Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


32nd Annual Convention; Atlanta, GA; 2006

Program by Continuing Education Events: Tuesday, May 30, 2006

Manage My Personal Schedule


Special Event #413
CE Offered: BACB
2006 ABA Tutorial: Teaching Safety Skills to Children
Tuesday, May 30, 2006
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
Centennial Ballroom II
Area: DDA
Chair: Kent Johnson (Morningside Academy)
CE Instructor: Raymond G. Miltenberger, Ph.D.

2006 ABA Tutorial: Teaching Safety Skills to Children


This tutorial will begin by describing safety threats to children involving low incidence but highly dangerous situations that can result in injury or death (e.g., abduction attempts, home fires, finding a loaded gun). Two approaches to preventing injuries to children will be presented; changing adult behavior to remove the safety threat and teaching safety skills to children. The tutorial will describe and illustrate the essential components of behavioral skills training (BST) procedures for teaching safety skills to children. Recent research evaluating BST procedures for teaching safety skills will be reviewed with an emphasis on teaching children skills to prevent firearm injury. Various issues will be addressed including a) the distinction between skills deficits and performance deficits, b) strategies for increasing the effectiveness and efficiency of BST, c) strategies for promoting generalization, d) and strategies for promoting wide scale adoption of effective training procedures.

RAYMOND G. MILTENBERGER (North Dakota State University)
Dr. Raymond Miltenberger received his doctorate in Clinical Psychology from Western Michigan University in 1985 and is a Professor of Psychology at North Dakota State University. His current research interests are in self protection skills, including teaching safety skills to children to prevent gun play and teaching sexual abuse and abduction prevention skills, the analysis and treatment of habit disorders, and in functional assessment, treatment, and training approaches with individuals with developmental disabilities. Dr. Miltenberger has authored 125 research articles, 25 chapters, and is the author of Behavior Modification: Principles and Procedures, which is in its Third Edition and has recently been translated into Japanese. He has been the recipient of numerous awards, including the Chamber of Commerce NDSU Distinguished Professor Award and the Distinguished Alumnus Award from Western Michigan University. Dr. Miltenberger currently serves on the Professional Advisory Board for the May Institute, is Vice-President of the North Dakota State Board of Psychologist Examiners, is an Associate Editor of Education and Treatment of Children, and serves on the editorial boards of three additional journals.
Panel #414
CE Offered: BACB
Developing University Practica and Field-Based Training to Meet the New BACB Experience Standards
Tuesday, May 30, 2006
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
Area: TBA; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Gerald A Shook, Ph.D.
Chair: Gerald A Shook (Behavior Analyst Certification Board)
JAMES M. JOHNSTON (Auburn University)
JOSE A. MARTINEZ-DIAZ (Florida Institute of Technology and ABA Tech)
GERALD A SHOOK (Behavior Analyst Certification Board)

The panel members will address issues surrounding universities developing and implementing training programs that will meet the new experience standards of the BACB. Panel members will provide examples of intensive practica, practica, and supervised fieldwork experience-based programs that have been implemented successfully. Panel members will review the new experience standards and describe barriers to their implementation accompanied by solutions to these problems. Participants will be encouraged to ask questions of the panelists as well as provide their own examples of barriers and solutions.

Symposium #417
CE Offered: BACB
A Behavioral Analytic Approach to Special Educator Assessment
Tuesday, May 30, 2006
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Donald M. Stenhoff (University of Kentucky)
Discussant: Charles L. Salzberg (Utah State University)
CE Instructor: Bryan J. Davey, Ph.D.

Behaviorists seek to measure specific observable educators behaviors (e.g., opportunities for students to respond, praise delivered to students, and error correction procedures) rather than overall quality of classroom activities. To empirically assess the quality of teachers behaviors during instruction, it is imperative that measures are precise and reliable. When observable behaviors are recorded within a systematic framework and collected in an empirical manner, we can directly assess the extent to which teachers engage in research-based effective teaching behaviors. This is crucial in understanding and designing interventions to increase special educators effectiveness in the classroom and ultimately impact student outcomes. Often, personnel preparation programs and state offices of education rely on measures lacking direct behavioral observation methods and provide no evidence of validity. An instrument has been developed that captures the degree to which teachers engage in critical observable behaviors. The instruments reliability, and the relationship between the identified behaviors and student academic performance are being assessed. The purpose of this symposium is to: (a) discuss observable effective teaching behaviors, (b) describe a behavior analytic approach to teacher assessment, (c) present reliability data, (d) present longitudinal teacher data study, and (e) present a methodology to link teacher behavior to student outcomes.

Directly Observed Teacher Behaviors and Their Link to Student Performance.
BENJAMIN LIGNUGARIS/KRAFT (Utah State University), Donald M. Stenhoff (University of Kentucky)
Abstract: Over 30 years of research has provided information that identifies important pedagogical skills. Some of those skills include providing frequent opportunities to respond, providing feedback to students, and monitoring student work. Researchers, assert that having a teaching certificate or completing college methods courses may not be indicative of these skills. This points clearly to the need to directly assess pedagogical skills rather than rely upon indirect measures such as certification status or courses completed. However, directly measuring effective teaching behaviors is a complicated task. It is important to identify critical behaviors based on prior studies that examined teacher behaviors and the relationship to student performance in the classroom. The purpose of this presentation is to provide an overview of the critical teaching behaviors that have been identified in the literature. Additionally, the presenter will discuss the current available instruments and the extent to which they incorporate these behaviors.
The Characteristics and Reliability of a Behavioral Teacher Performance Measure.
DONALD M. STENHOFF (University of Kentucky), Benjamin Lignugaris/Kraft (Utah State University), Bryan J. Davey (Southern Behavioral Group, Inc.)
Abstract: Often in educational settings observers assess educators with instruments that depend on a high level of inference. While these instruments are frequently used, they do not provide observers or personnel preparation programs with an empirical behavioral measure of teacher performance. Thus, any instrument used to evaluate teacher performance should include defined objective measures with items that reflect a composite of research based effective teaching behaviors. A behavioral based instrument should have high interobserver reliability, and identify clear instructional strengths and needs. Such a measure provides personnel preparation programs with reliable information regarding the extent to which teachers engage in specific behavior. Precise behavior measurement allows observers to target specific behaviors with interventions (e.g., targeted training, specific feedback), which can be designed and implemented to improve teachers’ performance. The purpose of this presentation is to describe the characteristics of a distinct teacher observation instrument that relies on direct observation of observable and measurable educator behaviors. The instrument is used to assess the degree to which teachers engage in specific behaviors shown to produce higher student achievement. In addition, results from a reliability study will be presented.
Observable Teacher Behaviors: Effective Measurement and a Methodology to Link Teacher Behavior and Student Outcomes.
BRYAN J. DAVEY (Southern Behavioral Group, Inc.), Timothy A. Slocum (Utah State University), Charles L. Salzberg (Utah State University), Donald M. Stenhoff (University of Kentucky)
Abstract: The presentation examines special education teacher development from student teaching through the end of the induction year using a behaviorally based teacher performance measure (TPM). The measure is grounded in observable effective teaching behaviors and comprised of three general categories: (a) instruction; (b) classroom management; and (c) assessment and data collection. Longitudinal data were collected on observable teacher behaviors such as active monitoring, error correction procedures, opportunities to respond and praise rate. Data pertaining to classroom management and assessment and data collection techniques were also obtained through direct interview. Results are presented and discussed in terms of development across general categories and specific teaching behaviors. Further results are discussed in terms of implications for personnel preparation programs. The presentation will conclude with an introduction to a “value-added” methodology, which purports to assess beginning teachers’ effectiveness in relation to student achievement.
Symposium #421
CE Offered: BACB
Classroom Interventions within the Context of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support
Tuesday, May 30, 2006
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Debra M. Kamps (Juniper Gardens Children's Project)
CE Instructor: Linda S. Heitzman-Powell, Ph.D.

This symposium consists of four data-based presentations of classroom interventions for students with behavioral problems. Studies include effects for (a) classroom implementation of School-wide PBS procedures including eco-behavioral observations and data analysis, (b) use of Class-wide Function Based Intervention Teams (CW-FIT), a group contingency program to improve student performance in elementary and middle school classrooms, (c) secondary level interventions within the Behavior and Reading Improvement Center model of positive behavior support, and (d) teacher self-evaluation to improve praise rates and student behavior. Presentations will describe methods, intervention procedures, and results for teacher and student behaviors. Results indicated positive outcomes for increased on task and decreased disruptive behaviors for challenging students. Interventions also resulted in increased levels of teacher attention to appropriate behaviors and reductions in negative peer attention.

