Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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36th Annual Convention; San Antonio, TX; 2010

CE by Type: PSY


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Workshop #W12
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Developing Successful Programs to Meet the Needs of Adolescents and Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorders
Friday, May 28, 2010
10:00 AM–5:00 PM
Texas Ballroom Salon C (Grand Hyatt)
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Robert Ross, Ed.D.
FRANK R. CICERO (Eden II Programs), JOANNE GERENSER (Eden II Programs), PETER F. GERHARDT (Organization for Autism Research), NICOLE WEIDENBAUM (Nassau-Suffolk Services for Autism)
Description: There has been considerable research done in the past 20 years in the area of autism and related disorders. We have learned a great deal about the genetics and neurobiology of autism and made great strides in early identification and intervention. Clinical research in speech and language, social skills, and behavior problems has resulted in a much better understanding of the complex nature of autism. The research clearly supports the use of applied behavior analysis in the treatment and education of learners with autism. One problem, however, is that very little of this research has included adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). While many of the findings with children can be relevant in our work with adults, there remain significant gaps in the literature that, unfortunately, leave many more questions than answers. The lack of available literature to guide service providers in their work with adults with ASD is particularly problematic today. The dramatic increase in the incidences of ASD began almost 15 years ago and we are just now beginning to see this impact in the field of adult services. Many of the schools that opened in the past decade to meet the demands of parents who wanted good behavioral education programs are now facing the real challenge of how to address the needs of these learners as they become adolescents and adults. Still other programs that have been providing adult services for years to other populations are now being asked to expand their programs and accept learners with ASD. This workshop will address key aspects of developing an effective program for adolescents and adults with ASD. Specifically, the workshop will review the available literature in the areas of employment, recreation and leisure skills, sexuality, speech and language, promoting independence, community integration, and quality of life. In addition, assessment and programming to address each of these areas will be presented. Video tapes of program implementation as well as other relevant visual supports will be incorporated within the workshop. The workshop’s primary focus will be on adolescents and adults with autism who continue to demonstrate significant challenges and limitations. The essential components needed to specifically address individuals with ASD will be highlighted. In addition, the important modifications and adaptations that are necessary to meet the needs of individuals with ASD as they grow older will be presented.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of this workshop, participants will be able to do the following: 1. discuss the relevant literature relating to services and treatments of adults with ASD; 2. identify key components of an effective program to meet the needs of adolescents and adults with ASD; 3. describe programming to address employment, sexuality, recreation and leisure, and other key areas in the lives of adolescents and adults with ASD; 4. describe strategies for promoting independence and community access for adults with ASD.
Activities: The workshop will include lecture and group discussion as well as videos of different aspects of service delivery for adolescents and adults with ASD. Participants will review data sheets, program forms, assessment materials, and other program materials used within a behavioral program for adolescents and adults with ASD.
Audience: Service providers, program administrators, behavior analysts, parents of adolescents with ASD, and adults with ASD.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Basic
 
Workshop #W16
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
An Overview of Direct Instruction for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders
Friday, May 28, 2010
10:00 AM–5:00 PM
Mission B (Grand Hyatt)
Area: AUT/EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: A. Charles Catania, Ph.D.
CATHY L. WATKINS (California State University, Stanislaus), TRINA D. SPENCER (Utah State University), MARY MEEHAN TAYLOR (The Institute for Effective Education), HILLARY WHITESIDE (The Institute for Effective Education), TIMOTHY A. SLOCUM (Utah State University)
Description: Direct instruction is an integrated system of curriculum and instruction that attempts to arrange all critical variables to produce learning. Direction instruction has been tested and shown to be effective through scientific research with relevant populations of children, including children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Participants in this workshop will learn how direct instruction programs can be implemented with learners with ASD and support the acquisition of their basic language and academic skills. Participants will be introduced to instructional design principles, organizational recommendations, and instructional procedures that enable practitioners to deliver these programs and adapt to the specific needs of children with ASD. This workshop will enable behavior analysts to implement instruction in a wide variety of academic areas. However, language for learning will be specifically highlighted throughout the workshop. Data supporting the effectiveness of direct instruction programs with learners with ASD will be presented. Decision making and placement of students into programs will be discussed in depth. The importance of treatment fidelity will be addressed with strategies for determining whether or not instructional modifications are needed. Guidelines for such modifications will also be examined.
Learning Objectives: Workshop participants will learn the following: 1. instructional design principles; 2. direct instruction delivery procedures; 3. how to place children into programs and make instructional decisions; 4. guidelines for adapting direct instruction programs for the children with ASD.
Activities: Workshop activities will include lecture, demonstration, and discussion. Video examples of instructional programs will also be presented and participants will have the opportunity to practice direct instructional presentation skills.
Audience: Practitioners who are already board certified or have a solid behavior analytic repertoire and practitioners who have limited experience with direct instruction or wish to learn how to apply it with children with ASD.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Basic
 
Workshop #W20
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Effective Behavior Plans: Assessment, Design, and Implementation
Friday, May 28, 2010
10:00 AM–5:00 PM
Bonham E (Grand Hyatt)
Area: DDA/CSE; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Barbara Esch, Ph.D.
JOSE D. RIOS (Private Practice), ISAAC L. BERMUDEZ (Behavior Functions, Inc.), ARTURO ZEPEDA DE MIRANDA, JR. (Miranda United Children's Home, LLC.), RUTH TELLO DILEVA (Familias First), NATALIE STAFFORD (Inclusive Education & Community Partnership), HOWARD HAZARD-TSERNOV (Inclusive Education and Community Partnership), F. ELIZABETH DAVIDSON (Inclusive Education and Community Partnership)
Description: Functional assessments and behavior intervention plans are increasingly used, developed, and implemented across a variety of settings such as schools, homes, early intervention services, residential programs, adult workshops and day programs, geriatric facilities, and rehabilitation centers. Despite this, until recently there have not been any standard methods or protocols for the design and development of assessment and treatment plans. This workshop will address a variety of steps necessary to conduct effective and comprehensive assessments and intervention plans including common problems encountered in assessment and treatment plans; a protocol for designing comprehensive plans; the importance and types of commonly used functional assessment methods; the logical relationship between functional assessment results and the intervention methods chosen (i.e., those based on the function of the problem behavior); ethical issues related to plan development and implementation; and staff and systemic issues related to plan implementation.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of this workshop, participants will be able to do the following: 1. be able to understand how functional assessment methodology logically relates to the development of an effective behavior intervention plan; 2. understand how to include the assessment information into a written plan; 3. review how to place your functional assessment results into a functional assessment report; 4. know how to select effective, research-based interventions according to the assessed function of the problem behavior; 5. review the steps for implementing many research-based intervention strategies; 6. understand how to place your behavior intervention plan recommendations into a report and how to create a behavior intervention plan easy to use by staff members; 7. be able to discriminate between correctly and incorrectly written behavior intervention plans; 8. understand the importance of treatment integrity of the behavior intervention plan; 9. identify the staff issues that affect plan implementation and secure systemic support; 10. be able to write behavioral goals and objectives to evaluate the effectiveness of the behavior intervention plan; 11. understand the ethical concerns related towards assessment and interventions in behavior intervention plans using evidence-based best practices.
Activities: Much of this workshop is didactic, but among the planned activities are small group exercises that include evaluating one or two actual behavior plans, writing goals, reviewing assessment methods, and viewing one or two videotaped exercises.
Audience: This is an advanced presentation that requires participants to have adequate knowledge of applied behavior analysis methods and terms. This presentation is targeted towards professionals who design, implement, fund, support, and evaluate functional assessment and behavior intervention plans in settings such as schools, day programs, clinical settings, and residential facilities. This target audience includes educators, therapists, social workers, interventionists, psychologists, graduate-level students, and behavior specialists and analysts.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
 
Workshop #W22
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Formulating Effective Behavioral Contingencies Across Home, School, and Community Settings
Friday, May 28, 2010
10:00 AM–5:00 PM
Crockett A/B (Grand Hyatt)
Area: EDC/AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CE Instructor: Susan Tirella, M.Ed.
CHRISTINA BRACEWELL LOVAAS (Tucci Learning Solutions, Inc.), COLLEEN DAVIS (Monterey County Office Education), JAMES I. POTTER (Tucci Learning Solutions, Inc.)
Description: The design and implementation of effective contingencies to solve problems of social importance is the sine qua non of behavior analysis. This workshop will provide assistance to all levels of staff and parents to make conspicuous the contingencies operating in a given situation across home, general, and special education classes as well as community settings. Participants will learn to formulate and deliver supplementary reinforcement contingencies as prescribed by best-practice recommendations. Each participant will receive a copy of a "Worksheets for Designing Contingencies" booklet that compiles many of the contingencies known to reflect "best practice" for achieving ethical change in problematic behavior. For service providers already familiar with the principles and operations of behavior analysis, the worksheets contained within this binder will serve as a convenient means of standardizing communication and documentation of procedures. For those less familiar with applied behavior analysis, the booklet will provide an overview of the critical concepts, principles, and operations that the ethical utilization of each of the contingencies contain therein. Each contingency description is designed so that each page can be copied and completed for an individual learner or client. Each participant will be required to select and complete contingency worksheets for a learner of his or her choice in order to increase desirable (e.g., participation or other pro-social) behavior and/or decrease undesirable (e.g., self-injurious, injurious, or disruptive) behavior.
Learning Objectives: At the end of the workshop the participant will be able to do the following: 1. select and complete contingency worksheets to increase desired behavior and weaken undesirable behaviors; 2. formulate and deliver supplementary reinforcement contingencies as prescribed by best-practice recommendations.
Activities: Participants will formulate and learn to deliver supplementary reinforcement contingencies as prescribed by best-practice recommendations. Participants will also be required to select and complete contingency worksheets for a learner of his or her choice in order to increase desirable (e.g., participation or other pro-social) behavior and/or decrease undesirable (e.g., Self-injurious, injurious, or disruptive) behavior.
Audience: BCBA, BCABA, graduate students, teachers, parents, and program supervisors.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Basic
 
Workshop #W23
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Behavior Analytic Consultation to Schools
Friday, May 28, 2010
10:00 AM–5:00 PM
Texas Ballroom Salon E (Grand Hyatt)
Area: EDC/AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CE Instructor: Jonathan Tarbox, Ph.D.
MICHAEL M. MUELLER (Southern Behavioral Group, Inc.), AJAMU NKOSI (Southern Behavioral Group, Inc.)
Description: Behavior analytic consultation to schools (BACS) is the first behavior analytic model of school consultation. The BACS is specifically designed for severe or destructive behaviors in school settings. The BACS is an expert-led, rather than a teacher-training, model of consultation and follows a series of best-practice steps derived from the empirical applied behavior analysis (ABA) literature. Where all other models of school consultation rely on didactic verbal training aimed at teacher implementation of behavioral strategies, the BACS model has as a core belief that behavior analysts should be the ones providing behavior analytic services. BACS includes functional behavior assessment (FBA), functional analysis (FA), treatment selection, treatment analysis, teacher training, evaluation of teacher implemented treatment, generalization analyses, and social validity assessments. Overviews of each step, video examples, and hands-on training will be used. Discussions of related topics will include ethics, current behavioral practices in schools, professionalism, working with teams, and other various other issues related to providing best practice ABA in schools.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the workshop the participant will be able to do the following: 1. compare and contrast existing models of school consultation; 2. pinpoint weakness in existing teacher training models of consultation; 3. conduct a functional behavior assessment; 4. conduct a functional analysis in a public school; 5. choose a behavioral intervention based on the results of an FBA or FA; 6. evaluate the effectiveness of a selected treatment; 7. train staff using methods that lead to high treatment integrity by the trainee; 8. evaluate teacher implemented treatments; 9. conduct and evaluate generalization analysis such as teacher implemented treatments in the referral environment; 10. conduct assessments of social validity data and use the outcomes of such assessments for future treatment planning.
Activities: Activities will include lecture, discussion, handouts, video segements, and practice of real time data recording techniques.
Audience: Behavior analysts working in schools, behavior analysts consulting with public schools, school teachers and administrators, and anyone who might even consider practicing applied behavior analysis in public school settings.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Advanced
 
Workshop #W25
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
How to Use Performance Improvement Methods to Start and Manage an Applied Behavior Analysis Service Provider Organization
Friday, May 28, 2010
10:00 AM–5:00 PM
Independence (Grand Hyatt)
Area: OBM/TPC; Domain: Theory
CE Instructor: Jamie Hughes, M.A.
JOSEPH D. CAUTILLI (Behavior Analysis and Therapy Partners), SHANE D. ISLEY (West Coast Behavioral Consultants, Inc.), MICHAEL WEINBERG (Orlando Behavior Health Services, LLC)
Description: In this workshop, participants will receive information and instruction on methods to start an applied behavior analysis (ABA) based service provider organization and manage professional and/or staff behavior using performance improvement methods described in organizational behavior management literature (e.g., Aubrey Daniels, Gilbert, Austin, Mawhinney). Hiring methods, employee selection, setting targets, reinforcing staff performance, addressing problem performance, quality improvement, six sigma, statistical process control, staff selection methods, staff training, and other methods will be presented. With several decades of research data and implementation outcomes to support its use, performance improvement (PI) has become the primary organizational and human resources methodology in many companies. Now in its 10th year, this workshop will provide particpants current research and methods from the the PI literature to start and manage an ABA human services organization. Examples of areas that will be covered include employee selection methods, pinpointing, setting targets, functional assessment, reinforcement methods, behavioral anchors, assessment centers, and others.
Learning Objectives: By the end of this workshop, participants will learn to do the following: 1. state three key approaches for selecting staff; 2. state and describe three methods to evaluate staff performance; 3. state examples of staff improvement goals and improvement approaches; 4. identify and discuss the research base for performance improvement methods (at least three studies or references that are empirically derived); 5. identify key expected performance outcomes and ABA service delivery standards; 6. describe methods of assessing bases of problem performance and approaches to rectify these problems; 7. state and demonstrate two data collection and display methods for staff performance; 8. describe three key behavioral coaching methods for performance improvement purposes.
Activities: Facilitators will help participants identify the type and nature of service organizations they may wish to establish or learn to manage using PI methods. Facilitators will also help identify systems to establish the organization and how it will carry out its mission. Participants will write sample mission and vision statements. Facilitators will help participants create basic business plans for carrying out their missions and for selecting the type of staff needed. They will also help create basic systems for staff selection using presented methods. Participants will draft standards of performance and behavior analytic service delivery expected of their staff and organization and create systems of staff performance measurement and goal setting, along with means of reinforcing desired and improved performance (and how it will be measured). The workshop will include a small group activity to conduct functional assessment and devise a plan or approach in a work setting for addressing problem performance. Participants will practice devising and conducting behavioral interview methods for selecting new staff.
Audience: Applied behavior analysts, organizational behavior management specialists (entry or intermediate level), human services managers, human resources professionals, current and prospective program directors, and entreprenuers wishing to establish an ABA based service organization.
Content Area: Methodology
Instruction Level: Basic
 
Workshop #W26
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Precision Teaching and Standard Celeration Charting
Friday, May 28, 2010
10:00 AM–5:00 PM
Travis A (Grand Hyatt)
Area: TBA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Paula Braga-Kenyon, M.S.
ABIGAIL B. CALKIN (Calkin Consulting Center), JOHN W. ESHLEMAN (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), KERRI K. MILYKO (University of Nevada, Reno), HENRY S. PENNYPACKER (University of Florida), JESUS ROSALES-RUIZ (University of North Texas)
Description: This workshop will teach the steps of precision teaching with particular emphasis on reading and charting human performance on a standard celeration chart (SCC). Participants will learn: to write precise performance statements (pinpointing), the three important dimensions of behavior to monitor, the features of the SCC, standard charting conventions, and how to analyze performance on the chart to assist in making data-based decisions. The instructors will draw from long and varied histories of success using the SCC in a range of settings to illustrate key concepts taught in the workshop. Examples from university teaching, educational intervention with special needs and regular education students, and the monitoring of private events will be used. Participants will receive a copy of the Handbook of the Standard Celeration Chart, all materials used in the workshop, and a CD containing selected articles and an electronic version of the SCC.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of this workshop, participants will be able to do the following: 1. write precise performance statements (pinpointing); 2. read performance data charted on a SCC; 3. chart performance data charted on a SCC; 4. describe data on a SCC in terms of its frequency, celeration, and bounce; 5. describe change in performance using SCC change terminology; 6. describe appropriate data-based change decisions.
Activities: Applying principles derived from behavior analysis of well-designed instruction, our world-class group of workshop instructors will use a range of activities to ensure participants learn the skills targeted in the objectives. Participants will engage in choral responding and paced practice, timed practice on key concepts and skills, and both small and large group discussions.
Audience: Anyone seeking an introduction (or refresher) to precision teaching and standard celeration charting, including persons interested in using SCCs to improve their teaching or clinical practice and individuals planning to take the BACB examination.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Basic
 
Workshop #W35
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Language for Living: A Functional Communication and Language Assessment, Curriculum, and Skill-Tracking Instrument
Friday, May 28, 2010
2:00 PM–5:00 PM
Lone Star Ballroom Salon E (Grand Hyatt)
Area: VRB/AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: R. Schell, Ph.D.
PATRICK E. MCGREEVY (Patrick McGreevy, Ph.D., P.A.), TROY FRY (Holland Center), COLLEEN CORNWALL (ABLE Academy)
Description: Language for living (LfL) is a functional communication and language assessment, a curriculum, and a skill-tracking instrument for people with moderate and severe developmental disabilities—including autism—and limited communication repertoires. This instrument, like the assessment of basic language and learning skills(ABLLS), the assessment of basic language and learning skills-revised (ABLLS-R), and the verbal behavior milestones assessment and placement program (VB-MAPP), is based on B .F. Skinner's analysis of verbal behavior. Unlike these instruments, LfL does not include a developmental sequence of language skills leading to conversation and academic improvement. Instead, LfL includes functional communication and language skills, which are necessary for effective and independent functioning as an adult. LfL can be used with young children with severe or multiple developmental disabilities and very limited skill repertoires. LfL can also be used with older children, who have made very little progress on the ABLLS, ABLLS-R, or the VB-MAPP and for whom a functional curriculum of daily living skills is being considered. LfL is especially useful with adults with severe or multiple developmental disabilities and very limited communication and language skills, especially those with whom communication and language are no longer expected.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the workshop, the participant will be able to do the following: 1. conduct an assessment using LfL; 2. select an appropriate communication response form for three sample students; 3. be able to write individualized education program goals based on an assessment using LfL; 4. be able to describe teaching procedures appropriate for specific skills.
Activities: This workshop will include a presentation along with hands-on activities designed to help participants achieve the workshop objectives.
Audience: This workshop is designed for behavior analysts, teachers, and speech-language pathologists, especially those who provide communication and language training to children and adults with severe developmental disabilities.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Basic
 
Workshop #W40
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
A Rapid Training Procedure to Teach Staff How to Implement Verbal Behavior Intensive Teaching Sessions
Friday, May 28, 2010
6:00 PM–9:00 PM
Bonham C (Grand Hyatt)
Area: AUT/VRB; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CE Instructor: Michael Weinberg, Ph.D.
MARY LYNCH BARBERA (Pennsylvania Verbal Behavior Project)
Description: This workshop will give a detailed overview of a three-step procedure created to teach staff to name the verbal operants fluently and to utilize errorless and error correction teaching procedures. These important prerequisite skills are needed before staff can successfully implement applied behavior analysis (ABA) and verbal behavior (VB) intensive teaching sessions with students with autism.
Learning Objectives: This workshop will achieve the following objectives: 1. Participants will fluently name the verbal operants. 2. Partipants will demonstrate fluent errorless and error correction and generalization run-throughs. 3. Participants will leave the workshop with the skills needed to teach the three-step procedure to others including staff members and parents.
Activities: The workshop will include a lecture, simulation activities, role playing, and discussion.
Audience: Behavior analysts, psychologists, teachers and others interested in learning the skills needed to implement ABA and VB intensive teaching sessions with students with autism.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
 
Workshop #W44
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
What treatments Work for Autism? The National Standards Project
Friday, May 28, 2010
6:00 PM–9:00 PM
Crockett A/B (Grand Hyatt)
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Kate Kellum, Ph.D.
SUSAN WILCZYNSKI (National Autism Center)
Description: This workshop is important because it describes the results of the National Standards Project, a comprehensive systematic review of the autism treatment literature. The National Standards Project involved a review of 775 studies and resulted in a report that identified the strength of scientific evidence currently available for a broad range of educational and behavioral treatments. Further details are provided about the extent to which favorable outcomes are reported based on the age of research participants, the diagnostic group to which they belong, and the treatment targets (e.g., communication, problem behaviors, play, etc.). Overall, the vast majority of interventions that were established as effective in the treatment of autism spectrum disorders came from the behavioral literature. This workshop also describes the limitations of our knowledge and future directions required by the research community. Finally, the process of evidence-based practice is described and the role of research findings in this process is emphasized. The overall message of the workshop is that we have identified effective treatments, but more research will be necessary.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the workshop the participants will be able to do the following: 1. identify effective treatments for autism spectrum disorders; 2. describe the process of evidence-based practice; 3. list areas that require further empirical investigation in the treatment of autism spectrum disorders.
Activities: Workshop attendees will participate in this workshop in several ways. First, there will be a didactic component of the workshop. Second, attendees will actively generate lists of treatments that they believe have strong evidence of effectiveness, limited evidence of effectiveness, and no evidence of effectiveness. Third, participants will be asked to participate in small and large group discussions about the future directions of autism treatment research based on the findings of the National Standards Project.
Audience: Professionals providing direct or indirect services to individuals on the autism spectrum should consider this workshop. Interested participants will desire detailed information about effective treatments as well as interventions with limited or no research support.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
 
Workshop #W51
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Technology Based Data Collection Tools: Creation and Implementation
Friday, May 28, 2010
6:00 PM–9:00 PM
Presidio A (Grand Hyatt)
Area: DDA/EAB; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CE Instructor: Melissa Andretta, M.S.
CHERYL K. BROWN (Willamette University), JOHN TENNY (Willamette University)
Description: This workshops will involve hands-on exploration of the process of creating data-collection tools, gathering data, and generating a variety of reports using the eCOVE Observation Software. This software is used in schools across the US and beyond, and special educators using K-12 student records of behaviors and interventions designed the special education edition. It includes 25 frequency and duration data-collection tools, and through the use of five templates has the ability to custom create unlimited data-collection tools. Data can be collected on any observable behavior either individually or in a group setting, with the ability to disaggregate the data based on observee demographics. Observations are stored in a local database for recall and analysis. Reports can be generated on individual observations or observations over time. The reports can be of a single person or a group for a single observation; or a comparison of individuals, an individual to a matching demographic group, or two demographic groups. Reports can be printed, saved, exported, and can include a time stamp for each button (incident of behavior) clicked with interval between clicks. For full participation, laptop (Mac or Windows) or Netbook computers are highly recommended.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the workshop, participants will be able to do the following: 1. operate the eCOVE Observation Software; 2. create tools using the five templates; 3. import observees, set up observation rooms, and gather data on multiple individuals using multiple data-collection tools; 4. generate reports using the five report types of individuals and groups from single observations and observations over time.
Activities: No purchase is required for this workshop; software (trial version) will be provided to all attendees along with a printed manual and handouts. The workshop activities will include hands-on, guided interactive exploration of the software features; data collection using video of K-12 students; discussion of interobserver reliability; practice developing new tools using the five templates, individually and in small groups; generation and discussion of reports of data collected; and small group discussion of the benefits and limitations of using technology in data-collection.
Audience: Anyone who observes human behavior, anyone who teaches others about observing human behavior, and researchers.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Basic
 
