Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


36th Annual Convention; San Antonio, TX; 2010

Program by Continuing Education Events: Saturday, May 29, 2010

Manage My Personal Schedule


Workshop #W60
CE Offered: BACB
The Case of the Noncompliant Child
Saturday, May 29, 2010
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
Republic B (Grand Hyatt)
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CE Instructor: Gilah Haber, M.Ed.
Description: In this interactive, fun presentation you will be the SPY to solve the mystery of how to achieve success when working with a noncompliant child. You will learn how to investigate the variables surrounding this behavior and unlock clues to determine the underlying purpose so that you can crack the case and achieve compliance with the child.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of this workshop, participants will be able to do the following: 1. identify the variables surrounding a child's noncompliant behavior, 2. create a successful behavior treatment plan.
Activities: The workshop will include role-playing, group discussion, and a behavior planning worksheet.
Audience: Professionals.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Basic
Workshop #W61
CE Offered: BACB
See What I Mean: Using Visual Cues and Concrete Adaptations to Support Abstract Concept Development
Saturday, May 29, 2010
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
Seguin (Grand Hyatt)
Area: AUT/EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CE Instructor: Ruth Hurst, Ph.D.
KATHLEEN MCCABE-ODRI (Advance, Inc.), LAURA KENNEALLY (Advance, Inc.), LORI A. LORENZETTI (Advance, Inc.), JENNIFER CORNELY (Partners in Learning, Inc.), NICOLE M. SWANFELD (Partners in Learning, Inc.)
Description: Students with autism often experience challenges in the comprehension of abstract information. Typically, general education environments provide the majority of learning opportunities for these concepts via spoken word, conversation, or group settings. It is difficult to for students on the autism spectrum to discriminate relevant information for higher-order concepts during these language-based presentations. This workshop offers a variety of approaches to assist students with autism to develop comprehension for abstract concepts in classroom settings. Through demonstration, video samples, and data-based models, participants will receive cohesive strategies that can be applied to students of various ages and abilities in improving and developing abstract concept comprehension.
Learning Objectives: At the end of this workshop, participants will be able to do the following: 1. identify areas of weakness of abstract concept comprehension, 2. develop concrete and visual systems to assist in concept development, 3. measure improvements in concept comprehension.
Activities: This workshop will include a lecture, video samples, and hands-on curriculum development and adaptations.
Audience: BCBAs; behavior consultants; and child study team members including teachers, learning consultants, classroom assistants, and instructors.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Workshop #W62
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Supporting Parents of Children Diagnosed With Autism Using Acceptance and Commitment Therapy
Saturday, May 29, 2010
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
Bonham C (Grand Hyatt)
Area: AUT/CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Anna Matchneva, M.Ed.
DANIEL J. MORAN (Trinity Services, Inc.)
Description: The parents of developmentally disabled children experience high levels of chronic stress (DeMyer, 1979; Holroyd, Brown, Wikler, & Simmon, 1975), and have high rates of depressive and anxiety disorders (Breslau & Davis, 1986). While most researchers understand that such concerns are largely “secondary or reactive to the stress and special non-normative adaptations” these children require (Konstantareas, 1990, p. 60), the fact remains that high levels of distress in these contexts both decrease quality of life and impose significant barriers to the parents’ successful and consistent implementation of behavioral treatment programs. It thus appears prudent for applied behavior analysis (ABA) consultants to also be prepared to help the parents of the referred client. This workshop will help ABA consultants be aware of signs of significant parental psychological distress, and help them make appropriate referrals. In addition, this workshop will also discuss an acceptance and commitment training (ACT) approach to helping these parents with their distress and challenges. The workshop will focus on the ACT consistent assessment and the pertinent ACT exercises and interventions that can be helpful to distressed parents. The workshop will cover values assessment, barriers to values-based behavior, and relevant mindfulness exercises. A significant portion of the workshop will focus on applying ACT interventions.
Learning Objectives: This workshop has the following objectives: 1. Attendees will become more aware of how parental distress interferes with the successful implementation of behavioral programs. 2. Attendees will learn to recognize and functionally analyze problematic behavior on the part of the caregiver. 3. Attendees will be introduced to the ACT approach to addressing problematic experiential avoidance exhibited by distressed caregivers. 4. Attendees will understand the reasons for and usefulness of values assessment in helping parents improve their functioning when helping their children, and also to improve their own quality of life. 5. Attendees will be introduced to acceptance and defusion exercises (e.g., mindfulness exercises) applicable to the distress they and parents of their child clients experience in the process of working with developmentally disabled children and adults.
Activities: A significant portion of this workshop will focus on the application of ACT exercises and interventions. We will discuss the major areas in the ACT model for behavioral flexibility and how it relates to being a parent with a child with disabilities. The participants can choose to engage in exercises in developing their own value system, and then learn what barriers impede value-guided behaviors. The workshop will also be guided by a slide show.
Audience: This workshop is for behavior analysts who work with children with developmental disabilities or autism spectrum disorders. This will also be worthwhile for parents of children with disabilities. The presenters plan a comfortable pace to introducing ACT and this workshop will be useful to anyone interested in the acceptance and commitment therapy approach.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Basic
Workshop #W63
CE Offered: BACB
Systems for Identifying Levels of Procedural Integrity and Steps Towards Increasing Levels of Integrity
Saturday, May 29, 2010
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
Presidio A (Grand Hyatt)
Area: AUT/CSE; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CE Instructor: James Carr, Ph.D.
PAULA RIBEIRO BRAGA-KENYON (The New England Center for Children), SHAWN E. KENYON (New England Center for Children)
Description: The term procedural integrity refers to the implementation of an intervention as intended (Codding, Feinberg, Dunn, & Pace, 2005) or as the interobserver agreement measures on the occurrence or nonoccurrence of the independent variables (Billingsley, White, & Munson, 1980). High procedural integrity involves an experimenter measuring what they intended to measure, or implementing a treatment plan exactly as it was intended. The current workshop addresses the issue of procedural integrity with respect to treatment programs. Participants will learn to develop systems to measure levels of procedural integrity in implementing behavior programs as well as interventions to improve it. Participants will learn to analyze behavior plans while breaking down components in order to compose checklists that can be used to measure overall procedural integrity. Methods for analyzing results will also be reviewed. Additionally, a few studies using different methodologies to improve procedural integrity in implementing treatment programs will be presented.
Learning Objectives: This workshop has the following objectives: 1. Participants will learn to analyze behavior plans while breaking down its components in order to compose checklists that can be used to measure overall procedural integrity. 2. Participants will learn to develop systems to measure levels of procedural integrity in running behavior programs. 3. Participants will learn to develop interventions to improve procedural integrity.
Activities: Participants will be presented with samples of behavior plans and will be asked to break the plan into components. Participants will also be asked to fill in checklists breaking down the components of the plan and will view a video sample and score procedural integrity. Participants will develop interventions to address low levels of procedural integrity
Audience: This workshop targets professionals in the field of behavior analysis who provide services for children receiving special education services. Lead teachers, coordinators, specialists, and consultants will be introduced to systems to access current levels of procedural integrity while implementing behavior programs as well as ways to increase levels of procedural integrity when those are not satisfactory. Easy to create data sheets will be described, and those can be used at private organizations as well as public schools.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Workshop #W64
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Promoting Appropriate Independent and Interactive Play Skills for Children With Autism via Activity Schedules
Saturday, May 29, 2010
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
Bonham B (Grand Hyatt)
Area: AUT/EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CE Instructor: Frank Cicero, Ph.D.
KRISTEN KELLEY (Utah State University), KATIE SNYDER (Utah State University), THOMAS S. HIGBEE (Utah State University)
Description: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) frequently have behavioral deficits and excess in the area of appropriate play skills, often isolating themselves and engaging in repetitive, atypical play actions and stereotypy. Researchers have demonstrated that using independent and joint activity schedules (photographic sequences of leisure activities) can increase a child's ability to complete leisure tasks and engage in appropriate social interactions and play with adults and peers. In this workshop, recent research involving activity schedules will be presented and discussed. Participants will learn the skills necessary to assess, develop, implement, monitor, and problem solve the use of activity schedules for individuals with ASD by creating a mock, individualized activity schedule for a variety of student profiles. Information presented in this workshop is at the intermediate level and is appropriate for teachers, parents, and other professionals working with individuals with ASD or other disabilities resulting in deficits in play and leisure skills.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the workshop, the participant will be able to do the following: 1. choose appropriate activities based the needs and current skill level of the individual, 2. successfully prompt the individual to increase independence using a prompting hierarchy, 3. collect data and incorporate scripts to promote spontaneous language.
Activities: The workshop will include prompting activities, a data collection activity, and application scenarios.
Audience: Teachers, practitioners, clinical directors, graduate students, and BCBA's.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Basic
Workshop #W65
CE Offered: BACB
Behavioral Parent Consultation and Support: A Strengths-Based Perspective
Saturday, May 29, 2010
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
Bowie A (Grand Hyatt)
Area: AUT/CBM; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CE Instructor: Linda Hayes, Ph.D.
BARBARA O'MALLEY CANNON (Melmark New England), JESSICA R. EVERETT (Melmark New England)
Description: Empirical research has reliably demonstrated that the parents of children with autism spectrum disorders experience higher levels of stress related to parenting than do parents of children with a variety of other disabilities, health concerns, and parents of typically developing children. In contrast to earlier research, more recent research has taken a strengths-based perspective and investigated what aspects of parenting promote resiliency and help to moderate the effects of stress. Best practice in the education of students with autism includes parent involvement. Often times, a parent training component is included to enhance generalization of skills and to give parents the needed skills to effectively intervene with their children. This skill-focused approach to working with parents has been shown to be effective in increasing parenting skills and reducing stress related to parenting. However, behavioral parent consultation should also consider the role that preexisting parenting strengths play as setting events and incorporate these strengths into individually designed intervention strategies. The present workshop will explore strengths-based approaches to behavioral parent consultation. Various assessment strategies will be reviewed to assist in the identification of parenting strengths, variables that moderate parenting stress will be reviewed, as will strategies for working directly with parents taking this approach.
Learning Objectives: At the completion of the workshop, participants will be able to do the following: 1. identify tools used to assess parenting strengths, 2. identify variables that moderate stress related to parenting and detail how these variables can be incorporated into behavioral parent training, 3. identify a variety of parenting strengths and demonstrate how to incorporate strengths into intervention techniques.
Activities: Workshop activities include didactic instruction, discussion, and role-play. Participants will have the opportunity to engage in small group activities that focus on designing intervention and practicing described techniques for behavioral parent training.
Audience: Individuals working with parents in home, school, or clinic-based settings such as psychologists, special education teachers, or behavior analysts.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Workshop #W66
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Evidence-Based Error Correction Strategies for Children With Autism
Saturday, May 29, 2010
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
Mission B (Grand Hyatt)
Area: AUT/VRB; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CE Instructor: Christina Lovaas, M.A.
MICHELLE TURAN (University of Windsor), NATALIE P. CROTEAU (Surrey Place), LIANNE M. MOROZ (Surrey Place Centre)
Description: This workshop will give participants an overview of the literature surrounding error correction strategies in discrete trial training and applied verbal behaviour programs. Specific strategies will be recommended regarding the selection of error correction strategies for the individual learner. Participants will view video examples of different strategies, practice particular strategies, and receive data collection materials to track error correction data. It is expected that participants will have some knowledge and practice of discrete trial training.
Learning Objectives: This workshop has the following objectives: 1. Participants will be able to describe the steps involved in implementing several error correction procedures. 2. Participants will be able to demonstrate the use of several error correction procedures within discrete trial training. 3. Participants will be able to summarize the current empirical evidence surrounding error correction procedures. 4. Participants will be able to describe various methods to match error correction strategies to individual learners. 5. Participants will learn to use data sheets to track the results of error correction procedures.
Activities: The workshop will include lectures, role-playing, video modeling, and discussion.
Audience: Instructors, therapists, and others who are responsible for designing and implementing applied behavior analysis programs for children with autism.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Workshop #W67
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Behavioral Training for Siblings of Children With Autism
Saturday, May 29, 2010
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
Presidio B (Grand Hyatt)
Area: AUT/VRB; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CE Instructor: Michael Weinberg, Ph.D.
JAMIE HUGHES (Summit Autism Services), KAREN E. FLOTKOETTER (Summit Autism Services)
Description: Young children with autism spend the majority of their time in the home and community environments. Siblings in these environments might well be able to support the social development of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Several researchers have examined the feasibility of using typically developing siblings to promote the skills, development, and participation of children with autism, with siblings most often filling a “teacher” role. The participants in this study were four sibling pairs, with one child in each pair diagnosed with autism. All sessions were conducted in the children’s homes and/or community settings. The typically developing siblings observed the behavior analyst and child with autism during training sessions, and then were active participants in structured training sessions. In addition to the structured training sessions, the siblings were involved in various sessions conducted in the natural environment to promote the generalization of skills acquired. Results indicated that the siblings learned to use the behavioral procedures at a proficient level, they used the procedures in a generalization setting, and there were observed improvements in the behavior of the children with autism.
Learning Objectives: The workshop has the following objectives: 1. To teach professionals working with siblings of children with ASD how to develop positive instructional control. 2. To teach professionals working with siblings of children with ASD how to structure situations so as to encourage desired behavior and avoid unwanted behavior. 3. To teach professionals working with siblings of children with ASD how to capture and/or contrive language development during play activities.
Activities: Participants will review video segments of four sibling dyads (children diagnosed with ASD at varying developmental levels) involved in the training sessions. Participants will also develop teaching plans to promote sibling interaction during structured sessions and during play and social activities.
Audience: Practitioners (e.g., BCBA, BCaBA, SLP, OT, special education teachers) who work with children diagnosed with ASD in applied settings.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Basic
Workshop #W68
CE Offered: BACB
Practical Applications of Token-Based Motivational Systems and Basic Behavior Intervention Plans
Saturday, May 29, 2010
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
Travis D (Grand Hyatt)
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CE Instructor: Maria Ruiz, Ph.D.
MELISSA ANDRETTA (Andretta Behavior Analysts)
Description: Practical applications and examples of token-based motivational systems and basic behavior plans (BIPs) will focus on using token systems to increase academic skills, appropriate social behavior, and habilitative responses (academically, behaviorally, and socially). We will also present examples of behavior plans and contracts and will discuss developing and implementing BIPs based on the results of a functional analysis. Examples of specific token systems and behavior plans will be demonstrated and discussed during the presentation. The attendees will be given materials in order to develop a token board or behavior contract (and will also develop a corresponding data collection tool) during the workshop.
Learning Objectives: This workshop has the following objectives: 1. At the conclusion of the workshop, the participant will be able to develop a token system in order to increase (a) habilitative behavior(s). 2. At the conclusion of the workshop, the participant will be able to develop a data collection system designed to measure the effectiveness of the token system they developed. 3. At the conclusion of the workshop the participant will be able to conduct and analyze a functional assessment in order to develop a corresponding BIP. 4. At the conclusion of the workshop, the participant will be able to develop a BIP in order to decrease (an) inappropriate target behavior(s) while simultaneously increasing (an) appropriate replacement behavior(s). 5. At the conclusion of the workshop, the participant will be able to develop a data collection system designed to measure the effectiveness of the behavior contract they developed.
Activities: During the workshop, the participant will develop a token system in order to increase (a) habilitative behavior(s), develop a data collection system designed to measure the effectiveness of the token system they developed, conduct and analyze a functional assessment in order to develop a corresponding BIP, develop a BIP in order to decrease (an) inappropriate target behavior(s) while simultaneously increasing (an) appropriate replacement behavior(s), and develop a data collection system designed to measure the effectiveness of the behavior contract they developed.
Audience: The target audience for this workshop would include teachers and other educational staff who are responsible for the development of token systems, assessing the function of behavior(s), and the development of corresponding BIPs.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Basic
Workshop #W69
CE Offered: BACB
POWER-Solving: A Systematic Approach to Teaching Social Skills
Saturday, May 29, 2010
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
Bowie C (Grand Hyatt)
Area: AUT/CBM; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CE Instructor: Amy Lackey, Ph.D.
STEVEN GORDON (Behavior Therapy Associates), MICHAEL C. SELBST (Behavior Therapy Associates)
Description: Youth with social skills impairments include those with a range of DSM-IV diagnoses such as autism, asperger’s disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Social skill deficits have been associated with negative outcomes in future adjustment (e.g., educational achievement, interpersonal relationships, and psychological well-being). The scientific research on social skills training has generally found a weak effect with limitations as to the manner in which it has been implemented. POWER-Solving has been adapted from the social information processing literature related to improving problem solving skills. POWER-Solving is an acronym that addresses the core deficits seen in many of these children: Put the problem into words. Observe and measure feelings. What is the goal and how strongly is the goal desired? Explore and evaluate solutions. Review and reward. POWER-Solving was implemented in a six week summer day program for children with social skills impairments known as HI-STEP (helping improve social-skills through evidence-based practices). Principles associated with applied behavior analysis (ABA) such as pinpointing target behaviors, functional behavior assessments, positive behavior supports, antecedent and consequence interventions ,and data collection are the “backbone” of the summer program. This workshop is at an intermediate level and assumes participants have prior knowledge of ABA principles.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the workshop the participant will be able to do the following: 1. identify the five steps associated with POWER-Solving, 2. identify the components of applying POWER-Solving social skills, 3. identify evidence-based strategies that contribute to success in social skills and problem-solving, 4. apply POWER-Solving to a specific social skill of their choosing.
Activities: Participants will view a PowerPoint presentation regarding the history and concepts of POWER-Solving. Videotapes of learners using POWER-Solving will also be viewed. Opportunity to apply behavioral strategies to teaching a social skill of their choosing will be provided.
Audience: Teachers, paraprofessionals, parents, and mental health professionals.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Workshop #W70
CE Offered: BACB
The Lucky 7 Game: A Motivational Intervention for Teaching Replacement Behaviors
Saturday, May 29, 2010
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
Independence (Grand Hyatt)
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CE Instructor: David Adams, M.Div.
CYNTHIA P. REKORT (Behavior Change Consultants, LLC), MELANIE B. WAGNER (Behavior Change Consultants, LLC)
Description: The Lucky 7 Game is grounded in the principles and procedures of applied behavior analysis (ABA). The game manipulates motivating operations in order to positively teach the core replacement behaviors. The game programs for positive change through 1) interspersing easy and difficult tasks, and 2) demand fading. Through the demand fading procedure, response persistance with difficult tasks occurs as a result of a high rate of reinforcement during game sessions, generating behavioral momentum. The game also programs for transfer (generalization) of skills to the natural environment.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the workshop, participants will be able to do the following: 1. apply principles and procedures involved in a motivational intervention for teaching replacement behaviors; 2. apply behavioral principles for individuals who have learned to gain access to reinforcers through challenging behaviors, and who lack motivation to learn alternative replacement behaviors; 3. develop a basic verbal repertoire regarding core socialization skills that many individuals with behavior challenges have not yet learned; 4. develop a basic verbal repertoire regarding replacement behaviors for individuals whose challenging behaviors are a function of social positive reinforcement and social negative reinforcement; 5. apply skills in teaching clients to ask the question (i.e., mand), accept “no,” wait, and share.
Activities: Participants will learn to identify the components of the Lucky 7 Game as well as the priciples and procedures of ABA being used. Participants will alsp break into small groups to practice game set up using a hypothetical case study. There will be a discussion on the rationale for proposed game set ups. There will be practice playing the game using the roles of trainer and learner. Participants will receive their own Lucky 7 Game as part of their workshop registration.
Audience: BCBAs and BCaBAs who provide services to individuals with autism and other developmental disabilities.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Basic
Workshop #W72
CE Offered: BACB
Billing Insurance for Applied Behavior Analysis Based Therapy for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders
Saturday, May 29, 2010
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
Bonham D (Grand Hyatt)
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Richard Meisch, Ph.D.