An Ecobehavioral Observation Study of Schoolwide PBS and Students with or at Risk for EBD.
HOWARD P. WILLS (Juniper Gardens Children's Project), Linda S. Heitzman-Powell (University of Kansas and Juniper Gardens Children's Project), Kimberly K. Bessette (University of Kansas), Rachel White (University of Kansas), Allison Kimbrell (University of Kansas), Kelley Young (University of Kansas)
Abstract: This presentation will report the results of an ecobehavioral observation study involving 4 urban elementary schools, 32 classrooms, and 64 students with or at risk for EBD. Participating students were nominated by their primary teachers. Each student was observed for 30 min of 2 math and 2 reading periods in the fall and again in the spring. The Multi-Option Observation System for Experimental Studies (MOOSES) (Tapp et al., 1990) was used to record several student, teacher, and contextual measures. Duration codes included engagement, instructional group size, in-seat, transitions. Frequency codes included inappropriate behaviors, compliance, non-compliance, teacher praise and reprimands to individuals and group, and teacher precorrects. SET (Sugai, Lewis-Palmer, Todd & Horner, 2001), I-SSET (Lewis-Palmer, Todd, Horner, & Sugai, 2003), and PBS Surveys (Lewis & Sugai, 1999) were used to provide status of SwPBS implementation. In addition, a revised Classroom Atmosphere Rating Scale (Kamps et al., 2004) was used to document the fidelity of implementation of SwPBS at the classroom level. Findings indicate that, in all four schools, classroom implementation of SwPBS components is essential for the benefits of SwPBS implementation to address the needs of those students at greatest risk.
Effects of the Class-wide Function Based Intervention Team ”CW-FIT” Group Contingency Program.
LINDA S. HEITZMAN-POWELL (University of Kansas and Juniper Gardens Children's Project), Anna C. Schmidt (University of Kansas), Debra M. Kamps (Juniper Gardens Children's Project)
Abstract: This presentation will include a program description of the CW-FIT group contingency intervention and data from two classroom settings. CW-FIT consists of 4 critical components. The first is teaching functional replacement behaviors for the inappropriate behaviors that currently function to (a) obtain attention (adult or peer); (b) escape from tasks; and (c) gain access to materials, privileges, and activities. The differential reinforcement of alternative behaviors (DRA)/contingencies consists of both group and individual contingencies, to be carried out as a class “game”, where students earn points for their teams by engaging in any of the desired behaviors (e.g., on-task, using quiet voices, ignoring misbehavior, remaining in seats during work time, using appropriate behaviors to gain teacher attention). The next component of the intervention is extinction, a process which minimizes social responses (e.g., attention) to inappropriate behavior. The final component of the CW-FIT is self-management. This consists of a “mini-chart” that matches to the class chart for the contingency program. This individual chart will be placed on the desk for each of the target students and 2-3 peers. Results indicated reductions in student disruptive behaviors, increased on task behavior, increased teacher praise and decreased use of reprimands. Data will be presented for two classrooms, 1st grade and 7th grade.
Comparative Effects of Five Lower- Intensity Teacher-Mediated Secondary Interventions.
RICHARD WHITE (University of North Carolina, Charlotte)
Abstract: The model of positive behavior support employed by the Behavior and Reading Improvement Center at UNC Charlotte posits two levels of targeted secondary intervention. The model has been implemented across seven school sites in grades K-3. The first level entails lower intensity teacher-mediated or self-mediated interventions and the second level entails pull-out individual or small group direct social skill instruction. The first level interventions employed include contingency contracting, fixed schedule teacher-monitoring, fixed schedule self-monitoring, fixed schedule teacher evaluation, or fixed schedule self-evaluation. Teachers in collaboration with the school positive behavior support team make intervention selection decisions among these first-tier options. The presentation will address prevalence of teacher intervention selection, procedural reliability outcomes, and comparative effects of the five lower intensity interventions on student behavior. Results indicate teacher preference for contingency contracting in combination with one of the fixed schedule intervention options. Student behavior outcomes were more improved with the combination and hence higher dosage of these interventions even though the combination entailed overall lower procedural reliability outcomes. The fixed schedule interventions were effective, but less so than when combined with contingency contracting. There were no significant differences in procedural reliability or student outcomes among the fixed schedule options.
Effects of Teacher Self Evaluation on Students’ Academic and Social Behaviors.
JOSEPH H. WEHBY (Vanderbilt University), John E. Staubitz (Vanderbilt University), Kevin Sutherland (Virginia Commonwealth University)
Abstract: While providing praise for desired behaviors have been shown to have positive effects on student outcomes, descriptive research suggests that teachers of students with emotional and behavioral disorders provide praise infrequently. The purposes of this study were to (a) examine the effect of a self-evaluation intervention using audio taped samples of teachers’ instructional behavior on the rates of praise and opportunities to respond in classrooms for students with EBD and (b) to examine the effect of the intervention on student disruptive behavior as well as academic performance assessed via curriculum-based measurement. Teachers from three classrooms for students with severe emotional and behavioral disorders participated in the project. A multiple baseline design across teachers was used. Results show that the intervention had positive effects on teacher praise and students’ correct academic responses, and the mean ratio of praise to reprimands changed across phases for teachers in the treatment group. Minimum change was noted on curriculum-based measures. Implications for future research and limitations of the study will be discussed.
Symposium #423
CE Offered: BACB
Current Research Focusing on Children Diagnosed with ADHD
Tuesday, May 30, 2006
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Michele D. Wallace (California State University, Los Angeles)
Discussant: Thomas S. Higbee (Utah State University)
CE Instructor: Michele D. Wallace, Ph.D.

This symposium will focus on current research conducted with children diagnosed with ADHD. The first paper will present a summary of a meta-analysis of the assessment and treatment literature related to problem behavior exhibited by children diagnosed with ADHD. The second paper will present a study evaluating the predictive validity of preferences assessments when conducted with children under different levels of medication status. The third paper will present a study demonstrating the effects of peer-mediated interventions for children displaying problem behavior in an afterschool program. Finally, the discussant will summarize the contributions and suggest avenues for future research realted to behavioral approaches working with children diagnosed with ADHD.

A Review of the Assessments and Treatment of Problem Behavior Exhibited by Children Diagnosed with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder.
MARIA T. STEVENSON (University of Nevada, Reno), Michele D. Wallace (California State University, Los Angeles)
Abstract: Children who display problem behavior in school are more and more being diagnosed with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder or Attention Deficit Disorder (ADHD/ADD). Common treatment approaches to eliminate these problems in school fall into three categories: Medical regimes, Behavioral approaches, or a Multitreament approach utilizing both medical and behavioral interventions. Although these approaches have been utilized to decrease problem behavior exhibited by children, a meta-analysis comparing these approaches with respect to their direct as well as their indirect effects has not been conducted. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the assessment and treatment literature related to decreasing problematic behavior exhibited by children diagnosed with ADHD/ADD with respect to: a) operational definitions, b) assessment approaches, c) treatment effects when behavioral approaches are utilized (e.g., reinforcement based procedures, antecedent manipulation procedures, and extinction based procedures), d) treatment effects when medication regimens are utilized, e) treatment effects when a combination of both approaches are utilized, and f) generalization and maintenance of treatment effects. In addition, suggestions for the treatment of problem behavior exhibited by children diagnosed with ADHD/ADD as well as future research suggestions are provided.
The Predictive Validity of Preference Assessments Conducted During Different Levels of Medication for Children Diagnosed with ADHD.
CARRIE ELLSWORTH (University of Nevada, Reno), Michele D. Wallace (California State University, Los Angeles), Mandy J. McClanahan (University of Nevada, Reno), Brooke M. Holland (University of Nevada, Reno), Molly Halligan (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: The validity of preference assessments for predicting reinforcer efficacy was evaluated with children who took medication for the treatment of ADHD. Preference assessments were conducted during two medication levels. Full effects was when 1-2 hours had passed since the administration of the medication and partial effects was when 6-10 hours had passed since the administration of the medication. Reinforcer assessments were used to evaluate responding on an academic task using a progressive ratio (PR) schedule in which schedule requirements progressively increased within each session. Results demonstrated that preference assessments conducted during full effects accurately predicted performance during reinforcer assessments, whereas preference assessments conducted during partial effects did not predict performance. In addition, results demonstrate the utility of a PR schedule for evaluating reinforcer efficacy using various measures.
Using Peer-Mediated Reinforcement in the Treatment of Children with ADHD.
ALICIA N. MACALEESE (University of Nevada, Reno), Erin J. Pitts (University of Nevada, Reno), Mandy J. McClanahan (University of Nevada, Reno), Daniel H. Sutich (University of Nevada, Reno), Michele D. Wallace (California State University, Los Angeles)
Abstract: Typical treatments for children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and who display problem behavior, often involve the use of psycho-stimulants. Moreover, behavioral interventions are typically under-utilized. One aspect of behavioral interventions that has not been extensively evaluated is the use of peers in mediating problem behavior of students diagnosed with ADHD. The use of peers may enhance behavioral treatments making them more desirable to psycho-stimulant interventions. The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate the use of a peer mediating procedure to decrease the inappropriate behavior in the classroom setting displayed by students diagnosed with ADHD, thus extending the previous literature in the area. Moreover, this procedure may demonstrate a behavioral treatment that does not increase teacher response effort.
Symposium #424
CE Offered: BACB
Differential Reinforcement in the Treatment of Behavior Disorders: Variables Related to Treatment Efficacy and Maintenance
Tuesday, May 30, 2006
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Centennial Ballroom IV
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Louis P. Hagopian (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
CE Instructor: Louis P. Hagopian, Ph.D.

Behavioral interventions targeting problem behavior often include a component involving differential reinforcement for some alternative response (DRA) or for the absence of the targeted response (DRO). In this symposium, research illustrating various applications of differential reinforcement will be presented. In one study, research examining DRA without escape extinction applied with and without instructional fading will be presented. Another presenter will discuss DRA with and without escape extinction across various types of transitions. The third presentation will describe the role of DRO, relative to instructions and self-recording, in self-management training. The final presenter will discuss methods for thinning schedules of reinforcement under DRA arrangements.

Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior With and Without Stimulus Fading for Escape-Maintained Problem Behavior.
GRIFFIN ROOKER (New England Center for Children), Eileen M. Roscoe (New England Center for Children), Diana Ervin (New England Center for Children), Nicole C. Groskreutz (New England Center for Children)
Abstract: Because Differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) procedures cannot always be implemented with extinction, it is important to identify treatment components that may enhance the effects of DRA without extinction. In the current study, DRA without extinction was compared with DRA without extinction plus stimulus fading. Three individuals diagnosed with autism, who exhibited disruptive behaviors, participated. Results from their functional analyses showed that their disruptive behavior was maintained by escape from demands. Following a demand baseline condition, two different treatment procedures were compared, DRA without fading and DRA with fading, using a reversal design. During both DRA procedures, compliance resulted in access to a token or an edible. During DRA without fading, an equal number of demands was delivered across sessions. During DRA with fading, the number of demands was gradually increased across sessions. During DRA with fading, disruptive behavior decreased for all participants and compliance increased for two of the three participants. Treatment effects maintained until the criterion number of demands (from the DRA without fading condition) was obtained. By contrast, DRA without fading was not associated with decreases in disruptive behavior or increases in compliance. IOA was collected during at least 30% of sessions and averaged above 90%.
Treatment of Problem Behavior During Transitions: The Influence of Task Preference on DRA Efficacy.
MELISSA M. SHULLEETA (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Iser Guillermo DeLeon (Johns Hopkins University), Wayne W. Fisher (University of Nebraska Medical Center, Munroe-Meyer Institute), Pamela L. Neidert (University of Florida)
Abstract: The present study assessed participants’ preferences among a set of tasks and then attempted to determine if task preference was a variable that established escape as a reinforcer during task transitions. The task preferences of two children with developmental delays were determined through paired-choice assessments. We then compared rates of destructive behavior during transitions among high-, moderate-, and low-preference tasks. For both participants, destructive behavior was observed primarily when the transition involved moving from a higher to a lower preference task. During treatment, the efficacy of reinforced compliance (without escape extinction) vs. differential reinforcement of compliance (i.e., with escape extinction) varied systematically as a function of the sort of transition. For one participant, reinforced compliance was sufficient to reduce destructive behavior during transitions to moderate preference tasks, but escape extinction was required during transitions to the lowest preference tasks. For the other participant, reinforced compliance was sufficient to reduce destructive behavior with the exception of transitions from the highest preference task, wherein escape extinction was required. These results are discussed in terms of the potential establishing operation effects of task preference on destructive behavior.
Component Analysis of a Self-Management Procedure for Treating Stereotypy.
JENNIFER N. FRITZ (University of Florida), Brian A. Iwata (University of Florida), Pamela L. Neidert (University of Florida), Erin Camp (University of North Carolina, Wilmington), Natalie Rolider (University of Florida)
Abstract: Koegel and Koegel (1990) presented data indicating that stereotypic behavior exhibited by 4 autistic children with severe deficits decreased after the children were taught a “self-management” strategy. It was unclear, however, whether observed decreases in stereotypy were a function of instructions, self-recording, differential reinforcement, or some combination of these elements. We conducted a component analysis of the procedures contained in the Koegel and Koegel intervention and observed that decreases in stereotypy might be attributable to instructions or differential reinforcement but that self-recording per se had little effect on stereotypy.
Probing Schedules of Reinforcement to Determine the Starting Point for Schedule Thinning.
DAVID P. JARMOLOWICZ (Kennedy Krieger Institute), David E. Kuhn (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Eric Boelter (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Louis P. Hagopian (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: In order to make behavioral interventions more sustainable over time and across environments, reinforcement schedule thinning is often undertaken after establishing initial treatment effects under dense schedules of reinforcement. Typically, this is conducted by progressively thinning the schedule of reinforcement from dense to lean schedules. In the current study, we describe a procedure for selecting the initial reinforcement schedule prior to undertaking progressive reinforcement schedule thinning during FCT. These schedule probes were conducted to identify the most lean reinforcement schedule that could sustain clinically acceptable levels of problem behavior comparable to the clinical goal (an 85% reduction relative to baseline), and thus serve as the starting point for additional thinning of reinforcement, if necessary. Using this methodology, some of the early steps of schedule thinning that would have otherwise been included during schedule thinning were skipped for two individuals diagnosed with mental retardation. For one participant, schedule probes revealed that progressive schedule thinning was not required, as levels of responding during the probe of the terminal schedule was associated with clinically acceptable levels of problem behavior. Reliability data were collected for at least one third of sessions and averaged above 80%.
Panel #428
CE Offered: BACB
Increasing Independence in Children with Autism and Developmental Disabilities: In the Home and Community
Tuesday, May 30, 2006
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Regency V
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Mary Ellen McDonald, Ph.D.
Chair: Ruth M. Donlin (Private Practice)
RUTH M. DONLIN (Private Practice)
MARY ELLEN MCDONALD (Eden II Programs/The Genesis School)
RANDY I. HOROWITZ (Eden II Programs)
NICOLE WEINDENBAUM (The Martin Barell School)