Workshop #W55
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Using Applied Behavior Analysis in Teacher Education Programming: Principles, Practice, and Hands-On Applications of Appealing Evaluation Technologies
Friday, May 28, 2010
6:00 PM–9:00 PM
Republic C (Grand Hyatt)
Area: EDC/TBA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CE Instructor: Shira Ackerman, Ph.D.
TOM SHARPE (Educational Consulting, Inc.), JOHN KOPERWAS (Educational Consulting, Inc.)
Description: This workshop will provide a hands-on application of a data supported protocol for the comprehensive description, discrete and sequential analysis, and feedback and goal-setting activities necessary to effective teacher training in postsecondary classroom and on-site K-12 deliberate practice environments. Workshop activities include (a) introduction to the importance of a behavior systems approach to teacher training, (b) hands-on observation system construction, and (c) data collection and analysis activities designed for instructional and on-site practicum supervision purposes. Additionally, detailed explanation and hands-on interaction with protocols designed for logically sequenced training activities are provided, including (a) classroom video observations, (b) on-site data-based assessment and immediate feedback and goal-setting, and (c) research and development into effective educational practice. Workshop participants will leave with a familiarity of behavior systems educational protocols designed for effective professional training practice. Participants will be provided with a copy of the complete software tools and methods procedures on CD and Word files of all necessary illustration materials in relation to the educational protocols discussed as a function of workshop participation. It is recommended that workshop participants bring their own IBM compatible laptop hardware to facilitate hands-on workshop interactions.
Learning Objectives: This workshop has the following objectives: 1. Workshop participants will exit with skills in the area of applied behavioral teacher training. Skills include the ability to design observation systems that match with training objectives, construct video-based observational learning laboratory experiences, implement on-site data-based feedback and goal-setting experiences to determine if training objectives have been met, and develop a set of applied research activities to document the relative effectiveness of professional training activities. 2. Participants will be able to discuss in the principles and practice of applied behavior systems analysis in relation to professional teacher training. 3. Participants will be able to construct observation systems relevant to their particular professional teacher training objectives. 4. Participants will be able to design and implement video-based observational learning activities in relation to educational objectives for professionals in training. 5. Participants will be able to understand and apply a range of computer-based data collection and analysis techniques in relation to recommended data-based on-site feedback and goal setting protocols. 6. Participants will be able to develop an applied research agenda in relation to professional training objectives to determine the relative effectiveness of instructional efforts.
Activities: Activities include s teview of applied behavior systems analysis in relation to professional training activities. hands-on application of observation system construction designed as compatible with professional training objectives, hands-on application of observational laboratory development in relation to the classroom instruction of relevant behavior analytic professional training objectives, hands-on application of data-based on-site feedback and goal-goal setting protocols in relationship to deliberate practice activities of professional trainees, introduction and review of recommended research activity development in relation to determining the relative effectiveness of recommended professional training activities.
Audience: Advanced graduate students and behavior analysts working in the area of professional teacher education and in the area of postsecondary training for professional competencies in general. Those working in postsecondary educational settings where focus is on the education, on-site training, and assessment of professional practice competencies, and who are challenged with how to teach, describe, and analyze highly interactive behavioral transactions should find the workshop experience and complimentary materials particularly appealing to a wide range of professional training, assessment, and applied research applications.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Basic
 
Workshop #W58
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
It’s Just Good Teaching: The Learn Unit, Verbal Behavior, and Verbal Developmental Milestones
Friday, May 28, 2010
6:00 PM–9:00 PM
Travis B (Grand Hyatt)
Area: VRB/TBA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CE Instructor: James Hoko, Ph.D.
SHIRA A. ACKERMAN (Teachers College, Columbia University), DAWN M. SIDELL (Northwest Autism Center)
Description: The verbal behavior approach has been successfully implemented within an inclusive preschool for children with autism and their typically developing peers in eastern Washington. Domino Project Preschool services six children on the autism spectrum and six children who have been considered typically developing by their pediatricians. Verbal behavior is a research-based approach used to provide intensive and appropriate instruction for all students based on their current level of verbal development. The verbal developmental milestones and verbal behavior analysis theory created by Greer & Ross, 2008, is the methodology implemented in the preschool. The full day workshop will provide in-depth instruction on how to implement key components of verbal behavior with children with autism. Attendees will also receive opportunities for hands-on practice with the guidance of the instructors. Data will also be used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the verbal behavior approach at Domino Project Preschool.
Learning Objectives: This workshop has the following objectives: 1. Attendees will learn the background of Northwest Autism Center and how Domino Project Preschool began. 2. Attendees will learn the key components and implementation of the verbal behavior theory, verbal developmental milestones, and Skinner’s verbal behavior theory. 3. Attendees will learn everyday implementation of these effective practices in the regular school setting. 4. Attendees will learn effective assessment techniques, the curricular areas to teach, and how to teach them effectively. 5. Attendees will learn data collection procedures in the school setting, how to collect useful data, and how to use it. 6. Attendees will be given data to support the usage of the verbal behavior theory at Domino Project Preschool.
Activities: The workshop will include a lecture, group discussion, Group practice activities, videos, and collaboration
Audience: Educators, related service providers, and professionals working with children.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Basic
 
Workshop #W62
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Supporting Parents of Children Diagnosed With Autism Using Acceptance and Commitment Therapy
Saturday, May 29, 2010
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
Bonham C (Grand Hyatt)
Area: AUT/CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Anna Matchneva, M.Ed.
DANIEL J. MORAN (Trinity Services, Inc.)
Description: The parents of developmentally disabled children experience high levels of chronic stress (DeMyer, 1979; Holroyd, Brown, Wikler, & Simmon, 1975), and have high rates of depressive and anxiety disorders (Breslau & Davis, 1986). While most researchers understand that such concerns are largely “secondary or reactive to the stress and special non-normative adaptations” these children require (Konstantareas, 1990, p. 60), the fact remains that high levels of distress in these contexts both decrease quality of life and impose significant barriers to the parents’ successful and consistent implementation of behavioral treatment programs. It thus appears prudent for applied behavior analysis (ABA) consultants to also be prepared to help the parents of the referred client. This workshop will help ABA consultants be aware of signs of significant parental psychological distress, and help them make appropriate referrals. In addition, this workshop will also discuss an acceptance and commitment training (ACT) approach to helping these parents with their distress and challenges. The workshop will focus on the ACT consistent assessment and the pertinent ACT exercises and interventions that can be helpful to distressed parents. The workshop will cover values assessment, barriers to values-based behavior, and relevant mindfulness exercises. A significant portion of the workshop will focus on applying ACT interventions.
Learning Objectives: This workshop has the following objectives: 1. Attendees will become more aware of how parental distress interferes with the successful implementation of behavioral programs. 2. Attendees will learn to recognize and functionally analyze problematic behavior on the part of the caregiver. 3. Attendees will be introduced to the ACT approach to addressing problematic experiential avoidance exhibited by distressed caregivers. 4. Attendees will understand the reasons for and usefulness of values assessment in helping parents improve their functioning when helping their children, and also to improve their own quality of life. 5. Attendees will be introduced to acceptance and defusion exercises (e.g., mindfulness exercises) applicable to the distress they and parents of their child clients experience in the process of working with developmentally disabled children and adults.
Activities: A significant portion of this workshop will focus on the application of ACT exercises and interventions. We will discuss the major areas in the ACT model for behavioral flexibility and how it relates to being a parent with a child with disabilities. The participants can choose to engage in exercises in developing their own value system, and then learn what barriers impede value-guided behaviors. The workshop will also be guided by a slide show.
Audience: This workshop is for behavior analysts who work with children with developmental disabilities or autism spectrum disorders. This will also be worthwhile for parents of children with disabilities. The presenters plan a comfortable pace to introducing ACT and this workshop will be useful to anyone interested in the acceptance and commitment therapy approach.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Basic
 
Workshop #W64
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Promoting Appropriate Independent and Interactive Play Skills for Children With Autism via Activity Schedules
Saturday, May 29, 2010
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
Bonham B (Grand Hyatt)
Area: AUT/EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CE Instructor: Frank Cicero, Ph.D.
KRISTEN KELLEY (Utah State University), KATIE SNYDER (Utah State University), THOMAS S. HIGBEE (Utah State University)
Description: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) frequently have behavioral deficits and excess in the area of appropriate play skills, often isolating themselves and engaging in repetitive, atypical play actions and stereotypy. Researchers have demonstrated that using independent and joint activity schedules (photographic sequences of leisure activities) can increase a child's ability to complete leisure tasks and engage in appropriate social interactions and play with adults and peers. In this workshop, recent research involving activity schedules will be presented and discussed. Participants will learn the skills necessary to assess, develop, implement, monitor, and problem solve the use of activity schedules for individuals with ASD by creating a mock, individualized activity schedule for a variety of student profiles. Information presented in this workshop is at the intermediate level and is appropriate for teachers, parents, and other professionals working with individuals with ASD or other disabilities resulting in deficits in play and leisure skills.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the workshop, the participant will be able to do the following: 1. choose appropriate activities based the needs and current skill level of the individual, 2. successfully prompt the individual to increase independence using a prompting hierarchy, 3. collect data and incorporate scripts to promote spontaneous language.
Activities: The workshop will include prompting activities, a data collection activity, and application scenarios.
Audience: Teachers, practitioners, clinical directors, graduate students, and BCBA's.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Basic
 
Workshop #W66
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Evidence-Based Error Correction Strategies for Children With Autism
Saturday, May 29, 2010
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
Mission B (Grand Hyatt)
Area: AUT/VRB; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CE Instructor: Christina Lovaas, M.A.
MICHELLE TURAN (University of Windsor), NATALIE P. CROTEAU (Surrey Place), LIANNE M. MOROZ (Surrey Place Centre)
Description: This workshop will give participants an overview of the literature surrounding error correction strategies in discrete trial training and applied verbal behaviour programs. Specific strategies will be recommended regarding the selection of error correction strategies for the individual learner. Participants will view video examples of different strategies, practice particular strategies, and receive data collection materials to track error correction data. It is expected that participants will have some knowledge and practice of discrete trial training.
Learning Objectives: This workshop has the following objectives: 1. Participants will be able to describe the steps involved in implementing several error correction procedures. 2. Participants will be able to demonstrate the use of several error correction procedures within discrete trial training. 3. Participants will be able to summarize the current empirical evidence surrounding error correction procedures. 4. Participants will be able to describe various methods to match error correction strategies to individual learners. 5. Participants will learn to use data sheets to track the results of error correction procedures.
Activities: The workshop will include lectures, role-playing, video modeling, and discussion.
Audience: Instructors, therapists, and others who are responsible for designing and implementing applied behavior analysis programs for children with autism.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
 
Workshop #W67
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Behavioral Training for Siblings of Children With Autism
Saturday, May 29, 2010
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
Presidio B (Grand Hyatt)
Area: AUT/VRB; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CE Instructor: Michael Weinberg, Ph.D.
JAMIE HUGHES (Summit Autism Services), KAREN E. FLOTKOETTER (Summit Autism Services)
Description: Young children with autism spend the majority of their time in the home and community environments. Siblings in these environments might well be able to support the social development of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Several researchers have examined the feasibility of using typically developing siblings to promote the skills, development, and participation of children with autism, with siblings most often filling a “teacher” role. The participants in this study were four sibling pairs, with one child in each pair diagnosed with autism. All sessions were conducted in the children’s homes and/or community settings. The typically developing siblings observed the behavior analyst and child with autism during training sessions, and then were active participants in structured training sessions. In addition to the structured training sessions, the siblings were involved in various sessions conducted in the natural environment to promote the generalization of skills acquired. Results indicated that the siblings learned to use the behavioral procedures at a proficient level, they used the procedures in a generalization setting, and there were observed improvements in the behavior of the children with autism.
Learning Objectives: The workshop has the following objectives: 1. To teach professionals working with siblings of children with ASD how to develop positive instructional control. 2. To teach professionals working with siblings of children with ASD how to structure situations so as to encourage desired behavior and avoid unwanted behavior. 3. To teach professionals working with siblings of children with ASD how to capture and/or contrive language development during play activities.
Activities: Participants will review video segments of four sibling dyads (children diagnosed with ASD at varying developmental levels) involved in the training sessions. Participants will also develop teaching plans to promote sibling interaction during structured sessions and during play and social activities.
Audience: Practitioners (e.g., BCBA, BCaBA, SLP, OT, special education teachers) who work with children diagnosed with ASD in applied settings.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Basic
 
Symposium #17
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Behavioral Profiles of Children With Autism: Determining Priorities for Intervention
Saturday, May 29, 2010
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
204AB (CC)
Area: AUT/VRB; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Jessica Hetlinger Franco (University of Texas at Austin)
Discussant: Jessica Hetlinger Franco (University of Texas at Austin)
CE Instructor: Nancy Champlin, M.S.
Abstract: Treatment of children with autism can be maximized by focusing on skills that will provide the greatest improvements in the child’s overall functioning in the shortest amount of time. However, it is often difficult to decipher what behaviors are going to be the most critical for the future success of the child. These studies investigated the results of developmental and behavioral assessments of children being evaluated for potential autism spectrum disorder. The results suggest that each assessment tool presents a unique profile of the behavioral characteristics associated with autism. Further analysis of the profiles offers suggestions about the most appropriate intervention priorities for these children.
 
Using the VB-MAPP Barriers Assessment to Identify Language and Learning Barriers in Children
LUPE CASTANEDA (Behavior Analytic Solutions, LLC)
Abstract: The Verbal Behavior Milestones Assessment and Placement Program (VB-MAPP) Barriers Assessment (Sundberg, 2008) examines 24 different areas that are potential barriers to learning. The assessment includes areas that may be deficit, such as manding, and areas that may be in excess, such as self stimulation. Once barriers are identified, intervention can focus on the key areas inhibiting learning. In this study, the Barriers Assessment was administered to 80 young children with autism. Summary of the results and corresponding profiles are discussed.
 
Using the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers to Identify the Strongest Predictors of Autism
JUSTIN GARCIA (Treehouse Pediatric Center)
Abstract: The Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) is a screening tool used to identify children at risk for autism. In this study, the M-CHAT was administered to 150 children receiving an interdisciplinary autism evaluation. The number of children failing an autism screening using the M-CHAT was compared with the the number of children diagnosed with ASD. Specific items were analyzed to examine the predictive validity. Several items were identified that were consistently scored for children diagnosed with autism.
 
The Importance of Developmental Quotients in the Diagnosis of Autism and Identification of Core Deficits
AMIT NADKARNI (Autism Community Network)
Abstract: A Developmental Quotient (DQ) is the resulting number when a child's developmental age is compared with his or her chronological age. For example, a DQ of 100 would suggest that the child is functioning developmentally at exactly his chronological age. Comparison of DQs across skill areas (motor, social, language) can aid in the diagnosis of autism as well as in treatment planning. Developmental quotients of children with autism are compared with children without autism. Results suggest that for children with autism, DQs for social and language skills will be significantly lower than DQs for cognitive, motor, and self-help skills.
 
 
Symposium #26
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Community Based Treatment for Sexual Offenders With Intellectual Disabilities
Saturday, May 29, 2010
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
217B (CC)
Area: DDA/CSE; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Kimberly E. Church (Human Development Center, Inc.)
CE Instructor: Katherine Johnson, M.A.
Abstract: Providing effective and safe treatment to individuals who have engaged in sexually abusive behavior requires a comprehensive treatment model that is able to adapt and respond to systemic and community challenges and changes. A review of the literature, summary of treatment approaches, and overview of challenges encountered in the service delivery system is reviewed. Specific areas of focus include balancing safety and individual rights, encountering the legal system, providing sex education, and working with the individual and his circle of supports to provide optimal care. Suggestions for future directions and research will be discussed.
 
Probing the Use of Avoidance Skills by Sex Offenders Diagnosed with Mental Retardation
VALERIA PAREJO (Human Development Center, Inc.), Stephani Fauerbach (Human Development Center, Inc.), Kimberly E. Church (Human Development Center, Inc.)
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to evaluate in real-life situations the use of avoidance skills sex offenders learned through formal training. The participants are adult males diagnosed with mental retardation, psychiatric disorders, and challenging behaviors, including inappropriate sexual behavior. Although the functionally equivalent replacement behavior for inappropriate sexual behavior is most likely to be appropriate sexual behavior, it is also important for these individuals to learn to avoid high risk situations that could lead to the occurrence of inappropriate sexual behavior, law enforcement involvement, and victimization of others. Avoidance skills regarding inappropriate sexual behavior include avoiding the presence of minors and child related stimuli, such as toys, TV shows, printed media, etc. All participants currently receive either intensive residential habilitation services or residential habilitation with behavior focus. Probes will be conducted in several settings and will include a variety of stimuli, including probes in the community where monitoring will be done by confederates to reduce the possibility of reactivity. Data have been collected for two participants; additional data to be collected.
 
A Solution Focused Approach to Providing Residential and Day Training Services to Sexual Offenders With Intellectual Disabilities
HOLLY ARNOLD (Human Development Center, Inc.), Kimberly E. Church (Human Development Center, Inc.), Stephani Fauerbach (Human Development Center, Inc.)
Abstract: Collaboration, communication, and creativity are all essential components for systems designed to safely and effectively treat individuals with intellectual and behavioral challenges. When the persons served also have a history of engaging in sexually abusive behaviors, the treatment system must also be flexible, solution oriented, and supported by a team of qualified staff who are able to think fast and plan ahead. Challenges encountered over the last decade will be presented, along with practical solutions to overcome obstacles. Case studies will be presented to highlight the process utilized to test hypotheses as a means of identifying and assessing effective interventions and environmental manipulations to promote optimal success for each individual.
 
Balancing Safety and Rights: Current Policies and Methods of Assessing Competency to Consent to Sexual Behavior
KIMBERLY E. CHURCH (Human Development Center, Inc.), James L. Bell (Human Development Center, Inc.), Valeria Parejo (Human Development Center, Inc.)
Abstract: Adults with intellectual disabilities making decisions regarding sexual behavior is a controversial and complex topic. People with disabilities are people first, and have the same needs and desires for interpersonal and intimate relationships as anyone else. Policies regarding appropriate sexual behaviors for individuals with intellectual disabilities will be reviewed, along with factors that complicate reaching a uniform agreement on developing guidelines for safe and consensual sexual behavior. Methods for assessing ability to consent will be discussed, as well as specific challenges related to sexual rights for individuals who have a history of sexual offending behavior.
 
A Community Based Treatment Model for Sexual Offenders With Intellectual Disabilities
KIMBERLY E. CHURCH (Human Development Center, Inc.), James L. Bell (Human Development Center, Inc.), Holly Arnold (Human Development Center, Inc.)
Abstract: The Human Development Center utilizes a multimodal approach to support individuals with intellectual disabilities who have engaged in sexual offending behavior. The program emphasizes community and individual safety by providing a containment model, ongoing assessment of risk, skill training, reinforcement of appropriate behavior, and avoidance behavior training. Both clients and staff receive extensive training and ongoing feedback across treatment settings. Data is collected on both target and replacement behaviors, and probes are conducted across settings to evaluate the generalization of skills. Anger management, relaxation, and other coping skill trainings are provided as necessary, and individual and group contingencies are utilized to provide wrap around supports. Participants will be provided with the general overview of the treatment system. Two case studies will be reviewed in order to provide a more detailed description of common treatment strategies used and the outcomes achieved.
 
 
Symposium #27
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Analyzing Factors That Influence Treatment Implementation With Individuals, Classrooms, and Schools
Saturday, May 29, 2010
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
Texas Ballroom Salon E (Grand Hyatt)
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Jennifer L. Austin (University of Glamorgan)
CE Instructor: Joseph Cautilli, Ph.D.
Abstract: Researchers and clinicians working in schools often face challenges when implementing behavioral interventions at the individual, classroom, and school levels. These obstacles may include such things as provision of adequate training, maintaining treatment integrity, and perceptions about the appropriateness of proposed interventions by relevant consumers. This symposium will present four studies that demonstrate how these challenges may affect program implementation and how the challenges may be successfully addressed. Further, each presenter will provide recommendations for how researchers and practitioners may use these strategies to approach similar problems they may encounter in school settings.
 
Teacher Implementation of Behavior Intervention Plans: A Treatment Integrity Analysis
CLAIRE ST. PETER PIPKIN (West Virginia University), Sacha Pence (West Virginia University)
Abstract: Students with severe behavior disorders may benefit from the use of individualized behavior intervention plans (BIP). However, research conducted in the 1990s suggested that teacher implementation of BIP was extremely low, with the mean level of BIP implementation around 4%. The purpose of the current study was to replicate previous research by assessing the degree to which teachers implemented BIPs, and to compare implementation across teachers with and without training in behavior analysis. Participants were public school teachers with one or more students with a BIP. Teachers who had training in behavior analysis demonstrated consistently higher overall levels of BIP implementation than teachers without such training. Results are discussed in light of the challenges facing today’s teachers in the management of student behavior.
 
Assessing Children’s Perceptions of the Fairness of Individualized Behavior Programs
JENNIFER L. AUSTIN (University of Glamorgan), Rebecca Abreu (University of Glamorgan)
Abstract: When children do not respond to behavioral interventions at the school or classroom level, it often is necessary to design individualized programs to help them meet behavioral or academic goals. However, a concern that often arises in the design and implementation of these programs is whether such programs are fair to other students. In this study, we presented 75 primary school students with four scenarios describing and individualized behavior program for a hypothetical student under four different conditions of reward (i.e., same reward on same schedule, same reward on leaner schedule, different reward on same schedule, and no reward offered to other students) and asked them to rate the fairness of each. Results revealed that children were significantly more likely to view situations with equal rewards as fairer than situations in which the same rewards were given on a leaner schedule. Further, the former types of rewards were viewed as more fair than when children received different rewards or no rewards. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of what factors may influence children’s perceptions of fairness and how individualized programs may be structured so that other children do not feel like they are being treated unfairly.
 
Strong Start: Impact of a Systematic Implementation of a Social-Emotional Learning Curriculum on Emotional Knowledge and Behavior of First Grade Students
SARA WHITCOMB (University of Massachusetts Amherst)
Abstract: This study was conducted in four first grade classrooms in two elementary schools in a suburban, northwestern school district that had implemented school-wide positive behavior support for approximately seven years. Eighty-eight students and five interventionists participated. The study was based on a within-subject, quasi-experimental design in which all classrooms were assigned to the Strong Start intervention. Students completed emotion knowledge assessments and teachers completed behavioral ratings at two baseline data points and post-intervention. This project monitored acceptability and overall fidelity and quality of implementation. Results indicated that Strong Start was implemented with integrity (ranging from 83%-100% component implementation), and statistically significant increases in students’ emotion knowledge and decreases in students’ internalizing behaviors were documented following exposure to the program. One hypothesis central to the study to be discussed in this presentation was children exposed to a social-emotional learning curriculum will experience an increase in emotion knowledge and self-management of behavior. The study additionally hypothesized these critical skills can be explicitly taught through implementation of a brief, well-designed curriculum and systematically reinforced by adults.
 
Systems for Implementing Function-Based Support in Schools
CYNTHIA M. ANDERSON (University of Oregon)
Abstract: In 1994 the reauthorization of IDEA called specifically for the use of functional assessment with students with behavioral challenges. This mandate resulted in an increased interest in research focused on functional assessment in schools. This small but growing body of research documents that the technology of functional assessment can be used to develop effective interventions for children in school settings and that functional assessment is appropriate for children with and without disabilities. Further, several studies document that educators without extensive training in behavior analysis can be taught to conduct functional assessments and that educators can implement functionally-derived interventions with efficacy and fidelity. To date however, most research focuses on the implementation of function-based support by highly trained individuals with one or a few students at a time. In this presentation, a system for developing district capacity around function-based support is presented. Data will be presented showing that the system (a) was implemented with fidelity, (b) resulted in significant changes in student behavior, and (c) was sustained over time in several school districts in the Pacific Northwest.
 