KRISTIE M. FRISSEN-THOMPSON (OptumHealth Behavioral Solutions)
Description: The workshop will describe strategies for maximizing a successful claim submission to third party payors. In addition, participants will come to understand that while many states have passed legislation mandating that services for autism and applied behavior analysis (ABA) be covered by third party payors, coverage is dependent on group size and whether the employer has selected a self-funded or a fully-insured plan, among others. That is, third party payors are required to reimburse for ABA-based therapy for autism in certain circumstances, not just as a result of the state mandate. As more self-funded plans are deciding to purchase a supplemental autism benefit and as more states pass mandates for autism, it is essential that anyone working as a certified behavior analyst (BCBA or BCBA-D) learn their way around a standard claim form, billing and diagnostic codes, and collect the member's insurance information. Correctly billing insurance companies and other third party payors for autism-related ABA services is an imporant step to ensure reimbursement for those services. Correct billing will decrease denials, wait time, and overall frustration with the insurance industry. The presenter currently works for a large for-profit behavioral health insurance company managing an autism benefit which pays for ABA-based therapies. The information provided in this workshop is based on the presenter's experience in private practice and working in the insurance industry and will provide information related to general billing of third party payors, not just the presenter's employer. The presenter is not receiving commercial or financial support for the workshop.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the workshop, the participant will be able to do the following: list which states currently have state mandates for autism and/or ABA, 1. describe who is affected by state mandates, 2. describe the difference between state mandated services for autism and self-funded programs, 3. describe the essential components of and how to complete the CMS-1500 billing form, 4. know what the ICD-9 and DSM-IV diagnostic codes are for the pervasive developmental disorders, and 5. know the difference between the CPT billing codes.
Activities: The workshop will include a direct presentation of information, solicited and directed questions to participants about their own experiences with billing insurance companies and other third party payors, and actual completion of claim forms.
Audience: This workshop is intended for professional clinicians including BCBA-Ds, BCBAs, BCABAs, and office administrators concerned with understanding the billing practices for ABA services for children with autism spectrum disorders.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Basic
Workshop #W73
CE Offered: BACB
Operant-Based EMG Biofeedback for the Treatment of Cerebral Palsy and Spinal Cord Injuries
Saturday, May 29, 2010
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
Presidio C (Grand Hyatt)
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CE Instructor: Jennifer Crockett, Ph.D.
GARY AMES (Behavior Analysis and Therapy Partners), RICHARD WEISSMAN (Behavior Analysis and Therapy Partners), JOSEPH D. CAUTILLI (Behavior Analysis and Therapy Partners)
Description: In the late 1960s, Bernard Brucker developed an electromyography (EMG) biofeedback system method to progressively re-educate muscle response. EMG biofeedback is an operant conditioning method which detects subtle physiological signals and provides information about that signal to trainees as audio or visual feedback. With repititon, trial and error, and reinforcement, the rewarding stimuli gradully build new behavioral repetiores. In the case of those with impaired motor functioning, this retraning permits quieting of spastic muscles and discovering new neural pathways for muscular function. Through biofeedback, operant conditioning techniques help the patient learn greater control over the EMG signals to the muscle. In this way biofeedback can restore functional control over paretic or damaged muscles. Some research has shown that biofeedback of motor neuron activity can allow individuals with spinal cord injury to regain lost neuromuscular function and those with cerebral palsy to develop functioning they did not have prior to the intervention. This treatment received a lot of research during the 1990s and has been shown to be effectve in establishing new responses. Once learned, these increases in and coordination of motor neuron recruitment are permanent.
Learning Objectives: The workshop has the following learning objectives: 1. Particpants will grasp the research basis of neuromuscular re-education with EMG biofeedback. 2. Particpants will describe several ways damaged motor neuron connections can be rehabilitated. 3. Participants will get a beginners expereince with treatment using EGM biofeedback. 4. Participants will place EMG biofeedback into the larger model of behavioral medicine that helps identify voluntary muscle control.
Activities: Activities will include a lecture and hands-on biofeedback training.
Audience: Applied behavior analysts, behavioral psychologists, and rehabilation specialists.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Basic
Workshop #W75
CE Offered: BACB
Ethics and Autism: Making the Puzzle Without Bending the Pieces
Saturday, May 29, 2010
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
Crockett A (Grand Hyatt)
Area: CSE/AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: W. Wyatt, Ph.D.
Description: The growing demand for behavior analysts working in educational contexts has been both significant and rapid. This need has been most evident in the delivery of services to children diagnosed on the autism spectrum. The variety of settings and needs involved in service delivery to this population creates unique and varied responsibilities for behavior analysts. This in turn puts a greater emphasis on our professional and ethical conduct. This workshop will focus on the application of the BACB guidelines for ethical conduct by service providers working in early intervention (ages birth to 3), school-based, and home-based settings for children with autism. Rather than lecture format, the workshop will be based on active attendee participation. A variety of situational vignettes will be used to structure discussion within small and large groups. Participants are encouraged to offer their own examples and scenarios for discussion and feedback.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of this workshop, participants will be able to do the following: 1. define ethics and relate historical events leading to the BACB's current ethical code; 2. identify and provide examples for the BACB guidelines for ethical conduct; 3. discuss ethical responsibilities with respect to the varying roles of a behavior analyst working with children on the autism spectrum; 4. determine requirements for functional assessment and appropriate delivery of services in early intervention (ages birth to 3), school-based, and home-based settings; 5. outline the ethical considerations for conducting research involving children on the autism spectrum; 6. list the established procedures for dealing with perceived ethical violations; 7. make decisions regarding professional competence, family involvement, environmental appropriateness, and treatment termination.
Activities: The workshop will include an audio-visual presentation and emphasize audience participation through large and small group discussions. Worksheets will be used to assess current skill base and provide a follow-up measure.
Audience: Behavior Analysts and other professionals working with children diagnosed on the autism spectrum.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Workshop #W76
CE Offered: BACB
Communication-Based Behavior Interventions: A Review of Functional Communication Training and Interdisciplinary Collaboration
Saturday, May 29, 2010
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
Travis A (Grand Hyatt)
Area: DDA/AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Erik Mayville, Ph.D.
JOHN POKRZYWINSKI (Woodward Resource Center), EVELYN JO HORTON (The Homestead), JAMES R. PRICKETT (Woodward Resource Center)
Description: Communication-based behavior interventions are some of the most common and effective procedures for treating severe challenging behaviors. While the basic principles presented in this workshop are not new, this workshop attempts to review how an interdisciplinary team and consultants can collaborate to create communication-based behavior interventions using principles that are consistent with those of positive behavior support. Since the initial description of functional communication training (FCT) by Carr and Durand (1985), various aspects of the FCT treatment process have been evaluated, and from this research, best practices have emerged. This workshop emphasizes positive reinforcement of alternatives to reduce problem behaviors (replacement behaviors). It encourages procedures that increase the contextual fit of behavior support plans and presents procedures that allow identification and manipulation of setting events and discriminative stimuli. Discussion includes procedures to encourage a communication-based environment. The procedures described in the workshop are designed to emphasize nonaversive and naturalistic procedures to reduce the likelihood of problem behaviors; increase the acceptance of behavior support plans, and thus the likelihood of success and generality; and increase collaboration between professional disciplines and direct-support staff.
Learning Objectives: The workshop has the following objectives: 1. At the conclusion of the workshop, the participant will be able to identify and discuss eliminative versus educative approaches in treating challenging behaviors. 2. At the conclusion of the workshop, the participant will be able to identify the primary outcomes of the functional analysis process. 3. At the conclusion of the workshop, the participant will be able to describe and discuss procedures to encourage a communication-based environment. 4. At the conclusion of the workshop, the participant will be able to identifythe advantages and disadvantages of discrete trial training (DTT) and natural environment training (NET). 5. At the conclusion of the workshop, the participant will be able to identify procedures for implementing a functional communication dictionary. 6. At the conclusion of the workshop, the participant will be able to identify and discuss procedures to increase collaboration between all team members and direct-support staff.
Activities: Workshop activities include examples and discussions of eliminative versus educative strategies to deal with problem behaviors; antecedent events and contextual variables; functional behavior assessment and replacement behavior development; DTT and NET; verbal behavior considerations; communication dictionaries that include DTT and NET procedures; and interpersonal communication skills training that include DTT and NET procedures.
Audience: Board Certified Behavior Analysts, Board Certified Assistant Behavior Analysts, speech and language pathologists, educators, nurses, advocates, independent support coordinators, and others working with individuals with intellectual deficiencies or autism.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Basic
Workshop #W77
CE Offered: BACB
Toward an Understanding of Programming Generalization: An Application of the Stimulus Control Interpretation
Saturday, May 29, 2010
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
Crockett B (Grand Hyatt)
Area: DDA/EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CE Instructor: Florence DiGennaro Reed, Ph.D.
JESSICA LYNN DOUCETTE (Melmark New England), HELENA MAGUIRE (Melmark New England)
Description: The generalization of skills acquired within academic and therapeutic settings is a concern for many applied practitioners. Systematic and reliable programming generalization can only occur once the principles responsible for the production of generalization are identified and their role in producing generalization is fully understood. This workshop will present an analysis of generalization by discussing the principles of stimulus control and reinforcement and their role on the production of generalization first discussed by Kirby and Bickel (1988). This workshop will then further expand on this analysis by reviewing the literature on current teaching strategies used within applied behavior analysis and their effects on generalization of target responses. Lastly, a case study will be reviewed identifying key components of a treatment plan to promote generalization in the acquisition of sight word identification in a student with autism.
Learning Objectives: At the completion of the workshop, participants will be able to: 1. provide a brief overview of the literature on generalization; 2. describe the role behavior analytic principles (i.e., stimulus control and reinforcement) have in the analysis of the production of generalization; 3. identify key antecedent events in programming generalization within an educational setting; 4. identify teaching strategies that both support and do not support generalization; 5. apply the above to a provided case study as well as to one of their own.
Activities: Workshop activities include discussion, material and lesson plan development, and role plays. The focus will be on developing curriculum which systematically outlines how generalization will be programmed and tested. Participants will have the opportunity to work in small groups to foster discussion about the presented material as well as work together to develop lesson plans and materials.
Audience: The target audience includes professionals working within residential and day programs for students with disabilities.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Basic
Workshop #W78
CE Offered: BACB
Using the Vineland-II to Measure Adaptive Skill Development and Inform Goal Selection
Saturday, May 29, 2010
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
Crockett C (Grand Hyatt)
Area: DDA/AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Kimberly Sloman, Ph.D.
JAMES CHOK (Melmark New England), DEREK D. REED (Melmark New England)
Description: The Vineland-II (Sparrow, Cicchetti, & Balla, 2005) is a widely-used normative rating scale of adaptive behavior that measures functioning across the areas of communication, daily living skills, and socialization. The individual behaviors that constitute these broader domains are often targets for intervention in school, residential, and other clinical settings that serve individuals with developmental disabilities. Adaptive skills identified using the Vineland-II can be integrated into the development of individualized education plans and the scale can serve as a measurement of adaptive skill development over time. The use of the Vineland-II can also play an important role in establishing the appropriateness of the need for guardianship and eligibility for state-funded services. This workshop will provide an overview of the various rating forms of the Vineland-II (e.g., parent/caregiver, teacher), review rating procedures, and highlight the ways in which the scale can be used (e.g., research, goal selection, tracking progress over time, etc.).
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of this workshop, the participant will have learned the following: 1. how to accurately score and provide ratings for the Vineland-II, to select target behaviors for intervention using items from the Vineland-II, and 3. to have an appreciation for the role the Vineland-II can serve in measuring progress over time and determining the appropriateness of the need for guardianship and eligibility for state-funded services.
Activities: Workshop activities will include completing the parent/caregiver and teacher rating forms using case study descriptions, scoring the Vineland-II forms, determining strengths and limitations both within and across assessments using basic statistical analysis, and creating well-defined behavioral goals using items from the Vineland-II.
Audience: This workshop is intended for individuals with a Master's degree (at minimum) working within public and private school settings, and other clinical service delivery settings. The workshop is intended for professionals such as psychologists, special education teachers, social workers, speech and language pathologists, behavior analysts, occupational therapists, and physical therapists.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Workshop #W79
CE Offered: BACB
Be a Better Assessor: Revitalizing Data-Based Methods for Assessment
Saturday, May 29, 2010
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
Crockett D (Grand Hyatt)
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CE Instructor: Gordon Paul, Ph.D.
LISA N. BRITTON (Spectrum Center), AMY CRYE (Spectrum Center), JOHN J. HEALEY (The Columbus Organization)
Description: Staff responsible for conducting functional assessments may be initially trained in several methods for conducting these assessments; however, due to expectations of their employer, competing contingencies, or drift, the assessor may not employ the necessary rigor when conducting these assessments. This workshop is designed to improve skills in various methods for conducting indirect and descriptive assessments and in analyzing the data from those assessments. The workshop highlights when to use particular types of assessment and how to do so appropriately. The indirect assessments discussed within this workshop include the motivational assessment scale (Durand & Crimmons, 1988) and the functional analysis screening tool (Iwata & DeLeon, 1995). The descriptive assessments discussed within this workshop include scatterplots, activity assessments, narrative recording, structured ABC, interval ABC, and antecedent assessments. Attendees will learn about these assessments and data collection methods associated with them. Participants will practice collecting assessment data and learn how to analyze the results. The data analysis component will include information regarding calculating conditional probabilities and background probabilities. Finally, the workshop will cover graphical display and data interpretation.
Learning Objectives: At the end of the workshop, attendees will be able to do the following: 1. state the benefits and limitations of indirect assessments; 2. list several types of descriptive assessments and how to collect data with those assessments; 3. analyze data utilizing probabilities and background probabilities.
Activities: The workshop will include practice using indirect assessments, collecting descriptive assessment data, conducting probabilities and background probabilities, and looking at graphs and making data-based decisions based on those graphs.
Audience: Practitioners with a degree in behavior analysis who are responsible for conducting functional assessments.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Basic
Workshop #W80
CE Offered: BACB
Creating a School-Wide Social Thinking Model Where No Child Is Left Behind
Saturday, May 29, 2010
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
Republic A (Grand Hyatt)
Area: EDC/DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: M. Shillingsburg, Ph.D.
VALORI N. BERENDS (Academy for Precision Learning), LOVELLE T SUAREZ (Academy for Precision Learning), ALISON L. MOORS (Academy for Precision Learning)
Description: While including students with special needs, many public and private schools across the country are aligning with best practices outlined in federal law which overwhelmingly requires educating all students in their least restrictive environments. For many students, that least restrictive environment is in a classroom setting alongside their typically developing peers. However, students with special needs who may be academically capable often need specially designed instruction for navigating their social world successfully. Practitioners from multiple human service fields have a history of producing effective curricula for teaching social thinking, self-monitoring, problem-solving, and constructive behavior management techniques to students with social language deficits. However, the majority of resources available use individualized instruction as the teaching modality which proves quite difficult when trying to adapt the strategies within larger group settings. This workshop will identify the next steps necessary for creating school-wide classroom management and behavior management systems by extrapolating information from a variety of existing published resources. The presenters will show data and videotaped examples of applying the techniques in classrooms with a variety of students with learning labels ranging from autism, attention deficit disorders, social cognitive deficits, emotional behavior disorders, oppositional defiance, and nonverbal learning disability.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the workshop, the participant will be able to do the following: 1. write individualized goals and objectives targetting social thinking skills, 2. identify task analyses for teaching social thinking behavioral targets, 3. describe data collection procedures targetting social thinking skills which are useful in classroom settings, 4. define classroom management pinpoints helpful for targetting social thinking objectives.
Activities: The workshop presenters will use a combination of small group activites, lecture, discussion, and video taped representations of the targeted information. Participants will practice the concepts using hands-on activities aligning to their own clents' needs.
Audience: Any professional teaching and/or designing protocol for clients with regard to pragmatic language concepts and the real life requirements of social navigation skills. The participant should be supervising clients within a group setting currently, or hope to in the future.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Basic
Workshop #W81
CE Offered: BACB
Implementing Applied Behavior Analysis in the School: A Public School District’s Approach
Saturday, May 29, 2010
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
Republic C (Grand Hyatt)
Area: EDC/AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Anthony DeFulio, Ph.D.
CARIN THOMPSON (Lewisville Intermediate School District), KELLE M. WOOD RICH (Central Texas Autism Center, Inc.)
Description: Under No Child Left Behind and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, federal law requires school districts to provide instruction using evidence based, peer-reviewed methodologies. Public school systems struggle to implement quality interventions due to lack of properly trained individuals and staff attrition. Applied behavior analysis (ABA) and verbal behavior (VB) are both scientifically based practices proven effective for students with autism. A large urban school district’s effective approach of implementing ABA and VB in the classroom based on staff retention and student achievement over the last 10 years will be presented which includes the following aspects: staff training using an expert consultant to develop a trainer of trainers model, providing on-going training and support to classroom teachers, collaborating with parents using various parent training models to meet the individual needs of students, and ideas for problem solving conflicts that arrive and the limitations—including training new staff, training assistants, scheduling, and lack of support by teachers, administrators, or parents.
Learning Objectives: The workshop has the following objectives: 1. At the conclusion of the workshop the participant will be able to identify an effective training model for school staff. 2. At the conclusion of the workshop, the participant will be able to name effective methodologies of applied behavior analysis and verbal behavior used in the classroom setting as they apply to individual and group instruction. 3. At the conclusion of the workshop, the participant will be able to identify systems of data collection for the public school setting. 4. At the conclusion of the workshop, the participant will be able to identify the procedures used to ensure integrity of interventions used with students from school to home.
Activities: Activities will include a review of ABA and VB theory, outlining staff training approach using an expert consultant to develop a trainer of trainers model, and video models of implementation of methodology and supporting data.
Audience: This workshop is targeted for professionals that are direct stakeholders in implementing ABA in the public school setting including teachers, administrators, psychologists, and behavior analysts.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Workshop #W83
CE Offered: BACB
Software Tools for Direct Observation: Hands on Learning of the Best Tools for BCBAs, Clinical Practitioners, and Faculty Researchers
Saturday, May 29, 2010
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
Travis B (Grand Hyatt)
Area: TBA/EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CE Instructor: Elizabeth Martineau, Ed.S.
TOM SHARPE (Educational Consulting, Inc.), JOHN KOPERWAS (Educational Consulting, Inc.)
Description: The workshop will provide hands-on application of a user friendly software package designed to collect and analyze discrete and time-based behavioral data for a wide range of evaluation and feedback applications in direct observation client settings. The program and compatible materials are particularly useful to graduate students, behavioral psychologists, BCBA and BCABA professionals engaged in assessment and behavior plan activities, and experimental analysts. Specifically, this workshop will be valuable to anyone interested in analyzing complex configurations of behaviors which are emitted at high rates, often overlap in time, and which are context dependent. Discussion includes an introduction to (a) recommended procedures when collecting time-based data in the live setting and from videotape records, and (b) computer generated behavior descriptions, graphic displays, statistical analyses, and reliability comparisons of data files when engaged in staff training and assessment of data integrity. As a function of workshop participation, attendees will be provided with all workshop presentation materials, a complimentary copy of the complete software package, and a .pdf file summary of compatible research methods published by Sage Publications. It is recommended that workshop participants bring their own IBM compatible laptop hardware to facilitate hands-on workshop interactions.
Learning Objectives: Workshop participants will exit with software-based data collection and analysis competencies: 1. ability to construct and apply systemic observation systems, 2. ability to generate a time-based behavioral record using an inclusive overlapping category system, 3. ability to construct graphic representations, 4. ability to perform traditional and sequential analyses using multiple measurement methodologies, 5. ability to edit graphic data representations and apply relevant visual and statistical analyses, 6. ability to conduct reliability and treatment fidelity analyses, and 7. ability to apply a variety of data record edit and merge functions when operating with complex multiple event category systems. This workshop has several learning objective: 1. Participants will be able to discuss the principles and practice of discrete and sequential behavior analysis methods. 2. Participants will be able to apply a range of computer-based data collection, reliability, and measurement techniques to their particular behavior analysis interests. 3. Participants will be able to understand and apply a range of computer-based descriptive and statistical data analysis techniques in relation to discrete and sequential measurement sets. 4. Participants will be able to construct a variety of behavior graphs and apply appropriate analysis techniques to the graph types covered, and in relation to research and behavior service application example.
