|Recent Research in OBM and BBS: From the Lab to the Corporate Office
|Sunday, May 25, 2008
|1:30 PM–2:50 PM
|Area: OBM/CSE; Domain: Applied Research
|Chair: David A. Wilder (Florida Institute of Technology)
|CE Instructor: David A. Wilder, Ph.D.
Four studies in OBM and BBS will be presented. The first study examined the effect of rules on employee performance in a human service setting. The second study examined the effects of contingent access to high vs. low preference items on employee performance in a laboratory setting. The third study investigated the effects of observer presence on individuals work-related behavior both within-session and across sessions. The fourth study evaluated the effects of variations of self-monitoring on safe posture performances during typing of four office workers in a simulated office setting.
|The Effect of Rule Delivery on Employee Adherence to Procedures at a Residential Treatment Facility.
|JAMES L. SQUIRES (Florida Institute of Technology), David A. Wilder (Florida Institute of Technology)
|Abstract: The way in which rules impact workplace performance has been a topic of discussion in the Organizational Behavior Management community for some time. However, rules, or contingency specifying stimuli as they have been described, have not been evaluated in an applied setting before. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of rules in the workplace. Participants included two employees at an intensive residential treatment facility. The dependent variable was the percentage of sign out/in cells completed on the form. First, a goal was set for employees based on baseline performance. Employees were then given one of two randomly assigned goal-rules. Goal-rules consisted of a praise goal-rule or a reprimand goal-rule. Goal-rules were administered at the start of each shift. The corresponding contingency described in the goal-rule was delivered (i.e., praise or reprimand) if the employees met the goal. Performance increased dramatically over baseline levels after the introduction of the Goal-Rules. Performance then decreased during the reversal phase, and then increased once again at the reintroduction of the goal rules. Slight differences in performance were noted between the two types of goal-rules for each participant.
|The Effects of Varied versus Constant High, Medium, and Low Quality Stimuli on Performance.
|BYRON J. WINE (Florida Institute of Technology), David A. Wilder (Florida Institute of Technology)
|Abstract: Previous research has shown that children prefer varied to constant reinforcement when identical stimuli are used (Egel, 1980) and that this holds true for some individuals even when the constant reinforcement is of higher quality and the varied reinforcement is of lesser quality (Bowman, Piazza, Fisher, Hagopian, & Kogan, 1997). The purpose of this study was to compare the delivery of varied versus constant high, medium, and low quality stimuli on performance among two adults on a computer-based task in an analog employment setting. For both participants, constant delivery of the high quality stimulus produced the greatest increases in performance over baseline; the varied presentation produced performance comparable to constant delivery of medium preference stimuli. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for the selection and delivery of stimuli as part of employee performance improvement programs in the field of organizational behavior management.
|Investigating the Effects of Observer Presence on Individuals' Work-Related Behavior Both Within-Session and Across Session.
|ANGELA R. LEBBON (Western Michigan University), John Austin (Western Michigan University)
|Abstract: A multi-phased multiple baseline design across participants was used to evaluate the inter-session effects of observer presence on participants’ body posture behavior, time on-task, and productivity. The intra-session effects of observer presence on participants’ body posture behavior, time on-task, and productivity were examined by utilizing within-subject, phase-by-phase comparisons across three minute time blocks (wherein nine video frameshots represented each three minute block). Of the 30 behaviors exposed to observer presence (across all participants), 22 demonstrated reactivity and 14 demonstrated habituation when analyzed across sessions (i.e., inter-session effects). Of the 36 behaviors exposed to observer presence, 29 demonstrated reactivity and 20 demonstrated habituation when analyzed within sessions (i.e., intra-session effects).
|Improving Safety Posture Using Self-Monitoring: Some New Variations.
|KRYSTYNA A. ORIZONDO-KOROTKO (Western Michigan University), Shannon M. Loewy (Western Michigan University), Nicole E. Gravina (Western Michigan University), Angela R. Lebbon (Western Michigan University), John Austin (Western Michigan University)
|Abstract: The present study evaluated the effects of variations of self-monitoring on safe posture performances during typing of four office workers in a simulated office setting. The study employed a safety checklist with six dependent variables: Wrists, neck, shoulders, back, arms, and legs. Secondary dependent variables were productivity and accuracy of self-monitoring. The independent variable for the first two participants was a combination of accuracy training and self-monitoring of a target behavior for safety during typing. Participant 1 also received a change in workstation set-up (the addition of a wrist pad). For the last two participants, the independent variable was a differing of the frequency of self-monitoring (every five minutes, then every two minutes) of a target behavior for safety during typing. Results varied for all participants, ranging from significant improvements to no improvements with different dependent variables. Implications, advantages, limitations, and suggestions for future research will be discussed.