 
Symposium #33
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
The Behavioral Developmental Approach to Understanding the Development of Projection, Transference, and Counter-Transference
Saturday, May 29, 2010
1:30 PM–2:50 PM
Travis A/B (Grand Hyatt)
Area: DEV; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Michael Lamport Commons (Harvard Medical School)
Discussant: Darlene E. Crone-Todd (Salem State College)
CE Instructor: Teresa Balawejder, M.S.
Abstract: Here we present a behavioral developmental approach to understanding the development of projection, transference and counter transference. These presentations dicuss three things: First, the evolutionary origin of projective, transferenal and counter transferential behavior and the persistence of such reactions in humans. The second is how projective, transferential and counter transferential behaviors and perceptions developed as part of self-observation, planning and attachment. The basic behaviors develop during the first few behavioral developmental stages as described in the Model of Hierarchical Complexity (Commons & Pekker, 2008). The include Circular Sensory Motor Stage 2 and Sensory-Motor Stage 3. The third is how development of perspective-taking occurs. Perspective-taking is based on the more accurate observation of others and of how they will respond to one's own behavior. Because these two newer ways of knowing are more successful at predicting behavior, they come to dominate projective and transferential means of understanding. These domination follows from Herrnstein’s (1970) matching law
 
A Behavioral Developmental Account of Projection
LUCAS ALEXANDER HALEY COMMONS-MILLER (University of California, Irvine)
Abstract: The concept of projection is derived originally from the psychoanalytic literature but the phenomenon may be explained from other theoretical perspectives. Here we present a behavioral developmental approach to understanding the development of projection. The approach describes three aspects that underlie projective behavior. The first is the evolutionary origin of projective behavior and the persistence of such reactions in humans. The second is how new projective behaviors and perceptions are developed as part of self-observation and planning. The third is how development of perspective-taking occurs. Perspective-taking is based on the more accurate observation of others and of how they will respond to one's own behavior. The brain basis for social perspective-taking is primarily in the forebrain and develops throughout the lifespan. It overrides projection in many cases. Projection is transformed as the stage at which it occurs changes. Here, the stages from the Model of Hierarchical Complexity (Commons & Pekker, 2008) are applied to projection.
 
A Behavioral Developmental Account of Transference
PATRICE MARIE MILLER (Harvard Medical School)
Abstract: The traditional description and explanation of transference behavior derives from the psychoanalytic literature. Attributes of important figures in a person's past are misattributed to persons in the present. A behavioral developmental perspective on transference has not been systematically developed as yet. Here we present [the beginnings of a behavioral developmental approach. The basic formation of transference in helping situations has to do with the sense that the helper is saving the patient. Transference is a special case of attachment. The basic situation in attachment is that the infant is suffering and the adult saves them by ameliorating the discomfort and providing calming and soothing. When infants do not get saved as is the case with the some orphans in orphanages, they do not develop attachment. The basic attachment paradigm for the first stages from the Model of Hierarchical Complexity is outlined. Attachment is shown to occur at the first two behavioral developmental stages, Sensory or Motor Stage 1 and Circular Sensory Motor Stage 2. The process of transference follows the process of attachment. Because the therapist “saves” the patient attachment and therefore transference forms
 
A Behavioral Developmental Account of Counter-Transference
MICHAEL LAMPORT COMMONS (Harvard Medical School)
Abstract: Counter-transference is just transference, but with a reverse vector: That is, it is transference from the person (commonly the treater) who receives the original transference to the person who did the original transferring (commonly the patient). A number of studies on doctor-patient relationships (e.g., Commons & Rodriguez, 1990, 1993, Commons, et al., 2006) clarify transference and counter-transference interactions, such as an idealization in the transference that evokes a reciprocal counter transference. The therapist's counter- transference may be evoked by the actual reality-based demeanor and attitude of the patient. In fact, the participants do not have to have interacted directly at all; literature and films manipulate us without our knowing it. Though hard evidence is lacking, most behavioral and cognitive behavioral therapies probably produce less counter-transference than more dynamic ones because a) the therapy works more on the present; b) the therapist uses techniques that are clearer and less magical appearing; c) there are more direct gains, so there is less of a paucity of reinforcement; and d) the therapist is more of a consultant than inscrutable guru.
 
 
Symposium #51
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Fear and Anxiety in Autism: The Complexity of Assessment and Intervention
Saturday, May 29, 2010
2:30 PM–3:50 PM
205 (CC)
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Raymond G. Romanczyk (Institute for Child Development, Binghamton University)
CE Instructor: Dennis Reid, Ph.D.
Abstract: The universal processes of fear and anxiety in both typical and clinical populations have been well studied in multiple disciplines and there exist effective evidence based intervention procedures. One population, individuals with autistism spectrum disorders, has received comparatively little research and clinical attention related to fear and anxiety, even though it is a rapidly expanding population that has generated considerable public and general research attention. Reasons for this comparative lack of attention, particularly within behavior analysis, may have historical roots in the conceptualization of the disorder wherein co-morbidity was not well recognized, availability of poor assessment procedures for a population that typically can not provide meaningful self-report of emotional state, and over-utilization of non-compliance as an explanatory factor for expression of behavior problems. Fear and anxiety in autism spectrum disorders will be examined from multiple behavioral perspectives. Specific focus will be placed upon assessment and clinical intervention approaches regarding similarities and differences in both typical and clinical populations. Examples of treatment focus will be upon fears and phobias, social anxiety, and awareness of environmental dangers and safety issues. An individual case illustration will be presented to highlight critical aspects of precise assessment as it affects treatment in the typical multi-disciplinary setting.
 
Fear and Child Safety: Risk and Protective Factors for Nonfatal Injury in Children with Autistic Disorder
RACHEL N. STRAUB (Binghamton University, State University of New York), Raymond G. Romanczyk (Binghamton University, State University of New York)
Abstract: In recent years, researchers and practitioners have begun to recognize high levels of comorbidity between autism and other disorders. However, little attention has been given to the construct of fear, which can be defined as the awareness of impending threat for bodily or emotional harm with expectation of undesirable outcome. Previous research has shown that specific individual characteristics, such as impulsivity and lack of fear, increase the likelihood of injury in risk situations (Schwebel, 2004). Interestingly, emerging research has reported that children with autistic disorder experience a higher rate of injuries, with greater severity, than typical children (Lee, et al., 2008; McDermott, et al., 2008; Straub & Romanczyk, 2009). The purpose of this presentation is to present and review characteristics of children with autistic disorder that may serve as potential predictive factors and targets for intervention regarding unintentional, nonfatal injury. Specific focus will be given to characteristics that have been shown as accurate predictors of childhood injury for other clinical populations, including impulsivity, hyperactivity, attention difficulties, and lack of fear regarding likelihood of injury. Additionally, implications for conducting research on the absence of a phenomenon in predicting the occurrence of injury will be discussed.
 
A Behavioral Approach to the Assessment of Anxiety Disorders in Children with ASD
KELLY D. SCHLEISMANN (Auburn University), Jennifer M. Gillis Mattson (Auburn University)
Abstract: Although anxiety disorders are commonly comorbid with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD; e.g., Weisbrot et al., 2005), little is known about the methods for adequately assessing anxiety disorders in this population. Traditional assessments of anxiety disorders, such as clinical interviews and rating scales, may be inappropriate for use among children with ASD due to factors such as an overlap between symptoms of anxiety and core symptoms of ASD (Matson and Neble-Schwalm, 2007), as well as qualitative differences in sources of anxiety (Leyfer et al., 2006) and symptom presentations (Ozonoff, Goodlin-James, & Solomon, 2005). A behavioral approach to the assessment of anxiety in children with ASD may better enable practitioners to investigate important factors that are not typically relevant when assessing anxiety in the general population. This presentation will discuss complicating factors and recommendations pertaining to the behavioral assessment of anxiety in children with ASD.
 
Examination of Effective Interventions for Anxiety in Children with ASD
REBECCA BEIGHTS (Auburn University), Jennifer M. Gillis Mattson (Auburn University)
Abstract: Acknowledging comorbidity of anxiety with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), researchers have begun to evaluate treatment of anxiety in this population. Treatment of anxiety from a behavioral perspective often targets avoidance behaviors as observable manifestations of anxiety and aims to decrease avoidance through use of exposure, modeling, and contingent reinforcement (e.g., Conyers, Miltenberger, Peterson, Gubin, Jurgens, Selders, et al., 2004; Jennett & Hagopian, 2008, Rapp, Vollmer, & Hovanetz, 2005; Riccardi, Luiselli, & Camare, 2006). Current research on treatment of anxiety in children with ASD provides support for behavioral strategies as components of an effective intervention (Hagopian & Jennett, 2008). A review of the literature will be presented, with emphasis on analysis of specific treatment elements and recommendations for treatment implementation.
 
Case Conceptualization in a Multi-Disciplinary Setting: A Clinical Case Example
EMILY HUBER CALLAHAN (Binghamton University)
Abstract: Delivery of services for children with autism and related disorders often occur in the context of multi-disciplinary groups, for early intervention, preschool, and school age children. Thus behavior analysts typically provide services in the broad context of diverse program procedures and policies. Issues concerning professional relations with individuals from differing backgrounds and the ethical dilemmas they present, autism taxonomy, and intervention evaluation procedures, are the focus of this presentation. A clinical case example will be used to illustrate the specific difficulties behavior analysts can encounter providing services within such systems.
 
 
Symposium #54
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
ABA and SLP: Two Great Things That Go Great Together! Collaboration in Early Intervention
Saturday, May 29, 2010
2:30 PM–3:50 PM
203AB (CC)
Area: AUT/EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Amanda N. Adams (California State University, Fresno)
CE Instructor: Elisabeth Kinney, M.S.
Abstract: ABA provides the state of the art empirically validated techniques for working with children with autism. One of the biggest challenges in working with these children is the development of communication and language. The professionals in the field of Speech Language Pathology are experts in this area. More can be won from working together and learning from each other with mutual goals and respect. This symposium will review two procedures from the view of SLPs using ABA techniques, and one amazing experience from the combined efforts of BCBAs and SLPs in Sarajevo, Bosnia.
 
A Comparison of Discrete Trial Training and the Natural Language Paradigm in Nonverbal Children With Autism
LISA EVANGELISTA (California State University, Fresno), Steven Skelton (California State University, Fresno), Donald Freed (California State University, Fresno), Sheri Roach (California State University, Fresno), Christine A. Maul (California State University, Fresno), Amanda N. Adams (California State University, Fresno)
Abstract: Discrete trial training and natural language paradigm are two opposing treatment methods that have been proven effective in improving speech production within the autistic population. These two methods will be used in an alternating-treatment design to determine which treatment is most effective in language acquisition and generalization in nonverbal autistic children. Two participants with limited expressive language abilities were selected for the study. Each participant received treatment using discrete trial training and the natural language paradigm. Progress was judged on the quantity of language acquired in response to the two treatment methods.
 
Improvement and Generalization Differences in Group Versus Individual Therapy of Social Language Skills
REBECCA ROOPE (California State University, Fresno), Christine A. Maul (California State University, Fresno), Donald Freed (California State University, Fresno), Steven Skelton (California State University, Fresno), Amanda N. Adams (California State University, Fresno)
Abstract: Therapy to improve social skills of children with autism may be more effective if provided in a group versus individual therapy context. The 2 male participants were diagnosed with high-functioning autism (HFA) and attending fourth grade at the time of the study. A modified ABACA/ACABA research design was used to investigate possible differences regarding improvement and generalization effects between group and individual therapy contexts. Discrete trial therapy (DTT) was the treatment implemented. Conversational turn-taking was the target behavior. The behavior was measured in turns per minute. Participants were observed for spontaneous use of the target behavior during each phase of the study. A comparison between the participants’ improvement and generalization of the target behavior after implementing and withdrawing DTT demonstrated no substantial difference between an individual or group therapy context. Participant preference regarding therapy context appeared to have an effect on participant involvement and interest during therapy sessions.
 
Starting Autism Education in Bosnia: Challenges for a Recovering Country
DZEVIDA SULEJMANOVIC (California State University, Fresno), Amanda N. Adams (California State University, Fresno)
Abstract: In the past 15 years, Bosnia has made amazing strides in recovering from civil war. First, infrastructures were rebuilt, then public services, and later education. Special education lagged behind however, and services for autism and other such specialties were all but unknown. In the past few years, this has started to change. This presentation will expand on some of the challenges and successes of this enormous undertaking.
 
Autism Education in Bosnia: Experiences of a California-Based Team in Sarajevo
AMANDA N. ADAMS (California State University, Fresno), Eduardo Avalos (California State University, Fresno)
Abstract: In June 2009, a team of SLPs and teachers from San Francisco and Behavior Analysts from Fresno went to Bosnia for two weeks to run a large training seminar and begin the first classroom for children with autism in the country. Our presentation will show the successes of presenting large workshops and organizing implementation of classroom plans for another cultural group. Significant challenges unusual to the American professional arise in such a venture. These will be presented and solutions for a respectful and meaningful resolution will be discussed.
 
 
Symposium #77
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Variables Affecting Response Allocation in Concurrent Schedules of Reinforcement Arrangements
Saturday, May 29, 2010
3:30 PM–4:50 PM
213B (CC)
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Stephanie M. Peterson (Western Michigan University)
Discussant: David P. Wacker (University of Iowa)
CE Instructor: Julie Knapp, Ph.D.
Abstract: This symposium will consist of three presentations that describe research on the evaluation of various parameters of reinforcement on the choice responding of participants. First, Joel Ringdahl will present a study entitled, “An evaluation of variables affecting compliance and task-related response allocation,” in which the response requirement, magnitude of reinforcement, task preference, and task difficulty were manipulated to observe the effect on task compliance. Next, Jessica Frieder will present a study entitled, “Effects of quality and magnitude of reinforcement on choice responding for individuals with escape motivated problem behavior,” in which the independent effects of duration of reinforcement, presence of preferred stimuli during task breaks, presence of adult attention during task breaks, and response requirement were evaluated on problem behavior and task completion. Finally, Allen Karsina will present a study entitled, “Assessing the illusion of control within a computer-based game of chance: illusion or preference?” This study evaluated the effects of schedules of reinforcement and whether participants were informed about the schedule on choices during a computer-based game. David Wacker will summarize and synthesize these studies while pointing out implications for behavior analysts and directions for future research.
 
An Evaluation of Variables Affecting Compliance and Task-Related Response Allocation
JOEL ERIC RINGDAHL (University of Iowa), Wendy K. Berg (University of Iowa), Anuradha Salil Kumar Dutt (University of Iowa)
Abstract: Noncompliance is one of the most frequently endorsed concerns for children receiving behavioral services. One avenue of research in this area is to identify, isolate, and apply variables that can be empirically demonstrated to affect compliance. In the current study, we evaluated the effect of reinforcement schedule, magnitude of reinforcement, and task preference on the compliance and response allocation among tasks for two individuals diagnosed with developmental disabilities referred for evaluation of severe noncompliance. The evaluation was conducted using a concurrent schedule arrangement and varying schedule parameters (response requirement and reinforcer magnitude), task parameters (preference or difficulty), or both. Results of the evaluation indicated that, while individual differences were observed, these variables interacted to influence compliance and response allocation. Results will be discussed relevant to strategies for increasing compliance with academic tasks. Interobserver agreement was collected for at least 25% of all sessions and averaged above 90% for all target responses.
 
Effects of Quality and Magnitude of Reinforcement on Choice Responding for Individuals with Escape Motivated Problem Behavior
JESSICA E. FRIEDER (Armstrong Atlantic State University), Stephanie M. Peterson (Western Michigan University), Elizabeth Dayton (Utah State University), Shawn Patrick Quigley (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Recently, researchers (Peterson et al., 2009) have investigated the effects of a concurrent schedules of reinforcement arrangement for individuals with escape-motivated problem behavior in which three response options are available: compliance, mands, and problem behavior. Results of this research have suggested that choice responding can be biased in favor of adaptive responses as a function of reinforcement contingencies. While results are promising for interventions (e.g., stimulus fading), different reinforcement dimensions for each response co-varied across the response options: duration of break time, attention available during the break, and access to preferred items. Thus it is unclear which reinforcement dimension(s) maintained response allocation. This current study evaluated the effects of the three dimensions of reinforcement independently (duration, attention, and stimuli) on choice responding for children with disabilities who had escape-maintained problem behavior. Results from three separate experiments will be presented. Discussion will focus on how quality variables that may or may not be related to the function of problem behavior can impact choice responding. Implications for the effective treatment for children who display escape-motivated problem behavior will also be discussed.
 
Assessing the Illusion of Control Within a Computer-Based Game of Chance: Illusion or Preference?
ALLEN J. KARSINA (The New England Center for Children), Rachel H. Thompson (Western New England College)
Abstract: This study investigated several variables associated with the illusion of control using a computer-based game of chance with adult participants. During the game, participants were asked to choose between selecting their own numbers and having the numbers generated by the computer. Schedules of reinforcement for each of these options were systematically manipulated using a reversal design. During sessions, participants were informed when they earned points, and in some sessions participants were also told the schedule of reinforcement by trial type and the cumulative number of points won per trial type. After each session, participants completed a questionnaire regarding the schedules of reinforcement. Preliminary results indicate that when participants demonstrated a preference for selecting their own numbers, they also over-estimated their odds of winning points, consistent with the illusion of control. However, at least one participant accurately estimated her odds of winning when she was provided with the schedule of reinforcement for each trial type and the number of points won per trial type. Implications of the current findings are discussed.
 
 
Invited Tutorial #135
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
The Behavior Analyst and the Apple Crop: A Parable for Organizational Behavior Management
Sunday, May 30, 2010
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
Ballroom A (CC)
Area: OBM; Domain: Theory
PSY/BACB CE Offered. CE Instructor: Ann Filer, M.Ed.
Chair: Heather M. McGee (Western Michigan University)
Presenting Authors: : DWIGHT HARSHBARGER (Department of Community Medicine, West Virginia Un)
Abstract: In China “villages of dunces”—small towns full of mentally disabled people—give testimony to decades of environmental toxins; Szechwan province’s honey bees are extinct. In India, each day one person dies from the long-term effects of methyl isocyanate (MIC) released in the 1984 MIC Bhopal disaster that killed 20,000. In America, potential chemical disasters loom over communities; morning ozone reports are often as important as the weather itself. Worldwide, rising temperatures pose significant threats to ecosystems. For decades scientists have accepted fees to build product defenses for tobacco, toxic chemicals, including Bhopal-sized threats to communities, and the Big Kahuna: global warming. Today, public opinion polls reveal widespread doubt about the environmental impact of increasing levels of (you fill in the blank). And every day, 50 species become extinct. Will we be the first generation to become a modern Noah and save the last pairs of species threatened with extinction? The contingencies that surround the practice of OBM as “business as usual” are comfortable, and the financial rewards attractive. But time has grown short. I will discuss decisions by OBM’s applied behavior analysts to address and avoid important health, safety, and environment challenges, the ethics of those decisions, and suggest positive steps leading to a greener OBM. I will begin with the parable of the behavior analyst and the apple crop.
 
DWIGHT HARSHBARGER (Department of Community Medicine, West Virginia Un)
Dwight Harshbarger, Ph.D. is a Senior Fellow of the Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies and former Executive Director. The Center’s mission is to advance the scientific study of behavior and its humane applications. His personal interests are in strengthening quality and safety performance in organizations. Dwight has headed human resources in two corporations – as a corporate senior vice president for Reebok International, Ltd., and corporate vice president of Sealy, Inc. He served as a consultant in RHR International’s Chicago office and later as director of strategic consulting and vice president at Aubrey Daniels International. He heads The Browns Group, Inc., and has successfully implemented behavior-based performance improvement programs in the United States and Asia. Prior to entering corporate work, he completed post-graduate study at Harvard and then joined the faculty of West Virginia University where he became a tenured professor of psychology. He later served as CEO of a community mental health center in the southern West Virginia coal fields. He has edited and authored books and articles on organizational performance. His work in behavioral sciences has earned him the respect and acknowledgement of his peers he is an elected Fellow of the American Psychological Association and American Psychological Society. In 2006 he received the Outstanding Alumni Award from the Psychology Department at the University of North Dakota. Following his retirement from the Cambridge Center in 2008, Dwight returned to Morgantown, West Virginia, to focus on his fiction writing and to teach. He serves as Adjunct Professor of Community Medicine in the WVU Health Sciences Center. In 2009, he published a historical fiction novel focused on the Hawks Nest industrial disaster, titled Witness at Hawks Nest (Publisher’s Place; Huntington, WV).
 
 
Symposium #143
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Advances in the Operant and Pharmacological Treatment of Drug Abuse
Sunday, May 30, 2010
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Travis C/D (Grand Hyatt)
Area: BPH/CBM; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Anthony DeFulio (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
CE Instructor: Kathleen McCabe-Odri, Ed.D.
Abstract: Operant approaches to the treatment of drug abuse have been studied for over thirty years. Within the substance abuse treatment community these interventions are known as “contingency management.” Decades of randomized controlled trials have demonstrated the success of contingency management interventions in treating a wide variety of drug dependence disorders across a variety of patient populations. The success of these trials has produced a situation in which the effectiveness of contingency management is so well established that the approach is now being adopted and recommended by health organizations on a global scale. The presentations offered in this symposium describe advances in the operant approach to the treatment of drug abuse. Specifically, these presentations will describe novel ways of tailoring interventions to individuals to facilitate the initiation of abstinence, and ways in which operant procedures can enhance the effectiveness of new pharmacotherapies for drug abuse. A variety of drug abuse problems will be discussed, including cigarette smoking, snorting and injecting heroin, and recreational use of pain pills such as oxycodone.
 
Using Shaping to Improve Contingency Management in Hard-to-Treat Smokers
R.J. LAMB (University of Texas HSC-H)
Abstract: Contingency management (CM) can promote smoking cessation. However, CM is frequently unsuccessful. Most often, CM is unsuccessful for those not swiftly stop their smoking and coming into contact with the programmed abstinence incentives. That those who do not contact the programmed incentive fail to stop their smoking is not surprising. Not only is this definitionally true, but because reinforcement of abstinence is the presumed active ingredient of CM, this is theoretically predictable. Percentile schedules can be used to provide incentives for behavior nearest to the abstinence criterion and thus, theoretically percentile schedules could shape better outcomes in hard-to-treat smokers not readily initiating abstinence. These theoretical predictions appear to hold true. Smokers not readily initiating abstinence in CM do not do well, while those who readily initiate abstinence do well. When hard-to-treat smokers receive CM incorporating a percentile schedule, many of them show improved outcomes. Those readily initiating abstinence generally do well regardless of whether shaping is incorporated into CM. These results indicate that the experimental analysis of behavior provides a vantage point from which ways to improve treatments can be developed. These results also indicate other aspects to which this vantage point might be applied to further improve treatment.
 
