Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


First International Conference; Italy, 2001

Event Details

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Poster Session #3
#3 Poster Session - CBM
Wednesday, November 28, 2001
5:00 PM–6:30 PM
Truss Pavilion
1. Analysis of the Diagnostic Agreement Using the Rorschach Test
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
MASSIMO HURLE (Cattedra di Psicologia Clinica Università degli Studi di Milano), Ettore Caracciolo (Cattedra di Psicologia Clinica Università degli Studi di Milano), Roberto Truzoli (Cattedra di Psicologia Clinica Università degli Studi di Milano)
Abstract: In clinical psychology projective test are often used as instruments to make diagnosis. However, the use of test, the projective ones included, can't omit an analysis of their validity and reliability. The purpose of this research is to present a method for the evaluation of diagnostic agreement based on Rorschach records. The diagnostic protocols of three subjects are analysed by ten examiners using a scale with three levels of seriousness. The statistic procedure is based on ANOVA used for the calculus of intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results (ICC = 0.2) show diagnostic discordance.
2. Behavioral Assessment of Childhood Social Phobia
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
DEBORAH G. BEIDEL (University of Maryland), Samuel M. Turner (University of Maryland)
Abstract: Childhood social phobia affects 3-5% of all children. The behavioral assessment of this disorder indicates that it is characterized by severe social anxiety and poor social skills. Fifty children with social phobia were assessed with semi structured diagnostic interviews, self-report instruments, parent and teacher ratings, a behavioral assessment of social skill and anxiety, and daily diary recordings of specific behaviors in various social situations. In addition, behaviors of these children were compared to those of a sample of normal peers. Children with social phobia had a high level of general emotional over responsiveness, social inhibition and fear, dysphoria, loneliness, and general fearfulness. Daily diary ratings indicated socially distressing events occurred at least every other day. Sixty percent of these events occurred at school and were accompanied by maladaptive coping behaviors. In addition, observational ratings by independent raters indicated that children with social phobia had significantly poorer social skills and significantly increased anxiety when engaged in social interactions with a same age peer. Interrater reliability for the various ratings ranged from .80 to .98 (Pearson r). There were few differences based on gender and race.
3. Behavioral Treatment of Childhood Social Phobia
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
SAMUEL M. TURNER (University of Maryland), Deborah G. Beidel (University of Maryland)
Abstract: Childhood social phobia affects 3-5% of all children. The behavioral assessment of this disorder indicates that it is characterized by severe social anxiety and poor social skills. Thus, a multi-component treatment, Social Effectiveness Therapy for Children (SET- C), was developed for children ages 8-12. This 12 week treatment includes group social skills training session, peer modeling sessions, and individualized exposure sessions aimed at extinguishing specific social fears. This treatment was compared to a non- specific treatment comparison group. Those children treated with SET-C improved significantly on measures of social and general anxiety according to self-report, parental report, and an independent clinical evaluation. A behavioral assessment of social skills indicated that children treated with SET-C displayed significantly enhanced social skills and significantly less social anxiety as rated by observers unaware of group status. Interrater reliability for behavioral observations was greater .80 (Pearson r). Finally, 67% of children treated with SET-C were judged not to have a diagnosis at post treatment by independent clinical evaluators, compared to only 5% of children in the control condition. The results are discussed in terms of the multi-dimensional nature of this treatment to address the multi-faceted nature of the disorder.
4. Bio-Behavioral Treatment of Child Encopresis
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
MICHAEL BEN-ZVI (Yesrael Valley College), Amos E. Rolider (Yesrael Valley College)
Abstract: In this study a multiple baseline single-subject design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of a bio-behavioral intervention on the elimination of Encopresis* among 8 children. 7 Subjects were normal and one was developmentally delayed autistic child, with ages between 3 to 12 years old. The package intervention included errorless learning, prompting (Vaseline suppositories as prompt) and gradual prompt-fading as well as positive reinforcement. The parents of the children implemented the intervention with minimal assistance from the primary researcher. Results show elimination of Encopresis symptoms for all children, which were achieved within a few weeks following the initiation of intervention. These results were maintained during 12 months follow-up measurement. * Encopresis is a combination of chronic constipation and/or other behavioral and bio- behavioral symptoms, especially soiling in pants or dirtying pants and bizarre habits of toileting.
