|Teaching Social Skills Repertoires to Children With Autism
|Saturday, May 28, 2022
|5:00 PM–5:50 PM
|Meeting Level 2; Room 254A
|Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Research
|Chair: Rebecca P. F. MacDonald (New England Center for Children)
|Discussant: Jacquelyn M. MacDonald (Regis College)
|CE Instructor: Jacquelyn M. MacDonald, Ph.D.
There is a growing body of research on teaching individuals with autism to engage in social skills repertoires that involve observing others including helping others, observational learning, social referencing, and joint attention. The first paper in this session describes an approach to teaching a child with autism to offer help to others in natural contexts. A multiple probe design across helping scenarios was used to assess the effects of multiple exemplar training, an instructional matrix, and video modeling. The child learned to offer help in training contexts, and those skills generalized across settings. The second paper in this session describes approaches to assessing and teaching observational learning skills in a group instructional arrangement with three children with autism. A multiple probe design across participants and a multiple baseline within participants across motor, object-motor, and vocal modalities were used to assess the effects of consequence discrimination training and differential observing response training. Two out of three children showed significant improvements in observational learning in a group instructional arrangement. Findings from these studies have implications for teaching social skills repertoires to children with autism which could lead to greater inclusion of individuals with autism in learning environments and to other positive outcomes.
|Instruction Level: Intermediate
|Learning Objectives: 1) learner will be able to describe strategy for teaching helping using multiple exemplar training. 2) learner will be able to describe the role of observational learning in group instruction 3) learner will be able to explain role of consequence discrimination in observational learning
Teaching Helping to a Child With Autism Using a Multiple-Exemplar Matrix Model and Video Modeling
|SHEMARIAH ELLIS (New England Center for Children), Rebecca P. F. MacDonald (New England Center for Children)
The purpose of the current study was to teach a child with autism to offer help and engage in appropriate helping responses in the presence of relevant stimuli using multiple exemplars, a matrix model, and video modeling. A concurrent multiple probe design was used across helping categories of cleaning, carrying items, and obtaining objects out of reach. A matrix was used to organize the relevant stimuli encountered in helping scenarios, such as fallen objects, vocalizations, and facial affect. Training targets were taught with video models depicting a known adult verbally offering an individual help and engaging in helping responses during situations where help was required (i.e., spilled water needs to be cleaned). The multiple exemplar matrix model and video modeling were effective in establishing a repertoire of helping across categories that generalized to novel settings and contexts. Interobserver agreement averaged 94% agreement across all trials with a range of 85% - 100%.
The Effects of Consequence Discrimination Training and Differential Observing Response Training on Observational Learning During Group Instruction
|SYDNEY J BERKMAN (New England Center for Children), Rebecca P. F. MacDonald (New England Center for Children)
Many individuals with autism spectrum disorder do not demonstrate observational learning (OL), a repertoire that aids in learning during group instruction. Few studies have evaluated strategies for teaching individuals to engage in OL, and none have evaluated the effects of such strategies on individuals’ learning during group instruction. In this study, OL during group instruction was evaluated using a within-participant multiple probe design across motor, object-motor, and vocal modalities and using a concurrent multiple probe design across participants. Interventions included consequence discrimination training and differential observing response training consisting of differential reinforcement and rule statements following errors. Training sessions were conducted with one student participant and one adult participant acting as a confederate student. Observation sessions were conducted with two or three student participants and one adult participant acting as a confederate student. Data were collected on primary dependent variables during test sessions conducted with each student participant shortly following observation sessions. Following training, participants demonstrated improvements in OL across modalities during test sessions. Interobserver agreement during training and probe sessions was above 90%.