Using Contingency Management to Enhance Success in Outpatient Detoxifications Among Prescription Opioid Abusers
KATHRYN A. SAULSGIVER (University of Vermont), Mollie Patrick (University of Vermont), Kelly Dunn (University of Vermont), Stacey C. Sigmon (University of Vermont), Sarah H. Heil (University of Vermont), Stephen T. Higgins (University of Vermont)
Abstract: Abuse of prescription opioids (POs) has become a significant public health problem in recent years. The annual number of new initiates increased >400% between 1990 and 2000 (SAMHSA, 2003) and PO abuse now represents the largest group of new drug initiates, even surpassing marijuana (NSDUH, 2006). In a previous clinical trial (study 1), we examined the efficacy of an intervention that included pharmacotherapy, individual behavioral therapy, and observed, on-site urine toxicology testing across three buprenorphine taper durations. This trial was moderately successful in tapering opioid-dependent individuals and transitioning them to naltrexone, an opioid-blocker (33% of all participants and 47% of participants exposed to the 4-week taper duration). In an attempt to enhance outcomes we will experimentally examine whether adding voucher-based CM may improve treatment success among PO abusers (Study 2). Individuals who failed to successfully taper and transition to >1 50 mg dose of naltrexone during Study 1 will serve as participants. The longest taper duration (4 weeks) will be used during Study 2 and all subjects will be randomized to Contingent and Noncontingent experimental groups. We will compare retention and percent opioid abstinence between Contingent and Noncontingent experimental groups.
 
Reinforcing Acceptance of Long-Acting Opiate Antagonist Medication With Access to Paid Job Training
ANTHONY DEFULIO (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Jeffrey J. Everly (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), George Bigelow (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Annie Umbricht (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Michael Fingerhood (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Kenneth Silverman (Johns Hopkins University)
Abstract: Naltrexone is an opiate antagonist that could be an effective treatment for opiate addiction, but its utility has been limited by poor patient acceptance. Recently developed extended-release depot formulations of naltrexone provide opiate antagonism for up to 4 weeks and should simplify naltrexone adherence. However, given the rejection of oral naltrexone by most patients, concurrent behavioral treatment will probably be needed to encourage patients to take the depot medication consistently. A randomized controlled trial was designed to determine if employment-based reinforcement could increase acceptance of depot naltrexone injections in unemployed opiate dependent adults. For participants assigned to the naltrexone contingency group, access to paid job training was contingent upon acceptance of depot naltrexone. For participants assigned to the naltrexone prescription group, depot naltrexone injections were available at no cost to the participants, but access to paid job training was independent of acceptance of the injections. Methods and results of two studies in which different formulations of depot naltrexone were used will be discussed. The data suggest that employment-based contingency management greatly improves adherence to depot naltrexone treatment.
 
Using Functional, Competitive Antagonists as Pharmacotherapies for Drug Abuse: Unmet Needs in Drug Discovery
JAMES H. WOODS (University of Michigan)
Abstract: Drug abuse is a major health problem in the United States, with over 22 million individuals classified with substance dependence or abuse according to recent government statistics (SAMHSA, 2008). Pharmacotherapy and behavioral approaches are among the most effective treatments for drug abuse. New competitive antagonist pharmacotherapies are on the horizon, but past experience indicates that behavioral complements will be required in order to produce the greatest impact for these medications. Three case histories dealing with drug abuse problems and how they have been approached will be discussed. These case histories describe the treatment of a variety of drug abuse problems, including the use of opiates, cocaine, and nicotine. After the three case histories have been described, current research in drug abuse treatment will be reviewed. The combined case histories and reviewed research have been selected specifically to bring the audience to expect real progress in the next decade for pharmacotherapies that can be meshed with behavioral complements for the effective treatment of drug abuse.
 
 
Symposium #153
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Issues on the Emergence of Stimulus Control: Simple and Conditional Discrimination
Sunday, May 30, 2010
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Lone Star Ballroom Salon E (Grand Hyatt)
Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
Chair: Paula Ribeiro Braga-Kenyon (The New England Center for Children)
Discussant: Richard W. Serna (University of Massachusetts Medical Center)
CE Instructor: Daniel Moran, Ph.D.
Abstract: The current symposium raises several issues on the emergence of stimulus control. The first paper evaluated whether stimulus-stimulus relations (AB) could be established without differential reinforcement during acquisition, and assessed symmetry among these stimuli with typical humans. Results obtained were consistent with the hypothesis that stimulus-stimulus relations can be established in the absence of direct training involving differential consequences for correct responses. The second paper investigated whether typically developing children would promptly demonstrate the emergence of stimulus equivalence. Results indicated that basic language and naming skills may not be sufficient for the prompt emergence of stimulus equivalence, and that a history of performing such tasks under training conditions may contribute to the phenomenon. The final paper identifies training conditions under which temporal intervals that are signaled by different stimuli are memorized by rats and humans (i.e., the temporal control of the behavior is readily shown when the stimulus is presented). The results provide a basis for inferences about underlying cognitive mechanisms that determine memory storage and retrieval of humans and rats when trained on multiple discriminations that provide strategic information that can be used for effect teaching.
 
Memorization Failure as a Function of Discrimination Difficulty and Training Sequences in Rats and Humans
PAULO GUILHARDI (The New England Center for Children), Marcelo S Caetano (Brown University), Marina Menez (Universidad Nacional de Mexico), Russell Church (Brown University)
Abstract: Our goal was to identify training conditions under which temporal intervals that are signaled by different stimuli are memorized (i.e., the temporal control of the behavior is readily shown when the stimulus is presented). Rats and humans were trained on three signaled temporal discriminations using either fixed-interval or peak procedures. The sequence of presentation of intervals (intermixed within a session, in blocks of trials within the session, or in blocks of sessions) and the difficulty of the discrimination (similarity across stimuli) were varied. Rats and humans memorized intervals when the temporal discriminations were intermixed within a session and when they occurred in blocks of trials within the session, the latter provided the stimulus discrimination was not difficult. Rats and humans, however, failed to memorize the temporal discriminations when they occurred in different sessions or in blocks of trials within the session, the latter provided the stimulus discrimination was difficult. The results provide a basis for inferences about underlying cognitive mechanisms that determine memory storage and retrieval of humans and rats when trained on multiple discriminations that provide strategic information that can be used for effect teaching.
 
The Establishment of Stimulus-Stimulus Relations Without Differential Reinforcement
BARBARA S. MILLS (New England Center for Children), Maria Andrade (The New England Center for Children)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether stimulus-stimulus relations (AB) could be established without differential reinforcement during acquisition, and to assess these relations for symmetry. Three typically developed individuals, ages 4 through 25 participated in this study. Participants were first presented with a series of matching to sample tasks using familiar stimuli, and accurate performance on these tasks was maintained without any differential consequences. Target stimulus-stimulus associations involving three pairs of visual arbitrary symbols were then introduced through sequences of matching to sample trials in which two random stimuli served as incorrect comparison (S-) in every trial. During this phase, the only response that could occur consistently across trials was towards the stimulus designated positive. Participants responded as expected in the absence of differential reinforcement of each selection (i.e. always choosing the stimulus that appeared consistently on the array). Changes in trial configuration were systematically and gradually carried out so that the random comparison stimuli were replaced by target stimuli belonging to the other association pairs. Results obtained are consistent with the hypothesis that stimulus-stimulus relations can be established in the absence of direct training involving differential consequences for correct responses.
 
The Development of Stimulus Equivalence in Young Children
AMBER L. MANDLER (New England Center for Children), Maria Andrade (The New England Center for Children)
Abstract: The current study investigated if children at early stages of language development would promptly demonstrate the emergence of stimulus equivalence. Procedures were similar to the ones described by Schusterman and Kastak (1993) which found evidence of equivalence in sea lions. Three typically developed children, ages 3 to 5, participated in this experiment. Forty five visual stimuli were divided in 15 sets (1 through 15) containing three stimuli each (A, B, and C). All stimuli were previously unknown to the participants. Participants were directly trained to match stimuli A to stimuli B and stimuli B to stimuli C using three of the fifteen sets. After showing inconsistent results in transitivity and symmetry tests, participants were trained to perform the matching tasks corresponding to these properties. Once mastery criteria were met, three new sets of stimuli were introduced and the same training and testing sequence was implemented. Results indicate that the presence of basic language and naming skills may not be sufficient for the prompt emergence of stimulus equivalence, and that a history of performing such tasks under training conditions may contribute for the phenomenon.
 
 
Symposium #155
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Academic Time on Task: A Tale of Conditioned Reinforcers and Behavioral Momentum
Sunday, May 30, 2010
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Texas Ballroom Salon D (Grand Hyatt)
Area: EDC/TPC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: David L. Lee (The Pennsylvania State University)
Discussant: Christopher Skinner (University of Tennessee)
CE Instructor: Michael Miklos, M.S.
Abstract: Given the link between time on task and achievement, increasing task persistence can be a very real problem in educational settings. One method for increasing persistence, reinforcing task completion, can be effective at addressing this problem. However, for some students who engage in task-related behaviors infrequently, waiting to reinforce can be counterproductive in terms of practitioner and student time. Two strategies, high probability (high-p) request sequences and task interspersal provide practitioners with proactive methods that have been demonstrated to be effective at increasing students' initial rate of responding to non-preferred tasks. Once the initial rate of responding is increased, additional reinforcers can be delivered to help maintain the behavior at an acceptable rate. Both interventions work under the assumption that task completion can act as a conditioned reinforcer and that schedules of reinforcement for a task can be manipulated through the addition of several brief tasks to target assignments. The purpose of this symposium is discuss three studies that examined the effects of interspersal and high-probability sequences on academic task persistence.
 
The Effects of High-Probability Fluency on Low-Probability Math Problem Completion
BROOKE LYLO (The Pennsylvania State University), David L. Lee (Penn State University), Brooks R. Vostal (Penn State University)
Abstract: The use of high-probability (high-p) sequences has been demonstrated to be an effective method to increase compliance with and encourage persistence in academic tasks. High-p sequences increase the rate of responding and the subsequent rate of responding within a response class. This increased density of reinforcement appears to establish a momentum effect that results in decreased latencies to initiate low probability (low-p) tasks. In this study, we examined the effects of a fluency intervention to increase the rate of responding within the high-p sequence. In a multiple baseline design, three students with emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD) experienced high-p sequences of single-digit multiplication comparable to previous studies (e.g., Belfiore et al., 1997; Lee et al., 2004; 2008). Results replicated those found in earlier studies. A fluency intervention (i.e., flashcard drill) was presented to participants until each met criterion. The final phase presented these fluent single-digit multiplication problems to participants as the high-p sequence. Results showed an initial increase in latencies to initiate subsequent low-p problems for two of the three participants compared to the traditional high-p phase. The findings are discussed in terms of behavioral contrast effects.
 
Effects of High-p Readability on Reading Persistence of Adolescents With Emotional and Behavioral Disorders
BROOKS R. VOSTAL (The Pennsylvania State University), David L. Lee (The Pennsylvania State University), Brooke Lylo (The Pennsylvania State University)
Abstract: Adolescents with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) often fail to learn literacy skills, in part because of the disruptive behaviors they present in academic settings, characterized by a lack of task engagement and persistence. High probability (high-p) request sequences have been shown to increase compliance and academic persistence. The current study extends research on the high-p sequence into a new academic task: reading. Reading represents a fundamentally different application of high-p sequences because it is a continuous task, rather than a series of discrete tasks. Using alternated paragraph readability, high-p paragraphs decreased the latency to initiate low-p paragraphs, representing an aspect of increased task persistence, in three adolescents with EBD during an alternating treatments design. Results are discussed in terms of the theory of behavioral momentum (Nevin, Mendall, & Atak, 1983) and the nature of high probability tasks.
 
The Effects of Task Interspersal and Contingencies on Student Choice of Academic Materials
YOUJIA HUA (University of Iowa)
Abstract: Task interspersal is an academic material modification procedure designed to make task completion more reinforcing. It is implemented by adding a sequence of brief tasks prior to more difficult or nonpreferred target academic tasks. This procedure results in an increase in the number of conditioned reinforcers available for completing a given task. Recently, reserachers found that task contingencies and the interspersal procedure may interactively influence student choice of academic materials. The purpose of this study is to extend the previous research using a different interspersal ratio. In this study a concurrent-schedule design with a reversal was used to compare the students' choice of worksheets when working under different task contingencies. Student choice of materials and task performance data will be presented.
 
 
Symposium #158
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Teaching for the Lazy: 139 Repertoires That Make Learners Easy to Teach
Sunday, May 30, 2010
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Texas Ballroom Salon B (Grand Hyatt)
Area: EDC/AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Steven J. Ward (Whole Child Consulting, LLC)
Discussant: Judah Axe (Simmons College)
CE Instructor: Monika Suchowierska, Ph.D.
Abstract: "The Inventory of Good Learner Repertoires" (Ward, 2008), describes 139 repertoires that make learners easy to teach. Learners who demonstrate these repertoires can learn in regular education settings and in the community. These repertoires are separated into 10 categories, including: Behavioral Excesses, Behavioral Supports, Resilience and Regulation, Readiness, Perseverance and Focus, Flexibility, Consequences, Preference for Learning Channels, Spontaneity, and Potential to Benefit from Inclusion. The three presenters in this symposium will discuss theoretical and practical considerations and review the progress of several specific learners using "The Inventory of Good Learner Repertoires". Data will be shared that correlates learner repertoires with rate of acquisition of specific instructional targets.
 
Using "The Inventory of Good Learner Repertoires"
STEVEN J. WARD (Whole Child Consulting, LLC), Geoffrey H. Martin (Morningside Academy)
Abstract: "The Inventory of Good Learner Repertoires" (Ward, 2008) describes 139 learner repertoires that make students easy to teach. This presentation will discuss theoretical and practical implications of these repertoires. The presenter will demonstrate how the presence or absence of particular learner repertoires can make the difference between: learning a skill and not learning a skill; participating in a regular education classroom and participating in a special education setting; using acquired skills in natural settings and not using acquired skills. Attendees will practice gauging the quality of learner responding, based primarily upon rate and degree of independence. Attendees will also practice identifying the specific conditions under which learners respond. The audience will learn how to identify repertoires that would make any learner easier to teach.
 
CANCELLED Hunter, Hunter: The Story of One Boy's Trip from "Not Learner" to "Learner".
Jill McClaury (Bright Futures/Circle of Friends)
Abstract: The presenter will review programming and outcomes for one student with Autism. This student was moved from a public school setting to a clinic setting and was assessed using both the ABLLS and "The Inventory of Good Learner Repertoires" at introduction, 6 months, and 1 year. Correlations between the presence/absence of learner repertoires and the rate of skill acquisition will be reviewed. The presenter will also go into detail regarding specific learner repertoires that were targeted, how those repertoires were addressed, the success of those interventions, and the implications of the new learner repertoires to several areas of programming. Program data and pre/during/post videos will be shared, as well as consideration of social validity.
 
A Comparison of Various Learners Using "The Inventory of Good Learner Repertoires"
TERESA A. GRIMES (Whole Child Consulting LLC)
Abstract: The presenter consults to a variety of learners, and notes the relative ease with which some can be taught. She will share the results of "The Inventory of Good Learner Repertoires" for several learners and discuss how the presence/absence of certain learner repertoires contributes not only to the efficiency of skill acquisition, but also to the quality of life of the learners and their families. The presenter will discuss how she has used the "Program Plan Form" to communicate: the adaptations teachers should make; the behavioral expectations that should be placed on the learner; and the relative priority that should be placed on any specific skill. This form has proved invaluable in balancing the relative importance of various learner priorities and specific skill priorities.
 
 
Symposium #164
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Derived Relational Responding and Complex Language Repertoires: Developments in Assessment and Education.
Sunday, May 30, 2010
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
214C (CC)
Area: VRB/AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Valerie R. Rogers (University of Nevada, Reno)
Discussant: Steven C. Hayes (University of Nevada, Reno)
CE Instructor: Kristen Kelley, M.A.
Abstract: It is clear that instructional practices stemming from the principles of behavioral science can enhance educational outcomes. However, it is also clear that, despite observed improvements in basic skills, certain learners continue to lack flexible and complex language repertoires. For example, precision teaching practices can be used to increase a child’s reading rate to 150 words per minute. However, for those learners with pre-existing language deficits, this fluent reading speed has little impact on reading comprehension. Moreover, discrete-trial procedures can be used to establish basic speech skills with a child on the autism spectrum; however, this child may remain unable to speak with meaning and listen with understanding. It is the basic premise of this symposium that these more complex language repertoires are inherently relational, and that deficits in such repertoires can be remedied through the assessment and subsequent training of derived relational responding. In the first paper, data will be presented on the use of an early assessment tool for identifying the emergence of generalized derived symmetry in young children with autism as they progress through verbal behavior training. In the second paper, the Relational Learning Sequence (RLS) developed at the Center for Advanced Learning will be described and its link to Relational Frame Theory articulated. Clinical outcome data obtained with learners progressing through the Relational Learning Sequence at the center will also be presented. In the final paper, data will be presented from a controlled study examining the establishment of two critical relational operants: coordination and distinction. The relevance of these relational operants to reading and listening comprehension will be identified and future areas of research offered.
 
The Role of Relational Operants in the Establishment of Advanced Language Skills
KIMBERLY NIX BERENS (Center for Advanced Learning, Inc.), Nicholas M. Berens (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: Have you ever trained a vast verbal repertoire in a child with autism only to feel that his/her repertoire could be more flexible, varied and contextually sensitive? Have you ever taught a child to read to standard levels of accuracy and rate only to realize that the child does not understand a single word he/she is reading? Using current clinical and experimental work at the Center for Advanced Learning, Inc., the current paper will cast these problems as deficits in relational responding. Having clarified potential functional units, the paper will then discuss strategies for developing interventions that teach children to speak with meaning and listen with understanding.
 
Toward the Development of a Behavioral Assessment for Detecting the Emergence of Generalized Derived Symmetry
Jonathan J. Tarbox (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), EVELYN R. GOULD (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Megan Kirby (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Abstract: There is a growing consensus that derived relational responding is at the heart of complex human behavior (e.g., stimulus equivalence and relational framing). Early intensive behavioral intervention programs for children with autism sometimes begin working with children who have essentially no verbal repertoire and often begin with the simplest mands and echoics - repertoires which do not involved derived relational responding. In the best case scenario, the child progresses through simple verbal behavior training, to more complex repertoires, including intraverbals such as categorization, classification, etc., which clearly do involved derived relational responding. That is, for children who achieve an optimal outcome and whose language therefore is no longer delayed, the ability to derived untrained relations at some point emerges. If this ability is indeed a functional foundational unit to complex verbal behavior, then its emergence as a result of intervention may be among the most important goals of intervention. Despite its importance, virtually no research has been done on developing a tool for measuring when and if this ability emerges. This presentation describes early work on developing such a tool. The purpose of the tool is to track when and if a child can derive untrained symmetrical relations. Results of the assessment may be useful to prescribe treatment, as well as a measure of the outcome of early intervention. Data are presented from the development of the tool with typical children and pilot data from children with autism are presented as well.
 
An Investigation of Language-Building Procedures on Derived Relations of Coordination and Distinction: Implications for Listening and Reading Comprehension
KENDRA L. RICKARD (University of Nevada, Reno), Kimberly Nix Berens (Center for Advanced Learning, Inc.)
Abstract: One of the most important factors linked to future language skills is the frequency and quality of language-based experiences in the first three years of life. Children who lack this experience, or fail to benefit from it due to Autism Spectrum Disorder, or other developmental delays, are at risk for academic failure. The impact of language delays is particularly apparent in reading comprehension. Even when children learn to read, it is not uncommon for comprehension to be left lacking. Behavior involved in reading comprehension are complex, language-based, and inherently relational. Most instructional efforts are geared towards explicit instruction of the behaviors involved in prediction and inference, two of the most critical skills involved in reading comprehension. Without requisite language skills, these efforts are often futile. Relational Frame Theory (RFT) is a useful model for understanding the core behavioral processes necessary for reading comprehension. Precision Teaching provides a measurement tool for capturing the development of operants and instructional procedures to guide efficient and effective language-building procedures. In the current study, PT practices were used for expanding language-based histories. The effects of this training were evaluated with respect to two relational operants seen as critical to reading comprehension. Specifically, an A/B multiple probe design was used to evaluate the effects of language-building procedures across multiple exemplars on the derived relations of coordination and distinction.
 
 
Symposium #171
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Programming to Teach Advanced Language Skills to Children With ASD
Sunday, May 30, 2010
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
207AB (CC)
Area: AUT/VRB; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Amber L. Valentino (The Marcus Autism Center)
Discussant: Einar T. Ingvarsson (University of North Texas)
CE Instructor: Dermot Barnes-Holmes, Ph.D.
Abstract: This symposium presents three papers on programming to teach advanced language skills to children with ASD. The first paper presents procedures to increase initiations of social interaction through mands for attention. The second paper presents a procedure to reduce echolalia that has prevented acquisition of intraverbal behavior. The last paper is an evaluation of the use of the Direct Instruction Language for Learning curriculum with children with ASD.
 
Teaching Individuals Diagnosed With Autism and Other Pervasive Developmental Disorders to Recruit Social Interaction
M. ALICE SHILLINGSBURG (Marcus Autism Center), Amber L. Valentino (The Marcus Autism Center), Briana R. Lopez (The Marcus Autism Center)
Abstract: One of the core deficits of children with autism is impairment in social interaction. More specifically, many children with autism lack spontaneous seeking to share achievements through pointing out objects, showing, or bringing completed activities to peers, adults, and caregivers (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Ed. Revised, APA, 2003). Functionally, requests that involve the recruitment of social attention are typically mands because they occur under the control of an establishing operation (EO) and result in reinforcement that is specific to the EO (Michael, 1988). For children with autism, the difficulty in developing mands for attention without specific teaching may be because the attention does not function as a form of reinforcement. The current study examined the use of specific teaching procedures to increase mands for attention in two children with autism. Each participant was taught to vocally request attention from others following completion of a task during discrete trial training. Additionally, probes were taken during more natural activities outside of the teaching session. Results showed that prompting and reinforcement increased independent mands for social attention in all participants during discrete trial sessions and naturalistic activities.
 
Using the Cues-Pause-Point Procedure to Reduce Echolalia and Improve Acquisition and Maintenance of Intraverbal Responding
AMBER L. VALENTINO (The Marcus Autism Center), M. Alice Shillingsburg (Marcus Autism Center)
Abstract: Echolalia is common in children diagnosed with autism and may interfere with the development of functional language. Research has focused on the use of differential reinforcement, prompts and prompt fading to replace echolalia with specific responses (Carr et al., 1975) or generalized responses such as “I don’t know” (Schreibman & Carr, 1978). However, for some children these operant procedures are ineffective resulting in persistent echoing. Difficulties in transferring stimulus control from the verbal prompt to the verbal stimulus may arise due to persistent echolalia of the verbal prompt. This can be particularly problematic when teaching intraverbal behavior. For example, when teaching a response to the question “what do you sit on?” after a vocal prompt, (e.g., “chair”), some children may consistently echo the question and vocal prompt (e.g., “what do you sit on, chair”). The cues-pause-point procedure (McMorrow and Foxx, 1986; McMorrow et al, 1987) has been effective in decreasing echolalia and increasing specific correct responses in adults with mental retardation. The current investigation replicated the cues-pause-point procedure with a child with autism to increase correct intraverbal responses. Results indicated that echolalia decreased and correct responding increased for all targets. Results generalized to untrained stimuli and maintained during follow up.
 