This panel will address specific and concrete interventions designed to promote independence in children with autism and related disabilities. Parents and educators in home-based programs are challenged to systematically achieve or maintain an individuals independence in a variety of home and community settings. As a result, many parents request further assistance in maintaining mastered skills or shaping their childs independence when trained staff is not working or when such services are unavailable. The panel will benefit parents and educators working with children where greater independence in the home and community is desired. A variety of interventions, beyond the basics, will be presented that address how to increase an individuals ability to independently engage in activities, display appropriate behavior in the supermarket, restaurant or similar settings, and to develop self-monitoring and other community-based skills. The panel will examine and discuss interventions that are feasible and achievable based on resources available to staff and family. Parents and professionals are encouraged to attend. Panelists will offer suggestions and the remainder of the time will be devoted to open discussion.

Symposium #429
CE Offered: BACB
Measuring the Effectiveness of Behavioral Interventions for Children with Autism
Tuesday, May 30, 2006
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Chicago A-F
Area: AUT; Domain: Theory
Chair: Gerald E. Harris (Texas Young Autism Project)
Discussant: Gerald E. Harris (Texas Young Autism Project)
CE Instructor: Gerald E. Harris, Ph.D.

Making behavioral treatment available to more children with autism entails convincing others, including health service providers, parents, insurance companies and public policy makers, that this treatment is effective. Unfortunately, all too often behaviorists are relying on assessment instruments with unknown or unproven reliability and validity for this special population. The 3 presentations in this symposium present data that significantly advances the psychometric knowledge for some of the most widely used measures of intelligence, language and behavior problems in the autistic population. Data was collected from comprehensive assessments of over 100 children diagnosed with autistic disorder as they participated in behavioral treatment programs. Sample sizes for the data analytic procedures are thus larger than usually seen in this area. The first presentation examines the most popular comprehensive intelligence test, the WPPSI-III, in terms of its applicability for children with autism. The second presentation looks at construct validity for several widely used language measures. What do they really measure, and what is the overlap in what they do measure? The third presentation investigates the utility of an efficient behavior report instrument for this special population. Together, these presentations provide insight into our ability to demonstrate the effectiveness of behavioral interventions.

An Examination of the Use of the WPPSI-III Intelligence Test with Children with Autism.
WENDY J. NEELY (Texas Young Autism Project), Allison Serra Tetreault (Texas Young Autism Project), Ehsan Bayat (Texas Young Autism Project), Gerald E. Harris (Texas Young Autism Project)
Abstract: Assessment of cognitive abilities of children with autism is crucial to designing and evaluating behavioral interventions. Little is known about the psychometrics of the most widely used intelligence test, the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence -III, for this population. Wechsler published a study in the WPPSI-III Technical Manual (The Psychological Corporation, 2002) addressing the utility of the WPPSI-III for this special population. However, several significant methodological problems are noted in that study, including a very small sample (n = 21), and restrictions of age and I.Q., as well as unknown test administration and scoring procedures for the data provided by an independent third party examiner. In the present study, data from standard initial administrations of the WPPSI-III to a much larger group of children (n = 91) diagnosed with autism was analyzed and the results compared to the findings from the Wechsler study. Significant differences were found in means and distributions of subtest and composite area standard scores. Scores for lower functioning (I.Q. < 60) children with autism, in particular, were very different. Full results and implications for the use of the WPPSI-III for children with autism in clinical and research settings are discussed.
Language Skills of Children with ASD: Construct Validity of Commonly Used Language Tests.
CATRIONA BORG-HANSEN (Texas Young Autism Project), Gerald E. Harris (Texas Young Autism Project)
Abstract: Language skills of children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are a central focus for both clinicians and researchers. When diagnostically assessing or when testing for effectiveness of interventions or treatments, common practice is to use only one of several tests available, assuming that the test is indicative of the participants’ overall language skills. The current study looked at construct validity of the most frequently used language measures: Reynell Developmental Language Scales, Preschool Language Scale- IV, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, and General Language Index-WPPSI-III. One-hundred-one children diagnosed with ASD between the ages of 15 months and 13 years were assessed with multiple language measures as well as an intelligence measure. Participants’ mental age ranged from 10-53 months and I.Q. from 15-100. Partial correlations across all tests controlled for age equivalent scores on the intelligence test. Surprisingly, correlations across tests were generally low or nonsignificant. The overlap of variance accounted for beyond general intelligence ranged from r2 =.07-.69, indicating that the tests are measuring different constructs 31%-93% of the time. According to the results of this study, researchers, diagnosticians, and treatment providers need to use several assessments to accurately measure language skills in children with ASD.
The Utility of the CBCL as a Screening Tool in Identifying Children with Autism.
ALLISON SERRA TETREAULT (Texas Young Autism Project), Lauren Harrington (Texas Young Autism Project), Gerald E. Harris (Texas Young Autism Project)
Abstract: As a behavior oriented measure, the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) has potential for increasing behavioral awareness and focus in clinical activities associated with autism. This investigation examines the CBCL to determine if the measure is useful as a screening tool in the identification of children with autism. The CBCL has been widely used to assess patterns of behavior problems in children based on parental, caregiver or teacher report. Problem behaviors are clustered into seven syndromes and five DSM-Oriented Scales, which group items based on their relationship to criteria for DSM diagnoses such as Autistic Disorder and Asperger’s Syndrome. Although the items in the DSM-Oriented Scales are related to criteria for clinical diagnoses, these scales do not correspond precisely to diagnostic criteria. The current study investigated the validity of the Pervasive Developmental Problems (PDP) DSM-Oriented Scale in 120 children previously diagnosed with autism. Results reveal a pattern of very elevated t-scores on the PDP scale in addition to clinical elevations on the Withdrawn Syndrome and the Attention Deficit Disorder Syndrome. A proposed CBCL profile for autism is presented and implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed.
Symposium #433
CE Offered: BACB
Selecting Reinforcers in Applied Settings: Variables that Impact Preference and Reinforcer Assessment Outcomes
Tuesday, May 30, 2006
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Regency VI
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Richard G. Smith (University of North Texas)
CE Instructor: Richard G. Smith, Ph.D.

A large and growing array of procedures exists for evaluating stimulus preferences and selecting reinforcers for people with developmental disabilities. The presentations in this symposium examine factors that affect the outcomes of preference assessment and reinforcer effectiveness. The effects of variables including the extent of assessment, contingent delivery, noncontingent delivery, restriction, presession exposure to potential motivating operations on stimulus preferences were examined. Also, effects of choice and task difficulty/effort on reinforcer effectiveness were examined. The results of these studies indicate that these variables may alter preferences among stimuli, although some effects appear to be idiosyncratic across participants, and that choice and work requirements may interact to alter the effectiveness of reinforcement. Outcomes of these studies will inform both research and practice for those interested in effective methods for selecting and implementing reinforcement procedures with persons with developmental disabilities.

Examining Variables that Contribute to Fluctuations in Relative Preference: Contingent Delivery, Noncontingent Delivery, and Stimulus Restriction.
MEAGAN GREGORY (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Iser Guillermo DeLeon (Johns Hopkins University)
Abstract: To date, a handful of behavior analytic studies have examined general changes in stimulus preferences and reinforcer durability over time for individuals with developmental disabilities. However, none have examined the variables that influence the durability and/or stability of reinforcers. We examined the effects of contingent delivery, noncontingent delivery, and restriction on changes in relative preferences over time. Paired-choice preference assessments were used to determine relative preferences. Four moderately preferred stimuli were selected and randomly assigned to one of four conditions. Two stimuli were presented contingent upon correct responses in an academic task. The first stimulus was delivered on an FR1 schedule and the schedule value for the second stimulus was increased across successive weeks from FR1 to FR2, FR5, and FR10. The third stimulus was delivered noncontingently on a schedule yoked to that used for the first stimulus. The fourth stimulus was restricted entirely. After exposure to these conditions, the preference assessments were repeated. For participants who completed four weeks of the manipulations, the data thus far have shown a slight decrease in preference ranking for the item delivered noncontingently and an increase for the increasing FR item.
Some Effects of Motivating Operations on Assessments of Preference.
TRACY L. KETTERING (Marcus Autism Center), Michael E. Kelley (Marcus Autism Center and Emory University), Wayne W. Fisher (University of Nebraska Medical Center, Munroe-Meyer Institute), Ilana Rappaport (Georgia State University)
Abstract: Previous research on preferences assessments suggest that several methodologies are effective for establishing hierarchies of preferred stimuli. However, results of some studies suggest that preference may shift due to the presences of edible items (i.e., edible items may displace leisure during preference assessments in combined assessments) or other inadvertent motivating operation (MO) manipulations (e.g., Bojak & Carr, 1999; DeLeon, Iwata, & Roscoe, 1997; Gottschalk et al., 2000). However, the effects of access to specific preference assessment items and other general MO manipulations have not been well studied. In the current investigation, specific MOs were manipulated to determine subsequent effects on MSWO preference assessments. MSWO sessions with 4 leisure and 4 edible items were conducted 30 minutes prior to meals, 30 minutes following meals, and 30 minutes following meals that were supplemented with a preference assessment edible item. Results were idiosyncratic across participants and suggested that the consumption of meals functioned as an MO for edible items in the assessment for two participants, while the consumption of preference assessment edible items did not function as an MO for any of the participants. Results are discussed in terms of previous preference assessment research, general implications for preference assessments, and clinical implications.
A Comparison of Brief versus Extended Paired-Choice and Multiple-Stimulus without Replacement Preference Assessment Outcomes.
AMANDA J. MCALLISTER (University of North Texas), Richard G. Smith (University of North Texas), Caroline C. Stevens (University of North Texas)
Abstract: Few studies have systematically evaluated the effects of the extent of assessment on preference assessment outcomes. Typically, studies have used brief procedures to select potential reinforcers for use in intervention. The present study administered a total of 17 food and leisure paired-choice preference assessments and 12 multiple-stimulus without replacement (MSWO) preference assessments to 22 subjects. Results were evaluated to determine the extent to which the results of a brief (i.e., single-session) assessment correspond with those from more extended procedures (i.e., 5-10 sessions). Results indicate stability in rank order across assessments for the most highly preferred stimuli but substantial variability in rank-order among less-preferred stimuli in both the paired-choice and MSWO preference assessments. These outcomes suggest that a brief assessment can be useful when a single, potent reinforcing stimulus is desired, and an extended assessment should be conducted when a larger number of preferred stimuli is needed.
The Effects of Reinforcer Choice on Responding as a Function of Ratio Requirements and Task Difficulty.
KATHARINE GUTSHALL (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Iser Guillermo DeLeon (Johns Hopkins University)
Abstract: The effect of choice of reinforcers on response rates has been examined using both concurrent and single-operant analyses. However, results have differed with regard to the extent of added benefit from reinforcer choice. Related areas of research have suggested that increases in work requirements can magnify small differences in relative reinforcer efficacy. The current study thus used a single-operant design to examine choice versus no choice of reinforcers in children with disabilities using various manipulations related to task difficulty or effort. Results thus far reveal that the provision of reinforcer choice did not enhance responding when ratio requirements or task difficulty were increased. However, differences did emerge when reinforce choice vs. no-choice conditions were compared under progressive-ratio schedules. These results are discussed in terms of the potential effects of choice when amount of work is considered and the sensitivity of various preparations to relative reinforcer efficacy.
Symposium #435
CE Offered: BACB
Teaching Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders in Inclusive Settings
Tuesday, May 30, 2006
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Regency VII
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Brian Doyle (CEC - Behavioral Services)
Discussant: Mariela Vargas-Irwin (CEC - Behavioral Services)
CE Instructor: Brian Doyle, M.A.

