The current study examined whether this finding would be replicated. Six children with an ASD diagnosis were taught to answer social questions using both prompting procedures. A multiple probe design was used. Observers measured the number of trials to criteria during acquisition and correct answers to the target questions during probes. These measures were assessed during acquisition as well as during post-training, and generalization probes, and in a 3-week follow-up probe. The results showed that, for all participants, with the exception of the last set of questions for one participant, echoic prompts were more or equally effective relative to textual prompts for teaching intraverbal behavior. Probe session data showed that, after training was implemented, responding increased across all participants with the exception of during the textual prompts probe for one participant for question set 1. Responding was maintained throughout follow-up for all participants. These data indicate that, contrary to the findings of Finkel and Williams, children with autism may be more likely to learn to answer questions more rapidly when taught with echoic prompting.
 
The Effectiveness of and Preference for Echoic, Tact, and Textual Prompts for Establishing Intraverbal Responding in Children With Autism
EINAR T. INGVARSSON (University of North Texas), Duy Dang Le (Child Study Center), Kellyn Joi Johnson (University of North Texas)
Abstract: We conducted a systematic replication of a study by Ingvarsson and Hollobaugh (submitted for publication). The results of this study indicated that in teaching intraverbal responding (question-answering) to 3 boys with autism, tact prompts resulted in fewer trials to criterion than echoic prompts. Four boys with autism participated in the current study; echoic and tact prompts were compared with three participants, and echoic, tact, and textual prompts with one participant. We also evaluated repeated acquisition with different question sets, and included a concurrent-chains arrangement, in which initial link selections determined which prompting procedure occurred in the terminal link. All the prompting procedures were effective in establishing intraverbal responding, but echoic prompting resulted in the fewest trials to criterion for 3 of the 4 participants. The difference in results between the two studies may have been due to the fact that the participants in the current study had greater history with the use of echoic prompts than the participants in the previous study. Two out of four participants showed quicker acquisition with a second set of questions. The concurrent chains arrangement revealed a clear preference for tact prompts for one participant, and a moderate tact-prompt preference for another.
 
An Evaluation of the Interactive Effects of Prompt Density, Mand Modality, and Functional Reinforcers Within Functional Communication Training
PATRICK ROMANI (University of Iowa), Joel Eric Ringdahl (University of Iowa), Kelly M. Vinquist (University of Iowa), Anuradha Salil Kumar Dutt (University of Iowa), Maliha Zaman (University of Iowa), Haley Whittington (University of Iowa)
Abstract: In the present study, we present data from two participants diagnosed with developmental disability who have a history of using several communicative modalities. Specifically, we evaluated the interactive effect of prompt rate, mand modality, and functional reinforcer using concurrent and single reinforcement schedules arrangements. A functional analysis of mands was conducted to identify positive reinforcers maintaining communication. Next, the rate of prompt presentation was varied for each participant to evaluate this variables’ affect on manding for functional reinforcers. During dense prompt schedules, the participants were prompted every 30-seconds to use a particular mand modality. During lean prompt schedules, the participants were only prompted at the outset of the session to use the relevant mand modality. Appropriate manding resulted in 30-second access to a tangible item or attention, depending on the condition. Inter-observer agreement was collected across 30% of all conditions conducted and averaged above 90%. Results indicated that an interaction existed between prompt density, mand modality, and manding for functional reinforcers. The data will be discussed in terms of their clinical relevance.
 
Effects of Identity-Matching and Echoic Prompts on the Acquisition of Auditory-Visual Conditional Discriminations
SEAN PETERSON (Texas Christian University), Charlotte Lynn Carp (Texas Christian University), Anna I. Petursdottir (Texas Christian University), Einar T. Ingvarsson (University of North Texas)
Abstract: Embedding an identity matching (IM) prompt in a least-to-most prompting hierarchy has shown to be more effective than least-to-most prompting alone for teaching auditory-visual conditional discriminations (Fisher, Kodak, & Moore, 2007). IM may function as a differential observing response (DOR) that increases attention to relevant aspects of comparison stimuli. In the present study, Experiment 1 was designed to replicate previous research in 2 children diagnosed with autism. Three conditions were evaluated in a multielement design: (a) IM prompt embedded in a least-to-most prompting hierarchy, (b) a traditional least-to-most prompting hierarchy, and (c) a trial-and-error control condition. The IM condition was shown to be more effective than other conditions for 1 participant; however, no acquisition was seen for the other participant in any condition, and an alternative evaluation of IM prompts is in progress. Experiment 2 evaluated the effects of a DOR to the auditory sample, by replacing the IM prompt with an echoic prompt. An effect of the echoic condition was seen for 1 participant with autism, and additional data collection is in progress. Results suggest that embedding a DOR in a least-to-most prompting hierarchy is more effective than using least-to-most prompting alone.
 
 
Symposium #498
CE Offered: BACB
Center for Autism and Related Disorder Shaping Knowledge Through Individualized Life Learning System: A Comprehensive Web-Based Assessment, Curriculum, Training Package, and Progress-Monitoring System
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
204AB (CC)
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Adel C. Najdowski (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
CE Instructor: Nathan Call, Ph.D.
Abstract: CARD SKILLS is a comprehensive web-based environment with four main components: (1) an eLearning tool for training behavioral therapists, (2) an assessment for identifying mastered and unmastered skills in children with autism, (3) a curriculum linked directly from targets identified in the assessment, and (4) a tracking system which graphically depicts the child’s progress during behavioral intervention. This symposium presents four papers on the various components of CARD SKILLS. The first presentation provides an outline and demonstration of the CARD SKILLS website with glimpses into the assessment, curriculum, and progress-tracking components of the program. The second presentation provides a demonstration of an empirically validated eLearning tool that is used to train individuals to provide behavioral intervention to children with autism. Data from a follow-up field evaluation of this tool is also presented. The third presentation demonstrates outcomes of children receiving behavioral intervention using the CARD SKILLS curriculum for one to two years. The symposium concludes with a description of outcome variables associated with a field evaluation of the CARD SKILLS program.
 
An Outline and Demonstration of the Components of the Center for Autism and Related Disorders Shaping Knowledge Through Individualized Life Learning Systems
Doreen Granpeesheh (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), ADEL C. NAJDOWSKI (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Dennis Dixon (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Abstract: Shaping Knowledge Through Individualized Life Learning Systems, also known as CARD SKILLS, is a web-based environment for the assessment and treatment of autism spectrum disorders. It has many features that help users achieve the highest possible results for their students, while keeping information organized and accessible to relevant stakeholders (parents, ABA providers, insurance carriers, teachers, speech language pathologists, etc). It is designed to be the home-base for all those who contribute intervention components to the student’s program. The primary components of SKILLS include: (1) an eLearning tool for training behavioral therapists, (2) an assessment for identifying mastered and unmastered skills in children with autism, (3) a curriculum linked directly from targets identified in the assessment, and (4) a tracking system which graphically depicts the child’s progress during behavioral intervention. This presentation provides glimpses into the CARD SKILLS website and each of these components (excluding the eLearning, which will be covered in a separate presentation).
 
Follow-Up Field Evaluation of an Empirically Validated eLearning Training Program for Behavioral Therapists
Doreen Granpeesheh (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), CATHERINE PETERS (Center For Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Jonathan J. Tarbox (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Dennis Dixon (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Kathy Thompson (Center For Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Amy Kenzer (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Abstract: Effective training of behavioral therapists is an integral part of top-quality treatment programs in applied behavior analysis (ABA). However, training programs are often time-consuming and costly to operate. In addition, global dissemination of training is limited as it requires direct instruction on the principles and procedures of ABA from professionals within the field. The development of electronic training programs (sometimes referred to as “eLearning” or “self-instructional computer based training”) extends the accessibility of training to rural areas and proffers an alternative or supplement to traditional in-person training. A demonstration of an empirically validated (Granpeesheh, Tarbox, Dixon, Peters, Thompson, & Kenzer, 2009) eLearning training tool is provided during this presentation. Additionally, follow-up data are presented on the evaluation of whether professionals trained in this manner were able to perform sufficiently under hands-on, real-world conditions. The field performance of these therapists was compared to a group of therapists who received traditional in-person training on the same topics. No significant difference between the groups was found, suggesting that therapists trained through an eLearning format can perform satisfactorily, given the proper hands-on experience. Implications related to the need for decreasing the costs of training in the developing world and global access to training in behavioral principles and procedures are discussed.
 