5. Constructional Behavior Therapy
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
BART BRUINS (Regional Institution for Out-patient Mental Health Care; Midden, Holland), Janna Van Delden (Regional Institution for Out-patient Mental Health Care; Midden, Holland), Beata Bakker-De Pree (CGA- Business; The Hague, Netherlands)
Abstract: Constructional Behavior Therapy is novel treatment exclusively based on the body of knowledge derived from the experimental analysis of behavior. It is characterized by a functional and not a structural approach. Its focus is not the topography, but the control of behavior by stimuli. Every individual acquires by permanent conditioning an own behavior repertoire by which he maintains himself. Systematic analysis revealed that this symptom free, successful behavior repertoire consists mainly of active avoidance behavior. If the situation provides a controlling, i.e. discriminative stimulus, the individual is able to safeguard his well-being. However, if all controlling stimuli are absent, the resulting response inhibition causes symptoms. So, symptoms are not due to the presence of certain symptom provoking stimuli, but to the absence of stimuli, controlling the active avoidance behavior. In the treatment, the behavior control is restored and improved by the enhancement of the controlling stimuli involved. Consequently symptoms fade away. Constructional Behavior Therapy has been applied to a variety of symptoms of at least 1000 clients. The outcome is full of promise considering the evident precision of analysis, the treatment effects and the satisfaction of both clients and therapists.
6. Establishing Behavioral Baselines in Brain Injured Patients: Integrating Behavioral and Neuropsychological Approaches to Patient Care
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
WILLIAM J. WARZAK (University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: The recent advent of the term "behavioral neuropsychology" recognizes the increasing interdependence of behavioral and traditional neuropsychological approaches in the coordinated care of brain impaired patients. Unfortunately, this interdependence is seldom realized. Behavioral psychologists and neuropsychologists most often find themselves working independently, making use of their respective data sets to direct patient care. The present paper attempts to bridge this gap by illustrating how behavioral and neuropsychological assessment can be combined to drive the evaluative process, and how neuropsychological findings can be expanded with the contribution of behavioral data. The data of significantly compromised siblings with a neuroregressive disease (Batten's Syndrome) will be used to illustrate the extent to which these two seemingly divergent approaches can be integrated to yield data of interest to clinicians and family members alike. The patients were evaluated a number of times using repeated behavioral measures selected on the basis of neuropsychological test results. This unconventional assessment approach permitted treatment planning and goals that would have been unlikely had planning been based upon either behavioral or neuropsychological test measures alone. A number of measures and modalities will be discussed within the context of evaluating complex patients of this
7. Evaluation of the Effects of the Laugh Behavior on the Levels Salivary Immunoglobulin "A" in Children with Oncology Dysfunctions
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
LEONARDO HERNANDEZ (Universidad Central de Venezuela), Velis Rodríguez (Universidad Central de Venezuela), Elsa C. Ritter Alvarez (Universidad Central de Venezuela)
Abstract: The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of laugh behavior on the levels of salivary immunoglobulin A (Ig A s) in children with oncology dysfunctions. For this purpose one worked with eight children in period of control in the Oncology Institute Dr. Luis Razetti (Caracas, Venezuela), and six representatives. To achieve the objectives of the investigation a workshop it was dictated on the laugh to the representatives, they were given information on the immunologic system and their relationship with the cancer and the laugh, and lastly laugh sessions were developed with the children being made measurations of the levels from Ig TO s in saliva by means of the method of radial immunodiffusion. The results obtained in the session of information with the representatives were analyzed by means of the application of a pre and post test. These allowed to conclude that all the representatives increased their level of knowledge in relation to the exposed topic. In connection with the laugh dynamics, the data allowed to conclude that the situations such as games and songs used in the intervention sessions turned out to be generating of laugh. The use of these situations generating of laugh in sessions of thirty minutes allowed to observe a tendency of elevation of the levels Ig A s in relation to the levels detected before each intervention session.