Activities: Activities include (a) a review of traditional behavior analysis recording methods; (b) an introduction to, and hands-on application of, a computer-based package designed to enhance behavior analyses of complex interactive settings; and (c) a detailed hands-on demonstration of data collection features, discrete and sequential analysis capabilities within and across data-file graphic representations, and a variety of reliability, treatment fidelity, and data manipulation and editing functions—all designed to facilitate applied activities in assessment, behavior planning, treatment, and ongoing observation of a variety of settings and environments.
Audience: Graduate students, behavior analysts, BCBA, BCABA, and related therapists working in a variety of applied and experimental settings who are interested in the interactive nature of behavior in situations where study of multiple behaviors and events, multiple participants, and changing setting variables are present. Those working in educational and social science settings and who are challenged with how to describe and analyze highly interactive behavioral transactions should find the workshop experience and complimentary software particularly appealing, as they will be useful in wide range of research and assessment applications.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Basic
Symposium #17
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Behavioral Profiles of Children With Autism: Determining Priorities for Intervention
Saturday, May 29, 2010
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
204AB (CC)
Area: AUT/VRB; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Jessica Hetlinger Franco (University of Texas at Austin)
Discussant: Jessica Hetlinger Franco (University of Texas at Austin)
CE Instructor: Nancy Champlin, M.S.
Abstract: Treatment of children with autism can be maximized by focusing on skills that will provide the greatest improvements in the child’s overall functioning in the shortest amount of time. However, it is often difficult to decipher what behaviors are going to be the most critical for the future success of the child. These studies investigated the results of developmental and behavioral assessments of children being evaluated for potential autism spectrum disorder. The results suggest that each assessment tool presents a unique profile of the behavioral characteristics associated with autism. Further analysis of the profiles offers suggestions about the most appropriate intervention priorities for these children.
Using the VB-MAPP Barriers Assessment to Identify Language and Learning Barriers in Children
LUPE CASTANEDA (Behavior Analytic Solutions, LLC)
Abstract: The Verbal Behavior Milestones Assessment and Placement Program (VB-MAPP) Barriers Assessment (Sundberg, 2008) examines 24 different areas that are potential barriers to learning. The assessment includes areas that may be deficit, such as manding, and areas that may be in excess, such as self stimulation. Once barriers are identified, intervention can focus on the key areas inhibiting learning. In this study, the Barriers Assessment was administered to 80 young children with autism. Summary of the results and corresponding profiles are discussed.
Using the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers to Identify the Strongest Predictors of Autism
JUSTIN GARCIA (Treehouse Pediatric Center)
Abstract: The Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) is a screening tool used to identify children at risk for autism. In this study, the M-CHAT was administered to 150 children receiving an interdisciplinary autism evaluation. The number of children failing an autism screening using the M-CHAT was compared with the the number of children diagnosed with ASD. Specific items were analyzed to examine the predictive validity. Several items were identified that were consistently scored for children diagnosed with autism.
The Importance of Developmental Quotients in the Diagnosis of Autism and Identification of Core Deficits
AMIT NADKARNI (Autism Community Network)
Abstract: A Developmental Quotient (DQ) is the resulting number when a child's developmental age is compared with his or her chronological age. For example, a DQ of 100 would suggest that the child is functioning developmentally at exactly his chronological age. Comparison of DQs across skill areas (motor, social, language) can aid in the diagnosis of autism as well as in treatment planning. Developmental quotients of children with autism are compared with children without autism. Results suggest that for children with autism, DQs for social and language skills will be significantly lower than DQs for cognitive, motor, and self-help skills.
Symposium #18
CE Offered: BACB
How Much Is Enough? — Determining Normative Levels of Social-Communicative Behaviors in Preschoolers
Saturday, May 29, 2010
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
205 (CC)
Area: AUT/VRB; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Lisa J. Stoddard (FirstSteps for Kids, Inc.)
Discussant: Sebastien Bosch (California Unified Service Providers)
CE Instructor: Peter Sturmey, Ph.D.Ph.D.
Abstract: In addition to a restricted range of interests, autism spectrum disorders are defined by deficits in language and social skills. Consequently, a considerable focus in autism intervention and research is the development of social and communicative repertoires. Given the current body of literature, clinicians now have a wide variety of empirically-validated tools at their disposal when designing individualized intervention plans for their clients. While the goal of these strategies generally is to increase some given social / communicative skill (e.g., increase spontaneous mands, increase eye contact), clinicians often do not have prescribed normative levels upon which to base their ultimate goals for clients. As such, the purpose of this symposium is to review the limited research to date regarding norms for some of the most commonly targeted skills, as well as describe the results of our own observational studies on the levels of mands and tacts, eye contact, and social initiations and responses among typically developing preschoolers. These results will assist behavior analysts in the generation of developmentally appropriate and measurable treatment goals and outcomes.
Determining Normative Quantity and Quality of Mands and Tacts in Typically Developing Preschoolers
Kristen Carmi (FirstSteps for Kids, Inc.), Lisa J. Stoddard (FirstSteps for Kids, Inc.), Debra Berry Malmberg (California State University, Northridge), JENNIFER L. HARRIS (FirstSteps for Kids, Inc.)
Abstract: There is no shortage of empirical literature supporting verbal behavior training as a highly efficient and effective tool in developing and maintaining functional communication across populations, particularly as an early intervention for children with language delays and developmental disabilities, including autism. There is also an abundance of developmental research quantifying normative levels for sentence structure and vocabulary acquisition rates. However, the developmentally appropriate ranges of manding and tacting per interval for typically developing children have yet to be reported. As such, we sought to observe typically developing toddlers, ages 2-3 years old, across multiple conditions in the natural environment to determine normative, developmentally appropriate and unprompted ranges of manding and tacting behavior. The current presentation will extend our previous findings regarding total and novel mand rates by reporting additional variables measured, such as mean length of utterance (MLU), gender differences, and mand classification (e.g., mands for tangibles, activities, cessation, information, etc.). Interobserver reliability, utilized for mand and tact topography as well as mand and tact frequency, was within acceptable ranges. The implication of this study is that normative levels and quality of verbal behavior will inform developmentally appropriate expectations and targets for intervention for children with autism and other disorders.
Determining Typical Levels of Eye Contact in Children 2-4 Years Old
COURTNEY LANAGAN (FirstSteps for Kids, Inc.), Elizabeth Sue Monday (FirstSteps for Kids, Inc.), Lisa J. Stoddard (FirstSteps for Kids, Inc.)
Abstract: It is widely known that eye contact plays a crucial role in human development and learning. Children with autism often struggle to establish and maintain eye contact from the early stages of development and into later years when eye contact is socially expected during interactions with peers and adults. However, little is known regarding the usual frequency with which typically developing children establish eye contact with their interlocutors during these social interactions. As such, intervention goals for children with autism are often designed based on what is assumed to be typical and may overestimate or underestimate the actual behavior that typically developing children display. Thus, the current study sought to extend upon previous research and determine normative levels of eye contact by directly observing typically developing children aged 2-4 years old while engaged in play with peers and measuring instances of eye contact. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for designing data-driven goals for children with autism.
Determining Normative Levels of Social Interaction in Typically Developing Preschoolers
LISA J. STODDARD (FirstSteps for Kids, Inc.), Jennifer L. Harris (FirstSteps for Kids, Inc.)
Abstract: By definition, social deficits are observed in children with autism spectrum disorders. Numerous studies have described the use of behavior analytic technology and procedures to increase social behavior in children with autism. The focus of much of these studies is participants' use of independent social initiations toward peers, as well as responses to peers' initiations. However, relatively little research has described normative levels of initiations and responses in typically developing children. The purpose of the present address is to review the published studies to date that report levels of at least one form of social interaction in typically developing children, and limitations of these studies will be discussed. To extend the current body of research in this area, the presentation will also review the results of our own observational investigation of social interactions among typically developing preschoolers during multiple group free-play opportunities. Recorded levels of social initiations and responses to others' initiations will be reported via percent of intervals and percent per opportunity, and the implications of these data on the development of measurable goals for children with autism will be discussed.
Symposium #19
CE Offered: BACB
The Importance of and Some Issues Related to Comprehensive Measurement Systems When Serving Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders
Saturday, May 29, 2010
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
206AB (CC)
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Michael A. Fabrizio (FEAT of Washington)
Discussant: Peter F. Gerhardt (Organization for Autism Research)
CE Instructor: Francis Mechner, Ph.D.
Abstract: This symposium will address topics related to developing and implementing comprehensive measurement systems within the context of service programs for adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Topics will include developing measures for use in a service learning program serving teens with high functioning autism and Asperger’s Disorder; measures of performance in both component skill instruction and community based instruction and designing broader measures of learner achievement within the context of a service program for adolescents with autism spectrum disorders; and designing measures of social validity for both direct and indirect consumers of a service program for adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Examples of measures and charted data will be presented.
Development of Measurement Systems for a Service Learning Program for Highly Skilled Teens with Autism
ANDREW M. SYVERTSEN (FEAT of Washington), Carrie Syvertsen (FEAT of Washington), Michael A. Fabrizio (FEAT of Washington)
Abstract: Families for Effective Autism Treatment (FEAT) of Washington provides clinical services to adolescents with high functioning autism and Asperger's syndrome through the Experience Learning Project (ELP). ELP is a service and experiential learning program focusing on improving teens’ skills in social problem solving and social thinking as well as improving teens’ knowledge of the concept of service and service provision. This presentation will focus on 1) presenting data on the implementation of critical daily activities; 2) examples of data collection procedures, instructional arrangements and goal setting used to target specific social skills; 3) promising outcome data; and 4) challenges to developing measurement systems for this program.
Developing and Implementing Measurement Systems With Appropriate Breadth and Depth Within a Service Program for Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders.
JAMIE ROSE FEDDOCK (FEAT of Washington), Andrew M. Syvertsen (FEAT of Washington), Michael A. Fabrizio (FEAT of Washington)
Abstract: Families for Effective Autism Treatment of Washington provides clinical services to adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) through the Transitions for Teens program. Transitions for Teens utilizes two instructional arrangements (community based instruction and component skill instruction) to address performance toward learning objectives for adolescents with ASD and the standard celeration chart to display and analyze data related to learner performance. Performance is measured and data are analyzed at the micro, meta and macro levels. This presentation will focus on providing 1) examples of learner data from both instructional arrangements, 2) a discussion of the relationship between component skill instruction and community based instruction, and 3) a discussion and examples of measures developed to assess change in broader repertoire areas.
Comprehensive Measurement of Social Validity Within a Service Program for Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorders
ALISON J. MCMANUS (FEAT of Washington), Michael A. Fabrizio (FEAT of Washington), Jamie Rose Feddock (FEAT of Washington)
Abstract: Families for Effective Autism Treatment (FEAT) of Washington provides clinical services to teens with autism spectrum disorders through the Transitions for Teens (TFT) program. FEAT of Washington aims to serve persons with autism as well as their families by providing effective intervention that produces positive outcomes for both the direct and indirect consumers. The TFT program seeks to increase skills across a variety of repertoire areas. Learning objectives are identified through the person centered planning process as well as from family feedback and intervention is developed to address these objectives. This presentation will focus on providing 1) a discussion of the development of program objectives for learners, 2) a discussion and examples of measures of indirect consumer satisfaction, and 3) a discussion and examples of measures of direct consumer satisfaction.
Symposium #20
CE Offered: BACB
Advances in Skill Acquisition Techniques for Children With Autism: Empirical Evidence for Emerging Practice
Saturday, May 29, 2010
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
202AB (CC)
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Amanda N. Adams (California State University, Fresno)
Discussant: Rachel Findel-Pyles (The Chicago School, Los Angeles)
CE Instructor: J. Hughes, Ph.D.
Abstract: Some techniques in early intervention for young children with autism are common practice and some are emerging. Either are at risk for occasionally lacking empirical support. Three papers in this symposium will examine skill acquisition techniques for quickly advancing skills with children in early intervention programs.
The Effect of Errorless Learning Procedures on Rate of Skill Acquisition in ABA
HANNA WOLDE (California State University, Fresno), Amanda N. Adams (California State University, Fresno)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of errorless teaching procedures in skills acquisition of children with autism in early intensive behavioral treatment based on principles of applied behavior analysis (ABA). The study compared two teaching strategies, an error correction (‘no’, ‘no’ prompting) and errorless teaching procedures (delayed cue, stimulus fading, and superimposition and fading), using alternating treatment design to teach various skills to four children with autism (age 3-5 years). Two programs or skills were selected for each participant, including reading sight words, answering “what” and “where” questions, receptively identifying actions, shapes, objects, and animals. Two targets (e.g., dog and cat for receptively identifying animals) were selected for each program. One target (cat) was taught using errorless teaching procedure and the other (dog) was simultaneously taught using error correction method. Participants had to perform 80% or higher for three consecutive probe sessions in order for the skill to be mastered. Results indicated that all four participants, on average, acquired skills 44% faster using errorless teaching procedure than with error correction method. Moreover, on average, it took participants 4.25 probe sessions to master a program using errorless procedure compared to 7.6 sessions with error correction. However, one of the participants, who was high functioning, showed no difference in skill acquisition between the two procedures in one of the programs (“where” questions). In general, these results indicated that errorless teaching procedures were superior to error correction in skills acquisition for all four participants.
The Effects of Expansions at the End of Discrete Trials: Child Language Outcomes
MELISSA L. OLIVE (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Elizabeth Cage (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Jonathan J. Tarbox (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Chia Jung Chiang (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), E. Amanda Boutot (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Abstract: Werts and colleagues examined the outcomes of unrelated instructional feedback at the end of discrete trials (Werts, Wolery, Holcombe, & Frederick, 1993). They reported positive learning outcomes for children. Expansions are more sophisticated related utterances provided in response to child utterances. Expansions have been shown to have positive changes in children’s language outcomes (Girolametto et al. 1999). The effects of expansions at the end of discrete trials on language outcomes for children are unknown. Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine the effects of expansions at the end of discrete trial on language skills of children with autism. A multiple baseline across expressive language lessons was used to evaluate the outcomes of this study. This was replicated with three children. Data collected included percent correct trial by trial data, spontaneous initiations, and use of targeted phrases. Generalization data were collected during natural environment sessions. Results demonstrated that expansions at the end of discrete trials resulted in rapid acquisition of new language targets that generalized to untrained environments.
Teaching Bidirectional Intraverbal Relations to Children With Autism in a Service-Delivery Setting
MARLA SALTZMAN (Autism Behavior Intervention, Inc.), Rachel Findel-Pyles (The Chicago School, Los Angeles), Caio F. Miguel (California State University, Sacramento), Sebastien Bosch (California Unified Service Providers of California State University)
Abstract: Given that one of the primary goals of Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention (EIBI) is to accelerate the rates of learning for children with autism, the application of procedures demonstrating relative efficiency is of significant applied importance. Especially in the intermediate pieces of EIBI language curricula, many intraverbal relations related to functions, features, categories, locations, occupations, etc. are taught. Many of these intraverbal relations are bidirectional. A bidirectional intraverbal relation is comprised of an original A-B relation (e.g., “What do you drive?” – “car”) and a reverse B-A relation (e.g., “What do you do with a car?” – “drive”). One way of increasing efficiency of training may be to establish bidirectional intraverbal responding. Two types of intraverbal training procedures were used with young children with autism to examine relative efficiency in terms of response acquisition and the emergence of intraverbals. Delayed reversal training, in which a number of original intraverbals were taught, followed by the teaching of the corresponding reverse intraverbals was compared to immediate reversal training, in which each reverse intraverbal was taught immediately after the corresponding original intraverbal. An alternating treatments design, alternating between delayed and immediate reversal training was used and trials to criterion and emergence of original and reverse intraverbals was tested. Results will be discussed in terms of the challenges of and implications for conducting research in a clinical setting.
Symposium #22
CE Offered: BACB
Employment Preparation in the Therapeutic Workplace: Reinforcement-Based Training for Unemployed Drug Users
Saturday, May 29, 2010
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
Travis C/D (Grand Hyatt)
Area: BPH; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: James H. Boscoe (Johns Hopkins University)
Discussant: Jesse Dallery (University of Florida)
CE Instructor: Nirvana Pistoljevic, Ph.D.
Abstract: The Therapeutic Workplace is an employment-based intervention for chronic unemployment and drug addiction. Therapeutic Workplace participants are unemployed and have little or no work experience. Many of the Therapeutic Workplace participants have less than a 12th grade education. In preparation for employment, the Therapeutic Workplace intervention offers training in keyboarding and other computer skills, GED preparation, and appropriate interpersonal behavior in the workplace. To promote attendance and active participation in the training programs, participants receive monetary vouchers contingent on attendance and training performance. This symposium will describe recent research on several of the employment and academic training programs used in the Therapeutic Workplace. Our first presentation will focus on the reinforcement effects of voucher payments on attendance and typing performance. Another presentation will describe skill acquisition on a self-paced computerized math training program (iPass) as an initial step in preparation for the high school equivalency examination. A final presentation will describe a system for monitoring and modifying interpersonal and customer service behaviors during patient interactions with staff and peers. All presentations will include data to demonstrate the effects of the interventions on the target behaviors and discuss future directions for expansion of the employment training programs in the Therapeutic Workplace.
Positive Reinforcement Improves Attendance and Achievement on Self-Paced Typing Training Programs in a Therapeutic Workplace for Alcohol Dependence
MIKHAIL KOFFARNUS (University of Michigan), Conrad J. Wong (University of Kentucky), Karly N. Diemer (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Michael Fingerhood (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), George Bigelow (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Kenneth Silverman (Johns Hopkins University)
Abstract: The Therapeutic Workplace is an effective drug abuse treatment that integrates abstinence reinforcement into a work setting, using wages that drug abusers earn for work to reinforce abstinence. In the current study, individuals who were homeless, unemployed and dependent upon alcohol were assigned to a "work only" (n = 42), "abstinence and work" (n = 43) or "no voucher" (n = 39) group. All participants were invited to work in the Therapeutic Workplace four hours per weekday for 26 weeks. Participants in the "work only" and "abstinence and work" groups could earn up to $5 per hour in base pay and additional earnings for performance on computerized, self-paced typing training programs. "Work only" and "no voucher" participants could work independent of daily and random breath results, while "abstinence" and "work" participants could work only when their breath samples demonstrated alcohol abstinence. The differential reinforcement contingencies in place impacted attendance and typing training performance, with the"no voucher" group making significantly less progress than the "abstinence" and "work" and "work only" groups. This demonstrates that performance-based contingencies can improve attendance and training program progress. Training program results in relation to the attendance and performance-based contingencies and alcohol use will be discussed.
Academic Training in the Therapeutic Workplace
JAMES H. BOSCOE (Johns Hopkins University), Anthony DeFulio (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), David A. MacQueen (University of North Carolina, Wilmington), Mick J. Needham (Johns Hopkins University), Kenneth Silverman (Johns Hopkins University)
Abstract: The Therapeutic Workplace intervention has traditionally included self-paced computerized training designed to teach participants to become data entry operators in preparation for employment. Many of the participants attending the Therapeutic Workplace have not earned a high school degree or equivalent which may be a barrier to employment. Therefore we have expanded our training curriculum to include training in basic math skills (iPass) as an initial step in preparation for the high school equivalency exam. As with the typing training program the math training is delivered via computer which simplifies the process of tailoring training to individual patient needs. The present discussion will provide an overview of the math training program. Data will be presented to (1) demonstrate the effect of the training program on the Wide Range Achievement Test scores and (2) provide description of earnings and progress through the training. Future plans for expansion of the academic training curriculum in the Therapeutic Workplace will be discussed.