Outcome of Behavioral Intervention for Young Children With Autism
AMY KENZER (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Doreen Granpeesheh (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Jonathan Tarbox (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Abstract: Early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) has been established as an effective treatment for autism, resulting in an increase in the number of EIBI programs for young children with autism. As these services rise in popularity, multiple approaches to comprehensive behavioral intervention have emerged but virtually no research has evaluated the effectiveness of any one given approach. The current paper will present an evaluation of the CARD model of EIBI for children with autism following one to years of intervention. The differential effects of low (8-15 therapy hours per week) and high (25+ therapy hours per week) intensity treatment for 50 children will be presented. Additionally, data from a subset of 16 participants whose treatment programs were funded through a state grant will be presented with particular emphasis placed on providing a detailed account of treatment variables, social validity measures, and impact on public policy at the state level. For all participants, a comprehensive battery of assessments was conducted prior to treatment and at yearly intervals. Measures included tests of adaptive behavior, language, IQ, social skills, and executive function, in addition to the ADOS.
 
Field Evaluation of the Center for Autism and Related Disorders Shaping Knowledge Through Individualized Life Learning Systems Program
DENNIS DIXON (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Doreen Granpeesheh (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Adel C. Najdowski (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Jonathan J. Tarbox (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Abstract: Recently the CARD SKILLS program has been developed as an online tool for the assessment, treatment, and progress monitoring of early intensive behavioral interventions (EIBI) for children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The CARD SKILLS program has recently been evaluated in a large sample (over 300) of children with ASD receiving EIBI services over a 6-month period, across a large region of the United States (several states). Data will be presented regarding the initial outcome variables.
 
 
Symposium #499
CE Offered: BACB
Behavioral Intervention for "Executive Function" in Children With Autism
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
203AB (CC)
Area: AUT/TPC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Jonathan J. Tarbox (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Discussant: Nicholas M. Berens (University of Nevada, Reno)
CE Instructor: Gerald Harris, Ph.D.
Abstract: Behavior analysis was intended as a comprehensive science of psychology, since its inception (Skinner, 1938, 1945). All actions of organisms are putatively included as the subject matter of behavior analysis, but much of complex human behavior remains virtually untouched. One such area is “executive function.” Executive function is a term with many non-scientific and mentalistic meanings and generally refers to invented mental or neural hypothetical constructs, such as attention, “working memory,” planning, self-monitoring, and inhibition. However, to the extent that these constructs refer situations which include the behavior of organisms, these behaviors fall within the purview of behavior analysis and the behaviors must be accounted for in terms of behavior/environment relations, not hypothetical constructs. This symposium presents four papers that address “executive function” in children with autism. The first paper is an introduction to the symposium and lays the conceptual and practical groundwork for how “executive functions” may be addressed behaviorally. The subsequent three presentations describe results of three experiments across three participants each, each addressing different behaviors labeled as “working memory” by the general psychology community. All three experiments produced generalization. These studies represent a programmatic line of research examining whether behavioral procedures can affect performance on tasks which the general community refers to as “executive function.” This line of research is the first substantial application of behavioral intervention procedures to “executive function” deficits in autism. The results further reinforce the notion that supposed “executive function” involves behavioral repertoires which are subject to control and improvement by environmental manipulations.
 
The Practical and Conceptual Groundwork for Addressing Executive Function Deficits in Autism From a Purely Behavior Analytic Perspective
JONATHAN J. TARBOX (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Dennis Dixon (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Doreen Granpeesheh (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Abstract: A significant amount of research has documented executive function deficits in individuals with autism and other disorders. Executive function is a term that has many non-scientific and mentalistic meanings and generally refers to invented mental or neural hypothetical explanatory fictions, such as attention, “working memory,” planning, self-monitoring, and inhibition. However, in tasks that putatively measure executive function, the person in question is indeed doing something in response to events in the environment. That is, while the explanatory constructs of executive function are all but fiction, people do indeed engage in behaviors which are labeled by the general psychology community as “executive function,” and these behaviors are often critical to a person’s ability to succeed in their daily lives. Children with autism are no exception and a significant amount of research has documented that children with autism often have deficits in these skills. This presentation describes a conceptual and practical groundwork upon which to address these deficits. Supposed executive function deficits must be analyzed in terms of the behaviors occurring, the environmental antecedents and consequences present, and the resulting implications for treatment. This presentation gives an overview of how to do this generally, and serves to set up the subsequent two presentations which describe experiments using this approach.
 
Teaching Children With Autism a Vocal Rehearsal Strategy for Improving Performance on a “Working Memory” Motor Task
Emily Barnoy (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Adel C. Najdowski (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Jonathan J. Tarbox (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), RYAN BERGSTROM (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Abstract: Emitting sequences of motor behavior in response to vocal instructions is often examined in “working memory” tasks. This study improved performance on a “working memory” task that involves the teacher stating a sequence of motor behaviors and the student then emitting those behaviors in backwards order. The intervention procedure used modeling and reinforcement to teach a vocal rehearsal repertoire, resulting in improved performance on the “working memory” task for all participants. Three children with autism participated in the study and a multiple baseline design across participants was used to evaluate experimental control. Generalization to novel actions and action sequences was obtained. Interobserver agreement was assessed across more than 20% of sessions and averaged higher than 80%. Implications for a behavioral analysis of executive functions are discussed.
 
Improving Performance on a “Working Memory” Tasks Involving Naming, Categorization, and Counting in Children With Autism
LISA BALTRUSCHAT (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Hasselhorn Marcus (Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt), Jonathan J. Tarbox (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Abstract: This study consists of two experiments that examined whether behavioral teaching procedures could affect performance on tasks that are said to measure the “working memory” in children with autism. In the first task, children were presented with a sequence of visual stimuli and for each stimulus, were asked to emit a classification response according to the function of the object (e.g., “Can you eat it?”). At the end of the sequence of stimuli, the children were then asked to state the names of the stimuli in the order in which they were presented. In the second experiment, the task involved the presentation of a series of visual stimuli consisting of quantities of shapes. Participants were required to count and state aloud the quantity when each stimulus was presented. When the sequence was complete, the task required participants to state the quantities counted earlier, in the order they were counted. In both experiments, the multiople exemplar training intervention procedure progressed from simpler to more complex by starting with only positive reinforcement for correct responding and then progressing to prompting and reinforcement of a rehearsal behavior, if needed. A multiple baseline across three children with autism was conducted in each experiment. Large improvements in performance were obtained for all participants, as was maintenance and generalization to untrained stimuli and untrained responses. Interobserver agreement was assessed for more than 30% of sessions and averaged higher than 85%. Results suggest that basic behavioral intervention procedures can be successful in improving performance on complex behaviors labeled as “working memory” by the general community.
 
 
Symposium #503
CE Offered: BACB
Behavioral Principles Applied to System Issues: The Role of Good Science in Building Good Relationships
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Seguin (Grand Hyatt)
Area: CSE; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: John Young (University of Mississippi)
CE Instructor: Peishi Wang, Ph.D.
Abstract: This series of talks addresses the role of behavioral principles in organizational settings – namely schools and associated networks of administration. The first talk addresses models for public and research partnerships, including examples of how these models have been applied to generate local clinical practicum training for graduate students enrolled in a behaviorally-oriented doctoral program. The two following talks address the utilization of these reciprocal, positively reinforcing relationships to engage in research beneficial to all entities involved. This includes a comparison of teachers’ views on best practices for mental health with what is noted in the scientific literature, as well as development of baseline norms for behaviors noted to frequently appear as targets in locally generated Functional Behavioral Analyses. Finally, a broad mental health screening process will be described in terms of these same partnership models and behavioral principles. This project, the Behavioral Vital Signs, provides a foundation upon which much of the partnerships and mutually beneficial research projects described above rests. Discussion will emphasize system factors and detail methods by which similarly inclined behavioral researchers, clinicians, or administrators could replicate these efforts in novel settings.
 