Effectiveness of Direct Instruction Programming With Children Diagnosed With ASD
CRYSTAL N. BOWEN (Marcus Autism Center), M. Alice Shillingsburg (Marcus Autism Center), Jana Sarno (Marcus Autism Center), Manuela Woodruff (Marcus Autism Center)
Abstract: Although some children diagnosed with ASD develop functional communication, difficulties with complex language and social communication may persist. Evaluating techniques that foster the development of complex social communication skills is an essential line of research in the efforts to provide effective intervention to the growing number of children with ASD. Direct Instruction (DI) is an empirically supported curriculum designed to teach these complex language skills to children and has been used successfully with children from impoverished backgrounds and those with learning disabilities. Recently, professionals have started to investigate the effects of DI on language and social interactions of children with developmental delays (Benner et al., 2002; Waldron-Soler, 2002) and most recently with developmental disabilities. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effectiveness of Direct Instruction with children diagnosed with ASD. Twenty-four children with a diagnosis of ASD participated. Each participant was semi-randomly assigned to one of three groups. All three groups received treatment, which was implemented across the three groups sequentially. Treatment methods employed were those of standard Direct Instruction, specifically the Language for Learning curriculum. Pre- and post-test measures were obtained with all participants to assess for treatment effects.
 
 
Symposium #174
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Assessment and Treatment of Social Deficits in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders
Sunday, May 30, 2010
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
206AB (CC)
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Nathan A. Call (Marcus Autism Center)
Discussant: Dorothea C. Lerman (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
CE Instructor: Robert Putnam, Ph.D.
Abstract: Deficits in social interactions are one of the central characteristics of an autism diagnosis. As such, understanding the variables that can influence social interactions and the best methods for increasing them is an important topic for behavior analysts who work with individuals with autism. This symposium will present three studies that focus on using behavior analytic approaches to identify social reinforcers, measure deficits in social interactions, or remediate them.
 
Identifying Social Reinforcers and Utilizing Them for Teaching Interaction in Children and Teenagers With ASDs
DELNA H BHARUCHA (New England Center for Children), Catia Cividini-Motta Cividini (New England Center for Children), Merideth C. Phelps (New England Center for Children), Kathleen M Clark (New England Center for Children), William H. Ahearn (The New England Center for Children)
Abstract: It has been noted that persons with autism have deficits in social behavior. The purpose of this study was to determine whether social reinforcers could be identified for children and teenagers diagnosed with autism and to determine whether these social reinforcers could be used to teach brief social interactions. There were six participants in this study, three children and three teenagers, diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. There were two primary phases in this study: 1) Reinforcer Assessment, in which a multiple schedule was arranged to determine the reinforcing efficacy of 3 common social consequences for an arbitrary response; and, 2) Social Interaction Training, in which key joint attention responses crucial to social interaction were assessed and deficiencies in responding were remediated with prompting combined with social reinforcement. The results of the study suggested that social reinforcers can be identified using a multiple schedule and that these reinforcers, when combined with prompting can be successfully applied to teaching joint attention responses in young children and teenagers. We also assessed whether these results generalized to the natural environment for some of the participants. These data will also be discussed.
 
Preferences for Social Attention in Children With Autism: A Functional Taxonomy
NATHAN A. CALL (Marcus Autism Center), M. Alice Shillingsburg (Marcus Autism Center), Crystal N. Bowen (Marcus Autism Center), Addie Jane Findley (Marcus Autism Center)
Abstract: Impairments in social interactions are one of the core behavioral manifestations required for a diagnosis of autism. However, there is significant heterogeneity across individuals with respect to the degree and quality of impairments in their social interactions. One way to sub-categorize individuals with autism may be to measure the extent to which social interactions function as a reinforcer. Previous attempts to categorize individuals with autism based on social behavior have relied on caregiver report (Castelloe & Dawson, 1993). The current study attempted to measure the extent to which attention did or did not function as a reinforcer for three children with autism using observable behavior. Participants were exposed to a series of concurrent operant conditions in which they could either interact with a novel therapist or avoid social interaction. The response effort required to maintain access to or avoid attention increased in subsequent conditions. Participants were grouped into categories based on their preferences for attention and the level of effort expended to maintain access to or avoid attention. Patterns in choice responding were categorized into aloof, passive, and active subtypes, and were correlated with outcomes of intensive behavioral intervention for other skill deficits characteristic of autism, such as language.
 
Teaching Children With Autism to Engage in Social Initiations Using PECS
AMBER R. PADEN (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Tiffany Kodak (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Me), Wayne Fisher (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Elizabeth M. Gawley (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Kelly J. Bouxsein (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Carissa M. Nohr (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: Increasing social initiations is often a high-priority treatment goal when educating children with autism. Previous research as demonstrated the utility of a scripts (e.g. Krantz & McClannahan, 1998; Petursdottir, McComas, & McMaster, 2007), tactile prompts (Shabani et al., 2002), and activity schedules for increasing social interactions with individuals with ASD (e.g. Betz, Higbee, & Reagon, 2008; Krantz & McClannahan, 1998). A number of individuals with ASD do not have vocal verbal behavior and communicate using a Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS). It remains unclear whether children who use PECS will use this form of communication to initiate interactions with their peers. The current study examined the use of PECS to increase social initiations between two children diagnosed with autism. An ABAB reversal within a multiple baseline across subjects was used to evaluate the effects of treatment on social initiations with peers. Results indicated that the participants independently initiated social interactions by exchanging PECS cards with peers.
 
 
Symposium #181
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Applied Behavior Analysis in Educational, Hospital, and Residential Settings: Foundations for Individual Programming and Program Management
Sunday, May 30, 2010
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
217D (CC)
Area: DDA/AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Michael F. Cataldo (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
CE Instructor: Jessica Doucette, M.S.
Abstract: This symposium will feature speakers who will discuss programs representing a range of settings in which behavior analytic services are provided, including a public and a private school, an inpatient unit, and a residential program. Specific programs to be discussed will be the New England Center for Children’s ABA classroom in a public school setting; the Alpine Learning Group’s ABA school-based program; the Kennedy Krieger Institute’s inpatient behavioral unit; and Advoserve’s residential program. Presenters will discuss the structure and function of these programs, including how a behavior analytic conceptual framework guides clinical programming as well as program management.
 
Using Applied Behavior Analysis in Public Schools: A Fruitful, Yet Challenging Endeavor
AMY S. GECKELER (The New England Center for Children), William H. Ahearn (The New England Center for Children)
Abstract: The New England Center for Children began addressing the challenge of delivering services in the public schools fourteen years ago, starting with one classroom for children with autism. Since then, NECC has set up 18 Partner Program Model Classrooms in 13 school districts and 2 states. One hundred and seventy three children with autism and related disabilities have been served in this model. Approximately 90 children are currently served and about 20 children graduate or leave the model classrooms yearly, due either to progress or aging out of the service. Of the 91 children who have left the Model Classrooms, 29 children have graduated to general education classrooms and 46 have successfully transitioned into special education classrooms. This talk will outline key components of establishing an ABA model in this setting, discuss how classrooms are structured and give examples of how individualized curriculum are developed, training programs are implemented, and supervision systems are established in a public school system. Challenges faced in this setting and options for addressing these challenges will be addressed. We will also discuss the need for bringing the often resource-intense ABA model to scale in order to meet the needs of as many children as possible.
 
Applied Behavior Analysis in a School Setting: Systematic Staff Training and Program Evaluation
BRIDGET A. TAYLOR (Alpine Learning Group), Kate Britton (Alpine Learning Group)
Abstract: For twenty years Alpine Learning Group has been designing and implementing systems of instruction for learners with autism. Alpine’s philosophy, based on the scientific principles of learning, sets the occasion for a number of essential program components, including the implementation of individualized instruction, on-going measurement of learner performance, systematic staff training, and program-wide evaluation measures. This presentation will provide an overview of Alpine Learning Group’s systems of accountability, staff training and program evaluation protocols. Case studies will be used to illustrate Alpine Learning Group’s core program components.
 
When worlds collide good things can happen: Applied behavior analysis in an inpatient hospital setting
LOUIS P. HAGOPIAN (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Lynn G. Bowman (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Marilyn D. Cataldo (Kennedy Krieger Institute), SungWoo Kahng (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Heather K. Jennett (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Patricia F. Kurtz (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Natalie Rolider (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Michael F. Cataldo (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: The Neurobehavioral Unit at the Kennedy Krieger Institute is an inpatient behavioral unit specializing in the treatment of severe problem behavior displayed by children and adolescents with developmental and intellectual disabilities. The program has been in existence for 30 years, and has served individuals from over 25 states. This presentation will discuss how a behavior analytic framework has been foundational to the provision of behavioral assessment and treatment services, as well as: the evaluation and analysis of pharmacologic interventions; staff training, management, and retention; collaboration with other professionals in an interdisciplinary hospital setting; and obtaining funding for services by commercial insurance and state Medicaid programs.
 
AdvoServ: Behavioral Treatment Services for Severe Behavior Disorders
JUDITH E. FAVELL (AdvoServ), James F. McGimsey (AdvoServ), Terry J. Page (AdvoServ), Cheryl L. Ecott (AdvoServ), Kelly A. Dancho (AdvoServ)
Abstract: The treatment of severe behavior problems with individuals with developmental disabilities and mental health disorders remains a significant social and clinical challenge. This presentation describes the structure and processes of a multi-state residential program serving individuals exhibiting problems such as extreme aggression and self-injury. The program strives to employ and embody behavior analytic principles and practices in all aspects of its operation, from individual treatment programs, to staff management and motivation, to organizational development and quality assurance. Data and descriptions of the effects of this behavioral orientation to service delivery will be presented. The presentation will further address the current regulatory, political and social environment, as contexts which directly effect the efficacy of behavioral services in the United States.
 
 
Symposium #214
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Recent Research in the Assessment and Treatment of Stereotypic Behavior
Sunday, May 30, 2010
1:30 PM–2:50 PM
206AB (CC)
Area: AUT/EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Hannah E. Hoch (Rethink Autism)
Discussant: John T. Rapp (St. Cloud State University)
CE Instructor: Siri Ming, M.A.
Abstract: Stereotypic and repetitive behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement poses challenges for developing effective assessment and treatment procedures. Assessment techniques and intervention strategies have involved both antecedent- and consequence-based procedures. In this symposium, 3 studies will be presented describing strategies used in the assessment and treatment of stereotypic and repetitive behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement. One paper will focus on the evaluation of repetitive behavior of typically developing adults, and will discuss the extension of the assessment procedures for use with individuals with autism. A second paper will describe a stimulus control procedure used to decrease stereotypy in a young boy with autism. A third paper will describe a reinforcement-based intervention procedure for decreasing vocal stereotypy in three students with autism. All papers will end with a discussion of implications for clinical practice and future research.
 
An Evaluation of Repetitive Behavior in Typically Functioning Adults and Implications for Functional Analyses
AMANDA BOSCH (University of Florida), Timothy R. Vollmer (University of Florida), Ashley Breeden (University of South Florida), Alison Nyman (University of Florida), Andrea Zawoyski (University of Florida), Danielle Broome (University of Florida)
Abstract: We evaluated repetitive behavior (e.g. nail biting, hair twirling, and skin scratching) in fifty typically functioning adults under conditions similar to those utilized in an antecedent-based functional analysis. Results showed that a majority of participants engaged in the highest levels of repetitive behavior in the alone condition, suggesting that repetitive behavior was maintained by automatic reinforcment. A subset of participants displayed high rates of repetitive behavior in the demand condition; the absence of programmed consequences in the demand condition suggests that repetitive behavior in this condition may have been maintained by automatic reinforcement under conditions of aversive stimulation. We will also present data extending our methods to children and adolescents with developmental disabilities and/or autism and extending our methods to include treatment components. Implications for functional analysis methodologies will be discussed.
 
A Stimulus Control Procedure to Decrease Motor Stereotypy
ALISON S. O'CONNOR (Alpine Learning Group), Jessica Prieto (Alpine Learning Group), Barbara Hoffmann (Alpine Learning Group), Bridget A. Taylor (Alpine Learning Group)
Abstract: This project extended the work of Brusa and Richman (2008) in using stimulus control procedures to decrease stereotypy. A changing criterion design was used to examine the effects of two stimuli, conditioned via discrimination training, on reducing stereotypy while looking at books. During discrimination training sessions, stereotypy was not interrupted in the green condition; however, in the red condition, stereotypy was interrupted using manual guidance, and appropriate book play was reinforced. After the participant demonstrated successful discrimination of the conditions (i.e., engagement in appropriate book play in the red condition only, as well as engagement in stereotypy in the green condition only), experimental sessions began. During intervention, upon meeting criterion for engaging in appropriate book play in the presence of red stimuli for a specified duration, the participant was provided access to stereotypy in the presence of green stimuli. The criterion duration of appropriate book play was systematically increased, and simultaneously the duration of access to the green stimuli was systematically decreased. Results indicated that access to stereotypy in the presence of green stimuli served as a reinforcer for appropriate book play. Stimulus control was generalized to the participant’s classroom and to a community setting (i.e., public library).
 
Examining the Effectiveness of a Two Phase DRO Intervention in Decreasing Vocal Stereotypy
SHARON A. REEVE (Caldwell College), David Mittermaier (Alternative Paths Training School), Tina Sidener (Caldwell College), Hannah E. Hoch (Rethink Autism)
Abstract: The current study investigated the use of a Differential Reinforcement of Other behavior (DRO) procedure in decreasing vocal stereotypy for four children with autism. A multiple-baseline across-participants design was used. DRO was initially implemented using a fixed interval schedule which was then systematically thinned and converted to a variable interval schedule in the following manner. The initial DRO interval duration was determined by taking the median inter-response time during baseline for each participant. Intervals were increased by 1/3 of the current interval duration contingent on the participant successfully completing three consecutive intervals without engaging in vocal stereotypy. Intervals were decreased by 1/3 of the current session’s interval duration contingent on the unsuccessful completion of three consecutive intervals. When the initial interval duration achieved was 10x the original interval, the interval duration schedule was altered from a fixed interval DRO to a variable interval DRO schedule. Session duration was also systematically increased based on each student’s success. The results indicated that levels of vocal stereotypy decreased for all participants under the fixed interval schedule of DRO and remained low when the variable interval schedule of DRO was implemented and session duration was increased. This study provides a systematic way to implement a DRO procedure by adjusting the DRO interval based on a student’s current behavior, as well as ways in which to thin the reinforcement schedule.
 
 
Symposium #216
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Interventions to Support Children with Autism In General Education Classrooms: Priming and Choral Responding
Sunday, May 30, 2010
1:30 PM–2:50 PM
202AB (CC)
Area: AUT/CSE; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Joel P. Hundert (Behaviour Institute)
CE Instructor: Steven Gordon, Ph.D.ABPP
Abstract: Without specific interventions, the placement of children with autism in general education classrooms is unlikely to result in improvement of their academic performance or social behaviors. Interventions to support children with autism in inclusive educational settings not only need to be effective, but also need to be practical to implement by educators in those settings. This symposium will present four studies that examined interventions to support children with autism in general education classrooms. One study will compare high to low similarity of the priming situation to the classroom situation on the academic performance of children with autism. A second study will compare the use of a single or multiple play partners in a priming situation on the subsequent impact on interactive play of children with autism during free play. A third study will examine the use of priming to teach children with autism to attend and respond to group-directed questions during teacher lessons. A final study will describe the use of use of choral responding by the classroom teacher to increase the response opportunities of all students in a class, including children with autism.
 
The Effect of Setting Similarity on Priming of Academic Performance of Children With Autism
JOEL P. HUNDERT (Behaviour Institute), Miranda Sim (Behaviour Institute), Alicia Ebert (McMaster University)
Abstract: Priming is a promising intervention to improve the academic performance of children with autism in general education classrooms not only because it has been found to be effective, but also because it does not involve time-consuming procedures being implemented by classroom personnel. However, it is unclear what variables are important to produce the priming effect. For example, in priming, a child with autism may be pre-taught academic work at home that he/she will encounter the next day at school. To what extent does the similarity of the priming situation (e.g., use of the same academic work materials) to the classroom situation influence the effectiveness of priming? This paper will present the results of a study in which two children with autism received priming either in their home by a tutor, using similar, but not identical academic work material or in a resource room at school conducted by their teacher assistant using the identical material as found in the classroom. The results indicated that greater improvement in the academic performance of children with autism occurred under the high-similarity condition.
 
Same or Multiple Play Partners in Priming of Peer Interaction of Children With Autism
DONNA C. CHANEY (Behaviour Institute), Joel P. Hundert (Behaviour Institute), Niki Van Riel (McMaster University)
Abstract: Children with autism show more immature forms of play, interact with peers less often and spend more time interacting with adults than their typically-developing peers. Priming has been used to increase spontaneous play initiations of preschoolers with autism in a general education classroom. Here, multiple play partners from the general education classroom are selected and practice interacting with the child with autism before the play session. Although priming has been shown to be effective for increasing sharing, it is unclear if using multiple, rather than a single peer play partner is important in obtaining effects. This paper will present the results of the study in which an alternative treatment design was used to compare the effects of same play partner or multiple play partners in priming peer interaction of children with autism. Although using the same play partner led to faster acquisition of taught play scripts, using multiple play partners resulted in more generalization of effects in the target setting.
 
The Use of Priming for Teaching Readiness Skills for Group Instruction for Children With Autism
MIRANDA SIM (Behaviour Institute), Joel P. Hundert (Behaviour Institute), Monika Wydra (Behaviour Institute), Amy Finkelstein (Behaviour Institute)
Abstract: One of the goals of including children with autism in general education classrooms is to increase their participation and learning during group instruction. However, placement of children with autism in general education classrooms has been associated with low occurrence of on-task behavior when teachers are presenting lessons. One strategy to increase on-task behavior and responding of children with autism during group instruction is to teach these skills specifically during priming sessions conducted at another time. Two children with autism received simulations of a class lesson as a dyad. During priming, the children received group instruction together and were prompted as well as reinforced for participation. The effect of this priming on the behavior of children with autism during group instruction was probed during baseline and after priming was introduced using a multiple baseline design. Priming resulted in improvement in the group instruction readiness skills of children with autism in the classroom environment.
 
The Effect of Choral Responding on Task Engagement of Children With Autism During Class Lessons
NICOLE WALTON-ALLEN (Behaviour Institute), Joel P. Hundert (Behaviour Institute), Sarah Greflund (McMaster University)
Abstract: A strong predictor of successful academic performance in a child with autism in a general education class is the amount of their active engagement in learning tasks. However, general education classroom instruction often consists of a teacher directing questions to the entire class during presented lessons. Questions directed to the entire class do not typically involve a high number of response opportunities for any one student. Low opportunities for responding may be particularly challenging for children with autism who may lack classroom readiness skills and academic knowledge at the level of the rest of the class. One strategy that may be effective in a general education classroom to increase response opportunities for all students, including students with autism in the class is the use of choral responding. In choral responding all students in the class learn to respond in unison when the teacher asks a question. This paper will present a study on the effect of choral responding during group instruction on the on-task behavior, correct responding, and disruptive behavior of children with autism.
 
 
Panel #218
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Assessing and Addressing Challenging Behavior for Students with ASD in the Inclusive Educational Setting
Sunday, May 30, 2010
1:30 PM–2:50 PM
204AB (CC)
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Jessica Slaton, M.Ed.
Chair: Mary Ellen McDonald (Hofstra University)
JOANNE SGAMBATI (Eden II Programs)
RUTH M. DONLIN (Private Practice)
NICOLE WEIDENBAUM (Nassau-Suffolk Services for Autism)
HESTER BEKISZ (The Genesis School)
Abstract: As the number of students being diagnosed with ASD increases dramatically we see more and more students with autism being educated in their public school. This panel will discuss the importance of behavior management interventions and supports for school staff in order to promote a comprehensive education for students with ASD. Interventions to improve performance will be discussed, such as the use of technology, the use of self-management and social skills training. Information on the assessment of specific needs and how to match these needs to the classroom will be shared. This talk will discuss the prevention and management of challenging behavior in the inclusive classroom. There will be an emphasis on proactive strategies, such as environmental manipulations, curricular revisions and teaching adaptations. Modification of data collection systems will also be discussed, as well as functional behavior assessment. Reactive strategies to challenging behavior will also be reviewed. Consistently across staff is important once a behavior intervention plan is finalized, how do you train staff? Staff training is an important component to an inclusive classroom; strategies to increase staff motivation will be reviewed.
 
 
Panel #233
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Professional Development Series: Prominent Women in Behavior Analysis
Sunday, May 30, 2010
1:30 PM–2:50 PM
201 (CC)
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CE Instructor: Lisa Britton, Ph.D.
Chair: Maranda Trahan (Southern Illinois University Carbondale)
JULIE S. VARGAS (B. F. Skinner Foundation)
JENNIFER J. MCCOMAS (University of Minnesota)
JENNIFER R. ZARCONE (University of Rochester Medical Center)
BRIDGET A. TAYLOR (Alpine Learning Group)
Abstract: Prominent women in behavior analysis will discuss their experiences in the field, challenges and achievements, and invite questions from attendees.
 
 
Symposium #252
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Treatment of Automatically Maintained Problem Behavior: Indirect Effects, Procedural Integrity Challenges, and Maintenance
Sunday, May 30, 2010
3:00 PM–4:20 PM
217A (CC)
Area: DDA/AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Rachel H. Thompson (Western New England College)
CE Instructor: Susan Wilczynski, Ph.D.
Abstract: Problem behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement remains a significant challenge for clinicians due difficulties in identifying, eliminating, and/or competing with the reinforcer for problem behavior. This symposium will address the treatment of automatically maintained problem behavior among individuals with developmental disabilities. Three papers demonstrate the effectiveness of several commonly used reductive strategies for automatically reinforced behavior including DRO, response blocking, and positive practice overcorrection. These papers also address practical concerns including the necessity of extinction, procedural integrity challenges, and positive and negative side effects of the interventions. In the fourth paper, researchers reduced problem stereotypy and increased appropriate engagement through the use of stereotypy as reinforcement for engagement. Sustained improvements in engagement were observed over several months of assessment. Together these papers identify effective and practical interventions for automatically reinforced problem behavior and address strategies for long term maintenance of treatment gains.
 
Indirect Effects of Positive Practice Overcorrection
LINDSAY C. PETERS (The New England Center for Children), Rachel H. Thompson (Western New England College)
Abstract: This study evaluated Positive Practice Overcorrection (PP OC) as a treatment for motor stereotypy and attempted to identify any indirect effects of the intervention. Two males with autism, 17- and 9-years-old, participated. All sessions were 5 min in duration; the session timer was paused during implementation of the overcorrection procedure. PP OC was implemented contingent upon motor stereotypy in a multiple-baseline design across conditions in which a high-preference (HP) activity and low-preference (LP) activity were presented individually. Overcorrection involved graduated guidance to engage with the available activity. Preference probes, in which both items (HP & LP) were concurrently available, were also conducted to evaluate relative preference for the HP and LP items. PP OC reduced stereotypy in the presence of both HP and LP activities for both participants. Appropriate engagement with the activities increased with the implementation of PP OC for only one participant. The implementation of the procedure did not appear to alter preferences for the activities prompted within the PPOC procedure.
 
A Longitudinal Study of Stereotypy as Reinforcement to Increase Functional Play Skills in Children Diagnosed with Autism
JACQUELINE N. POTTER (New England Center for Children), Gregory P. Hanley (Western New England College), Meredith C. Phelps (New England Center for Children)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to teach age-appropriate play skills to a child who engaged in high levels of stereotypic behavior that was non-injurious. A critical feature of our teaching strategy was that we used the child’s own stereotypy as a reward for engaging in successively more complex play behavior. A functional analysis was completed and showed that stereotypy persisted in the absence of social consequences. We then sequentially analyzed the effects of enriching the environment with activities, prompting engagement, blocking stereotypy, and allowing the child brief periods of time to engage in the stereotypy for engaging in progressively larger amounts of functional play. Inter-observer agreement data were collected during 33% of sessions, and all measures averaged over 80% agreement. Results showed increases in functional engagement and decreases in stereotypic behaviors only when all treatment components were present. More and qualitatively better play was then observed across three distinct activities when and only when requirements to access stereotypy were systematically altered over months of assessment.
 