The education of children with autism in natural environments poses a unique set of challenges to the field of Applied Behavior Analysis. Rather than transporting children to environments that have specifically been designed to meet their needs, inclusion strives to both help children adapt to their community and to change these natural environments to meet their needs. This symposium examines different issues in the education of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in the natural environment.

How Do Kids with Autism Talk? Natural Language Samples of Children with Autism and Typically Developing Peers.
MARIELA VARGAS-IRWIN (CEC - Behavioral Services), Rafael Castro (CEC - Behavioral Services), Brian Doyle (CEC - Behavioral Services), Meehan Leila (CEC - Behavioral Services), Vangala Madhuri (CEC - Behavioral Services)
Abstract: Skinner's classification of verbal behavior in mands, tacts, echoics, and intraverbals was used to compare natural language samples of two third grade students with autism with samples of their typically developing peers’ language. When compared to natural language samples of children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders, typical children were found to have larger proportions of tacts and intraverbals. Implications for language pragmatic and social skills training are discussed.
Ongoing Measurement of Social Behavior in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders.
MADHURI VANGALA (CEC - Behavioral Services), Rafael Castro (CEC - Behavioral Services), Brian Doyle (CEC - Behavioral Services), Leila Meehan (CEC - Behavioral Services), Mariela Vargas-Irwin (CEC - Behavioral Services)
Abstract: Proximity to children, receipt of social bids from other children, spontaneous verbalizations towards adults and children, and focus on toys have been identified as critical indicators of social skills in pre-school children with autism. This case presentation examines the data collected on the social behavior of three pre-school students with Pervasive Developmental Disorder integrated in a typical pre-school settings with the support of instructors trained in Applied Behavior Analysis. The advantages of ongoing measurement of social behavior are discussed.
Late Intervention for Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders.
LEILA MEEHAN (CEC - Behavioral Services), Rafael Castro (CEC - Behavioral Services), Brian Doyle (CEC - Behavioral Services), Mariela Vargas-Irwin (CEC - Behavioral Services)
Abstract: In the field of autism there is extensive empirical support for the importance of beginning intensive intervention immediately after diagnosis. However, intensive services are sometimes offered by local school districts only after strong parent advocacy. This case study presents pre and post intervention data for a child with Pervasive Developmental Disorder, Not Otherwise Specified who began receiving one-to-one instruction based on Applied Behavior Analysis at age eleven. The data documents the importance of advocating for behavioral education for older children.
Symposium #436
CE Offered: BACB
The Regulation of Drug Taking by Humans and Other Animals
Tuesday, May 30, 2006
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Area: BPH; Domain: Basic Research
Chair: Steven I. Dworkin (University of North Carolina, Wilmington)
Discussant: Steven I. Dworkin (University of North Carolina, Wilmington)
CE Instructor: Steven I. Dworkin, Ph.D.

Several different mechanisms have been proposed to account for the different patterns of drug intake observed in humans and other animals. Recently it has been proposed that drug intake is the result of both sensitization and habituation to the drug during consumption. Factors controlling human cigarette smoking and nicotine consumption by rats will be presented and discussed in the context of specific notions related to the regulation of drug intake.

Sex Differences in a Rat Model of Adolescent-Onset Nicotine Self-Administration.
AMIR REZVANI (Duke University Medical Center), Susan Lawrence (Duke University Medical Center), Ann Petro (Duke University Medical Center), Jed E. Rose (Duke University Medical Center), Edward Levin (Duke University Medical Center)
Abstract: The vast majority of tobacco addiction begins during adolescence, and 88% of current smokers smoke their first cigarette before age 18 and 60% before age 14 (CDCP, 1991, 1998a, 1998b). Effects of nicotine during adolescence can be critical in determining the tenacity of addiction through the rest of life. Important neurobehavioral development is still occurring during the adolescent period. Critical differences between adolescent and adult neural function may underlie adolescent vulnerability to nicotine addiction. Adolescent neurobehavioral function may predispose individuals to greater nicotine self-administration than adults. This project was aimed at developing a rat model in which the neurobehavioral basis of adolescent vulnerability to nicotine addiction can be studied. Previously, we found that beginning nicotine SA during adolescence vs. adulthood caused a significant increase in SA that persisted through the period when the female adolescent rats became adults (Levin et al. Psychopharmacology, 169:141-149, 2003). In the current study, we showed that adolescent male rats have an even higher rate of nicotine SA during adolescence vs. adulthood than females. In male rats, the adolescent-onset group had more than triple the rate of nicotine SA than the adult-onset group during the first two weeks of SA. Then, over the third and fourth weeks of the study, as the male adolescent rats aged into young adulthood, their nicotine SA reduced toward the levels seen in older male rats, which started nicotine SA in adulthood. Both male and female rats increased nicotine SA with adolescent-onset. But, there is a sex difference with higher nicotine SA during adolescence in males and greater persistence of high nicotine SA into adulthood in females. This rat model can be used as an arena to determine the critical neurobehavioral underpinnings for vulnerability of both adolescent males and females to nicotine addiction.
Factors Involved In Regulating the Intake Of Drug And Non-Drug Reinforcers.
STEVEN I. DWORKIN (University of North Carolina, Wilmington)
Abstract: The suggestion of similarities in the reinforcing effects of drug and non-drug reinforcers was initially used to justify the extension of research findings from the experimental analysis of non-drug reinforcers to substance abuse research. Undeniably behavioral studies evaluating the reinforcing effects of psychoactive drugs demonstrated and extended the similarities between these two broad classes of maintaining events. Moreover, current neurobiological mechanisms suggested to be involved in drug abuse are similar to those suggested to be involved in the reinforcing effects of non-drug reinforcers. This presentation will review evolutionary, behavioral and neurochemical theories of reinforcement related to food regulation and drug intake and present some of the similarities and differences between different drug and non-drug reinforcers that are involved in the regulation of intake.
The Role of Nicotine and Non-Nicotine Factors in the Regulation of Cigarette Smoking Behavior.
JED E. ROSE (Duke University Medical Center)
Abstract: Cigarette smokers exhibit a fairly consistent regulation of smoke intake, and this behavior has been widely thought to reflect self-regulation of nicotine levels. However, recent studies suggest that non-nicotine factors, including sensory cues accompanying smoke inhalation, play a large role in regulating smoking behavior. Studies will be described that dissociate nicotine and non-nicotine influences, using methods entailing intravenous nicotine administration and presentation of denicotinized cigarettes. In these studies, the effects of non-nicotine components in limiting smoke intake were found to be significantly greater than the direct effects of nicotine, suggesting that conditioned cues may play a prominent role in the regulation of smoking behavior as well as tobacco dependence. These results also suggest novel lines of therapeutic development for smoking cessation treatment.
Special Event #439
CE Offered: BACB
International Paper - 2006 ABA Tutorial: Relational Frame Theory
Tuesday, May 30, 2006
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
Centennial Ballroom I
Area: TPC
Chair: Marianne L. Jackson (University of Nevada, Reno)
CE Instructor: Dermot Barnes-Holmes, Ph.D.

International Paper - 2006 ABA Tutorial: Relational Frame Theory


Relational Frame Theory (RFT) is a modern behavior-analytic approach to the study of human language and cognition. The tutorial will focus on the main concepts of RFT and how they are currently being used to develop conceptual and empirical analyses of areas such as symbolic meaning, analogical reasoning, rule-governance, and implicit attitudes. The first part of the tutorial will involve defining and explaining the core concepts of RFT, focusing in particular on the operant nature of the theory. The second part of the tutorial will explore recent examples of basic research in RFT, and how the results emerging from this research may be seen as challenging some established views within behavior analysis. The third and final part will consider possible lines of future research in RFT.

DERMOT BARNES-HOLMES (National University of Ireland, Maynooth)
Dr. Dermot Barnes-Holmes is foundation Professor and Chair of the Department of Psychology at the National University of Ireland, Maynooth. He studied under Professor Julian Leslie and Dr. Michael Keenan at the University of Ulster before taking up a teaching position at University College, Cork, where he stayed for 10 years before accepting his current post. Dr. Barnes-Holmes has published over 180 scientific articles, book chapters, and books, and he was recently ranked as the most prolific author in the world in the Experimental Analysis of Human Behavior during the period 1980 to 1999 (Dymond, 2002). He has served on, or is currently serving on, the editorial boards of the following journals: Experimental Analysis of Human Behavior Bulletin; Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior; Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis; The Behavior Analyst; The European Journal of Behavior Analysis; The European Journal of Psychology; The International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy (Associate Editor); and The Psychological Record. Dr. Barnes-Holmes has graduated 19 doctoral students and in the past four years has been involved in attracting over 250,000 dollars in competitive funding for basic research in Relational Frame Theory. He sat on the Health Research Board (a Ministerial appointment) during 2002-2005 and was elected to the Council of the Psychological Society of Ireland for 2004-2007.
Symposium #444
CE Offered: BACB
Achieving Independence: New Solutions That Help Students Surmount Traditional Barriers to Independent Demonstration of Skills
Tuesday, May 30, 2006
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
Centennial Ballroom III
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Elizabeth Martineau (Nashoba Learning Group)
CE Instructor: Elizabeth Martineau, Other

Overcoming fine and gross motor deficits, analyzing the smallest components of target skills, and developing interventions that lead to the demonstration of independent skills are some of the greatest challenges in teaching students with autism. New solutions are needed to assist students in crossing these barriers. Fine and gross motor deficits are obstacles to skill development in traditional behavioral programming. At times, it has been determined that a student does not have a target skill in his or her repertoire, when closer investigation may yield that motor impairments are simply preventing the demonstration of the skill in the given context. Additionally, when students are unsuccessful in following typical curriculum progressions, a closer analysis of component skills should be completed to ensure proper prerequisite instruction and individual adaptation of the curriculum hierarchy. When it has been prematurely determined that a student is unable to acquire a specific skill, that students advancement may be limited. Furthermore, students are often limited by their ability to demonstrate skills independently. If students are able to perform skills accurately without the presence of an instructor, limitations to inclusion and success in a variety settings are lessened. Utilizing remote monitoring is an effective method to acquire independence in vocational, self-help and leisure skills.