Exploring the Collaborative Impact Between Science and Practice in a Community Behavioral Health Partnership
REGAN M. SLATER (University of Mississippi), John Young (University of Mississippi)
Abstract: Recent overviews of models for community-based research have articulated the need for further collaboration among behavioral and mental health specialists and those whom they serve (e.g., Chorpita & Mueller, 2008; Garland, Plemmons, & Koontz, 2009). Cooperation and motivation toward greater understanding and goal achievement for all interested parties is emphasized, as are behavioral principles related to both domains benefiting from professional interactions. In this talk, we will examine a collaborative partnership of doctoral level clinical psychology students and a local public school district through the filter of the models cited. We will present information on this partnership, which was established as a practicum placement for university students to work as child behavioral health specialists in the primary and secondary educational settings. The bidirectional impact between science and practice, scientific behavioral principles, evidence-based service delivery, and opportunities for integrating applied behavior analysis into administrative policy will be examined. We will also discuss goals for maximizing collaboration, service delivery, and ongoing research as we involve all parties with a stake in the partnership, including the school faculty and staff, administration, parents, children, graduate students, and University faculty supervisors.
 
Teacher Perceptions of Appropriate Mental Health Practice
REBECCA J. HAMBLIN (University of Mississippi), Corinn Johnson (University of Mississippi), Regan M. Slater (University of Mississippi), John Young (University of Mississippi)
Abstract: This purpose of this study is to offer a qualitative, thematic description of teachers’ perceptions of strategies for ameliorating students’ psychopathological behaviors. The framework of the study follows prominent system researchers’ call for more qualitative understanding of systemic factors related to evidence-based service implementation (Garland, Plemmons, & Koontz, 2009). Sampled teachers in the local school system described throughout this presentation will participate in semi-structured interviews asking them to detail what interventions they think would be most helpful in response to several vignettes depicting high base-rate pathologies (i.e., ADHD, Depression, Anxiety, Autism, and behavioral disturbance). Teacher responses will be audio recorded, and coded via standard procedures for thematic analysis (Miles & Huberman, 1994). Themes will be further distilled into component parts to create a profile of practice elements (Chorpita, Daleiden, & Weisz, 2005) reflected in teachers’ responses. These profiles will be compared to similar practice element profiles derived from distillation of practices described in randomized controlled trials (Chorpita & Daleiden, 2009). This project will offer knowledge regarding what teachers think should be done to address mental health needs and outline how this maps onto the evidence base, both of which may inform further efforts to infused behavioral science into these settings.
 
Assessing Normative Rates of Prevalent Target Behaviors in School-Based Functional Behavioral Analyses
GILBERTE BASTIEN (University of Mississippi), John Young (University of Mississippi)
Abstract: Over the last few decades, applied behavior analysis in school settings has increased. Mental health professionals are often called upon to conduct functional behavioral analyses (FBAs) and develop comprehensive behavior plans for the purpose of changing challenging behaviors. Despite a national, systemic integration of FBAs into school-based mental health very few empirical studies have provided a “normal” indexing of prevalent FBA target behaviors. This lack of base rates regarding challenging behaviors in non-referred children can present service delivery challenges and perhaps may overly pathologize referred individuals. The present project seeks to provide a normative index for commonly arising FBA targets by assessing the frequency of such in a non-referred school sample. The data collected will serve as the foundation for dissemination efforts in schools and a more individualized approach to implementing behaviorally-oriented classroom management strategies. In particular, an understanding of “normal” levels of behavior will underscore a dimensional and functional approach to understanding challenging behaviors that are disruptive to the educational environment. This information, when communicated repeatedly to teachers and administrators in the context of implementing scientifically sound recommendations, may serve to shape the knowledge and practice of the school system in terms of mental health issues.
 
Behavioral Vital Signs: Research and Policy as Reinforcement
JOHN YOUNG (University of Mississippi)
Abstract: This talk continues the theme of the other presentations in this symposium by emphasizing the role of behavioral principles in conducting research in community-based settings (in this case schools). The Behavioral Vital Signs (BVS) project to be discussed is an effort to offer mental health screening to entire schools. It involves self-reports of anxiety, depression, loneliness, bullying, peer support, and risky/illicit behaviors such as drug use. To date approximately 20,000 ethnically and socioeconomically diverse children and adolescents across the state of Mississippi have been screened through BVS. This presentation will focus less on the results of screening per se and more on the process of establishing broad partnerships between the University and schools. Specifically, there will be a discussion of marketing geared toward providing a service to schools (rather than conducting research studies) and provision of timely feedback to administrations, teachers, and parents. Behavioral principles that were useful in setting up the BVS are outlined throughout, and models for similar work elsewhere will be discussed. Additionally, future goals leveraging successful collaborations with schools will be detailed, including practicum training sites for graduate students and eventual influence on public policy in the state.
 
 
Symposium #509
CE Offered: BACB
Assessing and Treating Noncompliance of Young Children
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
9:30 AM–10:50 AM
Texas Ballroom Salon A (Grand Hyatt)
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Amanda Karsten (Western New England College)
CE Instructor: Mandy Rispoli, Ph.D.
Abstract: Educators and caregivers have an ongoing need for assessment and treatment strategies appropriate to the task of increasing compliance of young children. Data-based papers presented in this symposium will examine strategies for addressing noncompliance of children ranging from 7 months to 6 years of age. The first paper examines the effects of continuous access to preferred stimuli on infant compliance during a tummy time exercise. The second paper evaluates the relation between targeted precursor behavior (i.e., appropriate response to name) and compliance with teacher instructions. The third paper describes functional analysis outcomes and subsequent changes in compliance when treatment components including extinction, reinforcement, and provision of caregiver "rationale" statements are manipulated. The final paper describes a method for rapidly comparing treatments for noncompliance during brief outpatient therapy. Parent-reported treatment preferences and procedural fidelity for caregiver implementation of intervention procedures will also be reported.
 
The Effects of Continuous Access to Preferred Stimuli on Infant Behavior During Tummy Time
HEATHER J. KADEY (SUNY Upstate Medical University), Henry S. Roane (State University of New York, Upstate Medical University)
Abstract: Placement of infants on their backs during sleep has been credited with decreasing episodes of SIDS; nevertheless, this positioning may be associated with a range of undesirable side effects, including plagiocephaly and negative effects on muscle tone. Positioning infants in a prone position for “tummy time” is a common recommendation to ensure appropriate infant development and to combat the effects associated with infants spending extended periods of time in a supine position. However, tummy time may be associated with inappropriate infant behavior such as crying and noncompliance. In the current investigation, we provided continuous access to a preferred stimulus within the context of a reversal design to decrease negative vocalizations and increase the duration of a 7-month-old infant’s head being elevated during tummy time. Interobserver agreement data were collected on over 30% of sessions and averaged over 90% for both dependent variables. The results will be discussed in terms of using preferred stimuli to reduce the aversive qualities of tummy time for typically developing infants.
 
Improving Compliance by Teaching Preschoolers to Respond Effectively to Their Name
LAUREN BEAULIEU (Western New England College), Gregory P. Hanley (Western New England College), Kevin C. Luczynski (Western New England College), Aleasha A. Roberson (Western New England College)
Abstract: We evaluated the effects of teaching preschool children to respond effectively to their name (i.e., stopping their activity, looking up towards the teacher, and saying “yes”), on their compliance with a variety of typical instructions provided by classroom teachers. We used a multiple baseline across groups with 12 preschoolers of typical development to determine the effects of teaching these precursors on classroom compliance. We also used a between-subjects design to determine the extent to which gains in compliance maintained for the children who received precursor training. Interobserver agreement was collected for more than 60% of observations, and averaged 92% across all measures. Results showed that compliance increased as a function of teaching precursors for all children. Data also showed that the effects maintained to some extent. Implications for promoting preschooler compliance in the classroom will be discussed as well as the next set of evaluations necessary to develop a curriculum to prevent the development of intractable noncompliance in young children.
 