Professional Demeanor in the Therapeutic Workplace: Monitoring Interpersonal and Customer Service Behaviors
BRANDON RING (University of Maryland, Baltimore County), Sigurdur Oli Sigurdsson (University of Maryland, Baltimore County), Mick J. Needham (Johns Hopkins University), James H. Boscoe (Johns Hopkins University), Kenneth Silverman (Johns Hopkins University)
Abstract: Developing interpersonal work skills (e.g., making eye contact, orienting your body towards others you are conversing with) and customer service type skills (e.g., saying thank you when appropriate, not interrupting an ongoing conversation) are potentially important factors of vocational training. We monitored trainee behaviors on closed circuit cameras located at two different rooms in the Therapeutic Workplace which had multiple staff and trainee interactions during the day. Behaviors monitored included trainees’ first entrance greetings; respectfulness toward staff members (i.e., body orientation); ID card exchanges (e.g., handing the card to a staff member; saying “thank you” in appropriate situations); voucher exchange and making eye contact with Classroom staff and Lab staff during three separate interactions occurring each workday. A need for developing these skills was determined based on a large subset of participants consistently obtaining low scores on three professional demeanor dimensions measured with the Work Behavior Inventory, (i.e., social skills, cooperativeness, personal presentation). Planned interventions and preliminary data will be presented.
Symposium #24
CE Offered: BACB
Examination of Strategies to Promote Staff Performance in Human Service Settings
Saturday, May 29, 2010
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
217A (CC)
Area: DDA/OBM; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Florence D. DiGennaro Reed (Melmark New England)
CE Instructor: Marta Leon, Ph.D.
Abstract: The identification of procedures to train employees and maintain performance is a priority for agencies that provide services to individuals with developmental disabilities. Potential benefits include, but are not limited to (1) possible amelioration of burnout often experienced by direct care staff, (2) responsible allocation of needed resources (e.g., costs associated with training), and most importantly, (3) the promotion of excellent service delivery. The first talk presents findings from a study investigating the impact of training on therapist knowledge of single-case research design. Next, the impact of three types of training on implementation of discrete trial teaching will be presented. In the third presentation, the effects of an antecedent intervention on data recording practices of teachers will be shared. The symposium concludes with a talk that presents results of a study examining consistency of staff preference for rewards. Presenters will discuss implication of their findings in educational and clinical settings.
Training the Execution of Single-Case Research Methodology Skills in an Early and Intensive Behavioral Intervention Setting
Jessa R. Love (Thompson Center for Autism & Neurodevelopmental Di), JAMES E. CARR (Auburn University), Linda A. LeBlanc (Auburn University), April Kisamore (Western New England College)
Abstract: Early and intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) for children with autism is a fruitful area for conducting research on clinically relevant problems to investigate some of the unanswered questions about which procedures are most effective and efficient. Unfortunately, it is unlikely that therapists providing these services have received adequate training in conducting relevant single-case design research. Providing therapists with the skills needed to implement such research could improve the use of the scientist-practitioner model in these settings and expand the base of scientific knowledge in the area. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of a modified behavioral skills training approach for training therapists to design and implement single-case design research protocols in an EIBI setting. The study aimed to answer the following questions: (a) Are participants able to learn the necessary skills? (b) Are participants able to apply those skills? And (c) Are participants satisfied with the training and experience? Results indicate that participants were able to both learn and apply the necessary skills as evidenced by statistically significant improvements on knowledge tests and high scores on homework assignments that required staff to engage in various research-related behaviors.
An Analysis of Behavioral Skills Training to Teach Novice Instructors to Implement Discrete Trial Training With Confederates
JAMIE M. SEVERTSON (Trinity Services, Inc.), James E. Carr (Auburn University)
Abstract: Discrete trial teaching (DTT) is the most common technique incorporated into intensive behavioral intervention programs for children diagnosed with autism. Currently, errorless learning (EL) prompt fading strategies are recommended during instruction because they often result in more efficient instruction, reduced student errors during acquisition and post-mastery, and fewer occurrences of challenging behavior. Instructor accuracy influences student performance, and extensive training and supervision is often required to insure that instructors are implementing procedures with high fidelity. A high demand for services, budgetary limitations, and high turnover rate of staff may prevent agencies from being able to offer such extensive supervised training to instructors; therefore, time-efficient DTT staff training protocols are critical. The purpose of this study is to evaluate three training methods including (a) a self instruction manual, (b) a video model, (c) and performance feedback to teach novice instructors to implement DTT-EL strategies to teach a basic discrimination task to confederates.
Use of an Antecedent Intervention to Improve Data Collection Practices of Teachers
HELENA MAGUIRE (Melmark New England), Florence D. DiGennaro Reed (Melmark New England), Brad Stevenson (Melmark New England)
Abstract: The development of effective and less-resource intensive methods to facilitate data recording by staff is of critical importance since clinical decision-making rests on the availability of data to analyze. The purpose of this presentation is to describe a study that investigated the impact of an antecedent intervention (in the form of a modified data recording system) on the percentage of opportunities in which staff recorded data for two students. Staff performance during baseline was highly variable and ranged from 0-75%. Upon the introduction of the modified data recording tool, performance increased and maintained at 100% across both students. Once baseline was re-introduced, performance immediately returned to baseline levels. During the reversal, an immediate change in level was observed and maintained for nine sessions (M = 100%). Results demonstrate that an antecedent intervention in the form of a modified recording system can be an effective means to increase data recording by staff.
Consistency of Preference for Rewards Among Staff in Human Service Settings
BYRON J. WINE (AdvoServ), Shawn Patrick Gilroy (Rowan University), David A. Wilder (Florida Institute of Technology), Oneina E. Abellon (Florida Institute of Techology), Donald A. Hantula (Temple University)
Abstract: The consistency of staff preference for items and activities was examined over time. Participants were residential direct care staff working with individuals with developmental disabilities in three locations across two states. The intervals assessed were six months, four months, two months, four weeks, three weeks, two weeks, and one week. A correlation coefficient was conducted to determine staff consistency of preference across assessments. Results indicate that a one week interval yielded the highest stability and contained the fewest number of shifts from high preference to low preference status and low preference to high preference status. Correlations decreased as intervals increased. These data suggest that staff preference for items and activities changes substantially over time. Implications for the development and use of staff performance improvement plans are discussed.
Symposium #26
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Community Based Treatment for Sexual Offenders With Intellectual Disabilities
Saturday, May 29, 2010
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
217B (CC)
Area: DDA/CSE; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Kimberly E. Church (Human Development Center, Inc.)
CE Instructor: Katherine Johnson, M.A.
Abstract: Providing effective and safe treatment to individuals who have engaged in sexually abusive behavior requires a comprehensive treatment model that is able to adapt and respond to systemic and community challenges and changes. A review of the literature, summary of treatment approaches, and overview of challenges encountered in the service delivery system is reviewed. Specific areas of focus include balancing safety and individual rights, encountering the legal system, providing sex education, and working with the individual and his circle of supports to provide optimal care. Suggestions for future directions and research will be discussed.
Probing the Use of Avoidance Skills by Sex Offenders Diagnosed with Mental Retardation
VALERIA PAREJO (Human Development Center, Inc.), Stephani Fauerbach (Human Development Center, Inc.), Kimberly E. Church (Human Development Center, Inc.)
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to evaluate in real-life situations the use of avoidance skills sex offenders learned through formal training. The participants are adult males diagnosed with mental retardation, psychiatric disorders, and challenging behaviors, including inappropriate sexual behavior. Although the functionally equivalent replacement behavior for inappropriate sexual behavior is most likely to be appropriate sexual behavior, it is also important for these individuals to learn to avoid high risk situations that could lead to the occurrence of inappropriate sexual behavior, law enforcement involvement, and victimization of others. Avoidance skills regarding inappropriate sexual behavior include avoiding the presence of minors and child related stimuli, such as toys, TV shows, printed media, etc. All participants currently receive either intensive residential habilitation services or residential habilitation with behavior focus. Probes will be conducted in several settings and will include a variety of stimuli, including probes in the community where monitoring will be done by confederates to reduce the possibility of reactivity. Data have been collected for two participants; additional data to be collected.
A Solution Focused Approach to Providing Residential and Day Training Services to Sexual Offenders With Intellectual Disabilities
HOLLY ARNOLD (Human Development Center, Inc.), Kimberly E. Church (Human Development Center, Inc.), Stephani Fauerbach (Human Development Center, Inc.)
Abstract: Collaboration, communication, and creativity are all essential components for systems designed to safely and effectively treat individuals with intellectual and behavioral challenges. When the persons served also have a history of engaging in sexually abusive behaviors, the treatment system must also be flexible, solution oriented, and supported by a team of qualified staff who are able to think fast and plan ahead. Challenges encountered over the last decade will be presented, along with practical solutions to overcome obstacles. Case studies will be presented to highlight the process utilized to test hypotheses as a means of identifying and assessing effective interventions and environmental manipulations to promote optimal success for each individual.
Balancing Safety and Rights: Current Policies and Methods of Assessing Competency to Consent to Sexual Behavior
KIMBERLY E. CHURCH (Human Development Center, Inc.), James L. Bell (Human Development Center, Inc.), Valeria Parejo (Human Development Center, Inc.)
Abstract: Adults with intellectual disabilities making decisions regarding sexual behavior is a controversial and complex topic. People with disabilities are people first, and have the same needs and desires for interpersonal and intimate relationships as anyone else. Policies regarding appropriate sexual behaviors for individuals with intellectual disabilities will be reviewed, along with factors that complicate reaching a uniform agreement on developing guidelines for safe and consensual sexual behavior. Methods for assessing ability to consent will be discussed, as well as specific challenges related to sexual rights for individuals who have a history of sexual offending behavior.
A Community Based Treatment Model for Sexual Offenders With Intellectual Disabilities
KIMBERLY E. CHURCH (Human Development Center, Inc.), James L. Bell (Human Development Center, Inc.), Holly Arnold (Human Development Center, Inc.)
Abstract: The Human Development Center utilizes a multimodal approach to support individuals with intellectual disabilities who have engaged in sexual offending behavior. The program emphasizes community and individual safety by providing a containment model, ongoing assessment of risk, skill training, reinforcement of appropriate behavior, and avoidance behavior training. Both clients and staff receive extensive training and ongoing feedback across treatment settings. Data is collected on both target and replacement behaviors, and probes are conducted across settings to evaluate the generalization of skills. Anger management, relaxation, and other coping skill trainings are provided as necessary, and individual and group contingencies are utilized to provide wrap around supports. Participants will be provided with the general overview of the treatment system. Two case studies will be reviewed in order to provide a more detailed description of common treatment strategies used and the outcomes achieved.
Symposium #27
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Analyzing Factors That Influence Treatment Implementation With Individuals, Classrooms, and Schools
Saturday, May 29, 2010
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
Texas Ballroom Salon E (Grand Hyatt)
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Jennifer L. Austin (University of Glamorgan)
CE Instructor: Joseph Cautilli, Ph.D.
Abstract: Researchers and clinicians working in schools often face challenges when implementing behavioral interventions at the individual, classroom, and school levels. These obstacles may include such things as provision of adequate training, maintaining treatment integrity, and perceptions about the appropriateness of proposed interventions by relevant consumers. This symposium will present four studies that demonstrate how these challenges may affect program implementation and how the challenges may be successfully addressed. Further, each presenter will provide recommendations for how researchers and practitioners may use these strategies to approach similar problems they may encounter in school settings.
Teacher Implementation of Behavior Intervention Plans: A Treatment Integrity Analysis
CLAIRE ST. PETER PIPKIN (West Virginia University), Sacha Pence (West Virginia University)
Abstract: Students with severe behavior disorders may benefit from the use of individualized behavior intervention plans (BIP). However, research conducted in the 1990s suggested that teacher implementation of BIP was extremely low, with the mean level of BIP implementation around 4%. The purpose of the current study was to replicate previous research by assessing the degree to which teachers implemented BIPs, and to compare implementation across teachers with and without training in behavior analysis. Participants were public school teachers with one or more students with a BIP. Teachers who had training in behavior analysis demonstrated consistently higher overall levels of BIP implementation than teachers without such training. Results are discussed in light of the challenges facing today’s teachers in the management of student behavior.
Assessing Children’s Perceptions of the Fairness of Individualized Behavior Programs
JENNIFER L. AUSTIN (University of Glamorgan), Rebecca Abreu (University of Glamorgan)
Abstract: When children do not respond to behavioral interventions at the school or classroom level, it often is necessary to design individualized programs to help them meet behavioral or academic goals. However, a concern that often arises in the design and implementation of these programs is whether such programs are fair to other students. In this study, we presented 75 primary school students with four scenarios describing and individualized behavior program for a hypothetical student under four different conditions of reward (i.e., same reward on same schedule, same reward on leaner schedule, different reward on same schedule, and no reward offered to other students) and asked them to rate the fairness of each. Results revealed that children were significantly more likely to view situations with equal rewards as fairer than situations in which the same rewards were given on a leaner schedule. Further, the former types of rewards were viewed as more fair than when children received different rewards or no rewards. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of what factors may influence children’s perceptions of fairness and how individualized programs may be structured so that other children do not feel like they are being treated unfairly.
Strong Start: Impact of a Systematic Implementation of a Social-Emotional Learning Curriculum on Emotional Knowledge and Behavior of First Grade Students
SARA WHITCOMB (University of Massachusetts Amherst)
Abstract: This study was conducted in four first grade classrooms in two elementary schools in a suburban, northwestern school district that had implemented school-wide positive behavior support for approximately seven years. Eighty-eight students and five interventionists participated. The study was based on a within-subject, quasi-experimental design in which all classrooms were assigned to the Strong Start intervention. Students completed emotion knowledge assessments and teachers completed behavioral ratings at two baseline data points and post-intervention. This project monitored acceptability and overall fidelity and quality of implementation. Results indicated that Strong Start was implemented with integrity (ranging from 83%-100% component implementation), and statistically significant increases in students’ emotion knowledge and decreases in students’ internalizing behaviors were documented following exposure to the program. One hypothesis central to the study to be discussed in this presentation was children exposed to a social-emotional learning curriculum will experience an increase in emotion knowledge and self-management of behavior. The study additionally hypothesized these critical skills can be explicitly taught through implementation of a brief, well-designed curriculum and systematically reinforced by adults.
Systems for Implementing Function-Based Support in Schools
CYNTHIA M. ANDERSON (University of Oregon)
Abstract: In 1994 the reauthorization of IDEA called specifically for the use of functional assessment with students with behavioral challenges. This mandate resulted in an increased interest in research focused on functional assessment in schools. This small but growing body of research documents that the technology of functional assessment can be used to develop effective interventions for children in school settings and that functional assessment is appropriate for children with and without disabilities. Further, several studies document that educators without extensive training in behavior analysis can be taught to conduct functional assessments and that educators can implement functionally-derived interventions with efficacy and fidelity. To date however, most research focuses on the implementation of function-based support by highly trained individuals with one or a few students at a time. In this presentation, a system for developing district capacity around function-based support is presented. Data will be presented showing that the system (a) was implemented with fidelity, (b) resulted in significant changes in student behavior, and (c) was sustained over time in several school districts in the Pacific Northwest.
Symposium #28
CE Offered: BACB
Morningside Academy: What's New in Reading Comprehension?
Saturday, May 29, 2010
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
Texas Ballroom Salon B (Grand Hyatt)
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Kent Johnson (Morningside Academy)
CE Instructor: Ruth Rehfeldt, Ph.D.
Abstract: This symposium is one in an ongoing, annual series that provides updated information and data on the Morningside Model of Generative Instruction, and its application in our Morningside Academy laboratory school. In our lab school, we investigate promising curricula or instructional procedures, measure their effectiveness, and revise our curriculum and instruction protocols as the data suggests.
A Content-Dependent Skill Analysis of a Reading Comprehension Repertoire
JENNIFER TESTA (Morningside Academy), Julian Gire (Morningside Academy), Kent Johnson (Morningside Academy)
Abstract: When students enter Morningside Academy, their reading comprehension is typically two or more years behind their chronological grade level. However, instruction and practice on comprehension skills will not result in mastery if the prerequisite skills are not fluent. By conducting a content-dependent skill analysis, we can identify a hierarchy of behaviors necessary for an effective reading comprehension repertoire. Taking this bottoms-up approach to sequencing instruction and practice assures that the learners have the requisite skill repertoire necessary to understand text. This talk will analyze a hierarchy of skills necessary for success in a reading comprehension course, suggest some methods to teach foundational skills, and present some preliminary data on the effects of foundational skill instruction and practice.
Applying Reading Comprehension Strategies to a Variety of Curricula Through the Use of Instructional Technologies
ADAM G. STRETZ (Morningside Academy), Michael P. Wolfson (Morningside Academy), Kent Johnson (Morningside Academy)
Abstract: One of the goals of Morningside Academy is to equip students with the knowledge of and skills to apply a broad spectrum of reading comprehension strategies. This goal is achieved through the use of the Reading Success program and Fluent Thinking Skills. These programs provide explicit strategies, instruction, scaffolding, and review in order to help students become more active and engaged in their reading. Morningside takes these strategies and seeks application of them in a variety of content areas in ways that most schools do not. Delayed prompting is used as a tool to more efficiently teach application of these skills to a variety of students. Data will be presented to demonstrate comprehension skills acquisition and application from recording grids and standard celeration charts.
Vocabulary Acquisition at Morningside: SAFMEDS Flashcards Versus Student-Generated Activities
MARIANNE DELGADO (Morningside Academy), Kent Johnson (Morningside Academy)
Abstract: This study compares two methods of acquiring new vocabulary used in middle school literature anthologies. It asks the question, will students show more retention of skills and application of vocabulary to independent writing and to standardized tests using Steven Graf’s SAFMEDS flashcard routine, or using student word-generating activities? Students learned 2 sets of 6 words at the beginning of each selection in Holt Literature- First Course, one set taught with flashcards and a standard celeration chart, one set taught with student directed activities. Student word-generating activities include learning the connotation as well as the denotation of the word, using context clues to generate definitions as a pre-reading skill, and composing sentences using the words. Generalization to student writing was compared at the end of each selection, using 5 minute curriculum based assessments (CBAs). CBAs were scored across 3 dimensions: total words written, correct writing sequences, and number of vocabulary words used correctly. CBAs for the two groups were compared using individual standard celeration charts, and a class wide chart showing whole class trends. The results will be discussed in terms of future curriculum design decisions at Morningside.
Predicting Reading Comprehension Gains Using the Scholastic Reading Inventory
JULIAN GIRE (Morningside Academy), Jennifer Testa (Morningside Academy), Kent Johnson (Morningside Academy)
Abstract: Students at Morningside Academy are typically two or more years behind in their academics as compared to their same age peers. Often times their deficits in reading comprehension negatively effects their progress in other academic areas. To accelerate these children to their chronological grade level, they must make more than one year gain per academic school year. Thus, it is imperative that their academic progress be monitored closely to ensure they make the expected gains. To this end Morningside Academy uses the Scholastic Reading Inventory (SRI) as a progress-monitoring tool to predict gains on standardized reading comprehension tests. The SRI is an adaptive computer-based test of reading comprehension that reports students’ scores using the Lexile Framework for reading. Using longitudinal data we are able to make predictions about growth in reading comprehension within the academic school year. Having early indicators of a student’s acquisition of reading comprehension skills enables Morningside to make instructional changes and implement interventions to ensure student progress.
Symposium #30
CE Offered: BACB
From Naming Through Learning Through Observation; Educational Procedures and Tactics to Induce Higher Order Verbal Capabilities
Saturday, May 29, 2010
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
214C (CC)
Area: VRB/EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Nirvana Pistoljevic (The Fred S Keller School and Teachers College, Columbia University)
CE Instructor: Alison Moors, M.A.