Reducing Problem Behavior Maintained by Automatic Reinforcement Through a Variable Momentary DRO Procedure
KAREN A TOUSSAINT (Louisiana State University), Jeffrey H. Tiger (Louisiana State University)
Abstract: Variable-momentary differential reinforcement of other behavior (VMDRO) contingencies differ from traditional DRO contingencies in that reinforcement is delivered for the absence of a target behavior at a given moment in time (e.g., at second 10), as opposed to the absence of the target behavior for a specified time interval (e.g., from seconds 1 to 10). VMDRO contingencies are effective at reducing problem behavior when combined with extinction; however, extinction may not always be feasible to implement, particularly when problem behavior is maintained by automatic sources of reinforcement. The current investigation evaluated the efficacy of a VMDRO contingency for problem behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement when implemented without extinction. The results indicated that VMDRO without extinction may result in substantial reductions in problem behavior in some cases.
 
The Effects of Delays to Response Blocking When Used as Treatment for Problem Behavior Maintained by Automatic Reinforcement
MEGAN L. KLIEBERT (Louisiana State University), Jeffrey H. Tiger (Louisiana State University), Karen A Toussaint (Louisiana State University)
Abstract: Response blocking and interruption are common interventions for problem behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement in the treatment literature, but these interventions may be extremely challenging for caregivers to implement with fidelity (i.e., immediately blocking each instance). The effects of challenges to the procedural integrity of response blocking/interruption procedures upon the maintenance of treatment effects for problem behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement were evaluated by measuring aberrant behavior under several conditions including a baseline condition, an immediate response blocking condition, and a series of delayed response blocking conditions (i.e., 3-s, 15-s, and 30-s delays). The results indicated that even brief delays to implementing blocking and disruption severely compromised treatment efficacy.
 
 
Panel #262
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Providing Behavior Analyst Certification Board Supervision Within the University Setting
Sunday, May 30, 2010
3:00 PM–4:20 PM
Texas Ballroom Salon F (Grand Hyatt)
Area: TBA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CE Instructor: Abigail Calkin, Ph.D.
Chair: Erin Reed Young (Sam Houston State University)
BARBARA A. METZGER (Sam Houston State University)
JESSICA E. FRIEDER (Armstrong Atlantic State University)
CAROLE M. VAN CAMP (University of North Carolina, Wilmington)
CHERYL ANN FIELDING (University of Texas-Pan American)
Abstract: The Behavior Analyst Certification Board provides minimal guidelines for university professors on how to implement supervision of students in their field experience. While this allows for a lot of flexibility in designing a field experience that meets the needs of different programs, the paucity of guidelines also leads to a difficult challenge for the professor teaching the field experience course. Each panelist will briefly talk about how the field experience is arranged at their respective universities and highlight desirable and undesirable features. Also, panelists will relate problems they have encountered and how they were solved as well as provide tips to other field experience supervisors that will assist others in designing and teaching the field experience course. Course materials such as sample syllabi and field experience supervision contracts will be provided. The purpose of this discussion will be to share information and ideas with other providers of field experience supervision.
 
 
Symposium #283
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Safety Issues and Safety Skills Training With Children
Sunday, May 30, 2010
4:30 PM–5:50 PM
Texas Ballroom Salon C (Grand Hyatt)
Area: CBM/AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Raymond G. Miltenberger (University of South Florida)
Discussant: Jack Scott (Florida Atlantic University)
CE Instructor: Jose Rios, M.S.
Abstract: This symposium presents three papers related to safety skills with children with autism and safety skills training with typically developing children. The first paper by Miltenberger and colleagues is an evaluation of a commercially available DVD and parent conducted in situ training for teaching abduction prevention skills to typically developing children. The second paper by Beck and Miltenberger is a survey of safety concerns by parents and teachers of children with autism. The third paper by Scott and Flood talks about safety and unintended injury of children with autism and the application of behavior analysis to the problem. Jack Scott will comment on each of the three papers in his role as the discussant
 
Examining the Efficacy of the Safe Side Abduction Prevention Program and Parent Conducted In Situ Training
Raymond G. Miltenberger (University of South Florida), VICTORIA FOGEL (University of South Florida), Kimberly V. Beck (ABA Solutions, Inc.), Shannon S. Koehler (University of South Florida), Rachel K. Graves (University of South Florida), Jennifer A. Noah (University of South Florida), Krystal M. McFee (University of South Florida), Andrea N. Perdomo (University of South Florida)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Safe Side stranger safety DVD and in situ training conducted by parents for teaching abduction prevention skills to children. 27 children (6- to 8-years old) were randomly assigned to the Safe Side group or the control group. An in situ assessment was conducted with the control group and after training with the Safe Side group. For children who did not engage in the safety skills (say no, get away, and tell a parent when a stranger gets too close) during the assessment, parents conducted in situ training. A second in situ assessment evaluated the effects of in situ training for the control group and the Safe Side group. The results showed no difference between the control group and the Safe Side groups at the first assessment. However, both groups improved significantly at the second assessment. These results showed that the Safe Side DVD was not effective but that in situ training was effective for teaching abduction prevention skills.
 
A Survey of Safety Concerns of Parents and Teachers of Children With Autism
KIMBERLY V. BECK (ABA Solutions, Inc.), Raymond G. Miltenberger (University of South Florida)
Abstract: A survey of safety concerns related to children with autism was completed by parents and teachers of children with autism. The degree of concern with 11 potential safety threats was rated on a 1 (not at all concerned) to 7 (extremely concerned) scale. A florida sample of 225 parents ranked the safety threats from most to least concern as follows: child being ridiculed or bullied, pedestrian safety, abduction, sexual abuse by adult or peer, running away, drowning, poisoning, playing with matches, and firearm injury. For a Florida sample of 89 teachers the order of most to least concern was: ridicule by peers, pedestrian safety, being bullied, running away, sexual abuse by adult, drowning, playing with matches, abduction, poisoning, sexual abuse by peer, and firearm injury. For a California sample of 31 teachers the order of most to least concern was pedestrian safety, sexual abuse by adult, poisoning, abduction, running away, drowning, being bullied, playing with matches, sexual abuse by peer, firearm injury, ridicule by peers.
 
Safety and Unintentional Injury for Persons With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Targets for Behavior Analytic Intervention
JACK SCOTT (Florida Atlantic University), Bairbre Flood (Florida Atlantic University)
Abstract: This paper is a review of findings on the elevated risk status of persons with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Several common behaviors of persons with ASD increase their vulnerability to unintentional injury. Among these are fascination with certain settings or objects, deficits in communication and failure to appreciate safety rules and warnings, and a tendency to elope. Elopement coupled with access to water results in elevated risk for drowning. Drowning is the leading cause of unintentional death for children ages 1 to 4 and the second leading cause of unintentional death for children 5-14. Data from several sources point to the risk ratios being much higher for children with ASD for drowning and a number of other causes of death. Injury rates are correspondingly elevated. Behavior analysts have the technology to dramatically decrease the risk profile of persons with ASD. Behavioral skills training (BST) and other behavior analytic safety approaches offer ways to train caregivers to modify unsafe environments and increase the effectiveness of their supervision and to directly train persons with ASD in key safety skills. This presentation concludes with recommendations for aligning high-risk-of-death behaviors for persons with ASD with priorities for behavior analytic research and intervention.
 
 
Panel #284
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
The Seguin Forensics Program: A Prototype for the Evolution of Civil Behavior Change
Sunday, May 30, 2010
4:30 PM–5:50 PM
Seguin (Grand Hyatt)
Area: CSE/OBM; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Derek Reed, Ph.D.
Chair: Teresa A. Rodgers (Missouri Department of Mental Health Division of Developmental Disabilities)
KEVIN D. JACKSON (State of Florida)
ROBERT H. REED (Mentally Retarded Defendant Program)
MIKE R. STOUTIMORE (Missouri Department of Mental Health Division of Developmental Disabilities)
EMILY DICKENS (State of Florida)
Abstract: In 1989 a forensics program for men found incompetent to stand trial for allegedly committing a felony was born, the Seguin Unit. Twenty years later Seguin has experienced accolades and criticisms, gains and losses, improvements and worsenings, yet it continues to survive and thrive. In fact, the Seguin Unit may contain most of the fundamental components necessary to become a “Walden II” prototype for effective treatment in both community and secure settings. As a whole, the Seguin Unit has motivated, guided and strengthened the practices and individual behaviors of both staff and clients, while increasing community inclusion and maintaining the safety of self, others and communities. Panel participants will describe the past and present interacting and complementary components of this program across administrative and programmatic categories. The panel will suggest and discuss with the audience modifications and additional components that might improve the Seguin program, and discuss through audience participation a blueprint for modifying existing programs, or building new programs, to systematically replicate the new and improved, potentially prototypical, Seguin Unit.
 
 
Symposium #291
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Examination of Treatment Integrity on Client Outcomes
Sunday, May 30, 2010
4:30 PM–5:50 PM
Texas Ballroom Salon D (Grand Hyatt)
Area: EDC/DDA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Florence D. DiGennaro Reed (Melmark New England)
CE Instructor: John Eshleman, Ed.D.
Abstract: Treatment integrity refers to the extent to which an intervention is implemented as designed and is an area of research gaining increased interest. This symposium highlights four talks that share advances in treatment integrity research regarding its impact on client outcomes. The first talk presents findings from a study investigating the effects of errors of commission during discrete trial instruction on student performance. Next, the impact of types of integrity failures on a writing task will be presented. In the third presentation, the effects of errors of omission and commission during implementation of a fixed-time schedule of reinforcement will be shared. The symposium concludes with a talk that presents results of two literature reviews summarizing impact of treatment integrity on client outcomes. Presenters will discuss implications of their findings in educational and clinical settings.
 
Effects of Errors of Commission During Discrete Trial Teaching on Student Performance
FLORENCE D. DIGENNARO REED (Melmark New England), Derek D. Reed (Melmark New England), Helena Maguire (Melmark New England), Cynthia N. Catania (Melmark New England)
Abstract: Previous research has demonstrated that systematically varying levels of treatment integrity impacts student performance (Wilder, Atwell, & Wine, 2006). The purpose of this presentation is to share findings from a study that assessed the effects of systematic changes in levels of treatment integrity by altering errors of commission (i.e., reinforcer delivery at inappropriate times) during error correction procedures as part of discrete trial teaching. Specifically, we taught receptive nonsense shapes under three conditions (0%, 50%, or 100% integrity) using a multi-element design. Students exhibited higher levels of performance during perfect implementation. Performance was low and showed no differentiation in the remaining conditions. Findings suggest that 50% integrity is as detrimental as 0% integrity on student performance.
 
An Evaluation of Integrity Failures During Token Economies with Students With Autism
ALLISON TETREAULT (West Virginia University), Claire St. Peter Pipkin (West Virginia University), Tonya M. Marsteller (West Virginia University), Mia Caccavale (West Virginia University)
Abstract: In a previous study, we examined the impact of errors of commission (unscheduled reinforcers delivered) and omission (scheduled reinforcers not delivered) on academic behavior maintained by token economies with six typically developing students. Treatment integrity failures did not affect response rate, but the quality of the compositions decreased during some of the failure phases. In the current investigation, we examined the effects of treatment integrity errors on the writing of students diagnosed with autism. We exposed students to baseline, a token system with full integrity (implemented perfectly), and reduced levels of integrity with both errors of omission and commission in a multiple-baseline-across-participants design. The reduced integrity conditions produced few detrimental effects on rate of writing. However, all students exhibited textual stereotypy (e.g., excessive repetition of words and phrases within the composition) when treatment integrity errors occurred, and this stereotypy maintained with the return to 100% integrity conditions. These findings suggest that, while token systems may maintain a consistent rate of behavior regardless of integrity of implementation, the effect on quality of writing may produce substantial negative side effects for students with autism that may require specific intervention to reverse.
 
Treatment Integrity Failures During Fixed-Time Schedules of Reinforcement
Claire St. Peter Pipkin (West Virginia University), ELLEN NICOLE BROSH (West Virginia University)
Abstract: Research on treatment integrity failures has found that errors of commission, accidently reinforcing problem behavior, are more detrimental to treatment outcomes than errors of omission, accidently failing to reinforce appropriate behavior. Little is known however, about the impact of treatment integrity failures during fixed-time schedules of reinforcement (FT). Although FT schedules are often easier to implement than other reinforcement-based schedules, they may not always be implemented as planned. The current study examined the differential effects of errors of omission, errors of commission, and a combination of these errors on responding maintained by FT schedules of reinforcement. Response rates were compared during baseline, omission errors, commission errors, and blended errors (omission and commission errors). Response rates were higher during blended and commission errors than omission errors. The results indicate that treatment integrity failures have differential effects on responding, in that errors of commission and blended errors are more detrimental to treatment outcome than errors of omission.
 
Examining the Role of Treatment Integrity for Practitioners
NICOLE C. GROSKREUTZ (Utah State University), Timothy A. Slocum (Utah State University)
Abstract: Since practitioners typically have too many responsibilities, it is important to identify when the benefits of collecting treatment integrity data outweigh the costs of the time and effort required to collect those data. We propose that, in practice, the decision to monitor treatment integrity is driven by client outcomes, with assessment of treatment integrity becoming important (1) when client outcomes are not as desired, or (2) when client outcomes are exceptionally good and practitioners wish to identify the controlling variables. Two separate segments of literature were reviewed to inform our understanding of the relationship between treatment integrity and client outcomes. The first review included a small number of studies in which treatment integrity was experimentally manipulated, as the effects on client outcomes were measured. The second review included 37 studies from the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis in which levels of treatment integrity were manipulated, and treatment integrity and client outcomes were both reported as dependent measures. The importance of treatment integrity to practice will be discussed, while considering treatment integrity to be a multi-dimensional, complicated construct that should not be over-simplified when reviewing the literature.
 
 
Symposium #350
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Functional Analyses and Treatment Analyses in School- and Home-Based Settings
Monday, May 31, 2010
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
203AB (CC)
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Donald M. Stenhoff (BISTA Autism Center)
Discussant: Thomas S. Higbee (Utah State University)
CE Instructor: Frank Bird, M.Ed.
Abstract: When working with individuals in applied settings it is often necessary to conduct experimental analyses in the setting in which the behavior occurs. Natural settings for individuals may include home and school environments. Experimental analyses conducted in these settings may capture relevant antecedent or consequence stimuli affecting an individual’s behavior. This information is important as behavior analysts develop effective treatment plans for students or clients. Function-based interventions that are derived from experimental analyses are typically more effective than interventions that are based on other assessments. Thus, it is imperative that a function derived from experimental analyses is used to inform the behavior analyst’s treatment design. In this symposium, three studies will be presented that include individuals with autism and other developmental disabilities. Two of the studies were conducted in a school environment, and one of the studies was conducted in a home and clinical environment. The outcomes of the studies indicated that DNRA, DRA, and the use of a parent as an intervention agent were successful in changing the participants’ behaviors.
 
A Functional Analysis on the Aggressive and Destructive Behavior of a Boy With Autism in the Context of Parent Child Communication Patterns
MARIA F. WYNNE (STAR, Inc.), Douglas Moes (STAR, Inc.)
Abstract: Best practices and recent changes to entitlement services (i.e., Lanterman Act) require that parents actively participate in the assessment and intervention process when addressing the needs of children with autism who exhibit challenging behavior. These conditions necessitate effective parent and non-public agency collaboration. Within this collaboration, key components that are necessary to ensure resolution of severe problem behaviors are (1) the development of a technically sound and contextually relevant behavioral intervention plan, and (2) parent implementation of the behavior intervention plan within typical parent-child interactions. In this study, an alternating treatments design was utilized to evaluate the effects of parent implementation of a behavior intervention plan derived from a functional analysis conducted in both the home and in a clinical setting. Responsibility for implementation of the BIP was assumed by the parent using an active learner model that monitored fidelity of implementation over time. Results are discussed in terms of achieving meaningful improvements in the quality of parent-child interactions for this family.
 
Functional Analysis and Treatment of Self-Injury and Aggression in a Private Day School
CHRISTINA BAROSKY (ACCEL), Bryan J. Davey (ACCEL), Rebecca Renee Wiskirchen (ACCEL)
Abstract: This study addresses the efficacy of a comprehensive functional analysis and treatment of self-injury and aggression at a private day school. The descriptive assessment indicated that both self-injury and aggression were being maintained by positive reinforcement in the form of attention and negative reinforcement in the form of escape. Due to the severity of the self-injurious behavior, the decision was made to assess this behavior. Functional analysis results showed higher rates of self-injury during the escape condition. While the functional analysis did not specifically address aggression, data showed that aggression also occurred at a higher rate during the escape condition. Treatment was implemented across two therapists and two settings. The systematic use of functional communication training (FCT), 3-step prompting, and differential negative reinforcement of alternative behavior (DNRA) where selected based on the functional analysis outcome. Treatment analysis results indicated the treatment package reduced self-injury and aggression across both therapists and settings.
 
Functional Analysis of Inappropriate Behavior in a Classroom Setting During Preferred and Nonpreferred Activities
REBECCA RENEE WISKIRCHEN (ACCEL), Christina Barosky (ACCEL), Bryan J. Davey (ACCEL)
Abstract: The current study addresses results obtained from a classroom-based functional analysis of inappropriate behavior during preferred and non-preferred activities at a private special education school. Both functional analyses included an escape, attention, and free-play (control) condition. The initial functional analysis was conducted during a non-preferred activity (morning meeting). Combined inappropriates (aggression and elopement) were highest during the escape condition, indicating that combined inappropriates were negatively reinforced during a non-preferred activity. It was hypothesized that during a preferred activity, combined inappropriates would be highest during the attention condition. However, in the second functional analysis conducted during a preferred activity (Arts and Crafts/Play Time), inappropriate behavior was highest during the escape condition. Results from the functional analysis and direct assessment data were used to develop a treatment plan that included a differential negative reinforcement of alterative behaviors (DNRA) as well as differential reinforcement of alternative behaviors (DRA) using a token economy to increase intervals between play breaks. Treatment results were positive. Discussion points will include the analysis of the treatment package as well as the use of booster sessions prior to treatment sessions to train the token economy. Issues surrounding classroom based functional analyses will also be discussed.
 
 
Invited Symposium #355
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
A Range of Disciplines, a Range of Evidence, and Can We Nurture Our Enviroment Through Behavioral Science
Monday, May 31, 2010
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
103AB (CC)
Area: CSE/OBM; Domain: Theory
Chair: Michael Weinberg (Orlando Behavior Health Services, LLC)
Discussant: Michael Weinberg (Orlando Behavior Health Services, LLC)
CE Instructor: Patrick McGreevy, Ph.D.
Abstract: This is an 80-minute symposiusm for a group of two separate invited events.
 
A Range of Disciplines, a Range of Evidence: Behavioral Practices in Multiple Disciplines
PHILIP N. CHASE (Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies)
Abstract: Many opportunities are afforded behaviorists today because people respond positively to our science. Managers and workers recognize the importance of behavioral safety. Parents, pediatricians, and teachers opt for behavioral treatment plans for people with autism and developmental disabilities. Zoos and pet owners hire behaviorists to solve problems related to human interaction with other animals. But as Neuringer (1991) warned, we need to be humble about what we know and do not know, and part of this humility involves being as skeptical of our own work as we are of others (Chase, 1991). Behaviorists’ skepticism comes naturally from our research traditions: we are skeptical of practices that are not evidence-based. But evidence is not sufficient, we need to collect evidence on outcomes the culture values. After all, behaviorists are pragmatists, seeking practices that work successfully. This pragmatism extends to the kinds of evidence we collect, and if our evidence is not valued by the culture, the practices they support will not survive. Because the evidence that is valued varies from discipline to discipline (e.g., what works in autism may not work in health), we need to prepare ourselves with the tools of evidence used by the variety of disciplines we hope to influence. The integration of these tools is critical to our success in the world at large.
Dr. Chase has a Ph.D. in Psychology from the University of Massachusetts -Amherst, where he studied with Beth Sulzer-Azaroff, and John Donahoe, and was influenced by a host of UMASS behavior analysts. He has conducted research on the basic environmental processes that facilitate problem solving and conceptual behavior. He has applied behavioral findings to the design of curricula for learning mathematics and other problem-solving repertoires. He has served as an editor, associate editor, and reviewer for many journals, including a three-year stint as Editor of The Behavior Analyst. He has co-organized a number of international scientific conferences, and reviewed grants for four US federal agencies. Dr. Chase received a Fulbright Scholarship to study rule governance in Italy and a Benedum Distinguished Scholar Award from West Virginia University. He is currently employed as the Executive Director of the Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies.
 
Nurturing Environments: A Framework for Comprehensive Cultural Change
ANTHONY BIGLAN (Oregon Research Institute)
Abstract: Epidemiological and prevention research has helped to pinpoint a small number of basic conditions that are essential in ensuring young people’s successful development and preventing diverse psychological and behavioral problems. It is useful to label these conditions "nurturing environments," both for the purpose of further research and in enhancing efforts to improve human wellbeing. Nurturing environments (a) minimize toxic biological and psychological conditions, (b) richly reinforce prosocial behavior, (c) teach and promote prosocial skills and values, (d) limit prompts and opportunities for problem behavior, and (e) promote psychological flexibility. I will briefly review the prevention and epidemiological research that supports these assertions. The analysis will provide a framework for focusing further behavioral science research on increasing the prevalence of nurturing family, school, workplace, and neighborhood environments. I will describe how a concerted public health effort can achieve this type of cultural evolution. I will use the Promise Neighborhood Consortium as an example. The goal of this recently funded consortium is to assist the nation’s high-poverty communities in establishing effective prevention practices.
Dr. Biglan has conducted numerous experimental evaluations of interventions to prevent tobacco use both through school-based programs and community-wide interventions. He has also done experimental evaluations of school- and family-focused interventions to prevent aggressive social behavior and reading failure, as well as clinical interventions to prevent high-risk sexual behavior. During the 2000-2001 school year, Dr. Biglan led a team of scholars in a review of current knowledge about the development and prevention of multiple problem behaviors of adolescence (Biglan, Brennan, Foster, & Holder, 2004). He is the author of the 1995 book, Changing Cultural Practices: A contextualist framework for intervention research, published by Context Press. His current work focuses on fostering the beneficial evolution of societal practices using behavioral science knowledge.
 
 
Symposium #356
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Advances in Precursor Analyses to Identify the Operant Functions of Behavior Disorders
Monday, May 31, 2010
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
217A (CC)
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Richard G. Smith (University of North Texas)
Discussant: Brian A. Iwata (University of Florida)
CE Instructor: Carin Thompson, M.Ed.
Abstract: A recent extension of functional analysis methodology is precursor assessment (e.g., Smith & Churchill, 2002), in which the operant function of severe behavior disorders is inferred based on the outcomes of a functional analysis of milder forms of behavior that are observed to occur just prior to the severe behavior. The papers in this symposium address issues related to the identification of precursor behaviors, the relationship between precursor and more severe behavior, and the utility of clinic-based precursor assessment for developing treatments that can be implemented and evaluated in natural environments.
 
Formal and Functional Characteristics of Precursors to Problem Behavior
TARA A. FAHMIE (University of Florida), Brian A. Iwata (University of Florida)
Abstract: Several studies have examined the relation between precursor and problem behavior in the context of assessment and treatment. Research has shown that precursor and more severe problem behaviors often are members of the same response class (e.g., Smith & Churchill, 2002) and that precursor responses may be substituted for high-risk severe behaviors in a functional analysis. The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between precursor and severe problem behavior along two dimensions: response topography and response function. Theoretical and practical implications, along with potential areas of future research, will be discussed.
 