Further Evaluation of Antecedent Interventions on Compliance: The Effects of "Rationales" to Increase Compliance Among Preschoolers
KATIE A. NICHOLSON (Florida Institute of Technology), David A. Wilder (Florida Institute of Technology), Janelle Allison (Florida Institute of Technology), Oneina E. Abellon (Florida Institute of Technology), Renee Saulnier (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: Functional analyses were conducted to identify reinforcers for noncompliance exhibited by six young children. Next, the effects of rationales, or statements describing why a child should comply with a caregiver-delivered instruction, were evaluated. In experiment 1, three participants received the rationales immediately after the therapist’s instruction. In experiment 2, three additional participants received rationales immediately before the therapist’s instruction. The results indicate that rationales were ineffective for all six children. Extinction increased compliance for one child; contingent access to preferred items with or without response cost increased compliance for the other participants. Although levels of problem behavior varied within and across participants, they were generally higher in the rationale and extinction conditions.
 
A Rapid Treatment Analysis of Compliance in Young Children
SORAYA SHANUN KUNNAVATANA (University of the Pacific), Matthew P. Normand (University of the Pacific)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to use an alternating treatment design to rapidly determine the most effective treatment for noncompliance in five children (ages 3-6 years) and to train caregivers to implement the treatment during a 90-minute outpatient meeting. Three treatments were assessed: fixed-time delivery of attention, high-probability instruction sequence, and a three-step guided compliance procedure. The sessions took place in a university clinic and the parents acted as therapists during assessment and treatment. Three follow-up sessions were conducted in the child’s home to further assess the effectiveness of the prescribed treatment and to evaluate the level of treatment integrity evidenced by the parents. Parents also were asked to choose the treatment they preferred following the multi-element analysis and again following a review of the data from the analysis and report treatment satisfaction during follow up sessions. Data indicate that the rapid treatment analysis produced differentiated levels of compliance for four of the participants. Overall, compliance increased following the analysis and parents implemented the treatments with integrity. Parent-reported preferences for treatment changed following review of the multi-element analysis data for two participants and overall satisfaction with the prescribed treatments was high.
 
 
Symposium #516
CE Offered: BACB
Patterns and Processes of Change in Behavior Therapy for Youth Depression
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
10:00 AM–11:20 AM
Crockett A/B (Grand Hyatt)
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Daniel William Maitland (Western Michigan University)
CE Instructor: Susan Friedman, Ph.D.U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Abstract: Clinical behavior analysis involves the application of strategies derived from behavioral concepts and principles to traditional (outpatient) psychotherapy settings and populations. When a particular behavioral technique alters a well-specified target behavior whose function has been experimentally demonstrated, the cause of the change is relatively apparent. However, in settings where functional analyses are interpretive, intervention based on verbal exchanges between therapist and client, and outcome measured according to multi-dimensional, client-reported indices of functioning, understanding the change process is complicated. In this symposium we focus on our attempts to understand the course of change and the variables responsible for it during behavioral interventions for youth who present with the array of features commonly identified by the summary label depression.
 
The Time-Course of Change in Youth Depression Treatment: Evidence and Implications
SCOTT T. GAYNOR (Western Michigan University), Sarah N. VerLee (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: A better understanding of the pattern of change during effective treatment may help in determining the (therapeutic and behavioral) processes responsible for producing that change. The present paper reviews the existing single-case and group design literature to examine the time-course of change during treatment for youth depression. Replicating results from a seminal review in the adult depression literature (Ilardi & Craighead, 1994), group-level results from multiple large scale efficacy trials suggest a substantial amount of the overall change occurs in the early stages of the treatment process. Individual-level analyses further suggest this pattern applies to a substantial percentage of participants. These data have implications for how the field goes about trying to determine the mechanisms of action by which therapy works and determine how best to structure interventions, topics which are addressed in detail in the subsequent papers.
 
Single-Participant Assessment of Treatment Mediators During Behavioral Activation for Depressed Youth
ANDREW R. RILEY (Western Michigan University), Amanda M. Harris (Oglethorpe), Scott T. Gaynor (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: It is desirable to understand the mechanisms by which effective psychotherapy works. Assessment of treatment mediators in single-participant design research provides valuable information about the potential causal variables in behavior change. Such analysis requires documenting, for each participant, the receipt of treatment, change on the mediator and relevant clinical outcome measures, and that the change on the mediator happened at the expected time and preceded significant change on the dependent variable. Procedures used in single-participant assessment of mediators will be described, and example data from a behavioral activation intervention with four depressed youths who demonstrated remission following treatment will be presented. For two participants, increased activation appeared to be a mediator, whereas decreased dysfunctional thinking never emerged as a plausible mediator. It is concluded that single-participant assessment of mediators of treatment outcome offers a useful additional tool for determining possible mechanisms of action in effective psychotherapy.
 
A Stepped Behavioral Care Approach for Youth Depression: Assessment, Rationale, and Clinical Illustrations
LUCAS A. BROTEN (Western Michigan University), Scott T. Gaynor (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: This presentation will focus on clinical implementation of the stepped behavior therapy approach for depressed adolescents. The rationale will be explicated for a sequence consisting of 1) Watchful Waiting (WW), 2) Behavioral Activation (BA), and 3) Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). In short, because a substantial number of youth appear to respond to therapeutic support we implemented WW as the first step. A lack of response led to treatment with BA , which was selected for the second step based on the existing efficacy data with adults and its more straightforward implementation. The final step was ACT, which was reserved for cases that failed to respond to steps 1 and 2 (see Kanter, Baruch, and Gaynor, 2006). The presentation will also outline the decision-rule used to determine step progression and will provide clinical material from sessions with youth receiving each of the steps to illustrate what these treatments looked like when being implemented with depressed adolescents.
 
A Stepped Behavioral Care Approach for Youth Depression: Times-Series Data
LUCAS A. BROTEN (Western Michigan University), Scott T. Gaynor (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: The purpose of this presentation is to examine data collected using a stepped -treatment sequence involving WW, BA, and ACT for depressed adolescents. The experiment used a single participant A/B/C design where exposure to the next level of the independent variable in the sequence was based on treatment response at the prior level. That is, a clinically significant response to A precluded exposure to B, and a clinically significant response to B precluded exposure to C. The goal was to begin to develop a behavioral treatment algorithm wherein more intensive and specialized treatment was implemented for those who demonstrated need. Time series data from six depressed youth will be presented. The clinical outcome across steps as well as potential mediators of treatment response (as outlined in Riley et al. above) will be emphasized.
 
 
Panel #518
CE Offered: BACB
Arizona and Behavior Analysis: Mandated Applied Behavior Analysis Insurance Coverage, BCBA Licensure, and Service Delivery in the Desert
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
207AB (CC)
Area: AUT/CBM; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CE Instructor: Amanda Karsten, Ph.D.
Chair: Joseph Gentry (Gentry Pediatric Behavioral Services)
DANIEL P. DAVIDSON (Northern Arizona University)
BRYAN J. DAVEY (ACCEL)
JOSEPH GENTRY (Gentry Pediatric Behavioral Services)
DONALD M. STENHOFF (BISTÅ Autism Center)
Abstract: The past two years have been exciting ones for behavior analysts in Arizona. With the recent conception of the Four Corners Association for Behavior Analysis, behavior analysts have been coming together to get things accomplished for our clients across all of Arizona. With the help of well versed parents and supportive legislators, Arizona law makers passed “Steven’s Law,” which mandates insurance providers to pay for ABA services for individuals on the autism spectrum. Arizona behavior analysts were also successful in getting another bill passed in the Arizona legislature that will soon allow BCBA’s to be licensed providers in the state. This panel discussion will share up-to-date information regarding how these laws are being implemented and how they are impacting service delivery across the state. Participants will be able to learn more about how Arizonians worked to get these laws passed and how they may be able to pass similar laws in their states. Panelists represent a wide range of practice areas, ncluding a University Professor, Director of Behavioral Services, Psychologist in Private Practice, and Director of a Private Non-Profit Center.
 