Abstract: We will present the most recent research related to protocols for advancing children’s verbal behavior development. The findings presented here demonstrate effective tactics that have been implemented with students ranging from pre-listener through reader and writer levels of verbal behavior. The papers includes results from the implementation of protocols to induce naming with objects from environment with 2- and 3-year olds, naming and observational learning with preschoolers through multiple exemplar instructional game, observational learning through coral responding with first graders, and reading and comprehension for elementary and middle school students.
Baby Naming: The Effects of Multiple Exemplar Instruction with Three-Dimensional Stimuli on the Emergence of Naming in 2- and 3-year-old Children
Nirvana Pistoljevic (The Fred S Keller School and Teachers College, Columbia University), ANANYA GOSWAMI (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract: The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of multiple exemplar instruction on the emergence of naming for three students ranging in age from 2-3 years old. Using a delayed multiple probe design, under the pre-experimental phase, all 3 participants were tested for naming using the following procedure. The dependent variable in this study was emergence of full naming with three-dimensional and two-dimensional stimuli. All the naming probes were conducted following the mastery of match to sample responses with the target stimuli. Then, students responses to unconsequated probes for pure and intraverbal tacts to the same stimuli, were measured. The independent variable was the mastery of novel sets of three-dimensional stimuli while matching, pointing, tacting and intraverbal tacting responses were rapidly rotated. The results of the study showed that the participants acquired full naming with three-dimensional objects form the environment, while naming with two-dimensional pictures did not emerge for all participants.
A Procedure to Simultaneously Induce Naming, Observational Learning, and Increase Spontaneous Vocal Verbal Behavior in Group Instructional Settings
Nirvana Pistoljevic (The Fred S Keller School and Teachers College, Columbia University), MARA KATRA OBLAK (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to test the effects of a peer-yoked contingency game on the acquisition of observational learning, naming, and numbers of vocal verbal operants emitted by preschool students diagnosed with and without disabilities. Six 3- to 5-year-olds, 5 males and 1 female, who attended an integrated classroom, participated in the study. Through a delayed multiple probe design across yoked pairs, we sought to demonstrate the effects of a combination of multiple exemplar instruction and peer-yoked contingency game on the acquisition of missing verbal capabilities: observational learning, naming, and increase in emission of vocal verbal operants during non-structured activities. The results demonstrate the peer-yoked game board with a multiple exemplar instruction component was effective at inducing observational learning and naming capabilities, and in increasing numbers of vocal verbal operants emitted in noninstructional setting in all 6 participants.
The Emergence of Observational Learning Through the Use of Choral Responding During Small Group Phonemic Instruction
R. Douglas Greer (Teachers College, Columbia University), JANET C. SOLORZANO-CORREIA (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract: I tested the effects of choral responding across vocal and written responses on the participant’s level of textually responding, rate of textually responding and the emergence of observational learning. Ten participants from the same classroom were chosen because they lacked the textual and written responses to phonemes as well as the observational learning capability. The study took place in a first grade accelerated independent learner classroom consisting of fourteen students ages five through six, four of whom had special education diagnoses. The study utilized a time-lagged multiple probe across participants design. One dependent variable was correct responses on probe sessions for learn units delivered to a peer. The first dependent variable tested if the participants had the observational learning capability in repertoire. A second dependent variable was the participants reading level and reading rate, as measured by the Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA). The independent variable was choral responding to phonemes across vocal and written responses. Reading instruction consisted of phoneme identification, blending phonemes into words, segmenting phonemes, and shared reading. The results of the study showed that choral responding was an effective intervention to increase level of textually responding as well as rate. In addition, observational learning emerged for the participants as a result of the choral responding intervention.
An Investigation of the Relationship Between Reading and Tact Acquisition for Elementary and Middle School Students
Jennifer Longano (Teachers College, Columbia University), LISA GOLD (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to test the effects of reading on tact and vocabulary acquisition. In Experiment 1, three elementary students participated, which included two 7-year old females and a 7-year old male. All the participants were selected based on their reading and reading comprehension abilities, which ranged from average to high average. Participant A, B, and C were all in a regular education second grade classroom. The study took place in a separate location from their classroom. The design of the study was a time lagged multiple probe design. The dependent variable was tact acquisition probes. Probes were conducted prior to and after each participant read a contrived story that incorporated a written description of the pictures used during the probe conditions. No pictures were used in conjunction with the story. The results showed that all three participants acquired novel tacts and vocabulary following the reading of the contrived stories. In Experiment 2, two sixth-grade male students participated. Both students were in a classroom that implemented the used a comprehensive application of behavior analysis to schooling (CABAS) model. The design of the study was a time lagged multiple probe design. The dependent variable was tact acquisition probes and the independent variable was the reading condition. Results showed the potential relationship between reading and tact acquisition.
Symposium #33
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
The Behavioral Developmental Approach to Understanding the Development of Projection, Transference, and Counter-Transference
Saturday, May 29, 2010
1:30 PM–2:50 PM
Travis A/B (Grand Hyatt)
Area: DEV; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Michael Lamport Commons (Harvard Medical School)
Discussant: Darlene E. Crone-Todd (Salem State College)
CE Instructor: Teresa Balawejder, M.S.
Abstract: Here we present a behavioral developmental approach to understanding the development of projection, transference and counter transference. These presentations dicuss three things: First, the evolutionary origin of projective, transferenal and counter transferential behavior and the persistence of such reactions in humans. The second is how projective, transferential and counter transferential behaviors and perceptions developed as part of self-observation, planning and attachment. The basic behaviors develop during the first few behavioral developmental stages as described in the Model of Hierarchical Complexity (Commons & Pekker, 2008). The include Circular Sensory Motor Stage 2 and Sensory-Motor Stage 3. The third is how development of perspective-taking occurs. Perspective-taking is based on the more accurate observation of others and of how they will respond to one's own behavior. Because these two newer ways of knowing are more successful at predicting behavior, they come to dominate projective and transferential means of understanding. These domination follows from Herrnstein’s (1970) matching law
A Behavioral Developmental Account of Projection
LUCAS ALEXANDER HALEY COMMONS-MILLER (University of California, Irvine)
Abstract: The concept of projection is derived originally from the psychoanalytic literature but the phenomenon may be explained from other theoretical perspectives. Here we present a behavioral developmental approach to understanding the development of projection. The approach describes three aspects that underlie projective behavior. The first is the evolutionary origin of projective behavior and the persistence of such reactions in humans. The second is how new projective behaviors and perceptions are developed as part of self-observation and planning. The third is how development of perspective-taking occurs. Perspective-taking is based on the more accurate observation of others and of how they will respond to one's own behavior. The brain basis for social perspective-taking is primarily in the forebrain and develops throughout the lifespan. It overrides projection in many cases. Projection is transformed as the stage at which it occurs changes. Here, the stages from the Model of Hierarchical Complexity (Commons & Pekker, 2008) are applied to projection.
A Behavioral Developmental Account of Transference
PATRICE MARIE MILLER (Harvard Medical School)
Abstract: The traditional description and explanation of transference behavior derives from the psychoanalytic literature. Attributes of important figures in a person's past are misattributed to persons in the present. A behavioral developmental perspective on transference has not been systematically developed as yet. Here we present [the beginnings of a behavioral developmental approach. The basic formation of transference in helping situations has to do with the sense that the helper is saving the patient. Transference is a special case of attachment. The basic situation in attachment is that the infant is suffering and the adult saves them by ameliorating the discomfort and providing calming and soothing. When infants do not get saved as is the case with the some orphans in orphanages, they do not develop attachment. The basic attachment paradigm for the first stages from the Model of Hierarchical Complexity is outlined. Attachment is shown to occur at the first two behavioral developmental stages, Sensory or Motor Stage 1 and Circular Sensory Motor Stage 2. The process of transference follows the process of attachment. Because the therapist “saves” the patient attachment and therefore transference forms
A Behavioral Developmental Account of Counter-Transference
MICHAEL LAMPORT COMMONS (Harvard Medical School)
Abstract: Counter-transference is just transference, but with a reverse vector: That is, it is transference from the person (commonly the treater) who receives the original transference to the person who did the original transferring (commonly the patient). A number of studies on doctor-patient relationships (e.g., Commons & Rodriguez, 1990, 1993, Commons, et al., 2006) clarify transference and counter-transference interactions, such as an idealization in the transference that evokes a reciprocal counter transference. The therapist's counter- transference may be evoked by the actual reality-based demeanor and attitude of the patient. In fact, the participants do not have to have interacted directly at all; literature and films manipulate us without our knowing it. Though hard evidence is lacking, most behavioral and cognitive behavioral therapies probably produce less counter-transference than more dynamic ones because a) the therapy works more on the present; b) the therapist uses techniques that are clearer and less magical appearing; c) there are more direct gains, so there is less of a paucity of reinforcement; and d) the therapist is more of a consultant than inscrutable guru.
Panel #41
CE Offered: BACB
Professional Development Series: Teaching Behavior Skills—From the Trainer to the Technician
Saturday, May 29, 2010
2:00 PM–2:50 PM
Texas Ballroom Salon F (Grand Hyatt)
Area: TBA/EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CE Instructor: Caio Miguel, Ph.D.
Chair: Melissa Nosik (University of Nevada, Reno)
W. LARRY WILLIAMS (University of Nevada, Reno)
TERESA A. RODGERS (Missouri Department of Mental Health Division of Developmental Disabilities)
MIKE R. STOUTIMORE (Missouri Department of Mental Health)
Abstract: A critical element to the effectiveness of any behavior analytic intervention is implementation. There are many variables related to training that influence the level of implementation integrity of any behavior program. Behavior analysts have focused on teaching strategies that produce acquisition and generalization of skills from a teaching environment to the natural environment. There are training techniques and packages which have been effective in producing good outcomes in learners at the level of parents and staff. These will be discussed. An additional area of importance is the training of trainers. Individuals who conduct training in behavior analytic skills are repeatedly guilty of teaching a new behavior without developing and implementing a plan to facilitate its maintenance and generalization. We will discuss different methods of training the trainers to be more effective in their approaches to training. Although we have found some effective methods for teaching behavior skills, we still fail to implement these on a regular basis due to financial and time constraints. Panelists will discuss innovative methods to deliver effective training while minimizing these constraints. Suggestions for future research will be offered.
Invited Tutorial #42
CE Offered: BACB
Establishing a Start-Up Program in Teaching as Applied Behavior Analysis
Saturday, May 29, 2010
2:00 PM–2:50 PM
Ballroom A (CC)
Area: TBA/EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
BACB CE Offered. CE Instructor: William Baum, Ph.D.Information to come.
Chair: Jessica Singer-Dudek (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Presenting Authors: : GRANT GAUTREAUX (Nicholls State University)
Abstract: Developing programs for teachers in behavior analysis requires collaborative efforts from multiple entities operating independently of each other. At a regional-based state university, creating sustainable new programs depend greatly upon the support of surrounding school districts, approval of internal departments, college committees, and university graduate councils as well creating need within the feeder constituency. This presentation will outline the scope and sequence for setting up a Comprehensive Application of Behavior Analysis Program for teachers in a state where behavior analysis has historically been meet with fear and loathing. Some of the essential elements involved in this process include school district buy-in, parent and teacher training, planning for financial viability, recruitment of potential candidates against the backdrop of post-Katrina Louisiana, higher education budget cuts, and National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education program accreditation.
GRANT GAUTREAUX (Nicholls State University)
Dr. Grant Gautreaux (PhD Teachers College Columbia University, 2005) is an assistant professor of teacher education at Nicholls State University in Thibodaux, La. He currently holds ranks of CABAS Senior Behavior Analyst and Assistant Research Scientist and is a BCBA-D. Dr. Gautreaux has taught courses in the areas of instructional interventions, behavior interventions, applied behavior analysis, educational research, inclusive education, and diagnostic reading at Teachers College, St John’s University and the Chicago School of Professional Psychology. He has published articles in the areas of observational learning, multiple exemplar instruction and naming and has presented at numerous national and international conferences on behavior analysis and teacher education. Dr. Gautreaux is also on the editorial board of the Journal of Behavioral Assessment and Interventions for Children and is a CABAS® consultant for the Jigsaw School in the United Kingdom and schools across Louisiana and has recently started the first teacher based program in applied behavior analysis in Louisiana.
Symposium #43
CE Offered: BACB
Current Advances in Preference Assessments for Children With Autism
Saturday, May 29, 2010
2:00 PM–3:20 PM
207AB (CC)
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Michele R. Bishop (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Discussant: Richard B. Graff (New England Center for Children)
CE Instructor: Stephen Anderson, Ph.D.
Abstract: This symposium will include three studies examining the use of preference assessments with children with autism. The first paper compared therapist report and direct assessment of preferences for 33 children diagnosed with autism. Additional analyses were conducted to evaluate the type of stimuli frequently identified by therapists as well as consistency within treatment teams. The second paper examined the use of demand functions for describing differences between behavior reinforced by food and behavior reinforced by attention in children with autism. Results show systematic changes in reinforcers earned and response-rate as a function of the ratio-requirement. The third paper investigated preference for a larger array of items versus a smaller array of items with older learners diagnosed with autism. Results indicate that participants preferred a larger array of items. Each presenter will discuss how their current results may impact treatment practices. Finally, a discussion of the importance of these findings will be presented.
Evaluating Preference Across a Large Group of Children With Autism: Therapist Report vs. Direct Assessment
MICHELE R. BISHOP (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Amy Kenzer (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Abstract: The identification of effective reinforcers continues to be an important component of successful behavioral interventions for children with autism. Methods of identifying preferred stimuli that may then function as reinforcers frequently involves an informal assessment of preferences (i.e., asking caregivers and observing the child play). However, research suggests that direct assessment of preference can produce clear preference hierarchies and identify reliable reinforcers. This study compared therapist report and direct assessment of preferences for identifying reinforcers for children with autism. Preference surveys for 33 children were administered to 44 therapists and 3 supervisors. Therapist’s identified and ranked five preferred stimuli and five non-preferred stimuli for each child. A coding system was used to determine the top ranked preferred stimuli across each child’s treatment team as well as a representative sample of non-preferred stimuli. Additionally, the experimenters selected three to four novel stimuli for each child. Subsequently, two paired choice stimulus preference assessments were conducted for all participants comparing therapists’ top ranked stimuli to 1) therapists’ reported non-preferred stimuli and 2) novel stimuli. Results indicated that for 59% of direct assessments of those items therapist’s reported as non-preferred and/or novel stimuli displaced therapist’s top ranked stimuli. Additional analyses were conducted to evaluate the type of stimuli frequently identified by therapists as well as survey consistency within treatment teams.
Evaluations of Demand Functions for Attention and Food in Children with Autism
ANDREW SAMAHA (Utah State University), Sarah E. Bloom (Utah State University)
Abstract: This study examined the use of demand functions for describing differences between behavior reinforced by food and behavior reinforced by attention in children with autism. Several previous studies have identified systematic scalar differences in reinforcer value across different classes. This study attempts to extend those findings by examining differences in essential value (or, how the behavior reinforced by food and attention changes as the price of those commodities increases). Preferred food items and forms of attention were identified using paired-stimulus preference assessments. Next, those stimuli were delivered using fixed-ratio schedules. Response-requirements on the ratio schedules were manipulated across sessions in an increasing and decreasing sequence. Results show systematic changes in reinforcers earned (consumption) and response-rate as a function of ratio-requirement.
Evaluating the Preference for Greater or Fewer Choices by Older Learners Diagnosed on the Autism Spectrum
SELENA GIRONDA (Caldwell College), Patrick R. Progar (Caldwell College), Kenneth F. Reeve (Caldwell College), Robert LaRue (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey)
Abstract: Choice responding was evaluated amongst a greater array of choices versus a fewer array of choices by older learners diagnosed on the autism spectrum using a concurrent-operant arrangement. In one condition, the number of items available was systematically increased from 4 to 32 items, whereas the second condition remained constant at two items. A third condition served as the control (no choice). In Phase 1, a multiple-baseline across three participants was used to evaluate identical items serving as reinforcers to control for differential consequences and satiation. In Phase 2, a choice of varied items serving as reinforcers was evaluated for one participant in order to represent a more natural setting in which choices are available on a daily basis for learners with autism. All participants preferred a greater array of choices when the items available for reinforcement were both identical and varied. The results suggest that offering a greater array of choices may enhance reinforcer effectiveness because it incorporates access to multiple highly preferred items and the opportunity to choose.
Symposium #44
CE Offered: BACB
Complements and Extensions to Contingency Management Interventions to Promote Healthy Behavior
Saturday, May 29, 2010
2:00 PM–3:20 PM
Crockett A/B (Grand Hyatt)
Area: CBM/BPH; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Steven E. Meredith (University of Florida)
CE Instructor: Cassondra Gayman, M.S.
Abstract: Contingency management (CM) has been used to increase drug abstinence in substance abusers by delivering desirable consequences, such as money, contingent on objective evidence of abstinence. The following symposium highlights new complements and extensions to CM for promoting healthy behavior. Erin McClure will discuss how varenicline (Chantix) can be used to enhance the efficacy of CM interventions with treatment seeking smokers. Kelly Dunn will talk about CM in the context of a therapeutic workplace to increase adherence with naltrexone, an opioid antagonist that can decrease opioid abuse when taken as prescribed. The last two talks will discuss extensions of CM to non-drug abusing populations. Bethany Raiff will present the results of an Internet-based CM intervention to increase adherence with blood glucose testing recommendations in teens diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes, and Kristin Hustyi will describe a CM intervention used to increase physical activity in overweight and obese preschool children. This collection of studies illustrates the versatility and utility of CM as a means of promoting healthy behavior.
The Effects of Behavioral and Pharmacological Interventions on Relapse to Smoking Following Experimental Lapse Exposure
ERIN A. MCCLURE (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Ryan Vandrey (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Maxine Stitzer (Behavioral Pharmacology Research Unit)
Abstract: Retrospective data collected during clinical trials along with anecdotal reports suggest that one mechanism by which varenicline (Chantix) aids in smoking cessation is by reducing the likelihood of relapse following a slip or lapse episode during a quit attempt. The current study investigated this effect in a prospective laboratory model. Smokers were randomly assigned to receive varenicline or placebo during a quit attempt in which an experimentally induced lapse occurred after a supervised period of abstinence. Smoking behavior was then assessed for four weeks following the programmed lapse with financial incentives provided during the first week to increase abstinence. Results showed that smoking decreased for both placebo and varenicline groups, but was lower upon completion of the study for those receiving varenicline. Complete abstinence from smoking in either group was rare despite the monetary incentives. While incentives along with behavioral counseling were successful in decreasing smoking behavior in the placebo group, they were not as powerful as the combination of incentives, counseling, and varenicline treatment. Findings suggest that varenicline decreased smoking dramatically in a context where smokers were motivated to achieve abstinence, which may reflect one mechanism of varenicline’s previously demonstrated efficacy as a smoking cessation aid.
Employment-Based Reinforcement of Naltrexone Compliance in Unemployed Heroin-Dependent Adults
KELLY DUNN (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Anthony DeFulio (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Jeffrey J. Everly (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Annie Umbricht (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Michael Fingerhood (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), George Bigelow (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Kenneth Silverman (Johns Hopkins University), Wendy Donlin-Washington (University of North Carolina, Wilmington)
Abstract: Naltrexone is an opiate antagonist that effectively prevents relapse to opioid use; however rates of compliance are notoriously poor. In a randomized controlled trial of employment-based contingencies to promote naltrexone compliance, heroin-dependent injection drug users were randomly assigned to a Naltrexone Contingency (NC) or Work Only (WO) group. NC participants are required to ingest oral naltrexone thrice weekly to gain entry into the workplace and WO participants receive a take-home prescription and can work independently of naltrexone compliance. In the workplace participants earn hourly wages and productivity pay. Outcome measures include monthly naltrexone, opioid and cocaine urinalysis results. Data show access to the workplace successfully reinforces compliance with naltrexone. Mean percent naltrexone-positive samples are 74% and 28% in the NC and WO groups, respectively. Mean opiate-negative samples are higher among NC versus WO participants (74% and 58%, respectively); however no effect is observed on cocaine use. Overall, this study provides evidence that an employment-based behavioral treatment can successfully reinforce compliance with a medication and has important implications for use with other medications.
