|Teaching and Improving Verbal Repertoires in Children and Adults With and Without Disabilities
|Sunday, May 30, 2010
|1:30 PM–2:50 PM
|Area: VRB/DDA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
|Chair: Ana Carolina Sella (Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados)
|Discussant: Caio F. Miguel (California State University, Sacramento)
|CE Instructor: Jeffrey Tiger, Ph.D.
|Abstract: Acquiring and teaching new verbal repertoires is often challenging. Behavior analysis has been assessing different techniques to aid in this process. The goals of the present studies were to evaluate different teaching techniques to improve verbal repertoires of children (ages 7-12) and adults (ages 45-60) with and without developmental disabilities. The investigators evaluated how relationship development improved acquisition of communicative responses, how teaching reading skills can aid in acquiring writing skills, and how play activities can be used to assess the acquisition and generalization of writing and reading skills. Relationship development increased the number of teaching interactions between the investigators and participants, resulting in more opportunities to request preferred items. After being taught how to read through a computer program, all participants were able to successfully generalize their reading skills to handwriting. Additionally, investigators reported that play activities were effective at measuring reading and writing acquisition and generalization. All procedures were effective in producing the desired verbal repertoires.
|The Effects of Relationship Development on Communication and Compliance in Individuals With Intellectual Disabilities
|ANDREA B. COURTEMANCHE (University of Kansas), James A. Sherman (University of Kansas), Jan B. Sheldon (University of Kansas)
|Abstract: Developing rapport, functional communication, and engagement in appropriate activities are often problems for teachers and staff members who serve people with intellectual developmental disabilities. In the present study, the investigators used relationship development procedures with three participants who were diagnosed with profound developmental disabilities. Relationship development training involved using graduated guidance and shaping procedures to teach approach responses and manual signs to participants in order to gain access to one of three different highly preferred consequences. After participants independently requested preferred items, they were then taught to participate in several activities (e.g., daily living skills) within the home in order to gain access to the preferred item that they had requested. All participants learned to gain the attention of the teacher, ask for preferred items, and engage in home activities to obtain the preferred items. Additionally, as the participants learned how to request preferred items and independently complete activities, their overall occurrence of problem behaviors decreased.
|Teaching Isolated Words: Reading and Its Effects on Handwriting Skills
|ANA CAROLINA SELLA (Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados), Carmen Silvia Motta Bandini (Universidade Estadual de Ciencias da Saude de Alagoas), Lias Rocha de Barros Oliveira (Universidade Estadual de Ciencias da Saude de Alagoas), Heloása Helena Motta Bandini (Universidade Estadual de Ciências da Saúde de Alagoas)
|Abstract: Brazil has high rates of illiteracy (about 15% of the overall population). Thus, it is important to develop new strategies for teaching reading and writing. Numerous computer programs have been developed and successfully applied to fulfill this need, but their focus is mainly on reading, rather than writing skills. Some studies show that when reading is improved, writing is also improved with no additional teaching. Other studies show that there is independence among the acquisition of these verbal repertoires. The present study assessed participants’ handwriting skills after they were exposed to a software program for teaching reading skills. Five typically developing individuals (ages 7 to 34) participated in the study, Participants were taught how to read approximately 50 words through the establishment of relations among printed words, dictated words, and pictures. After this, tests between dictated words and handwriting were presented. Dependent variables included the correct number of words and, for words written incorrectly, the percentage of letters written in the correct position and order were calculated. Results indicated that all participants’ performances increased, in both writing the whole word correctly and the percentage of letters written correctly. Results suggest a possible dependency between reading and writing repertoires.
|Assessment of Reading Generalization Through Play Activities
|CARMEN SILVIA MOTTA BANDINI (Universidade Estadual de Ciencias da Saude de Alagoas), Ana Carolina Sella (Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados), Jacqueline Pimentel Tenorio (Universidade Estadual de Ciencias de Saude de Alagoas), Heloása Helena Motta Bandini (Universidade Estadual de Ciências da Saúde de Alagoas)
|Abstract: Many studies have demonstrated that play activities can be used to teach a number of skills. Play activities can also be used to evaluate the generalization of skills learned in a controlled experimental setting. The present study aimed to assess the generalization of reading and writing skills (taught through computer software) by using play activities. Four typically developing children, ages 7 to 12, participated in the study. Participants were taught how to read approximately 50 words through the establishment of relations among printed words, dictated words, and pictures. After participants read all words correctly, a reading test was presented in the experimental context. If they emitted 100% correct responses, they were exposed to the play activities. Crosswords, dominoes, and bingos were created and used as the assessing play activities. All participants showed high performance, as they did in the experimental tests. Thus, play activities may be a useful way to test for generalization of skills learned in experimental settings.