 
Symposium #519
CE Offered: BACB
Changes in Student Performance: Case Studies in Verbal Behavior Within a Large Scale Public School Project
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
204AB (CC)
Area: AUT/VRB; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Michael Miklos (Pennsylvania Training and Technical Assistance Network)
Discussant: Mark L. Sundberg (Sundberg and Associates)
CE Instructor: Charlotte Fudge, M.S.
Abstract: The Pennsylvania Verbal Behavior Project provides applied behavior analytic services to students with autism in over 100 classes within the Commonwealth. Language instruction within the Project is guided by the analysis of verbal behavior and includes both intensive teaching through a discrete trial format as well as natural environment teaching. Symposium content will review case studies presenting outcome data accumulated in the PA VB Project in various formats including a video media presentation, results of VB-MAPP assessments, and student progress within individual instructional programs. A description of Project training processes, fidelity measures, and data calibration will be included. Procedural integrity will be discussed in relation to a mixed and varied presentation of discrete trials and errorless procedures. Case study data will be referenced to measures of implementation of instructional methods within participating classrooms. The main goal of these presentations will be to provide priliminary demonstrations of positive changes in student functioning along dimensions of behavior associated with autism.
 
Media Presentation of Case Studies Within the Pennsylvania Verbal Behavior Project: A Video Presentation of Student Progress for Training and Public Awareness
WILLIAM A. GALBRAITH (Pennsylvania Training and Technical Assistance Network)
Abstract: This session will include a brief overview of the structure and demographics of efforts within the PA VB Project. Processes of training, monitoring implementation, general instructional procedures and data systems will be discussed. Descriptive data for each variable will be followed by a presentation of case studies in a video documentary format. The video will include parent and teacher reports, footage of behavior change, and supportive data. Programming and organization of four PA VB Project classrooms will be highlighted. Classrooms reviewed are public school autism support classes including a preschool age level class, two elementary school classes, and an intermediate school class. Video footage of individual students will include examples of various instructional strategies and the progress of the individual students across a single school year.
 
Repeated Demonstrations of Student Progress on the Verbal Behavior Milestones Assessment and Placement Program From Within a Single School Year
MICHAEL MIKLOS (Pennsylvania Training and Technical Assistance Network)
Abstract: A series of case studies of student progress documented through protocol analysis of assessment outcomes on the Verbal Behavior-Milestones Assessment and Placement Program will be presented. Individual student case studies derived from various participating sites in the PA VB Project will be presented and include relevant descriptions of systematic staff training procedures, measures of degree of protocol implementation and fidelity measures. Descriptions of student characteristics in relation to diagnosis for each case study will be provided. Case studies will suggest support for a systematic application of behavioral programs focusing language instruction derived from a conceptual analysis of verbal behavior. The primary mode of data presentation will be VB-MAPP grids completed at two points, fall and spring, within a single school year. Outcomes will be discussed in relation to meaningful changes in student functioning related to teaching mands, tacts, intraverbals, listener responding, echoics, social skills, and other skill domains.
 
Verbal Behavior Programming and Resultant Changes in Performance for Skill Acquisition and the Reduction of Problem Behavior
AMIRIS DIPUGLIA (PaTTAN/ PA Verbal Behavior Project)
Abstract: A series of brief case studies derived from public school classes within the PA VB Project will illustrate skill acquisition for students with autism across specific instructional programs addressing the acquisition of mands, tacts, listener responding, imitation, intraverbals, match to sample and other skills. For certain students, data tracking the reduction of problem behavior will also be presented in relation to verbal skill acquisition. These case studies will provide further demonstration of changes in meaningful skill acquisition and adaptive functioning for students with autism in relation to specific instructional protocols associated with the verbal behavior approach including errorless teaching, interspersing task presentation, natural environment training, and consideration of motivative variables. Each case study will be brief, but multiple examples of changes in meaningful skill acquisition across a number of students will be presented. The cases studies will be derived from a variety of classes and students with autism of various chronological ages.
 
 
Invited Tutorial #530
CE Offered: BACB
Considering Behavioral Function Prior to the Complaint: A Tutorial on Preventing the Development of Problem Behavior by Preschoolers
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
11:00 AM–11:50 AM
Ballroom A (CC)
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
BACB CE Offered. CE Instructor: Robert Ross, Ed.D.
Chair: Jennifer L. Austin (University of Glamorgan)
Presenting Authors: : GREGORY P. HANLEY (Western New England College)
Abstract: A class-wide, skills-based curriculum aimed at minimizing existing problem behavior of preschoolers and preventing the development of more severe behavior problems during the early elementary school years will be described. Because the class-wide procedures do not result in acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of all skills for all children, individualized and small group tactics for promoting these skills will also be described.
 
GREGORY P. HANLEY (Western New England College)
Gregory Hanley, Ph.D., BCBA, has over 19 years experience applying the principles of learning to improve socially important behaviors of children and adults with and without disabilities. Dr. Hanley is currently an Associate Professor of Psychology and Director of the Behavior Analysis Doctoral Program at Western New England College. Dr. Hanley has published over 50 articles in peer-reviewed journals in areas such as the assessment and prevention of problem behavior, teaching tactics for young children, and evidence-based values. Dr. Hanley is a Senior Associate Editor for Behavior Analysis in Practice and its next Editor, and a past Associate Editor of The Behavior Analyst and of the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. He was the 2006 recipient of the B.F. Skinner New Researcher Award by Division 25 (Behavior Analysis) of the American Psychological Association and was appointed a Fellow of the Association in 2007.
 
 
Panel #531
CE Offered: BACB
United Archipelego or Separate Tables: Evolutionary Theory as Consilient Theory or Parallel View
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
11:00 AM–12:20 PM
Travis A/B (Grand Hyatt)
Area: DEV; Domain: Theory
CE Instructor: Janet Montgomery, M.S.
Chair: Edward K. Morris (Kansas University)
DAVID SLOAN WILSON (Binghamton University)
EDWARD K. MORRIS (Kansas University)
JACOB L. GEWIRTZ (Florida International University)
GARY D. NOVAK (California State University, Stanislaus)
Abstract: This is a follow-up to the B.F. Skinner Lecture by David Wilson Sloan entitled: Behaviorism and the United Ivory Archipelago. Wilson argues: The Ivory Tower is more aptly called the Ivory Archipelago--many islands of thought with little communication among islands. Each field (=island) within psychology has its own history and special assumptions. One island's commonplace is another's heresy. The fields of evolutionary psychology and behavior analysis provide an especially strong contrast. The ideas associated with Skinner are central to behavior analysis but rejected by evolutionary psychology as part of the "standard social science model (SSSM)". There is an urgent need to achieve a more consilient theoretical framework for psychology--to turn the Ivory Archipelago into the United Ivory Archipelago. I will argue that evolutionary theory provides the consilient framework for psychology, as it does for the biological sciences, but that it must go beyond the current field of evolutionary psychology and include a healthy measure of behaviorism. The consilient theory must do justice to both elaborate genetic innateness and impressive open-ended behavioral and cultural flexibility.
 