Using an Internet-Based Contingency Management Intervention to Increase Adherence With Blood Glucose Testing Recommendations in Adolescents Diagnosed With Type 1 Diabetes
BETHANY R. RAIFF (National Development Research Institutes), Jesse Dallery (University of Florida)
Abstract: Diabetes can lead to a number of life-threatening health complications if unmanaged. A critical component of diabetes management, for adolescents diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes, involves blood glucose testing at least four times per day. The current study evaluated the effects of using an Internet-based contingency management intervention to increase adherence with blood glucose testing recommendations in non-adherent adolescents. Four adolescents diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes could earn vouchers for submitting blood glucose testing videos, over a secure website, during the intervention. During an initial baseline condition participants did not meet the minimum of four recommended tests per day (mean number of tests per day = 1.7). However, when the Internet-based CM intervention was introduced, an increase in the daily frequency of testing occurred, with every participant meeting the minimum during all five days of the intervention (mean number of tests per day = 5.7). Removing the intervention corresponded with a decrease in the daily frequency of testing (mean number of tests per day = 3.1). Participants and their parents rated the program favorably on a number of dimensions. The results suggest that Internet-based contingency management interventions are feasible and acceptable for use with adolescents diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes.
Shaping Physical Activity in Overweight and Obese Children
KRISTIN M. HUSTYI (University of the Pacific), Matthew P. Normand (University of the Pacific), Tracy Larson (University of the Pacific), Scott B Greenberg (University of the Pacific)
Abstract: The Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children (OSRAC-P, Brown et al., 2009) is a discontinuous measurement system for recording physical activity. We validated the OSRAC system with continuous measurement systems (pedometers and heart rate monitors), finding that increased heart rate and steps taken correlated with activity level codes. We also measured changes in physical activity in obese and overweight pre-school children when a package intervention including goal setting and feedback was introduced according to an ABAB reversal design. Multiple measures were used to assess physical activity level, including the OSRAC-P system and pedometers. Percentile schedules of reinforcement were used to set performance goals. The intervention produced elevated levels of physical activity and the activity level codes and pedometer records were highly correlated. Implications for future activity research will be discussed.
Symposium #45
CE Offered: BACB
Functional Analytic Psychotherapy Across Settings and Populations
Saturday, May 29, 2010
2:00 PM–3:20 PM
Crockett C/D (Grand Hyatt)
Area: CBM/TPC; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Daniel J. Moran (Trinity Services, Inc.)
CE Instructor: David Corcoran, M.S.
Abstract: Functional analytic psychotherapy (FAP), has a behavioral focus on in-vivo interactions and in-session equivalents of clients’ daily life problems, offers a convincing practical framework for psychotherapy. The premise of FAP suggests clients’ clinical problems appear in session, and the reactions of the therapist will naturally reinforce more clinical improvements that can be generalized to clients’ daily lives.
The Application of Functional Analytic Psychotherapy to Persons With Serious Mental Illness
THANE A. DYKSTRA (Trinity Services, Inc.), Kimberly A. Shontz (Trinity Services, Inc.), Carl Indovina (Trinity Services, Inc.), Daniel J. Moran (Trinity Services, Inc.)
Abstract: This presentation will discuss the use of Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) with individuals diagnosed with serious mental illness with an emphasis upon psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Unfortunately, the effectiveness of psychotherapy for individuals diagnosed with psychotic disorders has historically and erroneously been viewed as dubious. This presentation will briefly highlight empirical support for the influence of environmental factors on the manifestation of psychotic behavior (e.g. token economies, expressed emotion literature). These lines of research justify exploring the usefulness of Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) in treating serious mental illness. FAP interventions are performed in the context of a genuine and caring therapeutic relationship and are guided by radical behavioral principles. FAP provides a framework for contingent therapist responding in their moment-to-moment interactions with clients that facilitates new or more adaptive interpersonal repertoires including socially interfering responses to intrusive private experiences such as hallucinations and delusions. The presentation will review each of the five rules of FAP in their application to persons with serious mental illness. Specific clinical examples will be provided to illustrate how utilizing FAP and the client-therapist relationship has produced positive therapy outcomes.
Functional Analytic Psychotherapy Strategies and Ideas for Working With Adolescents
REO NEWRING (Children's Hospital and Medical Center), Kirk A.B. Newring (Kirk A. B. Newring, PhD, LLC), Chauncey R. Parker (University of Washington)
Abstract: As the average clinician says, “I’ll work with anyone… except teenagers.” Clinical work with adolescents is very difficult, due to special needs and circumstances inherent to the population. Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) is a 3rd wave behavior therapy that focuses clinical attention on identified problems and improvements as they manifest in the therapy room, toward therapy, and with the therapist. FAP provides a unique framework for conceptualizing client behavior; adolescents provide lots of rich samples of behavior in the therapy room, and toward therapy and the therapist. While therapy with adolescents is not a new phenomenon, using FAP with them is—and it has proven very helpful in the clinical work of the authors. We will discuss characteristics of the population that require special attention and how FAP improves treatment outcomes with them, using case examples from our own practices. We hypothesize that using FAP with this population can help any therapist to improve therapeutic rapport, understanding of client behavior patterns, and treatment outcomes.
Functional Analytic Psychotherapy for Interpersonal Process Groups
MAVIS TSAI (Independent Practice), Renee J. Hoekstra (Pacific University School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract: Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP), with its behavioral focus on in-vivo interactions and in-session equivalents of clients’ daily life problems, offers a compelling conceptual framework from which to conduct interpersonal group psychotherapy. The premise of FAP is that instances of clients’ daily life problems will appear in session, and the contingent reactions of the therapist and other group members will naturally reinforce more adaptive behavior that can be generalized to clients’ daily lives. The FAP approach to group psychotherapy enables therapists to: elicit client statements about potential in-session problems, elicit client agreement to work on presenting concerns in group, encourage client disclosure of in-session problems to other members, and remind clients of their commitment when their presenting problems show up in-vivo. As therapists allow the group to develop, they can enhance and augment the private experiences and reactions of group members, offer statements of functional relationships, and teach the group as a whole to watch for the clinically relevant behaviors of its members. Thus, the FAP application to group provides therapists not only a foundational structure for the group, but a clear focus on both the group agenda and the goals of the clients throughout the life of the group.
Functional Analytic Psychotherapy-Enhanced Couple Therapy: Perspectives and Possibilities
WILLIAM C. FOLLETTE (University of Nevada, Reno), Thomas J. Waltz (University of Nevada, Reno), Alan S. Gurman (University of Wisconsin-Madison)
Abstract: In Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP), dyadic behavior is observed almost in its natural environment with the therapist and both members of the couples present. During the course of therapy couples often create many of the stimulus conditions under which interpersonal problem behaviors occur, and these problem behaviors are emitted in the presence of the therapist. Until recently, even behavioral marital therapists have not maximally applied behavior analytic principles to the change and generalization processes required to maximize the beneficial effects of couple therapy. The paper addresses how the stance of the FAP therapist conducting couple therapy is unique. The therapist has the familiar role of having each member of the dyad become observers of the contingencies that affect each other’s behavior, but also has the unique role of sharing the burden of producing change in each person by naturally reinforcing clinically important behavior change when the partner cannot yet support necessary change. Applying FAP therapy change principles directs the therapist to actively respond to client behavior change in ways novel to most other couple therapists.
Symposium #51
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Fear and Anxiety in Autism: The Complexity of Assessment and Intervention
Saturday, May 29, 2010
2:30 PM–3:50 PM
205 (CC)
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Raymond G. Romanczyk (Institute for Child Development, Binghamton University)
CE Instructor: Dennis Reid, Ph.D.
Abstract: The universal processes of fear and anxiety in both typical and clinical populations have been well studied in multiple disciplines and there exist effective evidence based intervention procedures. One population, individuals with autistism spectrum disorders, has received comparatively little research and clinical attention related to fear and anxiety, even though it is a rapidly expanding population that has generated considerable public and general research attention. Reasons for this comparative lack of attention, particularly within behavior analysis, may have historical roots in the conceptualization of the disorder wherein co-morbidity was not well recognized, availability of poor assessment procedures for a population that typically can not provide meaningful self-report of emotional state, and over-utilization of non-compliance as an explanatory factor for expression of behavior problems. Fear and anxiety in autism spectrum disorders will be examined from multiple behavioral perspectives. Specific focus will be placed upon assessment and clinical intervention approaches regarding similarities and differences in both typical and clinical populations. Examples of treatment focus will be upon fears and phobias, social anxiety, and awareness of environmental dangers and safety issues. An individual case illustration will be presented to highlight critical aspects of precise assessment as it affects treatment in the typical multi-disciplinary setting.
Fear and Child Safety: Risk and Protective Factors for Nonfatal Injury in Children with Autistic Disorder
RACHEL N. STRAUB (Binghamton University, State University of New York), Raymond G. Romanczyk (Binghamton University, State University of New York)
Abstract: In recent years, researchers and practitioners have begun to recognize high levels of comorbidity between autism and other disorders. However, little attention has been given to the construct of fear, which can be defined as the awareness of impending threat for bodily or emotional harm with expectation of undesirable outcome. Previous research has shown that specific individual characteristics, such as impulsivity and lack of fear, increase the likelihood of injury in risk situations (Schwebel, 2004). Interestingly, emerging research has reported that children with autistic disorder experience a higher rate of injuries, with greater severity, than typical children (Lee, et al., 2008; McDermott, et al., 2008; Straub & Romanczyk, 2009). The purpose of this presentation is to present and review characteristics of children with autistic disorder that may serve as potential predictive factors and targets for intervention regarding unintentional, nonfatal injury. Specific focus will be given to characteristics that have been shown as accurate predictors of childhood injury for other clinical populations, including impulsivity, hyperactivity, attention difficulties, and lack of fear regarding likelihood of injury. Additionally, implications for conducting research on the absence of a phenomenon in predicting the occurrence of injury will be discussed.
A Behavioral Approach to the Assessment of Anxiety Disorders in Children with ASD
KELLY D. SCHLEISMANN (Auburn University), Jennifer M. Gillis Mattson (Auburn University)
Abstract: Although anxiety disorders are commonly comorbid with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD; e.g., Weisbrot et al., 2005), little is known about the methods for adequately assessing anxiety disorders in this population. Traditional assessments of anxiety disorders, such as clinical interviews and rating scales, may be inappropriate for use among children with ASD due to factors such as an overlap between symptoms of anxiety and core symptoms of ASD (Matson and Neble-Schwalm, 2007), as well as qualitative differences in sources of anxiety (Leyfer et al., 2006) and symptom presentations (Ozonoff, Goodlin-James, & Solomon, 2005). A behavioral approach to the assessment of anxiety in children with ASD may better enable practitioners to investigate important factors that are not typically relevant when assessing anxiety in the general population. This presentation will discuss complicating factors and recommendations pertaining to the behavioral assessment of anxiety in children with ASD.
Examination of Effective Interventions for Anxiety in Children with ASD
REBECCA BEIGHTS (Auburn University), Jennifer M. Gillis Mattson (Auburn University)
Abstract: Acknowledging comorbidity of anxiety with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), researchers have begun to evaluate treatment of anxiety in this population. Treatment of anxiety from a behavioral perspective often targets avoidance behaviors as observable manifestations of anxiety and aims to decrease avoidance through use of exposure, modeling, and contingent reinforcement (e.g., Conyers, Miltenberger, Peterson, Gubin, Jurgens, Selders, et al., 2004; Jennett & Hagopian, 2008, Rapp, Vollmer, & Hovanetz, 2005; Riccardi, Luiselli, & Camare, 2006). Current research on treatment of anxiety in children with ASD provides support for behavioral strategies as components of an effective intervention (Hagopian & Jennett, 2008). A review of the literature will be presented, with emphasis on analysis of specific treatment elements and recommendations for treatment implementation.
Case Conceptualization in a Multi-Disciplinary Setting: A Clinical Case Example
EMILY HUBER CALLAHAN (Binghamton University)
Abstract: Delivery of services for children with autism and related disorders often occur in the context of multi-disciplinary groups, for early intervention, preschool, and school age children. Thus behavior analysts typically provide services in the broad context of diverse program procedures and policies. Issues concerning professional relations with individuals from differing backgrounds and the ethical dilemmas they present, autism taxonomy, and intervention evaluation procedures, are the focus of this presentation. A clinical case example will be used to illustrate the specific difficulties behavior analysts can encounter providing services within such systems.
Symposium #52
CE Offered: BACB
Enhancing Social Opportunities for Children With High-Functioning Autism
Saturday, May 29, 2010
2:30 PM–3:50 PM
206AB (CC)
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Marjorie H. Charlop-Christy (Claremont McKenna College)
CE Instructor: Eileen Roscoe, Ph.D.
Abstract: Many high-functioning children with autism possess neurotypical cognitive and language abilities but lack the social skills necessary for successful interactions. This symposium begins by briefly reviewing the literature on teaching social skills to high-functioning children with autism and discussing the importance of designing social skills interventions that consider the specific needs and abilities of these children. Then three studies examining social skills interventions for high-functioning children with autism will be presented. The first study used video modeling to teach high-functioning children with autism reciprocal conversation through humorous exchanges. This allows for the mastery of more advanced social interactions such as expansion of conversational topic, ‘to and fro’ speech, and maintaining a verbal exchange. The second study utilized advances in technology to teach persistence in social initiations. This study also uses peers as teachers to promote generalization of skills. The final study taught adolescents with autism a method of conversation monitoring to increase question-asking during dyadic social interactions.
The Importance of Teaching Social Skills to High-Functioning Children With Autism: A Brief Review
CATHERINE ANNE MILTENBERGER (Claremont Graduate University), Marjorie H. Charlop-Christy (Claremont McKenna College)
Abstract: Many high-functioning children with autism are of normal intelligence and language abilities but fail to develop age-appropriate social skills. These deficient social skills have negative implications for their social, emotional, and academic development. The social deficiencies of high-functioning children with autism may be especially salient because of their inclusion with typically developing peers who are more aware of these deficits. Although there is an extensive body of literature addressing the effectiveness of social skills intervention programs for children with autism in general, much less research examines social skills interventions designed specifically for high-functioning children with autism. The current presentation draws upon recent literature to discuss the importance of identifying the specific needs of this segment of the autism population and of designing social skills intervention programs to address these needs in ways that build upon the children’s many strengths.
Teaching Children With Autism to Initiate Conversational Speech: Humor as a Means of Social Skills Attainment
SARA GERSHFELD COHEN (Claremont Graduate University), Marjorie H. Charlop-Christy (Claremont McKenna College)
Abstract: Common social skills interventions that focus on simple initiations and responses are well-researched and relatively easy to teach, but offer limited learning opportunities. Mastering more advanced social interactions such as expansion of conversational topic, establishing ‘to and fro’ speech, and maintaining a verbal exchange has the potential of expanding learning opportunities for children with autism (Charlop & Kelso, 2003). Little research is available on this subject. Joke-telling is a promising form of conversational dialogue that keeps the attention of a typical peer, is naturally reinforcing to both conversational partners, and increases the likeability of the person telling the joke. Humorous exchanges also enhance physical, cognitive, language and psychosocial skill attainment and promote experience-sharing relationships (Franzini, 2002; Robinson, 1991). This study investigated the effects of teaching child-initiated social skills in the form of joke-telling using video modeling on social behavior and appropriate speech for children with autism. Preliminary results indicate that the intervention successfully taught children to engage in joke-telling with peers. Further results will discuss generalization and ecologically valid social skill to children with autism.
Teaching Persistence in Social Initiations to High-Functioning Children With Autism: A Portable Video Modeling Technology
DENISE GROSBERG (Claremont Graduate University), Marjorie H. Charlop-Christy (Claremont McKenna College)
Abstract: Learning persistence in social initiations is an essential skill for healthy development in that it helps children gain confidence in their ability to make friends and engage in effective social interactions (Weiss & Harris, 2001). However, the number of social initiations children with autism engage in is typically very low (Odom et al, 1985). Social interventions that incorporate technology have had considerable success in motivating children with autism because they take advantage of the inherent visual strengths of these children, are motivating, and are socially acceptable among typical peers. Interventions that incorporate technology are also becoming progressively more popular because they are economical, portable, and require minimal instruction to operate. In the present study, a portable video modeling technology will be used to teach persistence in social initiations to children with autism. Two hypotheses were tested. First, it was hypothesized that children with autism would effectively learn persistence in social initiations to typical peers by using a portable video modeling technology. Second, persistence in social initiations was hypothesized to generalize and be maintained across people, settings, and skills. Findings discuss the practicality, social acceptability, and convenience of using portable video technology in a variety of academic and social settings.
Improving Reciprocal Question-Asking During Social Conversation in Children and Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorder
REBECCA DOGGETT (University of California, Santa Barbara), Robert L. Koegel (University of California, Santa Barbara), Lynn Kern Koegel (University of California, Santa Barbara)
Abstract: Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) typically have difficulty maintaining a reciprocal social conversation and exhibit a decreased rate of question-asking during these interactions. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a conversation monitoring intervention on the naturalness of conversation and the generalization of question-asking in children with ASD. Participants had received previous question-asking interventions but had failed to generalize the gains consistently. In the current study, the participants kept a tally of both their questions and their partner’s questions, with the goal to ask approximately the same number of questions as their partner over the 10-minute conversation. Preliminary results suggest that conversation monitoring leads to generalization of question-asking and conversations being rated as more natural. The results are discussed in terms of implications for naturalistic social conversation interventions and future directions for improving reciprocal conversation in children with ASD.
Symposium #53
CE Offered: BACB
Is This a Bad Fad: Further Experimental Analyses of Questionable Treatments in Autism
Saturday, May 29, 2010
2:30 PM–3:50 PM
202AB (CC)
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Cecilia McCarton (The McCarton School)
Discussant: Cathy Bryson (The Sage Colleges)
CE Instructor: Mark Dixon, Ph.D.
Abstract: Autism has been called a "fad magnet" due to the number of treatments used for persons with autism that have little or no research evidence to support their effectiveness. It is crucial that caregivers utilize treatments that are rooted in valid empirical evidence showing that they work in ameliorating behavioral, social, and communicative disabilities. The purpose of this symposium is to describe what constitutes criteria for labeling a treatment has having evidence to support its effectiveness, and then to describe two experimental studies designed to test the effectiveness of two treatments for which there seem to be little empirical support at this time. Oral-motor exercises have long been used by speech pathologists in the belief that strengthening oral-motor musculature will result in improved speech. Sensory Integration therapy has been consistently rated as one of the most popular treatments in autism treatment. There is an assumption that these two methods are empirically validated; however, a review of the research finds little well-designed research to support this contention. The two studies utilized participants with autism and they received these treatments for behavioral targets identified by the respective speech therapists and occupational therapists. Results will be presented in terms of the degree to which they meet the criteria of empirical verification and the definition of evidenced-based practice.
Evidenced Based Practice: A Review of the Criteria That Constitutes Evidence
THOMAS L. ZANE (The Center for Applied Behavior Analysis at The Sage Colleges), Jennifer Hanson (Springbrook)
Abstract: Over the past several years, there has been an increasing interest in implementing treatments considered “evidenced-based practice” in education in general and autism in particular. Numerous state and federal agencies (e.g., United States Department of Education, Association for Science in Autism Treatment, American Psychological Association) have promoted the notion that educational interventions must have a foundation of well-designed quality “research” that supports the assumption that the intervention actually does produce positive results. Although this perspective is welcomed, there is some debate as to what exactly the criteria are that constitutes ‘evidence.” We reviewed the criteria for evidenced-based practice of 16 national organizations that promulgate such criteria for evidenced-based practice. Results showed that there is widespread disagreement as to what actually should be considered as evidence. Results were discussed in terms of what behavior analysts could do to promote a more consensual understanding of what treatments actually have research support of effectiveness.