Adapting ABA Curricula to Accommodate Gross and Fine Motor Limitations.
JESSICA SLATON (Nashoba Learning Group, Simmons College), Elizabeth Martineau (Nashoba Learning Group, Simmons College), Maureen J. Lacerte (Nashoba Learning Group, Simmons College)
Abstract: Curricula designed using an ABA format is generally quite specific in its format, presentation and criteria. They are based on sound conceptual frameworks and are relayed to other professionals using solid technological language. This allows others to generalize these strategies without loss of effectiveness. There may be a tendency, however, to limit adaptations because of concerns about generality and effectiveness. This case presentation demonstrates how professionals can make appropriate changes without altering the core properties of the programming. Two students currently receiving intense programming based on the principles of Applied Behavior Analysis present with a myriad of fine and gross motor limitations. Their success using the prescribed curricula was limited. Adaptions such as limiting field size, altering position of materials, shifting from expressive identification to receptive ( less of a motor response), training specific motor responses before responding must occur, training with laser as a guide and picture memory are some of the adaptations that have allowed their successful access to the curricula. Demonstration of skill and continued advancement are the end products of such adaptations. Assessing a student’s motor capabilities should be a prerequisite when working with such students, allowing those students to access otherwise very effective curricula.
Delayed Imitation to Increase Visual Memory as a Prerequisite to Following Two Step Directions.
MAUREEN J. LACERTE (Nashoba Learning Group, Simmons College)
Abstract: Typical curriculum progressions/advancements may require further investigation and analysis of task prerequisites in order to increase efficacy. When progress is slow and curriculum adaptations have not impacted that trajectory a component analysis may illuminate which skills are necessary in order for the learner to experience success. This study presents a learner whose progress acquiring the ability to follow two step imitation was limited, despite his solid skill level acquired in one step motor imitation and many curriculum adaptations, including video modeling, verbal prompting, and graduated guidance techniques. A component analysis of the task revealed prerequisites that included visual memory, a skill this student had not demonstrated as yet. A program was designed to train delayed motor imitation with delays initially set at 1 second and gradually increased to 5 seconds in length. Upon successful acquisition of motor imitation with a 5 second delay inserted, this student was then able to demonstrate a two step motor imitation with reasonable accuracy. In sum, our assumptions about a curriculum hierarchy may limit our abilities to successfully teach a student if we do not challenge these by carefully analyzing those skills we are addressing.
Independent Schedule Training as a Toileting Program.
ROBYN E. STEWART (Nashoba Learning Group, Simmons College), Maureen J. Lacerte (Nashoba Learning Group, Simmons College)
Abstract: Toilet training, a seemingly difficult skill for many children to acquire, is generally taught with one of two end goals in mind; schedule trained or independent use of the toilet. Independent use of the toilet requires that a student, without prompting, either request to use the bathroom or access it independently, and complete all of the required steps. A task analysis may include all of the following: undress if necessary, sit appropriately, urinate or defecate without assistance, wipe appropriately, flush the toilet, redress if necessary, and wash thoroughly. For many learners the acquisition of independence is a very lengthy process. In response to this, an adaptation to a schedule training program (successfully implemented and acquired) is to train for independence within this program. Using a task analysis, specific to the learner, signals (such as timers) and graduated guidance as initial prompting procedures, a student at Nashoba Learning Group, was successfully trained to use the toilet independently, without adult assistance, on a schedule throughout the course of his school day. In addition, generalization to the home environment can be trained using the same techniques with an initial time investment from caretakers that eventually dissipates.
Using Remote Monitoring to Develop Independence in Task Completion.
ELIZABETH MARTINEAU (Nashoba Learning Group, Simmons College)
Abstract: One of the greatest challenges in educating children with autism is increasing levels of independence in completing tasks and activities. Yearly goals often include that a particular student will complete a target task independently, however in this context, the term “independent” is often defined as the student being able to complete the task correctly, without assistance from an adult. It does not mean that the student is able to complete the task while the instructor is across the room, in another room, or completely out of sight. Skills become significantly more functional if they can be demonstrated at a truly independent level, meaning the task of stuffing envelopes can be completed while the student is alone in an office, or that an entire activity schedule can be completed while the student is in a separate room of the house. Remote monitoring allows instructors to maintain supervision of the student, while remaining out of sight. Performance is consistently monitored and supervision systematically faded. Utilizing remote monitoring in conjunction with systematic fading of supervision and reinforcement was effective in teaching 2 school-age students with autism to complete vocational tasks, self-help routines, and activity schedules at a truly independent level.
Symposium #445
CE Offered: BACB
Analyses of Behavior Analytic Approaches to Teaching
Tuesday, May 30, 2006
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Jason C. Bourret (New England Center for Children)
CE Instructor: Jason C. Bourret, M.S.

The presentations in this symposium describe analyses of common teaching methods. The first presentation describes a study in which the experimenters examined the effects of video modeling as a supplement to a least-to-most intrusive prompting method in establishing behavior chains. In the second presentation, the experimenters describe a study in which they evaluated the effectiveness of, and preference for, three teaching strategies that are commonly implemented in early childhood classrooms. In the third presentation, a study is described in which the experimenters used a concurrent-chains procedure to evaluate the effectiveness of and preference for three teaching methods. In the fourth presentation, a human-operant study is described in which the experimenters investigated variables controlling teachers placement of stimuli in a discrete-trial format.

Combining Video Modeling and Least-to-Most Intrusive Prompting for Establishing Behavior Chains.
NATALIE MURZYNSKI (New England Center for Children), Jason C. Bourret (New England Center for Children)
Abstract: In the present study, video modeling in addition to least-to-most prompting was compared to least-to-most alone in teaching daily-living skills in the form of behavior chains. Two boys with the diagnosis of autism (ages 8 and 9) participated. A parallel-treatments design with replication was used to examine the effects of combining video modeling with a least-to-most prompting strategy in establishing daily-living skills task analyzed into behavior chains. The results of the present study showed that, in all cases, the participants acquired the task taught with video modeling plus least-to-most prompting in fewer trials than with least-to-most prompting alone.
An Evaluation of the Effectiveness and Social Validity of Three Practices in Early Childhood Education.
NICOLE HEAL (University of Kansas), Gregory P. Hanley (University of Kansas), Stacy A. Layer (University of Kansas)
Abstract: Although it is generally agreed that learning occurs through children’s interactions with their environments, the manner in which the teacher mediates this learning varies across early childhood classrooms. In this study, we used a multielement design to evaluate the effectiveness of 3 commonly implemented teaching strategies that varied in teacher directedness. Strategy I consisted of a brief exposure to the target relations (Spanish names of colors and animals), followed by a child-led play period in which praise was provided for correct responses, but teacher prompts were not issued. Strategy II was similar except that teacher prompts to vocalize relations and error correction (model and practice) were arranged. Strategy III contained the same procedures as II except that a brief period of teacher –led trials was arranged (timed prompts, tokens for correct responding, back-up activity reinforcers). In addition, a concurrent chains arrangement was used to measure the children’s preferences for the strategies. Interobserver agreement was collected on over 30% of sessions and mean agreement was 90% or higher for all measures. Results indicated that Strategy III was the most effective; however, children’s preferences varied between Strategies I and III. Implications for the design of early educational environments are discussed.
An Evaluation of the Effectiveness and Preference for Three Teaching Tactics which Vary in Initial Task Difficulty.
STACY A. LAYER (University of Kanasas), Emma Hernandez (University of Kanasas), Gregory P. Hanley (University of Kanasas), Kathryn Welten (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Although providing care and safety for young children have been primary roles of preschool teachers, many teach a variety of academic skills. We used a concurrent chains procedure in the current study to evaluate the effectiveness of and preference for three teaching contexts (i.e., errorless, moderate, trial-and-error) with 8 preschool children. The relative efficacy was determined by comparing levels of correct responding during terminal links (where the children experienced the contexts) while preference was determined by observing relative response rates in the initial links (where children chose the context.) Interobserver agreement was collected for a minimum of 30% of sessions and mean agreement was 90% or higher for all measures. The teaching contexts differed in initial task difficulty along two dimensions involving the pre-response prompting and the consequences for incorrect responding. Initially, the errorless context resulted in near zero errors, the moderate context resulted in moderate number of errors, and the trial-and-error teaching tactic resulted in the most number of errors. Results indicate that correct responding was highest in the trial-and-error context for four of the six children and preference for the contexts varied across participants.
Analog of Teachers' Tendencies to Reinforce Side Preferences.
JORGE RAFAEL REYES (University of Florida), Timothy R. Vollmer (University of Florida), Elizabeth S. Athens (University of Florida)
Abstract: Discrete trial training methods are commonly used to train basic skills in individuals with developmental disabilities. In some cases, the participant may have a side preference and pick whatever stimulus happens to be in a particular location. The current study utilized a human operant preparation involving automated “student” responses (“students” were computerized representations) to investigate the effects of side preferences on “teacher’s” placement of stimuli in a discrete trial format (“teachers” were college undergraduates). Study 1 investigated teacher’s placement of the targeted stimulus in response to various strengths of side preferences. Study 2 investigated the effects of having student performance criteria and feedback on the placement of stimuli. Study 3 investigated the effects of competing instructions to randomize the stimuli and performance criteria for the student. Results of study 1 and 2 indicated that teachers were likely to place targeted stimuli in the locations where the student chose more often (preferred side). In fact, teacher placement of stimuli closely matched the proportional rate of reinforcement if a student’s “correct” response is considered to be a reinforcer. The results of study 3 showed a decrease in placement of the targeted stimulus on the preferred side. Implications for the use of discrete trial training will be discussed.
Symposium #449
CE Offered: BACB
Current Research on Preference Assessment
Tuesday, May 30, 2006
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
Centennial Ballroom IV
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Louis P. Hagopian (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Wayne W. Fisher (University of Nebraska Medical Center, Munroe-Meyer Institute)
CE Instructor: Louis P. Hagopian, Ph.D.