 
Invited Tutorial #533
CE Offered: BACB
Meditation and Mindfulness
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
12:00 PM–12:50 PM
Ballroom A (CC)
Area: CBM/TPC; Domain: Service Delivery
BACB CE Offered. CE Instructor: Thomas Zane, Ph.D.
Chair: Jonathan W. Kanter (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee)
Presenting Authors: : ROBERT J. KOHLENBERG (University of Washington)
Abstract: Meditation and mindfulness techniques are becoming increasingly popular for both self-improvement and as part of mainstream behavioral treatment (e.g., mindfulness based cognitive therapy, dialectical behaviour therapy, mindfulness based relapse prevention). Correspondingly, these methods have garnered increased attention by behavior analysts, particularly from an acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) perspective. Stereotypically, meditation involves sitting quietly, in silence, either in group or alone and attending to one’s own immediate experience. There are, however, some variations that do not fit this image and instead explicitly incorporate a more interpersonal context (e.g. Kelly Wilson’s “Mindfulness for Two”). Whether done in an explicitly “alone” or “interpersonal” context, therapeutic benefits are intended to extend into relational realms and thus address the interpersonal issues that are implicated in most clinical problems. This tutorial will involve a hands-on experience with two prototypical meditation and mindfulness preparations. The first is a modified version of an explicit “alone” method based on Herbert Benson’s “Relaxation Response.” The second incorporates an explicit interpersonal context that is derived from a less well known Buddhist method “insight dialogue.” We will discuss the potential mechanisms of action, benefits, and risks of these methods from a behavior analytic and functional analytic psychotherapy viewpoint.
 
ROBERT J. KOHLENBERG (University of Washington)
Dr. Bob Kohlenberg received his doctorate under Ivar Lovaas at UCLA and is a Professor of Psychology at the University of Washington where he was the Director of Clinical Training from 1997 to 2004. He is certified by the American Board of Professional Psychology and received the Washington State Psychological Association’s Distinguished Psychologist Award. He uses behavior analysis to help understand, teach, and do research on the curative role of a close and intense therapist-client relationship as well as a broad range of clinical phenomena. The approach is represented by the 1991 book Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (known as FAP) by him and Mavis Tsai. Using this approach he and his colleagues (who are often first authors) have done research and published papers on electrical energy conservation, migraine, PTSD, marital counseling, OCD, depression, previously undocumented psychological side effects of anti-depressant medication, DBT, CBT, BPD, acceptance, personality, the self, DSM IV Axis II diagnosis, co-morbidity, the integration of psychotherapies, and the parallels between implanted memories and the therapy rationales presented to clients by behavior therapists. He has also contributed radical behavioral genetic material to help produce his daughter, Dr. Barbara Kohlenberg, a distinguished behavior analyst, talented clinician, teacher, researcher, and co-author.
 
 
Panel #535
CE Offered: BACB
Association of Professional Behavior Analysts Update
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
12:00 PM–12:50 PM
216A (CC)
Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Daniel Shabani, Ph.D.
Chair: Stephen R. Anderson (Summit Educational Resources)
STEPHEN R. ANDERSON (Summit Educational Resources)
ALLYSON MOORE (The Kendall School)
GINA GREEN (Association of Professional Behavior Analysts)
Abstract: The Association of Professional Behavior Analysts (APBA) is dedicated exclusively to serving the needs of professional practitioners of applied behavior analysis. In its first full year of existence, APBA has successfully advocated for public policies to protect and enhance the practice of ABA; developed extensive resources for practitioners, consumers, and policymakers; issued position statements on issues of importance to ABA practitioners and consumers; and engaged in various other educational and professional development activities. This session will provide a forum for describing APBA's activities and engaging practitioners in discussion about their concerns and needs.
 
 
Symposium #536
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Functional Analysis, Intervention, and Generalization Strategies for Challenging Behavior in Young Children With Autism
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
12:00 PM–1:20 PM
207AB (CC)
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Amanda L. Little (The Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk)
CE Instructor: Amanda Little, Ph.D.
Abstract: Children with autism present unique challenges to parents, caregivers, and teachers in regards to their behavior. This symposium will present research conducted with children with autism in the areas of assessment, functional analysis, and intervention with a focus on generalization of skills. Participants will learn the methodology and results of research conducted with young children with autism who exhibit challenging behavior in a variety of settings (i.e., community, childcare, and the home).
 
Modifying Functional Analysis Protocol to Assess Challenging Behavior in Children With Autistic Disorder
Mark F. O'Reilly (The Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk), Christina Fragale (The Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk), PAMELA WHITE (The Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk), Jeannie Marie Aguilar (The Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk), Soyeon Kang (Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk)
Abstract: Children with autism are more likely to engage in challenging behavior than children with other developmental disabilities. The nature of their challenging behavior may be different from other developmental disabilities groups with an emphasis on stereotyped or automatic responding (American Psychiatric Association, 2000; Reese et. al., 2003, 2005). This study will include five elementary school-aged children, each diagnosed with autism. Functional analyses, using five sessions of each assessment condition will be conducted (Iwata et. al., 1982,1994). Additional sessions of the tangible conditions will also be conducted. Percentage of intervals of challenging behavior will be measured. In addition, we will measure the percentage of intervals with stereotyped engagement with the tangible object. This behavior will be analyzed using a non-concurrent multiple baseline design. We hypothesize that the tangible condition may, in fact, be measuring interference with stereotyped behavior and other challenging behavior exhibited by the child when the item is removed might better be interpreted as challenging behavior in order to gain access to stereotyped behavior (see Murphy et. al., 2000, Fisher et. al., Falcomata et. al., in press).
 
Parent Conducted Assessment and Intervention for Children With Autism During Problematic Family Routines
AMANDA L. LITTLE (The Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk)
Abstract: Though the display of challenging behavior is not an uncommon occurrence in young children, some children exhibit behaviors that may develop into more serious behavior problems impeding the child’s learning and the overall family quality of life. The purpose of this study was to investigate how to support parents as the primary interventionists through conducting a functional behavior assessment, intervention planning, and the implementation process to address their children’s challenging behaviors. A multiple-probe design across three family routines was utilized for one young children diagnosed with autism. The mother was taught to successfully implement interventions that resulted in a decrease in the child’s challenging behavior. The mother increased her use of targeted strategies across all routines after collaborative planning (e.g., average of 24% during baseline and 83% during intervention). A reduction in child challenging behaviors across all targeted routines was observed (e.g., average of 59% during baseline and 19% during intervention). A fourth non-trained routine was assessed to see if the mother applied the techniques without additional consultation from the professional. Finally, positive changes in the quality of life of the family were noted as demonstrated through increased satisfaction ratings on items related to child and family quality of life.
 
The Influence of Motivating Operations on Generalization for Students With Autism
CHRISTINA FRAGALE (The Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk), Jeannie Marie Aguilar (The Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk), Nigel Pierce (The Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk), Mark F. O'Reilly (The Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk)
Abstract: Individuals with autism are thought to have a difficult time generalizing skills without explicit programming to do so. Generalization, in this case, reflects an outcome of behaviors that occur outside of the conditions of the original training stimuli and remains a fundamental notion for therapists and educators to attend towards true behavior change. Additionally, behavioral researchers have had a steady interest in examining both the functional properties and clinical applications of establishing (motivating) operations. Motivating operations have been shown to be critical variables when developing and interpreting behavioral assessments (e.g. preference assessments), intervening on challenging behavior, and examining the interaction between various biological conditions (e.g., health variables, genetic syndromes) and operant behavior. This study adds to the motivating operation literature by evaluating the influence of motivating operation on the generalization of skills. Three students with autism who received discrete trial training targeting communication skills participated in this study. Generalization of communication was evaluated across settings and implementers while under the influence of different putative motivating operations in an alternating treatment design. Results suggest that motivating operations may influence the acquisition of novel behaviors and should be considered when designing and implementing instructional programs.
 
