|Case Studies Using Evidence-Based Treatments From the Mariposa School for Children With Autism
|Sunday, May 30, 2010
|3:00 PM–4:20 PM
|Area: AUT/VRB; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
|Chair: Cassondra Mae Gayman (The Mariposa School for Children with Autism)
|Discussant: Ruth M. Hurst (University of North Carolina, Wilmington)
|CE Instructor: Michele Wallace, Ph.D.
|Abstract: A recent study conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and published in the journal Pediatrics claims the current rates of Autism in the United States are 1 in 91. This is an overwhelming number of children. Additional research conducted by The National Autism Center claims Applied Behavior Analysis to be one of the only effective, evidence based treatments, for children with Autism. Given the recent publication of these studies the necessity to expand our knowledge base regarding the most effective interventions is more dire then ever. In addition, as behavior analysts we have an obligation to continue to educate the public, parents, and professionals working with children with children with Autism about the most effective treatments. At The Mariposa School for Children with Autism our focus is on implementation of evidence based treatments that emanate from the behavior analytic framework. This Symposium will consist of 3 case studies of children who attend The Mariposa School for Children with Autism. These case studies will address topics such as motivating operations, schedules of reinforcement, and functional communication training. The data presented will demonstrate the effects procedures had on skill acquisition as well as behaviors targeted for reduction.
|Transitions, and Tokens, and Schedules Oh My! Transitioning Twins From One-On-One to Group Instruction.
|CASSONDRA MAE GAYMAN (The Mariposa School for Children with Autism), Danielle DelVecchio (The Mariposa School for Children with Autism), Jeni Stofer (The Mariposa School for Children with Autism), Ruth M. Hurst (University of North Carolina, Wilmington)
|Abstract: Some children with Autism who receive instruction in a one-on-one setting are able to successfully graduate to a group instruction setting without explicit training. However, it is more likely that children with Autism will need special training and new sources of behavioral control will need to be developed for their successful integration into group settings. In this case study, twin boys, diagnosed with Autism, were integrated into a social group setting on two different schedules. One brother was transitioned from all one-on-one instruction to no one-on-one instruction while the other brother received equivalent amounts of one-on-one instruction and social group instruction. Initial data suggests both boys evidenced a significant increase in behavior problems however the child who continued to receive one-on-one instruction evidenced the increase later than his brother. Data will continue to be collected as schedules of reinforcement including token systems and visual schedules are implemented. This case study will graphically demonstrate why successful transition from one-on-one instruction to a group setting requires appropriate program modifications.
|I Want a Cookie: Using Functional Communication Training to Reduce Occurrence of Problem Behavior
|MIGUEL AMPUERO (The Mariposa School for Children with Autism), Cassondra Mae Gayman (The Mariposa School for Children with Autism), Marianna Freddo (The Mariposa School for Children with Autism), Ruth M. Hurst (University of North Carolina, Wilmington)
|Abstract: Children with Autism often display problem behavior due to defective manding repertoires. This report details a behavior program for a 9 year-old boy diagnosed with Autism. Functional analysis showed that the most frequent form of mand, grabbing desired items or people, was in most cases maintained by access to preferred items especially in situations in which preferred items were present prior the child’s access to them. Due to the persistent nature of the grabbing behavior, effective mand training to teach more appropriate forms of requesting was necessary. To improve the likelihood of success, two response forms were trained depending on the specificity of the request (e.g., the mand for movie was the American Sign Language sign while the mand for a specific movie consisted of handing a picture to the instructor); thus, increasing the manding repertoire using multiple topographies of mands. Data from mand training sessions will be presented. Further, spontaneous use of mands during sessions as well as the form of the mand will be reported. The effects multiple forms of mand training on the target behavior across all training sessions will also be shown. Multiple forms of manding may enhance the likelihood of problem behaviors being reduced.
|I’m Sleepy and My Tummy Hurts: Making Effective Program Schedule Modifications Based on Motivating Operations
|MIGUEL AMPUERO (The Mariposa School for Children with Autism), Katie Burrell (The Mariposa School for Children with Autism), Mary Beth Hooks (The Mariposa School for Children with Autism), Ruth M. Hurst (University of North Carolina, Wilmington)
|Abstract: Functional assessments suggested that motivating operations (MOs) such as sleep deprivation and discomfort from gastrointestinal (GI) problems were likely related to the occurrence of the problem behaviors of a 5 year-old girl diagnosed with Autism. Often, these MOs are difficult to address directly since their presence is detected only after problem behavior occurs. However, since their behavioral effects can be addressed indirectly via program modifications, a plan was developed whereby an alternative schedule with access to comforting activities was presented upon the occurrence of five instances of target behavior within the first 30 minutes of a session when accompanied by signs of pain or discomfort (e.g., holding stomach, lying down) and/or parent reports of poor sleep, pain, or discomfort. The effect of the alternative schedule on the overall frequency of the target behavior as well as on the frequency of behavior problems when health-related issues are evident will be reported. Data being collected will show whether an alternative schedule assists in minimizing the effects from the presence of MOs related to health issues. Future directions will be to train requests for the alternative schedule and other health-related interventions in the presence of the relevant MOs.