Research on and the development of new preference assessment procedures has advanced rapidly over the past decade. In this symposium, presenters will describe research examining procedures designed to identify preferred activities and stimuli of individuals with developmental disabilities. The first presenter will describe research comparing an engagement-based and an approach-based multiple stimulus preference assessment procedure. Next, research examining how stimulus access time can affect outcomes of a multiple stimulus preference assessment will be presented. The third presenter will discuss research examining the use of picture stimuli and videotaped presentation of the selected activity. The Discussant will offer commentary on these studies and the larger body of research on preference assessment.

A Comparison of Approach and Duration Stimulus Preference Assessment Procedures.
TIFFANY KODAK (Marcus Autism Center), Wayne W. Fisher (University of Nebraska Medical Center, Munroe-Meyer Institute), Mike Kelly (Marcus Autism Center), Catherine Trapani (Marcus Autism Center), April N. Kisamore (Marcus Autism Center)
Abstract: Previous research has evaluated a variety of methods to identify stimuli that may function as reinforcers with individuals with developmental disabilities (Fisher et al., 1992). A multiple stimulus with replacement (MSW) preference assessment was developed to reduce the amount of time required to identify a rank order of preference for items (Windsor et al., 1994). Another method of rapidly identifying preference for stimuli involves a free operant (FO) procedure (Roane et al., 1998). Participants were provided with 5 minutes of free access to stimuli. Despite the variety of preference assessment procedures, it remains unclear whether one type of preference assessment procedure (i.e., approach or duration) will more accurately identify stimuli that will function as reinforcers. The present investigation compared the results of two preference assessment procedures, an MSW and a variation of the FO assessment. In the FO assessment, participants could interact a stimulus as long as they remained in the portion of the room allocated to the particular stimulus. Subsequent reinforcer assessments evaluated the item identified as most preferred in each preference assessment procedure. Results indicated that the two assessment procedures identified different stimuli as most highly preferred. The reinforcer assessment indentified which stimulus was the most effective reinforcer.
Further Evaluation of Factors Affecting Preference Assessment Outcomes.
JODY M. STEINHILBER (New England Center for Children), Cammarie Johnson (New England Center for Children), Lisa Tereshko (New England Center for Children), Julius Warindu (New England Center for Children)
Abstract: Preference given selection- and duration-based measures was evaluated with 2 different types of MSWO preference assessments. In one MSWO condition (short), access to selected items was available for a brief duration (15 s); in the other MSWO condition (long), access to selected items was available for up to 15 min. Seven sessions of each condition were conducted using a multi-element design for 5 participants diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder and/or mental retardation. Assessment results identified a different high preference item in long (LHP) and short conditions (SHP) for 3 of 5 participants when rank order was determined by duration measures in the long condition, and 1 of 5 participants when selection measures were compared in the 2 assessment formats. Interobserver agreement data were collected in at least 25% of sessions and agreement was consistently above 90%. Results are discussed in terms of stimulus parameters that may affect preference and possible clinical implications and applications.
Evaluation of a Video-Based Procedure for Conducting Preference Assessments.
PAMELA L. NEIDERT (University of Florida), Brian A. Iwata (University of Florida)
Abstract: Results of previous research on the assessment of preference indicate that clear preferences often do not emerge unless differential consequences (i.e., access to activity) are arranged for selection responses. Thus, preference assessments typically involve presentation of the actual stimuli of interest (food or leisure items). This practice may be difficult or time consuming, however, when assessing preference for certain types of events (e.g., going to the movies), and the purpose of this study was to examine the viability of an alternative arrangement that might improve the efficiency of assessment. We determined whether differential preference can be observed when stimulus (picture) selection resulted in access to watching a videotaped segment of the selected activity rather than access to the actual activity. Participants included individuals with developmental disabilities for whom a preference assessment was needed. Results indicated that preferences sometimes emerged under the video condition and that the duration of the video assessment was much shorter than the duration of the assessment in which access to the actual activity was provided.
Symposium #450
CE Offered: BACB
Evaluating the Impact of Training Providers in ABA and Positive Behavior Support
Tuesday, May 30, 2006
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
Regency VI
Area: DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Jennifer R. Zarcone (University of Rochester Medical Center)
CE Instructor: Jennifer R. Zarcone, Ph.D.

This presentation will include information about statewide training program in applied behavior analysis and positive behavior support. Trainees are professionals who serve children and adults with disabilities and who work in related human service fields (e.g., foster care, mental health) and reimbursement for services is provided through Medicaid. The focus of training is on defining and collecting data on problem behavior, conducting functional assessment, and developing of positive behavior support plans. Additional training on emotional and mental health issues as they relate to problem behavior are also provided. In this symposium, program evaluation data will presented on the effectiveness of the training using a variety of measures as well as the outcome of the training on the behavior of the consumers identified for intervention. In addition, the impact of systems change on individual agencies, local service delivery, and state-wide strategic action planning will also be discussed.

The Fidelity of Positive Behavior Support Plans.
NANETTE L. PERRIN (Early Childhood Autism Program, Community Living Opportunities, Inc.), Rachel L. Freeman (University of Kansas), Constance Tieghi (University of Kansas)
Abstract: Each professional in the training program submitted one complete case study with follow-up data and two additional case studies as part of the requirement to complete the training course. A 37 item fidelity checklist based on Horner et al. (2000) was used to score behavior support plans. Frequency distributions for the first two training cohorts show increases in the overall scores on the fidelity measure from the first to the second training year (cohort 1: 62% to 95%; N = 9, Mean = 75.44, SD = 10.84; cohort 2: 74% to 97%, N = 12, Mean = 88.33, SD = 7.44). Professionals were also asked to submit behavior plans before taking the yearlong training course. In addition, professionals were asked to obtain PBS plans that were completed for the case study children before the professional became involved. These pre-testing measures were used to evaluate the fidelity of the plans that were turned in to instructors. To date, 47 PBS plans were evaluated across two cohorts of trainees. The average percent scores for PBS plans turned in by trainees as an example of previous team participation in PBS planning was 46% (N=12) compared to an average percentage of 83% after training.
The Impact of Training in ABA and PBS on Child Behavior on Contextual Fit and Quality of Life.
RACHEL L. FREEMAN (University of Kansas), Amanda Tyrell (Community Living Opportunities, Inc.), Constance Tieghi (University of Kansas), Pat Kimbrough (University of Kansas)
Abstract: For individuals participating in the statewide training program, all of their positive behavior support plans were scored using an impact measure that evaluated the changes in problem behavior and replacement behaviors, the degree to which the interventions developed were linked to the function of the problem behavior, and the degree to which the plans reported evidence in changes in quality of life, both for the target child and the individuals supporting the child. Trainees in the two cohorts provided data measuring problem and/or adaptive behavior for their case study. The average score for the plans targeting problem behavior was 4.3 on a scale of 1 (no improvement) to 5 (significant improvement) across training groups and behaviors. The average score for the link between the function and intervention selected across training groups (N=14 trainees) and across behaviors (N=38) was 4.1 on a scale of 1 (some elements addressed) to 5 (all elements were addressed). Additional data on quality of life measures and for the third cohort of trainees will also be presented.
Outcome of Training on Child Behavior.
AMANDA TYRELL (Community Living Opportunities, Inc.), Rachel L. Freeman (University of Kansas), Nanette L. Perrin (Early Childhood Autism Program, Community Living Opportunities, Inc.)
Abstract: Results from two case studies will be provided describing the functional assessment data collected, the hypothesis statement of function based on the assessment developed, the interventions developed by the child’s team, and the outcome data on the child’s problem behavior. Data were collected using an AB experimental design across settings. This data will be presented in an AB design with outcome data for a two young children with autism spectrum disorders in both school and community settings. Measures on the frequency of problem behavior and adaptive behavior before and after the intervention indicated a significant reduction in problem behavior for each child. Specifically, for Brant, there was a 52% reduction from baseline in noncompliance, an 82% reduction from baseline in property destruction, and 93% reduction from baseline in tantrums based on the intervention developed by the trainee. In addition, the parents of both children scored the intervention a mean of 6 on a 6 point scale for contextual fit for both children and a mean of 4.75 and 4.85 on a quality of life survey. Data from additional case studies will also be presented to demonstrate the direct impact of the training on the individual behavior of the consumers being served by the KIPBS trainees.
The Impact of Training in ABA and PBS on State and Local Agency Planning.
JENNIFER R. ZARCONE (University of Rochester Medical Center), Rachel L. Freeman (University of Kansas), Pat Kimbrough (University of Kansas), Constance Tieghi (University of Kansas)
Abstract: The fidelity and impact measures described in this symposium provide data to identify weaknesses and improve overall training outcomes. Trainees are then expected to have an impact within their own organization by donating a minimum of 12 hours a year implementing a systems change program either at the local or state level. At this time, Cohort 1 graduates have reported 206 hours and cohort 2 graduate have reported 244 hours of systems change efforts including mentoring other KIPBS students (cohort 1=60 hours; cohort 2=115 hours), providing PBS awareness presentations across the state (cohort 1=52 hours; cohort 2=20 hours), mentoring professionals within one’s organization (cohort 1=22 hours; cohort=42 hours), inservice training related to PBS (cohort 1=14 hours; cohort 2=39 hours), organization-wide systems change (cohort 1=58 hours; cohort 2=25 hours). These systems change efforts are occurring in 18 counties across Kansas and statewide PBS planning meetings have just started occurring to begin as a way to encourage interagency collaboration and action planning. In addition, the impact of the KIPBS website statistics have led to a complete revision of the site. As a result, the number of visitors to the site has grown from 69 in August 2002 to 2,204 in September 2005.
Symposium #457
CE Offered: BACB
Practical Applications of Token Systems, Visual Schedules, Behavior Plans, and ABA Consultation- Practical Issues
Tuesday, May 30, 2006
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
Chicago A-F
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Melissa J. Andretta (Andretta Behavior Analysts)
CE Instructor: Melissa J. Andretta, M.S.

This symposium includes presentations that focus on the practical applications of using the science of behavior for the educational needs of students with autism. Practical issues and suggestions for an ABA Consultant will focus on issues that an ABA consultant may face when proving those services. This presentation is applicable to individuals who provide ABA consultation services, as well as owners of companies that provide ABA consultation services. Practical applications and examples of: token-based motivational systems will focus on using token systems to increase academic skills, to increase appropriate social behavior, and to increase habilitative responses (academically, behaviorally, and socially). Practical applications and examples of behavior plans/contracts will focus on developing and implementing behavior plans/behavior contracts, based on the results of the functional analysis. Practical applications and examples of visual schedules will focus on various visual activity schedules used to promote independence, social interactions, & communication skills, as an instructional tool, and to replace inappropriate behaviors with habilitative responses. A comparison (on the target behaviors) will be made between the use of an individualized motivation system and a motivation system used in conjunction with an activity schedule. For each data-based presentation, data systems will be discussed in terms of analyzing the function of the inappropriate behavior, creating data sheets, visually representing data, and assessing the ongoing success of the activity schedule. Examples of specific token systems, behavior plans, and activity schedules, as well as visual representations of the corresponding data, will be shown during the presentation.