Evaluation of Precursor Selection Methods During Structured Assessment
JENNIFER N. FRITZ (University of Houston-Clear Lake), Carly Compagnari (University of Houston-Clear Lake), Daniel LeSage (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
Abstract: Previous studies have shown that severe problem behavior often is preceded by relatively milder forms of behavior, and these “precursors” are often part of the same response class as the more severe behaviors. Precursors have been identified through descriptive analyses (DA), but this typically requires numerous occurrences of severe problem behavior before the response-response relationship is determined. Furthermore, initial descriptions and definitions of precursors assessed in DAs have largely relied on caregiver report or informal observation. Only one study to date has empirically identified precursors using a trial-based assessment. The trial-based assessment was able to accurately identify precursors that were in the same response class as the more severe problem behavior, as shown in subsequent functional analyses (FA), while minimizing risks posed by the severe behaviors. One limitation of that study, however, was that not all precursors initially identified during the trial-based assessment were observed during the subsequent FA. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to evaluate different data analysis methods in order to identify precursors likely to occur during the FA. To date, three individuals diagnosed with developmental disabilities have participated and the various methods have yielded different results. Additional data will be collected.
 
Progressing From Functional Analysis of Precursor Behavior to Treatment of Self-Injury
JOSEPH DRACOBLY (University of North Texas), Richard G. Smith (University of North Texas), Nathan Lyon (University of North Texas), Claire Anderson (University of North Texas), Christine Marie Mosso (University of North Texas)
Abstract: An evaluation of the utility of assessing and treating severe problem behavior through precursor functional analysis was completed. Previous research has suggested that the analysis of precursor behaviors may be an effective, albeit indirect method of assessing severe problem behavior. However, previous studies have not included ongoing measurement of the problem behavior in the natural environment, which permits a direct evaluation of the effectiveness of precursor-based interventions to treat problem behavior. In the current study, ongoing measurement of problem behavior in two settings in the participant’s natural environment was conducted for the duration of the study. A precursor to self-injurious behavior was identified using descriptive assessment and conditional probability analyses. An analogue precursor functional analysis was then conducted. Subsequently, a treatment in which precursor behavior produced the maintaining variable identified in precursor assessment was implemented in the natural environment. Treatment was implemented in one of the natural settings, resulting in increases in measures the precursor behavior and decreases in self-injury in both the treatment setting as well as the second setting in which observations occurred.
 
 
Symposium #358
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Reducing Restraint: Some Practical Strategies for Children With Severe Challenging Behavior
Monday, May 31, 2010
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
217B (CC)
Area: DDA/EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Jonathan Seaver (The New England Center for Children)
CE Instructor: Kathleen McCabe-Odri, Ed.D.
Abstract: Physical restrain is often used to safely manage dangerous aggressive and self-injurious behavior exhibited by some children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Although physical restraints may be effective in many cases, they are not without risk and are subject to abuse. Safely and effectively reducing or eliminating the use of physical restraints, however, can present considerable practical challenges. This symposium contains four papaers. One paper discusses the elimination of physical restrain through the use of an alternative intervention. The second paper discusses the gradual fading and elimination of physical restraints. The third paper discusses the reduction of the use of physical restraints through behavioral programming and medication. The final paper discuses the elimination of restraint through simply not doing it. Each paper discusses the considerations involved in each approach to eliminating or reducing physical restraints, as well as the risks and benefits. Case studies are used to illustrate successful implementation of each approach. Overall, these papers demonstrate that physical restraint can be safely reduced or eliminated even in cases involving difficult to treat dangerous behavior, but not without risks and costs.
 
Reducing Physical Restraint Through the Use of Alternative Interventions
JONATHAN SEAVER (The New England Center for Children)
Abstract: Physical restraint is often used as an intervention for children who engage in severe self-injury. Fading or eliminating physical restraint may be especially difficult in these cases as (a) physical restraint may function as a reinforcer for some children, (b) physical restraint may be a functional replacement for self-restraint, and (c) alternatives to physical restraint may expose the children to significant risks of injury from their own behavior. The use of equipment may reduce the self-injurious behavior and thereby reduce the frequency of physical restraint. In this paper, data on physical restraint and self-injury are presented from several cases involving the use of arm splints to reduce self-injury. Procedures for using the splints are reviewed and risks and benefits are discussed.
 
Reducing Physical Restraint Through Systematic Fading
KELLY L MCCONNELL (New England Center for Children), Leah L Bean (New England Center for Children), Paula Ribeiro Braga-Kenyon (New England Center for Children)
Abstract: Although physical restraint is used to safely manage aggressive and self-injurious behavior, even under the best circumstances physical restraint carries the risk of harming those it is used to protect. For this reason as well as others, the reduction or elimination of physical restraint is a common goal for schools and agencies using such measures. One method for reducing and eventually eliminating restraint is to systematically fade dimensions of the restraint. The intrusiveness of a physical restraint may be faded by reducing the form of restraint and/or the number of people implementing the restraint, as well as by reducing the duration of the restraint. In this paper, data from several cases on the systematic fading of restraint is reviewed. Procedures for determining how and when to fade are reviewed, and the risks and benefits of this procedure are discussed.
 
Reducing Physical Restraint Through Behavioral Programming and Medication
MAEVE G. MEANY (The New England Center for Children), Allen J. Karsina (The New England Center for Children)
Abstract: Severe aggressive and self-injurious behavior can result in life-long injuries, social isolation, reduced opportunities, and lower quality of life for the individuals who exhibit such behavior. When the use of applied behavior analytic techniques alone do not eliminate or significantly reduce dangerous behavior, the use of behavioral medication may be warranted, especially if physical restraints are necessary to protect the individual and/or his or her care-givers. In this paper, several cases in which behavioral programming and medications have been correlated with a significant decrease in dangerous behavior and physical restraint are presented. The risks and benefits of the use of medication are reviewed, and future directions for research are discussed.
 
Reducing Physical Restraint Through Simply Not Doing It: Risks and Benefits
SORREL RYAN (The New England Center for Children), Shawn E. Kenyon (New England Center for Children), Myrna E. Libby (New England Center for Children)
Abstract: Schools and agencies are faced with increasing pressure to reduce or eliminate the use of physical restraints to manage dangerous aggressive or self-injurious behavior. However, there is very little empirical guidance for how these schools and agencies should best proceed. In some cases, it may be that criteria for restraint is too conservative, resulting in unnecessary restraints. In these cases, the criteria can be adjusted so that implementation of restraint becomes rare or non-existent. In this paper, considerations for determining appropriate criteria for restraint are examined, and several such cases are presented. The risks and benefits of this procedure are discussed.
 
 
Symposium #370
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Testing a Computer-Based Protocol for the Assessment of Generative Verbal Behavior in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders
Monday, May 31, 2010
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
214C (CC)
Area: VRB/AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Siri Morris Ming (VB3)
Discussant: Caio F. Miguel (California State University, Sacramento)
CE Instructor: Michelle Duda, Ph.D.
Abstract: A key aspect of verbal behavior, and one that is at the core of communication deficits for children with autism, is generativity—put simply, the ability to produce or understand totally new sentences. Relational Frame Theory (RFT) provides new insight into the issue of generativity, by conceptualizing the core skill in language as learned contextually controlled relational responding (referred to as relational framing). Whereas typically developing children learn relational framing through exposure to natural language, children with ASD do not, and thus show deficits in both relational framing ability and generativity. Nevertheless, empirical evidence also shows that children with ASD can benefit from explicit training of this repertoire. This symposium introduces a novel computer-based protocol (Training & Assessment of Relational Precursors & Abilities; TARPA) designed to allow for the assessment and training of a progression of key skills critical to the development of advanced flexible relational framing and hence generative language. We describe the background to and initial development of the TARPA protocol along with the current state and future direction of our research, explain the core stages in the protocol, and discuss the results of initial pilot testing of this protocol with both children with ASD and typically developing children.
 
Training and Assessing Relational Framing Precursors and Abilities: An introduction to the Training and Assessment of Relational Precursors and Abilities
IAN T. STEWART (National University of Ireland, Galway)
Abstract: Relational Frame Theory conceptualizes the core skill in language as learned contextually controlled relational responding (referred to as relational framing). The Training and Assessment of Relational Precursors and Abilities (TARPA) is a novel computer-based protocol designed to allow for the assessment and training of a progression of key skills critical to the development of advanced flexible relational framing and hence generative language. The hierarchical ordering and content of the stages and levels of the TARPA is based on relevant theory and research. In this paper, the background to and initial development of the TARPA protocol will be described, along with an explanation of a number of core stages in this protocol including basic discrimination, conditional discrimination with similarity, conditional discrimination with non-similarity, mutually entailed relational responding, combinatorial entailed relational responding, and transformation of function. A brief overview of the current state and future direction of our program of research will be provided.
 
Assessing Relational Framing Precursors and Abilities of Typically Developing Children
SIRI MORRIS MING (VB3), Carey A. Burgess (Play ABA)
Abstract: The Training and Assessment of Relational Precursors and Abilities (TARPA) is a novel computer-based protocol designed to allow for the assessment and training of a progression of key skills critical to the development of relational framing and hence generative language. Standardized assessment tools have played a very important role in other domains within behavior analysis and psychology more broadly by providing a normative baseline of age appropriate responding that serves both applied as well as basic science purposes. One of the aims of the TARPA research is to provide a standardized tool for the assessment and training of relational framing abilities themselves and of the precursor skills supporting those abilities. Previous research including Lipkens & Hayes (1993) and Luciano, Gomez & Rodriguez (2007) has tracked the emergence of derived relational responding skills in young typically developing infants. This research has indicated potential developmental sequences of relational framing precursors and skills. In this paper, initial results of pilot testing of the TARPA protocol with a number of typically developing young children in the age range 1-2 years will be discussed with respect to confirmation of the expected hierarchical sequencing of skills assessed by this protocol and correlation with other developmental measures.
 
Assessing Relational Framing Precursors and Abilities of Children With Autism
JOHN D. MCELWEE (Pennsylvania Verbal Behavior Project), Tara Jane Rice (Chrysalis Academy; Play ABA), Ken Smith (Pennsylvania Colonial Intermediate Unit 20)
Abstract: Relational Frame Theory conceptualizes the core skill in language as learned contextually controlled relational responding referred to as relational framing. Whereas typically developing children learn relational framing through exposure to natural language, children with ASD do not, and thus show deficits in both relational framing ability and generativity. Nevertheless, empirical evidence also shows that children with ASD can benefit from explicit training of this repertoire. The TARPA is a novel computer based protocol for the assessment and training of relational framing in young children with ASD. The hierarchical ordering and content of the stages and levels of this protocol is based on relevant theory and research. The aim of the work reported here was to evaluate the TARPA as an assessment tool. Initial results with respect to the hierarchical ordering of the stages and levels of the TARPA, correlations with other language measures, and patterns of performance of children with autism will be discussed and compared with results of testing with typically developing children.
 
 
Panel #402
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
The Applied Behavior Analysis Crusades: Notes From the Front Lines
Monday, May 31, 2010
11:00 AM–11:50 AM
Seguin (Grand Hyatt)
Area: CSE/TBA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CE Instructor: Jessica Everett, Ph.D.
Chair: Janet L. Montgomery (Florida Institute of Technology)
KRISTIN K. MYERS (Florida Tech)
COREY L. ROBERTSON (Florida Institute of Technology)
CINDY SCHMITT (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: B. F. Skinner saw the potential for world change in what he had discovered regarding human behavior. In the 21st century, applied behavior analysis (ABA) is gaining worldwide recognition and acceptance, mostly due to its implications for autism and developmental disabilities. However the reach of ABA does not stop there, and it is important to broadcast successful application in business, education, homeland security, parent training, and more. As Applied Behavior Analysis is a natural science of human behavior, any movement to spread the knowledge and use of the principles of ABA ethically requires proper training. In this panel, we propose three cornerstones of the crusade for ABA: Dissemination, Education, and Supervision. In addition, we share where the field is now, what some are currently doing, and what we need to do to ensure Applied Behavior Analysis becomes part of 21st century culture.
 
 
Symposium #415
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Social and Communicative Interventions for Individuals With Autism or Developmental Disabilities
Monday, May 31, 2010
1:30 PM–2:50 PM
204AB (CC)
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Mandy J. Rispoli (Texas A & M University)
CE Instructor: John Pokrzywinski, M.A.
Abstract: In this symposium we present recent research regarding social and communicative interventions for persons with autism spectrum disorders and developmental disabilities. The first paper provides a review of the literature involving the use of speech generating devices to teach communication skills to individuals with developmental disabilities. Results highlight areas of future research and implications for practitioners. The second paper investigates the use of video modeling to teach appropriate social interaction behaviors to college students with high functioning autism or Asperger’s syndrome. Implications for future research and clinical practice are provided. The third paper evaluates self-monitoring for decreasing inappropriate social behaviors for two boys with autism. Results demonstrate reduction in each target behavior. Finally, the fourth paper provides a meta-analysis of single case research on the use of augmentative and alternative communication with individuals who have autism spectrum disorders. Data are analyzed using an effect size analysis, the Improvement Rate Difference.
 
Speech Generating Devices in Communication Interventions for Individuals With Developmental Disabilities: A Review of the Literature
SIGLIA PIMENTEL HÏ¿½HER (Texas A & M University), Mandy J. Rispoli (Texas A & M University), Jessica Hetlinger Franco (San Antonio Autism Community Network), Russell Lang (University of California, Santa Barbara)
Abstract: The use of Speech Generating Devices is a popular means for teaching communication skills to persons with developmental disabilities. We reviewed studies published between 1989 and 2009 involving the use of Speech Generating Devices (SGD) in communication interventions for individuals with developmental disabilities. The purpose of this review was to examine how and with whom SGD training for communication has occurred in intervention studies. Systematic searches of electronic databases, journals, and reference lists identified 46 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. These studies were evaluated for participant characteristics, SGD characteristics, targeted communication skills, intervention procedures, outcomes, and certainty of evidence. Targeted communication skills included requesting, labeling, receptive language skills, and spontaneous communication. Positive outcomes were reported for the majority of the reviewed studies. Overall, this literature base supports the use of SGDs with simple programming for individuals with limited functional communication skills. Recommendations for future research and clinical practice will be provided.
 
The Use of Video Modeling to Teach Social Behaviors to College Students With Autism Spectrum Disorders
ROSE A. MASON (Texas A&M University), Mandy J. Rispoli (Texas A & M University), Jennifer B. Ganz (Texas A&M University)
Abstract: The social impairments characteristic of individuals identified with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) result in challenges in successfully maneuvering both familiar environments and new environments with novel experiences and expectations. Despite the growing numbers of individuals with ASD who participate in post-secondary education (Smith, 2007), the research base for interventions to assist with successful integration into college life is scant. Video modeling, which has been demonstrated to be an effective intervention for improving social skills in children and adolescents with ASD, lacks empirical support for use with post-secondary individuals with ASD. The purpose of this study to investigate the effect of video modeling on social interaction skills for post-secondary students with ASD and to compare modifications of video modeling interventions on the acquisition and/or generalization of appropriate social behaviors, utilizing a multiple baseline design across participants. This paper will present the results of this study, for which the data is currently being collected. Further, the presenters will discuss findings and implications for future research.
 
Improving Social Behavior of Individuals with Autism Through the Use of Self-Monitoring
AMY KATHLEEN HEATH (Texas A & M University), Jennifer B. Ganz (Texas A&M University), John Davis (Texas A & M University)
Abstract: Self-monitoring is an antecedent strategy which allows individuals to monitor their own behavior or learning. Individuals are taught to collect data on their own behavior by comparing their engagement in a target behavior with pre-established criteria. This study examined the use of a self-monitoring procedure on the social behaviors of two boys with autism spectrum disorders. Specific target behaviors included decreasing duration of talking about preferred topics in a conversation and decreasing the duration of playing with his tongue for the two participants, respectively. Participants were taught to assess if they were engaged in the target behavior on a FI 30 sec schedule with the assistance of a MotivAider ®. A multiple-baseline design was used to demonstrate experimental control. Data were collected on frequency of statements, questions or preferred topic discussions that occurred within a 5 minute conversation for the first participant and the frequency of tongue play for the second participant. Results showed improvement in the target behavior for both participants. These results suggest that self-monitoring may be an effective means of improving social behaviors for students with autism spectrum disorder. Suggestions for future research and implications for practice will be discussed.
 
A Meta-Analytic Application of IRD to Evaluate Augmentative and Alternative Communication Systems with Individuals with Autism
JENNIFER B. GANZ (Texas A&M University), Theresa Earles-Vollrath (University of Central Missouri), Amy Kathleen Heath (Texas A & M University), Richard I. Parker (Texas A & M University), Mandy J. Rispoli (Texas A & M University), Jaime Duran (Texas A & M University)
Abstract: Many individuals with autism cannot speak or cannot speak intelligibly. A variety of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) approaches to address these deficits have been investigated. However, most of the research on these approaches has been single-case research, with small numbers of participants. The purpose of this investigation was to meta-analyze the single case research on the use of AAC; including the Picture Exchange Communication System, other picture-based AAC interventions, and speech-generating devices; with individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Twenty-four single-case studies were analyzed. The participants included in these studies were individuals of all ages who had an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis, sometimes along with additional diagnoses (e.g., developmental disability, sensory impairment). The data is currently being analyzed using an effect size analysis, the Improvement Rate Difference. Results will be reported by six overarching variables: intervention, dependent variable, setting, age range, iconicity of AAC symbols, and diagnostic category. Implications will be discussed.
 
 
Symposium #416
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Scaling Up: Intervention Models for Students With Autism From Classroom to State
Monday, May 31, 2010
1:30 PM–2:50 PM
202AB (CC)
Area: AUT/EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Diane M. Sainato (The Ohio State University)
CE Instructor: Bryan Crisp, M.A.
Abstract: Four papers will be presented. We will highlight the results of data based efforts to provide intervention programs for students with autism from those focusing on individual children to those making an impact at the state level. Hudson and Schwartz will offer a paper examining a study on increasing social interactions of preschool children with autism using a conversation flip book. Sainato, Jung, Morrison, and Axe will detail the findings of Project TASK, an inclusive kindergarten program for children with autism and typical peers while Davis, Schwartz and Williams will describe their project examining the use of teams to assist teachers in the identification and delivery of services to students with ASD in two school districts. Finally, Garfinkle will provide an overview of Montana’s three-year statewide program of intensive behavioral intervention for young children with autism. Implications for service delivery and future directions for research will be discussed.
 
Increasing Social Interactions of Young Students With Autism: Effectiveness of a Conversational Flipbook
DEBBY HUDSON (Seattle Pacific University), Ilene S. Schwartz (University of Washington)
Abstract: With the ever increasing number of children being diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) now 1 in 91 (National Institutes of Health, 2009), the need for effective, sustainable and low cost intervention for language and social skills, major core deficits of ASD, is a priority in providing support for children, teachers, and families. This study implemented a low technology communication device, the Conversation Flip Book (CFB), to facilitate conversation between three preschool children with ASD and their typically developing classmates. A multiple –probe baseline across subjects was used to assess the effectiveness of the specific conversation training on interaction and behavior between children with disabilities and their typically developing peers. The results of the training with the Conversation Flip Book (CFB) did prove to facilitate conversation skills for all three target children during free choice time. All three target children were able to maintain conversation skills at follow up when the training was withdrawn and two of the children were able to generalize the skills to other settings and people. Due to time constraints, generalization data was not taken on the third child.
 
Project Task: Transition for Children With Autism to School From Kindergarten
DIANE M. SAINATO (The Ohio State University), Sunhwa Jung (Otterbein College), Rebecca Morrison (Oakstone Academy), Judah Axe (Simmons College)
Abstract: Project TASK was to developed and evaluated a comprehensive program for kindergarten children with autism. A total of 42 children with autism from the model program and 21 students with autism recruited from four local school districts participated. Results included an increase in scores on standardized assessments across all areas and improved levels of appropriate engagement in observed classroom activities as compared to the comparison subjects. Standardized assessments for receptive and expressive language, cognitive functioning, social behavior, adaptive behavior, and academic achievement were conducted. Direct observations of child and teacher behavior (i.e. engagement, social interaction, prompt level, etc.) were implemented once a month for a minimum of 6100 minutes per year for each student. Inter-observer agreement measures for the direct observations yielded mean levels of at least 90%. Initial results indicate Reading Mastery, social skills instruction; behavioral interventions, and use of naturally occurring learning opportunities to practice IEP objectives were effective in promoting achievement of kindergarten children with ASD in inclusive settings. The project will be discussed in terms of the establishment of more effective educational programs for children with autism spectrum disorders with reduction in the cost of services.
 
Elementary DATA: Team Based Training for Identification and Delivery of Services to Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder
CAROL ANN DAVIS (University of Washington), Ilene S. Schwartz (University of Washington), Penny Lynn Williams (University of Washington)
Abstract: We examined the use of teams to assist teachers in the identification and delivery of services to students with ASD. Data on fidelity of the intervention were collected. The “Student Program Assessment” developed as a part of this project examined components in the general areas of: systematic instruction, individualized supports, functional approach to behavior, data collection, and family involvement. Both standardized tests (i.e., SSRS, Dibels, PPVT) and behavioral observations were collected on student performance. Fidelity of implementation was collected using a needs-based generated checklist and direct observation. Over the course of three years, this project trained 4 teams (16 total team members), in 2 school districts to assist in the identification of and delivery of services to students with ASD. These teams served a total of 54 students K-5. Data on overall program components indicate that a mean change score of +16.75. Data on growth on all standardized measures were documented. Data on the fidelity of intervention indicated that as fidelity increased the interventions effectiveness increased (e.g., student outcome data). Data will be reported for all students in the project and three case studies examining individual student outcomes will be presented.
 
A State-Wide Model for Behavioral Services for Young Children With Autism
ANN N. GARFINKLE (University of Montana)
Abstract: This paper will present work being conducted in the second year of a three year state-wide behavioral program for young children with autism. The State of Montana recently implemented a program to serve 50 young children (younger than 5 at program entry) diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD; as demonstrated on the ADOS) and significant adaptive delays (as measured by the Vineland). This program provides 20 hours per week, per child of intensive ABA at-home intervention. The paper will present issues related to behavioral training of families, family support specialists and rehabilitations aides as well as information about the progress of the participants. Data so far suggest gains in all participants with gains in language and adaptive skills as the most significant. Also presented will be the projects unique integration of formative assessments with shoulder-to-shoulder professional development activities.
 
 
Symposium #434
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
A Further Examination of Functional Analysis Methodologies
Monday, May 31, 2010
2:00 PM–3:20 PM
Lone Star Ballroom Salon C (Grand Hyatt)
Area: EAB/DDA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Tonya Nichole Davis (Baylor University)
Discussant: Christina L. Fragale (Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk)
CE Instructor: Jessica Everett, Ph.D.
Abstract: Purpose: In this symposium we will present recent research regarding use of functional analyses when working with persons with developmental disabilities. The first paper examines the appropriateness of utilizing a functional analysis in a school setting. School administrators are often apprehensive about allowing an assessment which specifically elicits high rates of challenging behavior; therefore, this paper examines the effects of conducting a functional analysis in a school setting on subsequent challenging behavior in the classroom. The second paper investigates the difference between the results of a brief functional analysis consisting of 5-minute sessions and a functional analysis consisting of 10-minute sessions. Implications for application in clinical practice are presented. The third paper evaluates the use of a modified, latency functional analysis to identify the function of elopement. Results identify the value of this modified assessment for assessment of elopement, a challenging behavior which is characteristically difficult to assess with traditional functional analysis methodologies.
 