Evaluation of the Rate of Challenging Behavior Maintained by Different Functions Across Preference Assessments
SOYEON KANG (Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk), Mark F. O'Reilly (The Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk), Christina Fragale (The Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk), Jeannie Marie Aguilar (The Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk)
Abstract: Preference assessments yield valuable information regarding preferred items or activities that subsequently serve as reinforcers. But if any variable (i.e., implementation method) during the assessment conflicts with specific participant characteristics (i.e., challenging behavior) the assessment results may be affected, thereby leading to inaccurate conclusions. We examined the occurrence of challenging behavior maintained by attention, tangible or demand functions across preference assessments (i.e., paired-stimulus, multiple-stimulus without replacement, and free-operant). The experimenter administered each preference format times in a random order for children with developmental disabilities whose challenging behavior was maintained by attention, tangible or demand functions. Results demonstrate that challenging behavior maintained by a particular function occurred differently across the preference assessment formats, which presented a different relevant condition, evoking the challenging behavior (i.e., deprivation of attention, withdrawal of preferred items, or presentation of demand). The results suggest that there may be a relation between functions of challenging behavior and preference assessment formats. Implications for practitioners are discussed with regard to administration of preference assessment for individuals with developmental disabilities who exhibit challenging behavior.
 
 
Symposium #538
CE Offered: BACB
Teaching Practical Money Management and Budgeting Skills to Teenagers and Young Adults With Autism
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
12:00 PM–1:20 PM
206AB (CC)
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Elizabeth Martineau (Nashoba Learning Group)
CE Instructor: Elizabeth Martineau, Ed.S.
Abstract: Money Management Skills are critical to the independent functioning of adults with developmental disabilities with at least one study identifying the presence of money management skills as the critical differentiator of whether people with developmental disabilities were successful in community placement. Teenagers with Autism at Nashoba Learning Group who have been engaged in intensive ABA programming for a number of years are often able to develop sufficient prerequisite skills to learn money management, budgeting and related daily living skills in preparation for adulthood. However, because these teenagers are still challenged learners, skills must be taught using lessons designed specifically for their needs. These skills must also be closely tied to Vocational programming so that students learn the relationship between work and funds available. NLG has developed a series of linked skill building programs to teach practical money management, budgeting and related daily living skills. Symposium will review teaching methods and procedures and data on student skill acquisition.
 
Overview of Nashoba Learning Group Money Management Curriculum
ELIZABETH MARTINEAU (Nashoba Learning Group)
Abstract: Money Management Skills are critical to the independent functioning of adults with developmental disabilities with at least one study identifying the presence of money management skills as the critical differentiator of whether people with developmental disabilities were successful in community placement. There has been some research on procedures for teaching specific sub skills to adults with autism. However, no research has appeared on teaching an integrated set of money management skills to teenagers or adults with autism. This presentation provides a profile of Nashoba Learning Group and our population of learners; the rationale for teaching money management skills to teenagers with Autism; the specific skill prerequisites required for students to learn money management skills; and, an overview of NLG's Practical Money Management curriculum. Skills included in each major category of Job Skills, Holding a Job, Banking, Budgeting and shopping are outlined.
 
Training Students With Autism in Job skills and Time Recording Skills
HEATHER M. REGO (Nashoba Learning Group)
Abstract: In order to be productive adults, students with autism must learn job skills before the age of 22, when the intensive teaching they require is available through their educational placement. Nashoba Learning Group has developed a Vocational Training Curriculum that provides job skills training in simulated and actual work sites for our teenage and young adult students. In this presentation, we first provide an overview of our Vocational Training Program. Next, we describe teaching procedures for the skills of recording time worked and calculating pay owed. Next, case studies and data on student skill acquisition of these skills is presented. These skills provide a critical linkage between Vocational Training and NLG's Practical Money Management curriculum as students link earning money with the ability to purchase items and services they need. The presentation leads into the next in the symposium.
 
Teaching teenagers With Autism Banking and Budgeting Skills
HEATHER M. REGO (Nashoba Learning Group)
Abstract: Banking and Budgeting are critical life skills that allow adults with autism to gain autonomy and increased independence. Teenagers with Autism at Nashoba Learning Group who have been engaged in intensive ABA programming for a number of years are often able to develop sufficient prerequisite skills to learn banking and budgeting skills in preparation for adulthood. In this presentation, specific skill requirements and teaching procedures are presented including adaptations to account for differences in degree of impairment between students. Task analysis primed with verbal description of task requirements and then with verbal or textual prompts for specific steps are used. Prompts are faded and then supervision is faded systematically. Case studies and data on successful skill acquisition by 2 teenage students is presented.
 
Managing a Budget- Teaching Shopping and Budgeting Skills to Teenagers With Autism
CHANELLE HUME (Nashoba Learning Group)
Abstract: Shopping and budgeting are critical life skills for adults with autism. These skills must be taught before age 22 while individuals have access to intensive educational services. Teenagers with Autism at Nashoba Learning Group who have been engaged in intensive ABA programming for a number of years are often able to develop sufficient prerequisite skills to learn shopping and budgeting and related daily living skills in preparation for adulthood. In this presentation, teaching procedures are detailed , including adaptations required to accommodate more impaired learners. Students are provided with a verbal and textual overview of task requirements and components. Then, task analyzed teaching using prompts that are systematically faded is used to teach the steps involved in each skill. The scope of activity is also gradually increased as the student demonstrates independence at each level. Data is presented on 2 teenagers with autism who have mastered shopping and budgetting skills for vocational "pay" received with the scope encompassing a set of items and activities purchased each week at school.
 
 
Symposium #542
CE Offered: BACB
Health, Safety and the Environment
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
12:00 PM–1:20 PM
Seguin (Grand Hyatt)
Area: CSE/OBM; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Jeanine Plowman Stratton (Furman University)
Discussant: Ron Van Houten (Western Michigan University)
CE Instructor: Siri Ming, M.A.
Abstract: Issues of recent socially significant concerns in our society reflect efforts to improve health, safety, and environmental conservation. This symposium addresses each of these areas by presenting student-generated data and evidence of improved social impact using the science of behavior analysis. Discussions will include further elaboration of such efforts for promoting the utility of the science to solve such practical, real-world problems for employees in the workplace to citizens in our local communities, such as university campuses. The first presentation discusses the value of understanding response cost on health safety performances. The latter two presentations discuss the impact of antecedent interventions on recycling behavior on University campuses, one investigating the proximity of waste receptacles, and the other varying message type to measure disposal choices of participants. By utilizing community-based programming and understanding fundamental principles of human behavior, this symposium will shed light on what we may consider “common sense” behaviors that we observe to be difficult to engage in without the proper environmental arrangement for the user.
 
The Effects of Response Effort on Safe Performance by Therapists at an Autism Treatment Facility
SARAH E. CASELLA (Western Michigan University), David A. Wilder (Florida Institute of Technology), Pamela L. Neidert (University of Kansas), Catalina Rey (Florida Institute of Technology), Megan Compton (Florida Institute of Technology), Ivy M. Chong (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: The effects of response effort on safe behaviors (i.e., glove wearing, hand sanitizing, and electrical outlet replacement) exhibited by therapists at an autism treatment center were examined. Participants were exposed to two or three levels of effort (i.e., high, medium, low) for each dependent variable. Results showed increased safe performance during the low effort conditions relative to other conditions across all dependent variables. After the response effort manipulation, performance feedback was added to increase and maintain safe performance. Results are discussed in terms of the practical utility of manipulating response effort to increase safety in human service settings.
 
An Investigation of Low-Cost Antecedent Modifications to Increase Plastic Recycling at a University
RYAN T O'CONNOR (University of Houston-Clear Lake), Dorothea C. Lerman (University of Houston-Clear Lake), Jennifer N. Fritz (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
Abstract: Successful recycling interventions have focused on decreasing the response effort necessary to recycle (Brothers, Krantz, & McClannahan, 1994; Ludwig, Gray, & Rowell, 1998). In particular, changing the location of recycling receptacles so that they are closer to the point of consumption has been shown to increase recycling behavior. Nonetheless, previous experimenters did not control for the number of recycling receptacles available across conditions, and the intervention was typically paired with other antecedent manipulations (e.g., signs or memos). Thus, it is unclear whether a mere increase in the number of bins, regardless of location, or the location of the bins, in the absence of additional prompts, would have similar effects. The current study extended previous research by controlling the number of recycling receptacles across conditions and by examining receptacle location without the use of posted signs. The proportion of plastic bottles that were placed in appropriate recycling receptacles versus trash bins was examined across three buildings on a university campus. Manipulating the appearance or number of recycling bins in common areas did not increase recycling. Recycling increased to high levels when the recycling bins were simply placed in classrooms.
 