Practical Issues for an ABA Consultant working in School-Based and Home-Based Educational Programs.
MELISSA J. ANDRETTA (Andretta Behavior Analysts), Allison Cellura (Andretta Behavior Analysts), Jennifer Folbert (Andretta Behavior Analysts), Kristina Piper (Andretta Behavior Analysts), Cindy Mulstay (Andretta Behavior Analysts)
Abstract: This presentation will focus on practical issues that an ABA consultant may face when proving services to children with autism. While there will be reference to specific interventions, this presentation is designed to illustrate components, and concerns, that can be applied by a consultant who is a behavior analyst. This presentation will cover topics that are applicable to individuals who provide ABA consultation services, privately, as well as topics that are relevant to owners of companies that provide ABA consultation services. Specific examples of the application of behavior analysis to consultation services will be discussed, and visual representations of any materials or data will be provided.
Practical Applications and Examples of Token-based Motivational Systems used by Children with Autism.
JENNIFER FOLBERT (Andretta Behavior Analysts), Melissa J. Andretta (Andretta Behavior Analysts), Allison Cellura (Andretta Behavior Analysts), Kristina Piper (Andretta Behavior Analysts), Cindy Mulstay (Andretta Behavior Analysts), Sandy Eggeling (Andretta Behavior Analysts)
Abstract: This presentation will focus on practical applications of using token systems with children with autism, to increase academic skills, to increase appropriate social behavior, and to increase the occurrence of habilitative responses (academically, behaviorally, and socially). Data systems will be discussed in terms of creating data sheets, visually representing data, and using that data to determine if changes in the token system is necessary, (on a continuous basis). Examples of specific token boards used with each student, as well as visual representations of the corresponding data for each student, will be shown during the presentation.
Practical Applications and Examples of Behavior Intervention Plans, used by Children with Autism.
MELISSA J. ANDRETTA (Andretta Behavior Analysts), Allison Cellura (Andretta Behavior Analysts), Jennifer Folbert (Andretta Behavior Analysts), Kristina Piper (Andretta Behavior Analysts), Cindy Mulstay (Andretta Behavior Analysts)
Abstract: This presentation will focus on practical applications of developing and implementing behavior intervention plans/behavior contracts. Methods for determining the function of target behavior will be discussed, and examples will be provided as necessary. There will be a focus on how to develop a behavior plan based on the results of the functional analysis. Data systems will be discussed in terms of: analyzing the function of the inappropriate behavior, creating data sheets, visually representing data, and using that data to determine if changes in the token system is necessary, on a continuous basis. Examples of specific behavior plans used with each student, as well as visual representations of the corresponding data for each student, will be shown during the presentation.
Practical Applications and Examples of Using Visual Activity Schedules by Children with Autism.
JENNIFER FOLBERT (Andretta Behavior Analysts), Melissa J. Andretta (Andretta Behavior Analysts), Allison Cellura (Andretta Behavior Analysts), Kristina Piper (Andretta Behavior Analysts), Cindy Mulstay (Andretta Behavior Analysts), Sandy Eggeling (Andretta Behavior Analysts)
Abstract: The presentation will focus on practical applications of visual activity schedules used by children with autism, to promote independence, social interactions, communication skills, as an instructional tool, and to decrease inappropriate behaviors and replace them with habilitative responses. Methods to create an initial schedule, for students on various levels (a reader, a pre-reader, a writer, etc.), as well as for different purposes (a play schedule vs. an instructional schedule, vs. an academic schedule, etc.) will be discussed, and examples of such schedules will be presented. Data systems will be discussed in terms of the effectiveness of each activity schedule. Data are analyzed to determine if changes in the visual schedule is necessary, on a continuous basis. A comparison will be made between the use of an individualized motivation system and a motivation system used in conjunction with an activity schedule (on the target behaviors/responses). Examples of specific visual schedules used with each student, as well as visual representations of the corresponding data for each student, will be presented during the discussion at the paper session.
Special Event #462
CE Offered: BACB
2006 ABA Tutorial: Professional Development Series: Introduction to Stimulus Relations
Tuesday, May 30, 2006
11:00 AM–11:50 AM
Centennial Ballroom I
Area: EAB
Chair: Christy A. Alligood (West Virginia University)
CE Instructor: Murray Sidman, Ph.D.

2006 ABA Tutorial: Professional Development Series: Introduction to Stimulus Relations


An introductory tutorial on equivalence relations and behavior. Procedural fundamentals and background.

Dr. Murray Sidman started at Columbia University in 1940. After World War II military service, he returned to complete his AB, and went on to a Ph.D in 1952. His principal advisors, Fred S. Keller and W. N. Schoenfeld, had strong assists from Ralph Hefferline.
Special Event #463
CE Offered: BACB
2006 ABA Tutorial: The Six Boxes Model: Performance Management in a Plain English Context
Tuesday, May 30, 2006
11:00 AM–11:50 AM
Centennial Ballroom III
Area: OBM
Chair: Timothy D. Ludwig (Appalachian State University)
CE Instructor: Carl V. Binder, Ph.D.

2006 ABA Tutorial: The Six Boxes Model: Performance Management in a Plain English Context


The Six Boxes Model is a plain English derivative of Thomas F. Gilberts Behavior Engineering Model (BEM). Easier to comprehend and communicate to clients than the BEM, this framework provides a container for all the factors that influence behavior in a work environment. It also serves executives, managers, and performance improvement professionals as a simple but powerful tool for improving many management and performance development functions, including: organizational alignment, needs analysis, performance design, training support, implementation planning for new systems/programs/strategies, management development, and individual or group performance problem-solving. This tutorial introduces the model and provides an overview of each of its cells and the interdependencies among them with the plain English vocabulary that one might use with our non-technical clients and colleagues. The presentation will outline some key applications for this model and point to bodies of research and application from both behavioral and non-behavioral sources that can be encompassed and better understood in the context of The Six Boxes. Finally, the session will touch on our more recent applications of the model as a tool for enabling performance thinking across functions and levels in organizations to facilitate organizational agility and management effectiveness.

CARL V. BINDER (Binder Riha Associates)
Dr. Carl Binder began his career as a graduate student with B.F. Skinner at Harvard, subsequently serving as Associate Director at B.H. Barrett’s Behavior Prosthesis Laboratory from 1973 to 1982. He has spent over 25 years helping to train teachers in educational agencies and accelerate performance in sales, marketing, customer service, and operations at Global 2000 and public sector organizations. Founder of three consulting firms, he is currently Senior Partner at Binder Riha Associates in Santa Rosa, CA. He has developed and commercialized the FluencyBuildingTM learning and coaching methodology, the Product Knowledge ArchitectureTM for sales and marketing effectiveness, and Six Boxes™ Performance Management. A widely published author in performance management, sales and marketing effectiveness, instructional design, educational policy, performance measurement, and related fields, he has won awards from the International Society for Performance Improvement (ISPI) and from Division 25 of the American Psychological Association for his pragmatic, research-based contributions. Download many of his publications at and find out more about The Six Boxes model at
Invited Paper Session #469
CE Offered: BACB

Some of My Best Friends are Synapses: How Brain Science Can Inform Behavioral Intervention

Tuesday, May 30, 2006
12:00 PM–12:50 PM
Centennial Ballroom II
Area: AUT; Domain: Theory
CE Instructor: Travis Thompson, Ph.D.
Chair: Craig H. Kennedy (Vanderbilt University)
TRAVIS THOMPSON (School of Medicine, University of Minnesota)
Dr. Travis Thompson is a professor of pediatrics, in the School of Medicine at the University of Minnesota. He earned his Ph.D. in psychology at the University of Minnesota; and completed his post-doctoral work at the University of Maryland and at Cambridge University, UK. He was previously Director of the John F. Kennedy Center, Vanderbilt University and Smith Professor of Psychiatry, University of Kansas Medical Center. Thompson was co-developer with C. R. Schuster of the drug self-administration model for screening potentially addictive drugs. He developed one of the early large-scale behavioral intervention programs for people with developmental disabilities. His applied and basic research includes experimental and applied behavior analysis, behavioral pharmacology, genetics and most recently brain imaging. Served as advisor/co-advisor of 47 doctorates in psychology, pharmacology, and special education. Awards: APA Div. 25 Don Hake Award (1990), the Research Award, Amer. Assoc. for Mental Retardation (1995), Distinguished Research Award, The Arc of the United States (1996), the Academy of Mental Retardation, Career Scientist Award (1998) and the American Psychological Association Div. 33 Edgar A. Doll Award (2002). Past president of the Behavioral Pharmacology Society, APA Divisions 28 (Psychopharmacology) and 33 (Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities). Author of 217 journal articles and chapters and author/editor of 25 books.

Skinner's earliest work was influenced by Harvard physiologist L.J. Henderson and by C.S. Sherrington's reflex arc. While attracted to physiology's experimental method, Skinner rejected hypothetical constructs referring to immeasurable brain and genetic events. He later noted that the skin is not an important barrier suggesting variables within a behavioral analysis may reside beneath the skin. Nonetheless, Skinner's antipathy toward reductionistic explanation led later behavior analysts to ignore the legitimate role neurobiological events can play as variables within the analysis of behavior. Objectively measurable neurochemical and neurophysiological events can serve as discriminative and reinforcing stimuli as well as functioning as establishing operations. Understanding developmental brain dysfunction can shed light on the reasons individuals with specific disabilities behave as they do and suggest behavioral intervention strategies. Developmental neuroplasticity affords the opportunity to promote synapse formation in brain structures lacking sufficient connectivity, preventing further neuronal loss through cell pruning. Behavioral assessment tools (e.g. ABLLS) can be used in conjunction with knowledge of which structures play a role in specific cognitive and behavioral functions to inform intervention strategies. The role of genes mediating neurochemical abnormalities associated with specific disabilities (e.g. autism, Prader Willi syndrome) will illustrate the relation between genes, neurochemistry and behavior analysis.

Symposium #472
CE Offered: BACB
Basic Research Models of Clinical Disorders and Clinical Treatments
Tuesday, May 30, 2006
12:00 PM–1:20 PM
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
Chair: Timothy R. Vollmer (University of Florida)
CE Instructor: Timothy R. Vollmer, Ph.D.

In this series of presentations, basic research models that relate directly to clinical disorders and clinical treatments are described. In the first paper, Michael H. May will report on a study showing that access to aggression functions as reinforcement in mice. Schedule control characteristic of common reinforcement schedules were obtained. In the second paper, Maria H. Couppis will examine the hypothesis that mesocorticolimbic dopamine modulates the reinforcing properties of aggression in mice. In a third paper, Kimberly Sloman, using a rat operant model, compares three reinforcement schedules commonly used as behavioral treatments for severe behavior disorders. The schedules include differential reinforcement of other behavior, fixed time, and momentary differential reinforcement. In the fourth paper, Andrew Samaha, also using a rat model, will present data showing the effects of various reinforcement contingency values on lever pressing. In addition, he will present a method for extending the research to humans.