The Effects of a Functional Analysis on Subsequent Classroom Behavior
LISA FUENTES (University of North Texas), Tonya Nichole Davis (Baylor University), Shannon Durand (University of North Texas)
Abstract: Although a functional analysis is an essential component to a functional behavior assessment, school administrators are often apprehensive about allowing an assessment which specifically elicits, and potentially reinforces, high rates of challenging behavior. This apprehension is likely due to concern that participation in a functional analysis will results in increased challenging behavior in the classroom prior to the implementation of an intervention. In this study, we examined the effects of participation in a functional analysis on classroom challenging behavior, across multiple participants with developmental disabilities. Data was collected for weeks prior to the implementation of functional analyses, during classroom sessions immediate after participation in a functional analysis, and for weeks after completed participation in a functional analysis. The results are discussed in terms of the practicality and rationality of perceived disadvantages of utilizing a functional analysis in a school setting.
 
A Comparison of Brief Versus Traditional Functional Analyses
SHANNON DURAND (University of North Texas), Tonya Nichole Davis (Baylor University), Lisa Fuentes (University of North Texas)
Abstract: Several variations in functional analysis methodology exist, with one common variation being the duration of sessions. While traditional functional analysis sessions are 15-minutes in duration, brief analysis utilizing 5-minute sessions also have documented success at identifying potential reinforcers of challenging behavior. The purpose of this study was to compare the results of 5- and 10-minute session functional analyses. In the first phase of the study we implemented a 5-minute session functional analysis with two participants diagnosed with developmental disabilities. The functional analysis of phase one resulted in very few displays of challenging behavior for the first participant and yielded undifferentiated results for second participant; thereby resulting in no firm conclusion regarding function of behavior for both participants. In phase two we implemented a second functional analysis utilizing 10-minute sessions. The results of the second analysis yielded clear results for both participants. The results are compared to other studies and implications of this study will be discussed in terms of the selection of functional analysis methodologies in clinical settings.
 
Functional Analysis of Elopement: A Comparison of Traditional and Latency Functional Analyses
TONYA NICHOLE DAVIS (Baylor University), Wendy A. Machalicek (University of Wisconsin-Madison), Lisa Fuentes (University of North Texas), Shannon Durand (University of North Texas), Sarah Sifford (Baylor University), Jessica Semons (Baylor University)
Abstract: We compared results of traditional functional analyses of elopement to the results of latency functional analyses for two children with autism. First, traditional functional analyses of elopement without participant retrieval following elopement were conducted for each participant using percentage of intervals as the dependent measure. Then, latency functional analyses of elopement were conducted for each participant using latency to elopement as the dependent measure. Compared results of both traditional and latency functional analyses indicated that each participant’s elopement was multiply maintained by access to attention and escape from demands. Findings suggest that the use of latency as the dependent measure of challenging behavior in functional analyses may yield similar results to traditional measures (e.g., percentage of intervals) of challenging behavior in functional analyses and may provide clinicians with an additional methodology to determine the operant function of elopement. The results will be compared to other studies and implications for clinical application will be discussed.
 
 
Symposium #441
CE Offered: PSY
Teaching Social Behavior to Children With Autism
Monday, May 31, 2010
2:30 PM–3:50 PM
201 (CC)
Area: AUT/EAB; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Adel C. Najdowski (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
CE Instructor: Oliver Wendt, Ph.D.
Abstract: Responding to others’ subtle social cues (e.g., gestures and facial expressions) and gaining the attention of others are both fundamental repertoires for everyday social interactions. This symposium presents four papers demonstrating the acquisition of skills related to this topic. The first paper presents the results of a study on teaching children with autism to infer what others want, based on their nonverbal behavior. The second paper is a demonstration of teaching children with autism to raise their hand appropriately during group instruction. The third paper is an evaluation of using video modeling to teach children with autism to respond to subtle facial expressions. The symposium concludes with an evaluation of the effects of scripts and varied teacher responding on novel bids for joint attention in children with autism.
 
Teaching Children With Autism to Infer Others’ Desires
ADEL C. NAJDOWSKI (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Emily L. Barnoy (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Jonathan J. Tarbox (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Abstract: Perspective taking refers to the ability to: (a) acknowledge that others’ mental states differ from one’s own, (b) infer others’ mental states such as what they are thinking and feeling, and (c) explain and predict their corresponding behavior (Frith, 1989). Deficits in perspective-taking include the inability to infer others’ desires, intentions, emotional states, beliefs, opinions, and what others know or think. It also includes the inability to read social cues such as facial expressions or body language in a given situation (Baron-Cohen et al., 1985; Baron-Cohen, 2001; Frith, 1989). Nevertheless, the ability to engage in perspective-taking is crucial for successful social interaction in our culture. Demonstrated in a multiple baseline across participants design, this study taught two children with autism to infer others’ desires, based on their nonverbal overt behavior, using multiple exemplar training. Interobserver agreement was collected on 40% of sessions and ranged between 90% - 100%. Generalization to novel stimuli and settings was also observed.
 
Teaching Children With Autism When to Raise Their Hand During Group Instruction
Shaireen M. Charania (Kinark Child and Family Services), LINDA A. LEBLANC (Auburn University), James E. Carr (Auburn University), Narmatha Sabanathan (Central East Autism Program), Inas A. Ktaech (Kinark Child and Family Services), Kristen Gunby (Central East Autism Program)
Abstract: Early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) typically focuses on teaching children with autism a wide range of basic learning skills, pre-academic skills, social skills and academic skills to prepare them for subsequent educational activities. Often children with autism have difficulty exhibiting skills learned in prior one-to-one instructional settings when they have to perform in a group setting. The study focuses on teaching three children with autism the conditional discriminations required to respond appropriately during group instructional settings such as “circle time.” Children were taught to raise their hand or keep both hands down in correspondence with their status on three progressively more difficult tasks (i.e., having a requested item,knowing a recent secret, knowing an answer) using modeling, prompting and reinforcement. All three children acquired hand-raising skills during group instruction. Initial hands-down responding was accurate but became more variable as the hand-up response was acquired with eventual mastery of both responses. The implications for practice in EIBI settings are discussed.
 
Teaching Children With Autism to Respond to Facial Expressions Using Video Modeling
JUDAH AXE (Simmons College), Christine Evans (Simmons College)
Abstract: Young children with autism often exhibit delays in responding to facial expressions and few studies have examined teaching subtle facial expressions to this population. Three participants with autism (age 5) in a suburban early childhood school were taught to respond to facial expressions using video modeling. Eight facial expressions were targeted: approval, bored, calming, disapproval, disgusted, impatient, pain, and pleased. Probes consisted of showing an adult performing these facial expressions in a video and generalization probes across adults and settings were conducted. Training was showing a video of an adult modeling a response to each facial expression. The effects of the training were evaluated in a multiple probe across behaviors design. Two participants correctly responded to all facial expressions across people and settings after viewing the video models one or two times. Experimental control was achieved with the other participant though he required more training sessions and was less consistent with responding. Future researchers should teach teachers to implement video modeling and evaluate ways to teach and test responding to facial expressions under naturalistic conditions.
 
Using Scripts and Varied Teacher Responses to Promote Novel Bids for Joint Attention in Young Children With Autism
JOY S. POLLARD (Utah State University), Alison M. Betz (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Thomas S. Higbee (Utah State University)
Abstract: Children with autism often exhibit deficits in social interaction and communication skills. Joint attention, the ability to coordinate attention between objects or events and a social partner, has also been identified as a deficit in children with autism. Scripts and script-fading procedures have been used to teach children with autism to initiate bids for joint attention and have been successful in demonstrating generalization to novel settings, stimuli, and social recipients of interaction. Additionally, past researchers have anecdotally suggested that children may include past adult responses into their initial bids for joint attention. This, however, has not been systematically investigated. The purpose of this study is to extend the current literature by systematically investigating the effects of scripts and varied adult responses pertaining to the feature, function, or class (FFC) of the stimuli on novel statements during bids for joint attention. Additionally, generalization to peers and a natural setting were assessed. Results thus far are consistent with previous findings, that children with autism are able to learn to initiate bids for joint attention using script and script-fading procedures. Furthermore, participants have demonstrated some novel statements that have incorporated past adult statements pertaining to the FFC into the bids for joint attention. Results generalized to a novel setting, stimuli, and same-age peer, as well as maintained at the one-month follow-up.
 
 
Symposium #443
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Case Studies in the Critical Components to Implementing an Effective Applied Behavior Analysis Program Across Different Cultures
Monday, May 31, 2010
2:30 PM–3:50 PM
Bonham B (Grand Hyatt)
Area: TPC/EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Junelyn Lazo (Center for Behavioral Sciences, Inc.)
Discussant: Joyce C. Tu (Center for Behavioral Sciences, Inc.)
CE Instructor: Daniel Moran, Ph.D.
Abstract: Children with developmental disabilities such as autism typically receive an applied behavior analysis (ABA) program with the following basic outline: use of the functional analysis model, principles of reinforcement, and prompting, shaping, and fading techniques. Many other cultures offers values and beliefs that differ from critical components that make for an effective ABA program. These differences may possibly cause stress to the family and/or hinder the effectiveness of the program when either the family or the program is being compromised for the other. The three papers compare and contrast the similarities and differences between the components of an effective ABA program and values and beliefs of the Asian American, Hispanic, and Middle Eastern communities.
 
Successful and Critical Components in Implementing an Applied Behavior Analysis Program Within the Asian American Community
JOHANNA F. LORCA (Center for Behavioral Sciences, Inc.)
Abstract: Children with developmental disabilities such as autism typically receive an applied behavior analysis (ABA) program with the following basic outline: use of the functional analysis model, principles of reinforcement, and prompting, shaping, and fading techniques. The Asian American community offers values and beliefs that differ from critical components that make for an effective ABA program. These differences may possibly cause stress to the family and/or hinder the effectiveness of the program when either the family or the program is being compromised for the other. This study compares and contrasts the similarities and differences between the components of an effective ABA program and values/beliefs of the Asian American community. Seven Asian American families with children with developmental delays and/or a diagnosis of autism participated in the study. The data for this study consisted of parent satisfaction surveys.
 
Successful and Critical Components in Implementing an Applied Behavior Analysis Program Within the Middle Eastern Community
TRICIA M. CANTON (Center for Behavioral Sciences, Inc)
Abstract: Children with developmental disabilities such as autism typically receive an applied behavior analysis (ABA) program with the following basic outline: use of the functional analysis model, principles of reinforcement, and prompting, shaping, and fading techniques. The Middle Eastern community offers values and beliefs that differ from critical components that make for an effective ABA program. These differences may possibly cause stress to the family and/or hinder the effectiveness of the program when either the family or the program is being compromised for the other. This study compares and contrasts the similarities and differences between the components of an effective ABA program and values and beliefs of the Middle Eastern community. Three Middle Eastern families with children with developmental delays and/or a diagnosis of autism participated in the study. The data for this study consisted of parent satisfaction surveys.
 
Successful and Critical Components in Implementing an Applied Behavior Analysis Program Within the Hispanic Community
RHYSA MORENO (Center for Behavioral Sciences, Inc.)
Abstract: Applied behavior analysis (ABA) is an effective treatment for individuals with autism. When implementing a program for children, it is important to be sensitive to cultural values and beliefs of the family. Cultural beliefs in Hispanic community differ from the critical components for an ABA program. These differences may cause stress and hinder the effectiveness of a program. This study examines the critical components of an effective ABA program and how they compare and contrast to Hispanic cultural beliefs and values. Three Hispanic families with children diagnosed with autism participated in this study. Parents were given a satisfaction survey.
 
 
Symposium #457
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Behavior Analysis in the Classroom: Interventions to Decrease Problem Behavior and Enhance Learning
Monday, May 31, 2010
3:00 PM–4:20 PM
Texas Ballroom Salon A (Grand Hyatt)
Area: EDC/CBM; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Cynthia M. Anderson (University of Oregon)
CE Instructor: Mary Barbera, M.S.
Abstract: The technology of behavior analysis has great utility for enhancing student behavior in schools. Although some research has documented the utility of interventions designed for individual students and for small and large groups of students, the overall body of school-based, behavior analytic research is small. In this symposium we add to this literature base. Two papers explore the generality of the Good Behavior Game in novel settings, (a) small-group reading instruction and (b) kindergarten classrooms. A third paper examines preference for response cost, a frequently used component of classroom-interventions. The final paper examines school-wide interventions for students with behavioral and academic challenges, documenting that a standardized (i.e., implemented similarly across students) token-economy can be used effectively to address both academic and social behavior problems. Together, these papers document the use of behavior analytic interventions in school settings with typically developing children. Further, three of the four papers focus on interventions implemented by teachers and other school personnel (i.e., typical change agents).
 
An Evaluation of the Good Behavior Game in Kindergarten Classrooms
JEANNE DONALDSON (University of Florida), Timothy R. Vollmer (University of Florida), Tangala Krous (Davenport, IA School District), Susan E. Downs (Davenport Community Schools), Kerri Berard (University of Florida)
Abstract: The Good Behavior Game is a classroom-wide group contingency that involves dividing the class into two teams, creating simple rules, and arranging contingencies for breaking or following those rules. The game has been firmly established as an effective management strategy in numerous prior studies. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the game with a younger population of students and with a larger sample. Five kindergarten teachers and classrooms (98 total students) participated in this evaluation of the Good Behavior Game. There were three rules: 1) you must sit “criss-cross applesauce” in your designated location, 2) you must raise your hand to talk, and 3) you must keep your hands and feet to yourself. Any time a student broke a rule, a tally was scored for that team. The team with fewer tallies at the end of circle time would win, or if both teams met a set criterion, both teams would win. Rewards for winning included snacks, stickers, stamps, extra recess, etc. There was a dramatic decrease in disruptive behavior in all five classrooms as a result of the intervention. The Game was easy for teachers to implement and the majority of students voted that they would like to continue to play the Game.
 
Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of a Secondary Interventions for Students Whose With Escape-Maintained Problem Behavior
JESSICA TURTURA (University of Oregon), Cynthia M. Anderson (University of Oregon), Justin Boyd (University of Oregon)
Abstract: Schools increasingly are moving to three-tiered models of behavior support consisting of primary interventions for all students, secondary interventions for students at risk, and tertiary supports for students with significant need. Primary prevention is implemented for all students and is similar across students whereas tertiary supports typically are based on results of a functional assessment and consist of individualized interventions. In the middle lie secondary supports, small group interventions for students emitting similar, low-intensity behavior problems. A commonly used secondary intervention that is evidence-based is Check-in/Check-out (CICO; Hawken & Horner, 2003), CICO builds off of home-school notes and is effective for students whose problem behaviors are attention-maintained. Importantly, CICO offers little in terms of altering the environmental contingencies which maintain problem behaviors for students who engage in escape-maintained problem behavior (March & Horner, 2002). This presentation will focus on two modifications of CICO for students whose problem behaviors are maintained by escape from or avoidance of academic tasks and activities. Specifically, two modified versions of CICO were designed and evaluated; one for elementary-aged students and the other for middle school-aged students. Each intervention was implemented as a secondary intervention in a school, by typical school staff. We used appropriate single subject designs to assess effects of each intervention on problem behavior and academic skills.
 
An Evaluation of Preference for Reinforcement or Response Cost Conditions
CRISTINA M. WHITEHOUSE (University of Florida), Timothy R. Vollmer (University of Florida), Rocio Cuevas (University of Florida)
Abstract: The use of response cost and reinforcement-based interventions (e.g., token economies & group level systems) are common in academic settings. Despite the ubiquity of these interventions, only a few investigations have evaluated child preference for response cost versus reinforcement; furthermore, the few existing investigations have yielded mixed results. We will present an extension of earlier evaluations of child preference for response cost or reinforcement conditions during skill acquisition. Specifically, typically developing children were repeatedly presented with a computerized matching to sample task under both reinforcement and response cost conditions. Following exposure to each condition, children were asked to select their subsequent working conditions. Child selections were the primary dependent measure of choice. This preparation was repeated using different stimuli to evaluate if preference results obtained could be reproduced. Additionally, this preparation was repeated using math problems appropriate for the child’s grade level. Five participants showed a preference for reinforcement, 1 showed a preference for response cost, and 2 indicated indifference. Side effects associated with response cost were not observed. These data may have implications for the growing trend of client treatment preference and discussions about the use of response cost procedures.
 
Enhancing Pre-Literacy Instruction With the Good Behavior Game
BILLIE JO RODRIGUEZ (University of Oregon), Cynthia M. Anderson (University of Oregon)
Abstract: Deficits in pre-reading skills at the end of kindergarten have been shown to predict future behavior problems and lack of responsiveness to school-wide interventions over time. This suggests early intervention is important not only to prevent later reading problems but also to prevent future behavioral challenges. Small-group reading instruction often is provided for young children at risk for reading failure. Group instructors often are instructional assistants with little or no experience managing social behavior of groups. In this experiment we assessed effects of training instructors to use TGBG during reading groups. A concurrent multiple baseline across groups design was used to assess effects. For all groups, a significant reduction in problem behavior was observed. Further, all instructors implemented TGBG with fidelity and indicated a high degree of satisfaction with the intervention. This experiment demonstrates how TGBG can be used to incorporate behavior analytic techniques in school settings for students who are at-risk for academic difficulties
 
 
Symposium #536
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Functional Analysis, Intervention, and Generalization Strategies for Challenging Behavior in Young Children With Autism
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
12:00 PM–1:20 PM
207AB (CC)
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Amanda L. Little (The Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk)
CE Instructor: Amanda Little, Ph.D.
Abstract: Children with autism present unique challenges to parents, caregivers, and teachers in regards to their behavior. This symposium will present research conducted with children with autism in the areas of assessment, functional analysis, and intervention with a focus on generalization of skills. Participants will learn the methodology and results of research conducted with young children with autism who exhibit challenging behavior in a variety of settings (i.e., community, childcare, and the home).
 
Modifying Functional Analysis Protocol to Assess Challenging Behavior in Children With Autistic Disorder
Mark F. O'Reilly (The Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk), Christina Fragale (The Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk), PAMELA WHITE (The Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk), Jeannie Marie Aguilar (The Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk), Soyeon Kang (Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk)
Abstract: Children with autism are more likely to engage in challenging behavior than children with other developmental disabilities. The nature of their challenging behavior may be different from other developmental disabilities groups with an emphasis on stereotyped or automatic responding (American Psychiatric Association, 2000; Reese et. al., 2003, 2005). This study will include five elementary school-aged children, each diagnosed with autism. Functional analyses, using five sessions of each assessment condition will be conducted (Iwata et. al., 1982,1994). Additional sessions of the tangible conditions will also be conducted. Percentage of intervals of challenging behavior will be measured. In addition, we will measure the percentage of intervals with stereotyped engagement with the tangible object. This behavior will be analyzed using a non-concurrent multiple baseline design. We hypothesize that the tangible condition may, in fact, be measuring interference with stereotyped behavior and other challenging behavior exhibited by the child when the item is removed might better be interpreted as challenging behavior in order to gain access to stereotyped behavior (see Murphy et. al., 2000, Fisher et. al., Falcomata et. al., in press).
 
Parent Conducted Assessment and Intervention for Children With Autism During Problematic Family Routines
AMANDA L. LITTLE (The Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk)
Abstract: Though the display of challenging behavior is not an uncommon occurrence in young children, some children exhibit behaviors that may develop into more serious behavior problems impeding the child’s learning and the overall family quality of life. The purpose of this study was to investigate how to support parents as the primary interventionists through conducting a functional behavior assessment, intervention planning, and the implementation process to address their children’s challenging behaviors. A multiple-probe design across three family routines was utilized for one young children diagnosed with autism. The mother was taught to successfully implement interventions that resulted in a decrease in the child’s challenging behavior. The mother increased her use of targeted strategies across all routines after collaborative planning (e.g., average of 24% during baseline and 83% during intervention). A reduction in child challenging behaviors across all targeted routines was observed (e.g., average of 59% during baseline and 19% during intervention). A fourth non-trained routine was assessed to see if the mother applied the techniques without additional consultation from the professional. Finally, positive changes in the quality of life of the family were noted as demonstrated through increased satisfaction ratings on items related to child and family quality of life.
 
The Influence of Motivating Operations on Generalization for Students With Autism
CHRISTINA FRAGALE (The Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk), Jeannie Marie Aguilar (The Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk), Nigel Pierce (The Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk), Mark F. O'Reilly (The Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk)
Abstract: Individuals with autism are thought to have a difficult time generalizing skills without explicit programming to do so. Generalization, in this case, reflects an outcome of behaviors that occur outside of the conditions of the original training stimuli and remains a fundamental notion for therapists and educators to attend towards true behavior change. Additionally, behavioral researchers have had a steady interest in examining both the functional properties and clinical applications of establishing (motivating) operations. Motivating operations have been shown to be critical variables when developing and interpreting behavioral assessments (e.g. preference assessments), intervening on challenging behavior, and examining the interaction between various biological conditions (e.g., health variables, genetic syndromes) and operant behavior. This study adds to the motivating operation literature by evaluating the influence of motivating operation on the generalization of skills. Three students with autism who received discrete trial training targeting communication skills participated in this study. Generalization of communication was evaluated across settings and implementers while under the influence of different putative motivating operations in an alternating treatment design. Results suggest that motivating operations may influence the acquisition of novel behaviors and should be considered when designing and implementing instructional programs.
 
Evaluation of the Rate of Challenging Behavior Maintained by Different Functions Across Preference Assessments
SOYEON KANG (Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk), Mark F. O'Reilly (The Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk), Christina Fragale (The Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk), Jeannie Marie Aguilar (The Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk)
Abstract: Preference assessments yield valuable information regarding preferred items or activities that subsequently serve as reinforcers. But if any variable (i.e., implementation method) during the assessment conflicts with specific participant characteristics (i.e., challenging behavior) the assessment results may be affected, thereby leading to inaccurate conclusions. We examined the occurrence of challenging behavior maintained by attention, tangible or demand functions across preference assessments (i.e., paired-stimulus, multiple-stimulus without replacement, and free-operant). The experimenter administered each preference format times in a random order for children with developmental disabilities whose challenging behavior was maintained by attention, tangible or demand functions. Results demonstrate that challenging behavior maintained by a particular function occurred differently across the preference assessment formats, which presented a different relevant condition, evoking the challenging behavior (i.e., deprivation of attention, withdrawal of preferred items, or presentation of demand). The results suggest that there may be a relation between functions of challenging behavior and preference assessment formats. Implications for practitioners are discussed with regard to administration of preference assessment for individuals with developmental disabilities who exhibit challenging behavior.
 
 
Panel #544
CE Offered: PSY
Professional Development Series: How to Start and Run Your Own Behavior Analysis Business
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
12:00 PM–1:20 PM
Texas Ballroom Salon B (Grand Hyatt)
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Michelle Garcia-Thomas, Psy.D.
Chair: Molly Halligan (University Nevada, Reno)
KENNETH MACALEESE (Advanced Child Behavior Solutions, LLC)
MICHAEL FABRIZIO (FEAT of Washington)
Abstract: The behavior analytic philosophy differs greatly with mainstream clinical service providers. Therefore, behavior analysts will often develop their own business providing such services based on a behavior analytic perspective. Although these individuals may be highly trained to provide clinical services, most behavior analysts outside of the organizational behavior management sector do not have the explicit training to start and run a business. Most businesses in their infancy, whether behavior analytic or not, fail due to a ineffective system implementation. Given the current political and economic climate, it is important that the entrepreneurs are well prepared. Therefore, the following presenters will discuss their experiences in starting and maintaining a successful business based on behavior analytic principles.
 

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