|Topics in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Leisure Skill Development, Caregiver Training, and Personal Hygiene
|Saturday, May 29, 2010
|3:30 PM–4:50 PM
|Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
|Chair: Rachel Findel-Pyles (The Chicago School, Los Angeles)
|Discussant: Michele R. Bishop (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
|CE Instructor: Michael Fabrizio, M.A.
|Abstract: Applied behavior analytic (ABA) research that is specifically aimed at issues associated with Autism Spectrum Disorders has steadily grown over the past several decades. Thousands of empirical investigations have documented the effectiveness of ABA based techniques for the assessment and intervention of problematic behaviors as well as for the development of pro-social behaviors. The purpose of this symposium is to further contribute to the literature in this area, and moreover to address issues that are particularly relevant to practicing behavior analysts who are actively involved in the daily lives of individuals with ASDs. As such three papers will be presented which address a range of topics including, using activities schedules to increase leisure activities in adolescents with autism, teaching caregivers to implement a three-step prompt procedure to decrease non-compliance maintained by escape, and using shaping and stimulus fading to teach toothbrushing in children with developmental disabilities
|Utilizing Activity Schedules to Increase Leisure Activities in Adolescents With Autism
|CALLI ANDERSON (The Chicago School for Professional Psychology), Rachel Findel-Pyles (The Chicago School, Los Angeles), Traci M. Cihon (University of North Texas)
|Abstract: A photographic activity schedule was used to teach two adolescents with autism to independently engage in leisure activities in a residential setting. The current investigation was a replication of MacDuff, Krantz, and McClannahan (1993). A multiple baseline across participants design was used to evaluate baseline, teaching, maintenance, re-sequencing of photographs and generalization to novel photographs. The results suggest that using the photographic activity schedules produced engagement in independent leisure activities. Generalization to novel activities was also observed.
|Teaching Caregivers to Implement a Three-Step Prompt Procedure to Decrease Noncompliance Maintained by Escape
|Jackie Hardenbergh (The Chicago School), RACHEL FINDEL-PYLES (The Chicago School, Los Angeles)
|Abstract: Three-step prompting is a procedure commonly used in behavioral assessments and interventions. Little previous research has evaluated the effects of this procedure on compliance. In this study, caregivers of children who demonstrated problem behavior maintained by escape from caregiver request were trained to use three-step prompting when implementing demands with their children. Three caregiver-child dyads participated and a multiple-baseline across participants was used. Results indicated that training caregivers to implement this procedure increased the compliance of the children and decreased the frequency of caregiver-delivered prompts.
|Using Shaping and Stimulus Fading to Teach Toothbrushing in Children With Developmental Disabilities
|COURTNEY LANAGAN (First Steps for Kids, Inc.), Taira Lanagan (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Averil Schiff (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
|Abstract: A significant amount of research has demonstrated the effectiveness of behavioral teaching procedures for establishing a variety of self-care skills to individuals with developmental disabilities. However, relatively little research has been published on teaching toothbrushing skills to individuals within this population. This study examined the effectiveness of a procedure consisting of shaping and stimulus fading for increasing tolerance to toothbrushing in young children with developmental disabilities. A multiple baseline across participants was utilized in which positive reinforcement of approximations toward the target response, without the use of escape extinction for challenging behaviors, was implemented. Results are discussed in terms of implications for teaching activities of daily living.