Examining the Relationship Between Oral Motor Exercises and Articulation Ability in Students With Autism
LAURA PRESTIA (The McCarton School), Mary Jane Weiss (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey), Ivy J. Feldman (McCarton School), Barrie Jakabovics (The McCarton School), Thomas L. Zane (The Center for Applied Behavior Analysis at The Sage Colleges)
Abstract: Speech therapists frequently use oral motor exercises to enhance articulation. However, the association between such exercises and articulation is not yet proven, and is the subject of some debate even within the speech and language pathology community of professionals. (ASHA has a position statement that does not support their use, yet they are used by 80% of speech therapists serving children with autism). Preliminary correlational data failed to show a strong correlation between ability to perform commonly prescribed exercises (such as horn blowing) and performance on standard measures of articulation. The current study utilized several children with autism who displayed speech deficiencies. Oral motor exercises were used in an attempt to improve articulation ability. Data presented will expand this data analysis, examining whether the ability to perform such exercises is associated with functional articulation skills. In addition, data will be presented on the results of instruction in such exercises, and the corollary impact on articulation. Results will be reviewed in the context of commitment to evidence-based intervention.
Examining the Impact of Weighted Vests on Stereotypic Behavior and Engagement
IVY J. FELDMAN (McCarton School), Thomas L. Zane (The Center for Applied Behavior Analysis at The Sage Colleges), Mary Jane Weiss (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey), Jacqueline Hickey (The McCarton School), Barrie Jakabovics (The McCarton School)
Abstract: Sensory integration therapy is one of the most commonly used treatments for young children with autism. Believing that behavioral dysfunction is often caused by a dysfunctional sensory system, occupational therapists frequently claim that vests can reduce stereotypic behavior and increase engagement. However, little evidence exists to support these claims and recommendations, yet vests are commonly recommended and used. In this study, single case methodology is applied to empirically examine the effectiveness of vests on stereotypic behavior and on engagement of young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Weighted and pressure vests were used to improve performance and to reduce stereotypy. The protocol developed was done in conjunction with OT professionals, who also trained and periodically assessed the fidelity of the procedural application. Data were collected during vest-wearing sessions and for 30 minutes after the session. Results are discussed in the context of evidence-based practice, efficiency of instructional time, and ABA's commitment to effectiveness.
Symposium #54
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
ABA and SLP: Two Great Things That Go Great Together! Collaboration in Early Intervention
Saturday, May 29, 2010
2:30 PM–3:50 PM
203AB (CC)
Area: AUT/EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Amanda N. Adams (California State University, Fresno)
CE Instructor: Elisabeth Kinney, M.S.
Abstract: ABA provides the state of the art empirically validated techniques for working with children with autism. One of the biggest challenges in working with these children is the development of communication and language. The professionals in the field of Speech Language Pathology are experts in this area. More can be won from working together and learning from each other with mutual goals and respect. This symposium will review two procedures from the view of SLPs using ABA techniques, and one amazing experience from the combined efforts of BCBAs and SLPs in Sarajevo, Bosnia.
A Comparison of Discrete Trial Training and the Natural Language Paradigm in Nonverbal Children With Autism
LISA EVANGELISTA (California State University, Fresno), Steven Skelton (California State University, Fresno), Donald Freed (California State University, Fresno), Sheri Roach (California State University, Fresno), Christine A. Maul (California State University, Fresno), Amanda N. Adams (California State University, Fresno)
Abstract: Discrete trial training and natural language paradigm are two opposing treatment methods that have been proven effective in improving speech production within the autistic population. These two methods will be used in an alternating-treatment design to determine which treatment is most effective in language acquisition and generalization in nonverbal autistic children. Two participants with limited expressive language abilities were selected for the study. Each participant received treatment using discrete trial training and the natural language paradigm. Progress was judged on the quantity of language acquired in response to the two treatment methods.
Improvement and Generalization Differences in Group Versus Individual Therapy of Social Language Skills
REBECCA ROOPE (California State University, Fresno), Christine A. Maul (California State University, Fresno), Donald Freed (California State University, Fresno), Steven Skelton (California State University, Fresno), Amanda N. Adams (California State University, Fresno)
Abstract: Therapy to improve social skills of children with autism may be more effective if provided in a group versus individual therapy context. The 2 male participants were diagnosed with high-functioning autism (HFA) and attending fourth grade at the time of the study. A modified ABACA/ACABA research design was used to investigate possible differences regarding improvement and generalization effects between group and individual therapy contexts. Discrete trial therapy (DTT) was the treatment implemented. Conversational turn-taking was the target behavior. The behavior was measured in turns per minute. Participants were observed for spontaneous use of the target behavior during each phase of the study. A comparison between the participants’ improvement and generalization of the target behavior after implementing and withdrawing DTT demonstrated no substantial difference between an individual or group therapy context. Participant preference regarding therapy context appeared to have an effect on participant involvement and interest during therapy sessions.
Starting Autism Education in Bosnia: Challenges for a Recovering Country
DZEVIDA SULEJMANOVIC (California State University, Fresno), Amanda N. Adams (California State University, Fresno)
Abstract: In the past 15 years, Bosnia has made amazing strides in recovering from civil war. First, infrastructures were rebuilt, then public services, and later education. Special education lagged behind however, and services for autism and other such specialties were all but unknown. In the past few years, this has started to change. This presentation will expand on some of the challenges and successes of this enormous undertaking.
Autism Education in Bosnia: Experiences of a California-Based Team in Sarajevo
AMANDA N. ADAMS (California State University, Fresno), Eduardo Avalos (California State University, Fresno)
Abstract: In June 2009, a team of SLPs and teachers from San Francisco and Behavior Analysts from Fresno went to Bosnia for two weeks to run a large training seminar and begin the first classroom for children with autism in the country. Our presentation will show the successes of presenting large workshops and organizing implementation of classroom plans for another cultural group. Significant challenges unusual to the American professional arise in such a venture. These will be presented and solutions for a respectful and meaningful resolution will be discussed.
Symposium #55
CE Offered: BACB
Accumulated Evidences for Effectiveness of ABA in Korea
Saturday, May 29, 2010
2:30 PM–3:50 PM
217B (CC)
Area: DDA/AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Kyong-Mee Chung (Yonsei University)
CE Instructor: Adel Najdowski, Ph.D.
Abstract: The effectiveness of applied behavior analysis for treating severe problem behaviors are well document in the USA. However, the ABA is a relatively new field in Korea and limited research and clinical services are available at this time. Fortunately, a specialty clinic for treating severe problem behaviors was open in 2007 at the Seoul Metropolitan Children's Hospital. The clinic has both in & outpatient services and recently opened a day treatment center. Authors in the symposium present assessment and treatment outcome data accumulated in this clinic for the past 3 years. Although more data should be accumulated, the current data clearly show the effectiveness of applied behavior analysis. Practical considerations of managing the clinic as well as clinical/research implications will be discussed.
The Predictors of Behavioral Parent Training for Children With Developmental Disabilities
KYONG-MEE CHUNG (Yonsei University), Hyunsun Ahn (Yonsei University)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the predictors for effectiveness of behavioral parent training (BPT) on reducing problem behaviors in children. Participants were 31 mothers of children with developmental disabilities aged from 4 to 7 (22 boys, 9 girls). The BPT was conducted in a small group format (6-7 per group) for 12 weeks. Mothers learned basic behavior principles as well as actual application of acquired skills to their child. Measures were direct observation (coded using FOR-?) of parent-child interaction and self-report scales such as PSI, Behavior Vignettes Test, Mother’s efficacy scale. In addition, difference scores for each measure from pre to post training were calculated. The data was analyzed with hierarchical multiple regression model. The results showed that positive child’s behaviors were explained only by BVT and negative child’s behaviors were explained by difference scores in mother’s behavior from direct observation and BVT. This suggested that BPT is effective for reducing negative behavior than increasing positive behavior.
Treatment Outcome Evaluation for Persons With Severe Problem Behaviors: Preliminary Results
MIN-JUNG SHIN (Yonsei University), Yeonjin Jo (Seoul Metropolitan Children's Hospital), Boo Yeol Choi (Yonsei University), You-na Kim (Seoul Municipal Children's Hospital), Jean H. Choi (Yonsei University), Yealee Kim (Yonsei University)
Abstract: The ABA based treatment is an evidence-based treatment for severe problem behaviors. Yet it has not been widely used in Korea. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of function based ABA treatment for 10 children & adolescents with self-injurious or aggressive behaviors in Korea. Participants were 8 boys and 2 girls aging from 7 to 17 and diagnosed with autism, PDDNOS and/or MR. FBA was conducted first then a function based treatment was developed and implemented for each participants. The treatment effectiveness was evaluated the % reduction in rate of problem behaviors from baseline to the last week of treatment. FBA results showed that the function of problem behaviors were diverse and various treatment procedures (e.g., 3-step prompt, parental training, extinction, FCT, Stimulus control, etc) were used. The result showed 80% or greater reduction in problem behaviors in 8 of 10 participants, suggesting the effectiveness of treatments conducted in Korea. Several suggestions (e.g., small N, diverse outcome measures, etc) and practical issues (e.g., therapist training, supervision, etc.) are also discussed.
Examining the Consistency in Results From Functional Assessment (FA) and Questions About Behavior Function (QABF): The Preliminary Results
BOO YEOL CHOI (Yonsei University), Hyeonsuk Jang (Seoul Municipal Children's Hospital), U-jin Lee (Yonsei University), Yealee Kim (Yonsei University), SoYeon Lee (Seoul Municipal Children's Hospital), Hyunsun Ahn (Yonsei University), Minhee Kim (Yonsei University), Jean H. Choi (Yonsei University)
Abstract: FA is a recommended assessment method in ABA, yet has been conducted infrequently in real setting due to cost. Instead, an indirect assessment instrument, QABF, is commonly used to assess functions of problem behaviors. Yet not much information is available in term of their interchangeability. The purpose of this study was to investigate the consistency between results of FA and QABF. Participants were 8 children and 3 adolescents with MR/DD aged from 7 to 17 years (8 boys and 3 girls). The 4 common conditions were selected for comparison; Tangible, Escape (Demand), Sensory (Alone), and Attention. The highest and second highest conditions in FA results for each participant were compared to those in QABF. In results, only 2 participants (18.18%) showed consistency between the two measurements. This result implied that the inconsistency might exist between direct (FA) and indirect (QABF) measures. This supported the previous literature showing that results from indirect and direct assessments should be integrated to identify the function of problem behaviors, instead of used separately. Practical difficulties and concerns were discussed.
The Effects of the Summer Treatment Program for Korean Children With Disruptive Behaviors
HYUNSUN AHN (Yonsei University), Ji-Myeong Shin (Seoul Municipal Children's Hospital), Min-Jung Shin (Yonsei University), Minhee Kim (Yonsei University), Boo Yeol Choi (Yonsei University), Seung-Hee Hong (Seoul Municipal Children's Hospital), Joo-hee Kim (Yonsei University)
Abstract: The summer treatment program (STP) that developed by W. Pelham in State University of New York at Buffalo was modified and implemented to Korean children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD). The modified program was implemented during 6 hours each day, 5 days per week and comprised of scheduled program, token economy, social skills training, group problem-solving discussions, parent training, and the Daily Report Cards (DRC). Participants were 4 children from 11 to 14 years of age. Three were with ADHD and the one was with mental retardation. They all failed to adjust at their home school and referred to our program due to poor social skills and disruptive behaviors. The effects of the STP were measured by DBD rating scale, Conners Rating Scale and direct observations for target behaviors. Results showed that the STP was effective on reduction of disruptive behaviors for all 4 participants in all 3 measures, indicating the successful replication of the STP in a day treatment center in Korea. In addition, this results so implied that the STP is also effective for children with MR who shows disruptive behaviors. Few issues including generalization to home and school are remained to be discussed
Invited Tutorial #62
CE Offered: BACB
William J. McIlvane (University of Massachusetts Medical School) will be presenting on Murray Sidman's behalf. Errorless Learning and Programmed Instruction: The Myth of the Learning Curve
Saturday, May 29, 2010
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
Ballroom A (CC)
Area: TPC/EDC; Domain: Theory
BACB CE Offered. CE Instructor: Janet Ellis, Ph.D.BCBA-D
Chair: Per Holth (Akershus University College)
Presenting Authors: : MURRAY SIDMAN ((Retired))
Abstract: Teaching a pupil all the prerequisites for a task will produce errorless learning. If errors do occur, they can be eliminated by identifying and teaching the missing prerequisites. The discovery of errorless learning, although a major contribution to our understanding of behavior, has received remarkably little attention from behavior theorists, philosophers, and both basic and applied researchers. Learning need not be a trial-and-error process for the pupil, although it may be for the teacher. Errorless learning indicates that the learning process is all-or-none; the learning curve becomes discontinuous, with any continuity residing in the teaching process. The reality of errorless learning shifts the responsibility for learning from the pupil to the teacher; the proper study of learning becomes the study of teaching. For example, because mental retardation is defined by learning failures (i.e., by excessive errors), the fact of errorless learning calls into question both the definition of retardation and the teaching methods that have given rise to that definition.
Murray Sidman completed his Ph.D at Columbia University in 1952. His principal advisors, Fred S. Keller and W. N. Schoenfeld, had strong assists from Ralph Hefferline, Clarence Graham, and a small group of fellow graduate students. After that, he spent nine years in the exciting and productive interdisciplinary environment of the Neuropsychiatry Division at Walter Reed Army Hospital. He then joined the Neurology Service of the Massachusetts General Hospital for another nine years. Dr. Sidman's human and nonhuman behavioral research laboratories moved eventually to the E. K. Shriver Center and Northeastern University, where he remained as professor of psychology until he retired from academe, continuing his research at the New England Center for Children. Although retired from there in 2001, Dr. Sidman continues research and writing. One outcome of his lifetime of research is his conviction that extending experimental results out of the laboratory not only adds an intrinsically valuable dimension to basic research, but is essential to its survival in a world of increasing competition for ever more limited resources.
Symposium #64
CE Offered: BACB
Topics in Translational Research
Saturday, May 29, 2010
3:00 PM–4:20 PM
Lone Star Ballroom Salon D (Grand Hyatt)
Area: EAB/AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Jason C. Bourret (New England Center for Children)
Discussant: Timothy R. Vollmer (University of Florida)
CE Instructor: Chata Dickson, Ph.D.
Abstract: The talks in this symposium emphasize the exploration of basic processes with implications for application to clinical settings. They include the evaluation of methods for identifying optimally effective exchange schedules for token economies using behavioral economic analyses, an investigation of the schedule in effect during basketball shooting that highlights a method for describing schedules in effect in naturally occurring environments, and an analysis of the effects of psychotropic medication on the behavior of individuals diagnosed with autism.
Behavioral Economic Manipulations in a Closed Token Economy: Examination of Methods for Rapid Generation of Work and Demand Functions
KATHRYN G. HORTON (The New England Center for Children), Jason C. Bourret (New England Center for Children)
Abstract: The present study evaluated work and demand functions generated by adjusting the exchange schedules of token economies across three preparations. In Study ,1 data were collected in the context of ongoing implementation of a token economy by on-shift staff over periods of five hours each day. In study 2 data were collected during 5-min sessions across ascending exchange-schedule fixed-ratio values that were similar to those evaluated in study 1. In study 3 a progressive-ratio schedule was used with increases yoked to the previously evaluated exchange schedules. Across all studies work and demand functions were generated from responding and consumption respectively. The Implications of the findings for empirical identification of optimal prices for use in token economies and methods for rapid generation of work and demand functions are discussed.
Describing Naturally Occurring Schedules: Analysis of feedback Functions for Shooting During Basketball Games.
NICHOLAS R VANSELOW (Northeastern University), Jason C. Bourret (New England Center for Children)
Abstract: A number of recent studies have applied the matching law in quantitatively analyzing behavior occurring in the context of sports including two- and three-point shot allocation by basketball players. This research is important and interesting in that it suggest that the matching law may well describe responding in naturally occurring human environments. However, because there is no experimental manipulation, the schedule in effect is unknown. In the case of the matching law, if it is a pure ratio schedule, matching is forced and must occur. This means that obtained matching would be a property of the schedule rather than a property of behavior and the interpretation of the finding would be much different. In the Study 1, feedback functions were fit to naturally occurring basketball shooting data to describe the schedule in effect. In Study 2, feedback functions were fit to data from an experiment in which the rate of shooting was manipulated to provide a greater range and allow a more complete description of the function form.
Analysis of the Effects of Psychotropic Medication on the Behavior of Children Diagnosed with Autism
MATOTOPA AUGUSTINE (New England Center for Children), Jason C. Bourret (New England Center for Children)
Abstract: A variety of psychotropic medications are used to decrease problem behavior in children and adults with autism-spectrum disorders. While some research has suggested that medication can differentially affect topographies of behavior with differing response classes, there is limited research that presents systematic data on the specific behavior-altering effects of these drugs. In the present study we examined the relations between doses of psychotropic medication and levels of a number of different topographies of behavior. Findings are discussed as a step toward a data-driven method of prescribing, titrating, and tapering psychotropic medication.
Symposium #65
CE Offered: BACB
BIG SIG Symposium: Advances in the Behavior Analysis of Gambling
Saturday, May 29, 2010
3:00 PM–4:20 PM
Lone Star Ballroom Salon E (Grand Hyatt)
Area: EAB/CBM; Domain: Experimental Analysis
Chair: Simon Dymond (Swansea University)
CE Instructor: Robert Kohlenberg, Ph.D.PhD
Abstract: This symposium from the Behaviorists Interested in Gambling Special Interest Group (BIG SIG) of the Association for Behavior Analysis International brings together behavior analytic research on gambling behavior. The first presentation describes how escape scores on a subscale of the Gambling Functional Assessment predict video poker play. The second presentation describes the findings of research on the "near miss" effect in slot machine gamblers. The third presentation presents the findings of experiments designed to understand derived transfer of response allocation in slot machine gambling. Finally, the fourth presentation presents data on the often assumed correlation between delay discounting performance and learning on the popular Iowa Gambling Task.
Do escape scores on the GFA predict video poker play in the laboratory?
JEFFREY N. WEATHERLY (University of North Dakota), Kevin Montes (University of North Dakota), Danielle Christopher (University of North Dakota)
Abstract: The Gambling Functional Assessment (GFA; Dixon & Johnson, 2007) is a paper-pencil measure intended to help identifying the maintaining consequences for gambling behavior. Subsequent research has suggested that, along with potentially identifying such consequences, one category of the GFA (i.e., Escape) may also identify gamblers displaying pathology. The present study recruited 40 individuals to play video poker. Before doing so, they completed a questionnaire on their gambling history, the GFA, and a delay-discounting task. The hypothesis was that those scoring high in the Escape category of the GFA would play more hands, bet more credits, and make more mistakes when playing poker than those scoring low. Only some of these predictions were correct. However, Escape scores did just as well, and in some cases better, at predicting gambling behavior than did the gambling history questionnaire and the discounting measure, both of which should have been accurate predictors according to the literature.
Formal and Functional Investigation and Manipulation of the “Near-Miss” Effect in Gamblers
BECKY L. NASTALLY (Southern Illinois University), Mark R. Dixon (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract: The present study experimentally investigated the potential for recreational and pathological gamblers to respond as if certain types of losing slot machine outcomes were actually closer to a win than others. Following demonstration of such behavior, termed the “near-miss effect” in the gambling literature, the present study sought to disrupt the near-miss effect via the exposure of participants to a brief conditional discrimination training and testing procedure. Subsequent performance of participants showed a decrease in the near-miss effect as measured by self report, or topographically, and through decreased response allocation toward a simulated slot machine programmed with a high density of near miss outcomes. The implications of the data for a verbally as well as functionally based behavioral explanation of gambling are presented.