8. Experimental Research on the Features of Implicit Mediational Transfer in Severely Mentally Retarded Children
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
MASSIMO HURLE (Cattedra di Psicologia Clinica Università degli Studi di Milano), Ettore Caracciolo (Cattedra di Psicologia Clinica Università degli Studi di Milano), Roberto Truzoli (Cattedra di Psicologia Clinica Università degli Studi di Milano)
Abstract: Mediated transfer is considered essential for most of logical behaviours. To study this process experimental psychologist have suggested two specific methods: implicit and explicit mediation. The purpose of the present experiment was to test how mentally retarded children learn an implicit mediation transfer. We hypothesize that the retarded children can produce a reliable mediation effect. Subjects were asked to learn to criterion paired-associate lists, in A-B, B-C transfer paradigm. Following the learning phase, subjects were asked to associate the stimulus A with the one of three stimuli C, D and E they esteem to have the higher associative value. The experimental design was a A(levels NO vs. MR) x B(experimental vs. control) x C(trials) factorial split-plot design. The results showed to be compatible with our hypothesis [percentages of choices in the test phase: Exp. NO = 67.03, Co NO = 36.03, Co NO = 36.16, Exp. MR = 59.63, Co MR = 33.99, Co Mr = 31.98; ANOVA: A, F(1) = 6.24; B, F(2) = 14.49; C, F(2) = 89.68; B x C, F(4) = 61.92]. It may be noted that for all subjects the strategy of mediation is dependent on specific training structure.
9. Innovative Behavioral Analyses and Behavioral Interventions in the Treatment of Selective Mutism: A Case Study
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
MELISSA FAYE JACKSON (University of Alabama), Rebecca Allen (University of Alabama)
Abstract: Selective mutism is a disorder that has not received much attention from the research community. Behavioral analyses (e.g., coded behaviors from video-taped sessions, child self-reports of anxiety, etc.) and behavioral interventions performed within the school, home and clinic environments were used to successfully treat a 6-year-old male with selective mutism.
10. Physicians' Toilet Training Recommendations: What is Usual and Acceptable?
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
JODI A. POLAHA (Munroe-Meyer Institute, Department of Psychology), Karen I. Dittmer-McMahon (Munroe-Meyer Institute, Department of Psychology), William J. Warzak (Munroe-Meyer Institute, Department of Psychology)
Abstract: Fox and Azrin’s (1974) intensive “toilet-training in a day” program has long been effectively used in applied settings with individuals who are “difficult to train” However, this program can be used to rapidly train children who are learning to toilet for the first time. In fact, the intensive method is described repeatedly in pediatric journals as guidelines for physicians. This study was the first to examine: 1) what are physicians’ current toilet training recommendations for normally developing, first-time learners? and 2) do they view the Fox and Azrin approach as acceptable? Forty-two percent of surveys mailed to Nebraska pediatricians regarding current practices were returned. Almost all (91%) recommend an adapted toilet as part of their procedure. Approximately half recommend: practice toilet sits, eliminating diapers during training and rewards for voiding. Only 35% recommend consequences for accidents, and 19% said they “never” make this recommendation. Near 40% estimated that, given their recommendations, it would take longer than two months for the child to complete training. Forty-five percent of treatment acceptability surveys were returned, showing a generally unfavorable view of intensive toilet training for first-time learners, with average likert ratings of 3, or “slightly disagree” with the procedure. Given findings that physicians don’t commonly recommend many of the procedures described by Fox and Azrin and don’t rate the intensive program favorably, some suggestions are made about how to proceed using this behavioral technology in the primary care context.
11. Predictors of Treatment Outcome in Parent Training
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
GRETCHEN A. GIMPEL (Utah State University), Brent Collett (Utah State University), Theresa L. Gunderson (Utah State University), Jason Gage (Utah State University), Jessica Greenson (Utah State University)
Abstract: This presentation reports on predictors of outcome in a parent training program for children with ADHD. Children ages 2-12 and their parents took part in a 10-week parent training program. Half of the participants received treatment immediately and half received treatment after a 10-week wait-list period. Data on children's functioning was obtained via standardized behavior rating scales. Preliminary results show that parent training significantly decreased problem behaviors. For this presentation, variables were examined to determine who benefited most from the treatment. Variables examined included mothers' and fathers' education, presence of co-morbid disorders, family history of ADHD, age, and the number of sessions attended by the father (all sessions were attend by the child's mother). Based on preliminary results, mother's education, presence of co-morbid disorders, family history, and age, appeared to have an impact on results. Mothers with lower education levels reported more of a change in their children's behavior following treatment. Children without comorbid disorders and without a family history of ADHD also were rated as more improved than were children with comorbid disorders or with a family history of ADHD. There was also a trend for older children to show more of an improvement than younger children.



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