Norm-Based Message Type on Recycling Behavior Among University Students
Jeanine Plowman Stratton (Furman University), Michelle Horhota (Furman University), JENNIFER ASMAN (Furman University), Patrick Berg (Furman University), Angela Halfacre (Furman University)
Abstract: Consumer behavior research is expanding to areas of broad-based sustainability, particularly environmental consumption. Conservation of environmental resources is a growing social concern. Social norm-based messages promoting conservation behaviors have been studied to see the impact of environmental conservation, rather than consumption (Cialdini, 2009). By presenting two different antecedent based media messages to two groups, including a control group with no message, the present study examined the impact of the different messaging types on the recycling behavior of University freshman students entering campus. Participants were given fliers at the end of each media messaging session and researchers observed their choice of disposal for the flier. Our findings indicate messages that contain isolation of individual responsibility rather than general social norms were more effective at producing recycling behavior, and either message was more effective than no message. Practical implications, discussion of proenvironmental conservation efforts, and areas for future research on consumption behavior will be presented.
 
 
Symposium #543
CE Offered: BACB
Evidence-Based Practice Within Educational Settings: Establishing Sustainable Teacher Practices
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
12:00 PM–1:20 PM
Texas Ballroom Salon E (Grand Hyatt)
Area: EDC/AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Mark T. Harvey (Florida Institute of Technology)
Discussant: Amanda M. VanDerHeyden (Education Research and Consulting, Inc.)
CE Instructor: Kathleen Clark, M.S.
Abstract: Effective coaching has become an integral part of preparing educators for the classroom, but less recognized has been the importance of specific performance feedback. This presentation will describe an approach to delivering feedback data critical to the development of efficacious teachers using strategies developed out of the University of Oregon and Utah State University. Several forms of data will be considered including a time-based track of teacher signals, group and individual opportunities to respond, specific and general praise ratios, error correction sequences, and student response accuracy. The use of electronic handhelds for data collection and inter-observer agreement will be discussed as way of collecting efficient and reliable data that can also be used for research. Finally, a study implementing a single subject, multiple baseline design was used to analyze the effectiveness of these strategies with pre-service teachers in preparation for licensure in special education. The results of this analysis along with future directions for research in the area will be discussed in an effort to better support new educators.
 
Comparison of Component Versus Whole Module Evidence-Based Training Packages: Effects on Teacher and Student Behavior
TERRY D. RYAN (Pinnelas County Schools), Mark T. Harvey (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: Special Education (SPED) teachers who work with children with Autism require research-based specialized training to effectively educate students and efficiently sustain behavioral expectations in the classroom. The present study investigated the relative efficacy of two teacher training methods, both of which involved research-based teaching and behavior management techniques. Three teachers were trained on each of eight individual elements using a changing criterion research design; additional elements were added only when a training criterion was met. A second group was trained using a whole module training package, consisting of one 6-hour session, with booster sessions implemented when scores dropped below 50%. A third group received no training and served as an untreated comparison group. Teacher skill acquisition and implementation of identified best practices were monitored as was an acquisition and targeted behavior for a randomly chosen student within each classroom. The repeated measures taken within the self-contained classrooms demonstrated the efficacy of component training over the often used whole module training. Additionally, a functional relation was observed between teacher and student behavior. The present study provides a model for school districts to use to effectively train teachers on the use of research-based methods which produce greater student achievement.
 
Performance Feedback in Preservice Training
SCOTT WARREN ROSS (University of Oregon)
Abstract: Effective coaching has become an integral part of preparing special educators for the classroom, but less recognized has been the importance of specific performance feedback. This presentation will describe an approach to delivering feedback data critical to the development of efficacious teachers out of the University of Oregon and Utah State University, including a time-based track of opportunities to respond, praise, and response accuracy. An analysis of the approach will be provided along with a discussion of potential future directions.
 
Thoughtful Sustainability: What We Know and What We Still Have to Learn
Teri Palmer (Private Practice), RONNIE DETRICH (Wing Institute)
Abstract: In a review of the literature on implementation, Fixsen and colleagues (2005) have detailed the necessary conditions for large-scale implementation to be effective. Fixsen and colleagues (2005) reinforce the point that full scale implementation may take several years. Traditionally, organizations implement programs that rely solely on training using what is sometimes referred to as a ‘train and hope’ approach. However, ”train and hope” (Stokes & Baer, 1977) results in little sustainable change. As Biglan and Ogden (2008) point out, the majority of the research focuses on practices and little focus is placed on implementation and organizational change. Additionally, practice sites are often less than prepared to identify and sustain available research. Krachtowill, Albers, & Shernoff (2004) indicate that practice sites are challenged by cumbersome organization, lack of skills and resources and limited emphasis on prevention. This paper will present a summary of literature focusing on defining sustainability, recommendations for selection and implementation and discuss successes and challenges.
 
 
Panel #544
CE Offered: PSY
Professional Development Series: How to Start and Run Your Own Behavior Analysis Business
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
12:00 PM–1:20 PM
Texas Ballroom Salon B (Grand Hyatt)
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Michelle Garcia-Thomas, Psy.D.
Chair: Molly Halligan (University Nevada, Reno)
KENNETH MACALEESE (Advanced Child Behavior Solutions, LLC)
MICHAEL FABRIZIO (FEAT of Washington)
Abstract: The behavior analytic philosophy differs greatly with mainstream clinical service providers. Therefore, behavior analysts will often develop their own business providing such services based on a behavior analytic perspective. Although these individuals may be highly trained to provide clinical services, most behavior analysts outside of the organizational behavior management sector do not have the explicit training to start and run a business. Most businesses in their infancy, whether behavior analytic or not, fail due to a ineffective system implementation. Given the current political and economic climate, it is important that the entrepreneurs are well prepared. Therefore, the following presenters will discuss their experiences in starting and maintaining a successful business based on behavior analytic principles.
 
 
Invited Tutorial #548
CE Offered: BACB
From Pigeons to People to Pandas, Panthers, and Peccaries: Moving From Conditioning to Teaching Animals
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
1:00 PM–1:50 PM
Ballroom A (CC)
Area: AAB/TPC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
BACB CE Offered. CE Instructor: David Lennox, Ph.D.
Chair: Jennifer L. Sobie (University of Illinois)
Presenting Authors: : SUSAN G. FRIEDMAN (Utah State University)
Abstract: Six decades of experience with children with special learning needs has honed a sharp edge on the technology of behavior change that is both effective and humane. This technology is currently under-utilized by many animal behavior professionals whose exposure to applied behavior analysis is often limited to four quadrants and simple schedules of reinforcement. The focus of this tutorial is to expand common approaches to behavior-change to include three crux moves fundamental to working with children's behavior and equally essential to working with animals: replacing hypothetical, psychological constructs and diagnostic labels with operational behavioral definitions; functional assessment of behavior-environment relations; and adherence to an ethical hierarchy of procedural choice, organized according to the most positive, least intrusive guideline.
 
SUSAN G. FRIEDMAN (Utah State University)
Susan is a psychology professor at Utah State University. Over the last decade, she has helped pioneer efforts to apply to animals the scientifically sound teaching technology and ethical standard of Applied Behavior Analysis that is so effective with human learners. Susan has given a wide variety of workshops and conference presentations on animal learning and behavior around the world. Students from 22 different countries have participated in her courses, Living and Learning with Animals and Living and Learning with Parrots. Her articles have been translated into 9 languages. Susan is also a core member of the US Fish & Wildlife Service's California Condor Recovery Team and has been nominated for the Media Award, given by the International Association of Behavior Analysis, for her efforts to disseminate to pet owners, veterinarians, animal trainers and zookeepers the essential tools they need to empower and enrich the lives of all learners.
 

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