Derived Transfer of Response Allocation and Outcome Ratings in a Simulated Slot Machine Task
SIMON DYMOND (Swansea University), Kate Mills (Swansea University), Amanda Cox (Swansea University), Victoria Crocker (Swansea University), Joanne Griffiths (Swansea University), Alice E. Hoon (Swansea University)
Abstract: A defining feature of a contemporary behavior analytic account of gambling is that gambling related stimuli may obtain their functions based, at least in part, on participation in derived relations. In this way, gambling may be considered a verbal event. The present study describes the findings of three experiments designed to test this. In all experiments, non-problem gamblers were first trained and tested for the formation of 2, 3-member equivalence relations (A1-B1-C1; A2-B2-C2). Participants were then exposed to two simulated slot machines labeled with members of the relational network (B1 and B2, respectively). Slot machine B1 was programmed with a low payout probability (0.2) and slot machine B2 with a high payout probability (0.8). In Experiment 1, transfer to C1 and C2 was tested with a forced choice procedure, in Experiment 2 with all slot machine spins under extinction, and in Experiment 3 with machines of matched probabilities (0.5). Self-report ratings of the likelihood of winning were also obtained. Findings demonstrate derived transfer of response allocation and self-report ratings in accordance with equivalence relations, and highlight the utility of approaching gambling as a derived, verbal event.
Is There a Correlation Between the Iowa Gambling Task and Delay Discounting?
FRANK D. BUONO (Southern Illinois University Carbondale), Mark R. Dixon (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract: The purpose of this paper was to identify if there is a correlation between performance on the Iowa gambling task (IGT; Bechara et al, 1992) and delay discounting by pathological gamblers. Participants were asked to complete both assessments in a counterbalanced delivery. Computerized versions of the tasks were constructed using Microsoft Visual Basic that allowed for the collection of response allocations as well as time-based measures by each subject. Results indicated that the two assessments share a fair degree of linear relationship with each other suggesting that convergent validity exists between the two assessments. However, neither predicted actual gambling performance on a subsequent slot machine task.
Symposium #68
CE Offered: BACB
Issues in Preference and Reinforcement in Children With Autism
Saturday, May 29, 2010
3:30 PM–4:50 PM
207AB (CC)
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Anibal Gutierrez, Jr. (University of Miami)
Discussant: John C. Borrero (University of Maryland, Baltimore County)
CE Instructor: Meeta Patel, Ph.D.
Abstract: Research in preference and reinforcer assessments has traditionally focused on the identification of tangible and food items that will are highly preferred and will function as reinforcer. The results of these assessments have been successfully in applied behavior analysis as a core feature of intervention plans. More recently, research in autism has focused on the development of joint attention skills and other socially-based skills for which the use of socially-based reinforcers is important in an effort to develop functionally relevant treatment approaches. In order to develop effective socially-based interventions, an emerging area of research has focused on the most effective methods to assess for social reinforcers. This line of research extends traditional reinforcer assessments to include the assessment of socially-based consequences. Research is also emerging in the establishment of social stimuli as conditioned reinforcers. This line of research is investigating methods to condition social stimuli but establishing them as discriminative stimuli. Finally, research is also evaluating the stability of these social consequences across time. This are of study aims to inform clinical practice regarding the extent to which preference for social reinfocers are stable across time.
Determining the Reinforcing Value of Social Consequences and Establishing Social Consequences as Reinforcers
Hilary Gibson (New England Center for Children), DANIEL GOULD (New England Center for Children)
Abstract: The effective and efficient establishment of social stimuli as conditioned reinforcers is an ongoing area of interest in applied research. The purpose of the current study was to determine the reinforcing value of social consequences and to evaluate two procedures to determine if social consequences could be conditioned as reinforcers. A reinforcer assessment of social consequences was conducted to determine the baseline reinforcing value of two social stimuli, praise and back pats. A pairing procedure and a procedure in which the social stimuli were established as discriminative stimuli (the “SD procedure”) were evaluated to determine which, if either, would effectively condition social consequences as reinforcers. One child with autism participated in the study. It was determined that prior to conditioning neither social stimulus functioned as a reinforcer. Social consequences were not effectively conditioned as reinforcers using the pairing procedure, however praise and back pats may have been conditioned as weak reinforcers using the SD procedure. This study raised questions about which qualities and characteristics of the social stimuli prevented them from functioning as strong conditioned reinforcers.
A Comparison of Four Methods to Assess Social Reinforcers in Children With Autism
AARON J FISCHER (Louisiana State University), Anibal Gutierrez, Jr. (University of Miami), Melissa N. Hale (University of Miami), Jennifer S. Durocher (University of Miami), Michael Alessandri (University of Miami)
Abstract: Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) show deficits in social and communicative skills as well as deficits in joint attention. The identification of social reinforcers may be important when teaching some skills, like joint attention to young children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder. Joint attention has been linked to the development of cognitive, language, and play skills of children with ASD and has become a target skill for intervention. Therefore, it is important to identify specific social consequences that will function as reinforcers. The present study evaluated four methods to assess for social reinforcers as well as the relative reinforcing value of social consequences. The first method used a repeated measures single operant paradigm; the second method used a repeated measures concurrent operant paradigm; the third method used a paired-stimuli paradigm; and the fourth method used a multiple stimulus without replacement paradigm. Using picture identification cards, the assessments examined five socially based consequences as well as a control condition that did not produce any reinforcement as a consequence.
Evaluating the Stability of Preferences for Attention for Children With ASD
MARY PAWLOWSKI (Nova Southeastern University), Anibal Gutierrez, Jr. (University of Miami), Melissa N. Hale (University of Miami), Jennifer S. Durocher (University of Miami), Michael Alessandri (University of Miami)
Abstract: Research literature has evaluated the stability across time of preferences for tangible reinforcers for individuals with developmental disabilities. This literature suggests that preference for tangible reinforcers is idiosyncratic and unstable across time. To date, however, the stability of preference over time for social reinforcers has not been empirically studied. Currently, it is unknown the extent to which preference for social reinforcers is similar or different to preference for non-social reinforcers. As treatment approaches begin to target important socially-based skills like joint attention, information regarding the stability of socially-based (i.e., functional reinforcers) becomes important for the development and refinement of effective interventions. This study investigates the stability of preference for social reinforcers across three time points for children with autism. Results show that stability of preference for socially-based reinfrocers may be variable across time. These data demonstrate that preference for socially-based reinfocers may be more variable than preference for tangible reinforcers.
Symposium #69
CE Offered: BACB
Topics in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Leisure Skill Development, Caregiver Training, and Personal Hygiene
Saturday, May 29, 2010
3:30 PM–4:50 PM
204AB (CC)
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Rachel Findel-Pyles (The Chicago School, Los Angeles)
Discussant: Michele R. Bishop (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
CE Instructor: Michael Fabrizio, M.A.
Abstract: Applied behavior analytic (ABA) research that is specifically aimed at issues associated with Autism Spectrum Disorders has steadily grown over the past several decades. Thousands of empirical investigations have documented the effectiveness of ABA based techniques for the assessment and intervention of problematic behaviors as well as for the development of pro-social behaviors. The purpose of this symposium is to further contribute to the literature in this area, and moreover to address issues that are particularly relevant to practicing behavior analysts who are actively involved in the daily lives of individuals with ASDs. As such three papers will be presented which address a range of topics including, using activities schedules to increase leisure activities in adolescents with autism, teaching caregivers to implement a three-step prompt procedure to decrease non-compliance maintained by escape, and using shaping and stimulus fading to teach toothbrushing in children with developmental disabilities
Utilizing Activity Schedules to Increase Leisure Activities in Adolescents With Autism
CALLI ANDERSON (The Chicago School for Professional Psychology), Rachel Findel-Pyles (The Chicago School, Los Angeles), Traci M. Cihon (University of North Texas)
Abstract: A photographic activity schedule was used to teach two adolescents with autism to independently engage in leisure activities in a residential setting. The current investigation was a replication of MacDuff, Krantz, and McClannahan (1993). A multiple baseline across participants design was used to evaluate baseline, teaching, maintenance, re-sequencing of photographs and generalization to novel photographs. The results suggest that using the photographic activity schedules produced engagement in independent leisure activities. Generalization to novel activities was also observed.
Teaching Caregivers to Implement a Three-Step Prompt Procedure to Decrease Noncompliance Maintained by Escape
Jackie Hardenbergh (The Chicago School), RACHEL FINDEL-PYLES (The Chicago School, Los Angeles)
Abstract: Three-step prompting is a procedure commonly used in behavioral assessments and interventions. Little previous research has evaluated the effects of this procedure on compliance. In this study, caregivers of children who demonstrated problem behavior maintained by escape from caregiver request were trained to use three-step prompting when implementing demands with their children. Three caregiver-child dyads participated and a multiple-baseline across participants was used. Results indicated that training caregivers to implement this procedure increased the compliance of the children and decreased the frequency of caregiver-delivered prompts.
Using Shaping and Stimulus Fading to Teach Toothbrushing in Children With Developmental Disabilities
COURTNEY LANAGAN (First Steps for Kids, Inc.), Taira Lanagan (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Averil Schiff (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Abstract: A significant amount of research has demonstrated the effectiveness of behavioral teaching procedures for establishing a variety of self-care skills to individuals with developmental disabilities. However, relatively little research has been published on teaching toothbrushing skills to individuals within this population. This study examined the effectiveness of a procedure consisting of shaping and stimulus fading for increasing tolerance to toothbrushing in young children with developmental disabilities. A multiple baseline across participants was utilized in which positive reinforcement of approximations toward the target response, without the use of escape extinction for challenging behaviors, was implemented. Results are discussed in terms of implications for teaching activities of daily living.
Symposium #71
CE Offered: BACB
Behavioral Research on Obesity: Examination of Behavioral Weight Management Programs and Environmental Factors That Affect Obesity
Saturday, May 29, 2010
3:30 PM–4:50 PM
Crockett A/B (Grand Hyatt)
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: SungWoo Kahng (The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
CE Instructor: Gregory Madden, Ph.D.
Abstract: Obesity has become a significant health problem that is in part due to an environment that promotes increased food intake, unhealthy foods, and sedentary activities. Obesity is associated with increased risk of adverse health consequences such as coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes. Additionally, it is estimated that medical expenses related to obesity reach as high as $78.5 billion per year. Studies show that nearly a third of adults and approximately 17% of children and adolescents are obese. Furthermore, data indicate that the prevalence of obesity is increasing. Obesity is a problem that transcends age, gender, geography, and race. Given the significant problems associated with obesity as well as its high prevalence, this appears to be an area of research in which behavior analysts can have a significant impact. This symposium brings together several studies focused on addressing specific variables that may affect obesity (physical activity and portion control) as well as examine behavioral weight management programs for children as well as individuals with developmental disabilities.
Parent Supported Behavioral Treatment of Obesity in Adolescents and Young Adults With Down Syndrome: Randomized, Controlled Trial
RICHARD K. FLEMING (University of Massachusetts Medical School), Elise A. Stokes (University of Massachusetts Medical Center), Renee Scampini (University of Massachusetts Medical School), Linda Bandini (University of Massachusetts Medical School), James Gleason (University of Massachusetts Medical School), Carol Curtin (University of Massachusetts Medical School), Charles Hamad (University of Massachusetts Medical School)
Abstract: We conducted a randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing two conditions of a family based weight loss intervention with overweight and obese adolescents/young adults with Down syndrome (DS). In the control condition, Nutrition/Activity Education (NAE), adolescents and parents participated in a hands-on educational program on healthy eating and physical activity for gradual weight reduction. In the experimental condition, Parent Supported Weight Reduction (PSWR), participants received NAE supplemented with parent training in six behavioral procedures designed to support weight loss efforts at home. The procedures included monitoring, stimulus control arrangements, goal-setting, reinforcement, feedback and behavioral contracting. Both conditions ran in parallel for 16 sessions (1.5 hrs each) spread over a 6-month period, moving from an intensive (weekly for 10 wks) to a tapered (bi-weekly to tri-weekly) schedule. Measurement, completed at baseline (BL), 10 weeks, 6 months and 12 months (follow-up), includes weight and height, body mass index (BMI), percent body fat, self-reported eating (3-Day Food Records) and physical activity (Accelerometry). Three replications (waves) were conducted, one in a separate location with a different treatment team. Between group and within subjects analyses are presented.
Family-Based Weight Management Programs: Current Research and Future Directions
ALYSSA FISHER (Kennedy Krieger Institute), SungWoo Kahng (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Nicole Lynn Hausman (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Kaitlin Coryat (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Approximately 30% of children in the U.S. are currently overweight (Ogden, Carroll,& Flegal, 2008). Previous research has suggested that the use of family-based, behavioral weight management programs may be an effective intervention for children who are overweight or obese (Epstein, Wing, Koeske, Andrasik, & Ossip, 1981). These family-based interventions are also effective in promoting long-term maintenance of weight loss (Epstein, Valoski, Wing, & McCurley, 1994). The Healthy Kids program is a weight management program for children and their families based, in part, on the Traffic Light diet (Epstein, Masek, & Marshall, 1978). Preliminary results from the Healthy Kids program suggest that approximately 50% of children participating in the program successfully lose weight. Additionally, adherence to program components, including attendance and quiz completion, has been found to be related to successful weight loss. Future research includes identifying behavioral strategies critical to weight loss maintenance.
Evaluating the Effects of Exergaming on Physical Activity Among Inactive Children in a Physical Education Classroom
VICTORIA FOGEL (University of South Florida), Raymond G. Miltenberger (University of South Florida), Rachel K. Graves (University of South Florida), Shannon S. Koehler (University of South Florida)
Abstract: Childhood obesity, which is due in part to lack of physical activity and exercise, is a serious concern that requires the attention of the behavioral community. Although excessive video game play has been noted in the literature as a contributor to childhood obesity, newer video gaming technology, called exergaming, has been designed to capitalize on the reinforcing effects of video games to increase physical activity in children. This study evaluated the effects of exergaming on physical activity among four inactive children in a physical education classroom. Results showed that the exergaming condition produced substantially more minutes of physical activity and more minutes of opportunity to engage in physical activity than the PE condition. In addition, the exergaming condition was socially acceptable to both the students and the PE teacher. Exergaming appears to hold promise as a method for increasing physical activity among inactive children and might be a possible intervention for childhood obesity.
A Comparison of Portion-Size Discrimination Training Procedures
NICOLE LYNN HAUSMAN (University of Maryland, Baltimore County), SungWoo Kahng (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Alyssa Fisher (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Increased sedentary behavior and consumption of unhealthy foods may contribute to the increasing prevalence of obesity. Consumers often have difficulty estimating portion sizes (Ervin & Smiciklas-Wright, 2001) and increased food consumption may be associated with increased portion size (Fisher, Liu, Birch, & Rolls, 2007). Much of the previous research on teaching individuals to correctly estimate portion sizes has focused on the use of measuring aids such as measuring cups or visual representations of portion sizes (e.g., a deck of cards) to estimate portion sizes (Byrd-Bredbenner, & Schwartz, 2004). However, little research has evaluated the maintenance or generalization of these skills. The purpose of the current study is to compare the efficacy of two strategies (i.e., using a measuring cup or a visual representation) to teach college students to correctly estimate portion sizes. Additionally, the extent to which these skills are maintained and generalized to novel foods is being evaluated across training methods. Initial results suggest that both methods may be effective at teaching participants to estimate portion sizes, and the skills acquired during training are generally maintained at 1week post-training and generalize to novel foods.
Symposium #77
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Variables Affecting Response Allocation in Concurrent Schedules of Reinforcement Arrangements
Saturday, May 29, 2010
3:30 PM–4:50 PM
213B (CC)
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Stephanie M. Peterson (Western Michigan University)
Discussant: David P. Wacker (University of Iowa)
CE Instructor: Julie Knapp, Ph.D.
Abstract: This symposium will consist of three presentations that describe research on the evaluation of various parameters of reinforcement on the choice responding of participants. First, Joel Ringdahl will present a study entitled, “An evaluation of variables affecting compliance and task-related response allocation,” in which the response requirement, magnitude of reinforcement, task preference, and task difficulty were manipulated to observe the effect on task compliance. Next, Jessica Frieder will present a study entitled, “Effects of quality and magnitude of reinforcement on choice responding for individuals with escape motivated problem behavior,” in which the independent effects of duration of reinforcement, presence of preferred stimuli during task breaks, presence of adult attention during task breaks, and response requirement were evaluated on problem behavior and task completion. Finally, Allen Karsina will present a study entitled, “Assessing the illusion of control within a computer-based game of chance: illusion or preference?” This study evaluated the effects of schedules of reinforcement and whether participants were informed about the schedule on choices during a computer-based game. David Wacker will summarize and synthesize these studies while pointing out implications for behavior analysts and directions for future research.
An Evaluation of Variables Affecting Compliance and Task-Related Response Allocation
JOEL ERIC RINGDAHL (University of Iowa), Wendy K. Berg (University of Iowa), Anuradha Salil Kumar Dutt (University of Iowa)
Abstract: Noncompliance is one of the most frequently endorsed concerns for children receiving behavioral services. One avenue of research in this area is to identify, isolate, and apply variables that can be empirically demonstrated to affect compliance. In the current study, we evaluated the effect of reinforcement schedule, magnitude of reinforcement, and task preference on the compliance and response allocation among tasks for two individuals diagnosed with developmental disabilities referred for evaluation of severe noncompliance. The evaluation was conducted using a concurrent schedule arrangement and varying schedule parameters (response requirement and reinforcer magnitude), task parameters (preference or difficulty), or both. Results of the evaluation indicated that, while individual differences were observed, these variables interacted to influence compliance and response allocation. Results will be discussed relevant to strategies for increasing compliance with academic tasks. Interobserver agreement was collected for at least 25% of all sessions and averaged above 90% for all target responses.
Effects of Quality and Magnitude of Reinforcement on Choice Responding for Individuals with Escape Motivated Problem Behavior
JESSICA E. FRIEDER (Armstrong Atlantic State University), Stephanie M. Peterson (Western Michigan University), Elizabeth Dayton (Utah State University), Shawn Patrick Quigley (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Recently, researchers (Peterson et al., 2009) have investigated the effects of a concurrent schedules of reinforcement arrangement for individuals with escape-motivated problem behavior in which three response options are available: compliance, mands, and problem behavior. Results of this research have suggested that choice responding can be biased in favor of adaptive responses as a function of reinforcement contingencies. While results are promising for interventions (e.g., stimulus fading), different reinforcement dimensions for each response co-varied across the response options: duration of break time, attention available during the break, and access to preferred items. Thus it is unclear which reinforcement dimension(s) maintained response allocation. This current study evaluated the effects of the three dimensions of reinforcement independently (duration, attention, and stimuli) on choice responding for children with disabilities who had escape-maintained problem behavior. Results from three separate experiments will be presented. Discussion will focus on how quality variables that may or may not be related to the function of problem behavior can impact choice responding. Implications for the effective treatment for children who display escape-motivated problem behavior will also be discussed.
Assessing the Illusion of Control Within a Computer-Based Game of Chance: Illusion or Preference?
ALLEN J. KARSINA (The New England Center for Children), Rachel H. Thompson (Western New England College)
Abstract: This study investigated several variables associated with the illusion of control using a computer-based game of chance with adult participants. During the game, participants were asked to choose between selecting their own numbers and having the numbers generated by the computer. Schedules of reinforcement for each of these options were systematically manipulated using a reversal design. During sessions, participants were informed when they earned points, and in some sessions participants were also told the schedule of reinforcement by trial type and the cumulative number of points won per trial type. After each session, participants completed a questionnaire regarding the schedules of reinforcement. Preliminary results indicate that when participants demonstrated a preference for selecting their own numbers, they also over-estimated their odds of winning points, consistent with the illusion of control. However, at least one participant accurately estimated her odds of winning when she was provided with the schedule of reinforcement for each trial type and the number of points won per trial type. Implications of the current findings are discussed.



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