Schedule Analyses of Aggression as a Positive Reinforcer.
MICHAEL MAY (Vanderbilt University), Maria H. Couppis (Vanderbilt University), Craig H. Kennedy (Vanderbilt University)
Abstract: Violent behaviors, such as aggression, appear in most phyla and seem to serve an adaptive function. However, the appearance of these behaviors in human beings can be associated with a range of detrimental societal outcomes. For people with developmental disabilities, the occurrence of aggression is associated with placement in more restrictive residential and educational settings and a diminished quality of life. Although a great deal of preclinical research has been done on the neurobiology of aggression, little is known about the operant characteristics of these behaviors and the neurobiology that might underlie their occurrence. It is plausible that a better understanding of possible reward mechanisms related to aggression may lead to improved behavioral and/or pharmacological treatments. An important first step in pursuit of this goal is to isolate aggression as an operant response that can be studied in its own right. In this presentation, we present data on aggression as a positive reinforcer for an arbitrary response (i.e., nose poking) in mice. The experiments used Male Swiss-Webster mice in the resident-intruder paradigm. Initially, mice were taught to nose poke as an operant response to earn liquid. Once stable patterns of responding were established, the liquid was withdrawn as a consequence and a novel intruder mouse was introduced when the response contingency was met. We obtained response patterns characteristic of fixed-ratio, fixed-interval, and DRL reinforcement schedules suggesting that access to aggression functioned as a positive reinforcer. Tests using a progressive-ratio reinforcement schedule showed a “break point” significantly lower than for liquid reinforcement, suggesting that access to aggression was a lesser valence stimulus than liquid. Our findings provide a potential model system and experimental paradigm for analyzing the neurobiology of aggression within the context of its stimulus properties as a positive reinforcer.
Role of the Nucleus Accumbens in the Positively Reinforcing Effects of Aggression.
MARIA H. COUPPIS (Vanderbilt University), Michael May (Vanderbilt University), Craig H. Kennedy (Vanderbilt University)
Abstract: Behavioral research suggests that aggression serves as a positive reinforcer. However, the brain mechanisms underlying aggression as a reinforcer remain to be determined. This study examined the hypothesis that mesocorticolimbic dopamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) modulates the reinforcing properties of aggression. ‘Resident’ male mice were trained to perform a nose-poke task on a VR-5 schedule for the opportunity to aggress toward an ‘intruder’ mouse. After obtaining a stable baseline nose-poke rate, in vivo micro-infusion of 3 different doses of dopamine receptor (DR) 1 and DR2 antagonists, SCH-23390 and Sulpiride, were administered into the NAc. Sulpiride reduced responding at all three doses and did not affect movement at the low and medium doses. SCH-23390 lowered responding at medium and high but was accompanied by reduced movement. These data suggest that mesocorticolimbic dopamine does modulate aggression as a reinforcer though pharmacological manipulation in humans may be limited by motor side effects.
A Laboratory Comparison of Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior (DRO), Noncontingent Reinforcement (NCR), and Momentary DRO.
KIMBERLY SLOMAN (University of Florida), Timothy R. Vollmer (University of Florida), Andrew Samaha (University of Florida)
Abstract: Differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) and noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) are commonly used treatments to decrease aberrant behavior. Some previous research has reported problems with these treatments including the occurrence of extinction bursts (DRO), adventitious reinforcement (NCR), and difficulty with implementation (DRO). During momentary DRO, a reinforcer is delivered if responding is absent in the last portion of an interval. Thus, momentary DRO may prevent adventitious reinforcement and may also minimize the occurrence of extinction bursts while maintaining the "ease of implementation" associate with NCR. The purpose of the present experiment was to evaluate DRO, NCR, and momentary DRO in a laboratory using rats. The treatments were evaluated within subject using multielement and reversal designs. Dependent measures included rate of responding, highest response point, average of first and last five points of the condition, and rate of reinforcement. Preliminary findings suggest that all of the treatments were effective in reducing response rates. However, overall response rates and highest response point were somewhat lower in the momentary DRO condition. Implications for implementation of momentary DRO in applied settings will be discussed.
Animal and Human-Operant Models of Common Behavioral Treatments.
ANDREW SAMAHA (University of Florida), Timothy R. Vollmer (University of Florida), Kimberly Sloman (University of Florida)
Abstract: Using rat and human operant preparations, contingency values of various strength were arranged by altering the probability of a reinforcer given a response and the probability of a reinforcer given no response. A positive contingency (random-ratio like) was programmed by arranging a higher probability of a reinforcer following periods with responses (lever press for rats, computer key pressing with a target for humans) than following periods without a response. Negative (DRO like) contingencies followed the opposite pattern. In general, responding maintained under positive contingencies and decreased under negative contingencies. However, the effects of positive and negative contingency conditions depended on the strength of the contingency in the prior condition. These results have implications for applied behavior analysis in terms of arranging contingencies in skill acquisition (positive contingencies following a history of neutral or negative contingencies) and behavior reduction (negative contingencies in differential reinforcement of other behavior following a long history of positive contingencies for problem behavior).
Symposium #475
CE Offered: BACB
Health, Sport, & Fitness: Innovations in Applied Behavior Analysis
Tuesday, May 30, 2006
12:00 PM–1:20 PM
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Michael A. Kirkpatrick (Wesley College)
CE Instructor: Michael A. Kirkpatrick, Ph.D.

While the health, sport, and fitness fields are historically dominated by theoretical orientations derived from medicine and traditional educational practices, behavior analysts are driving empirical innovation. We report on four very distinct and potentially burgeoning areas: (a) empirically-derived, individually tailored exercise programs for chronic pain/fibromyalgia, (b) parent-supported weight reduction in down syndrome, (c) the effects of controlling contingencies on healthy eating, exercise and fitness behaviors, and (d) behavior following instructions to perform sport-related visual imagery. Despite broad differences in the content areas under study, these investigations together function to extend the application of behavior analysis into new domains in health, sport, and fitness.

Effects of Contrived, Extrinsic, and Controlling Contingencies on the Maintenance, Enjoyment, and Interest in Healthy Eating, Exercise and Fitness Behaviors.
STEPHEN RAY FLORA (Youngstown State University)
Abstract: Many fitness programs are successful in getting participants physically fit. However, after the program, most successful participants return to their pre-program fitness level or become even less fit. An untested, but theoretically possible reason for this is that contrived/controlling contingencies of the fitness program “undermine” the natural, “intrinsic,” reinforcers for becoming more physically fit. To test this possibility, participants entered a fitness program designed to maximize external/contrived/controlling contingencies for engaging in fitness behaviors. Specifically, following baseline measures, participants pinpointed exercise, diet, and lifestyle behaviors targeted for change. The behavior rates were graphed, publicly posted, and commitment statements and behavioral contracts were signed. Subjects earned money for themselves and charities for meeting behavior goals. Money went to disliked organizations for failure. Effects of the program on fitness, enjoyment and “intrinsic interest” in fitness behaviors were measured.
Parent-Supported Weight Reduction for Children with Intellectual/Developmental Disabilities.
RICHARD K. FLEMING (University of Massachusetts Medical School, E.K. Shriver Center), Carol Curtin (University of Massachusetts Medical School, E.K. Shriver Center), Linda Bandini (University of Massachusetts Medical School, E.K. Shriver Center), James Gleason (University of Massachusetts Medical School, E.K. Shriver Center), Elizabeth Jordan (Boston University)
Abstract: The prevalence of childhood obesity has more than doubled in the last 20 years, with 10-15% of all children now meeting these criteria. Research on weight-loss programs for the general pediatric population is underway, but little is being done for children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (I/DD). This paper will describe a behavior analytic parent-supported weight reduction (PSWR) program for adolescents with I/DD. This research is supported by grants from the Deborah Munroe Noonan Memorial Fund and the John Alden Trust Foundation. In addition to receiving individualized diet and activity prescriptions, and a standard nutrition/activity educational program, participants (parent-child dyads) are taught to apply behavioral procedures: monitoring, stimulus (environmental) control, goal-setting, contracting, reinforcement and feedback. Data will be presented on: 1) pre- and post- Body Mass Index (BMIz) scores; 2) pre- and post- accelerometer readings; 3) pre- and post- nutrition and activity knowledge; 4) integrity of participants’ use of behavioral procedures; 5) participant satisfaction; and 6) participant self-recorded food intake and activity. Results will be discussed with respect to the potential effectiveness of behavioral procedures for weight loss in I/DD, and the team’s plans for a large randomized controlled trial (RCT).
Empirically-derived, Individually Tailored Exercise Programs for Chronic Pain/Fibromyalgia.
ROBERT M. STEIN (Lancaster, Pennsylvania)
Abstract: Fibromyalgia is a poorly understood chronic pain syndrome that may involve some form of “somatosensory amplification” in which tactile stimulation and movement result in reports of pain exceeding what would otherwise be expected. Physical exercise programs are nearly universally recommended for chronic pain and fibromyalgia, but exercise can be a punishing experience with a low probability of maintenance. The current work sought to develop individualized exercise programs for individuals with chronic pain and fibromyalgia by focusing on several factors: 1) Movements that participants could engage in without pain, 2) Analysis of pain 1-3 days following exercise, and 3) Didactic instruction on the importance of movement in the management of chronic pain. A functional pain scale was developed that focused more on what participants could accomplish rather than a simple numeric scale. Data are presented demonstrating individualized development of exercise programs based on task performance and pain experience 1-3 days following exercise.
Indirect Measures of Putative Covert Behavior following Instructions to Perform Sport-related Visual Imagery.
AARON D. LESSER (Wesley College), Michael A. Kirkpatrick (Wesley College)
Abstract: Imagery is widely regarded as an effective performance enhancement technique for athletes. Imaginal procedures for overcoming fear or trauma are also supported by a large and growing literature. However, most researchers and clinicians view "images" as either mental events or brain states, not as covert behavior. We propose imagery be conceptualized as subtle, covert behavior dependent upon an establishing history and an occasioning stimulus. Without attempting to control for existing visual learning histories, we instructed college students to "vividly imagine a standing basketball shot" under three different conditions. Both group and single-subject, alternating treatments designs were implemented. Participants used a stopwatch to time their imagined shots and completed questionnaires about their observations. Brief video clips showing a long or short distance basketball shot were used as stimuli to influence responding. Results suggest that the role of learning history in covert behavior is underestimated. Acquisition functions over multiple trials support the view that although not intersubjectively verifiable, behavior following imagery instructions is acquired through conditioning mechanisms.
Symposium #478
CE Offered: BACB
Precision Teaching and Social Skills Instruction for Learners with Autism
Tuesday, May 30, 2006
12:00 PM–1:20 PM
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Alison L. Moors (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting)
Discussant: Shahla S. Ala'i-Rosales (University of North Texas)
CE Instructor: Alison L. Moors, M.A.

Teaching children with autism the skills necessary for effective social interaction has been a hallmark of quality behavior analytic programming for decades. Often, students need to learn these skills in a highly structured teaching arrangement first before attempting to apply the skills in a generalized social environment. For tracking and analyzing progress with social skills, data collection techniques vary logistically depending on the environment. This symposium will highlight the use of Precision Teaching methodologies and procedures as an underlying tool for successful data collection practices both within group and individual learning sessions.

Using Fluency Based Instruction to Teach Social Skills in a Small Group Setting.
KRISTA ZAMBOLIN (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting), Heidi Calverley (University of British Columbia & Fabrizio/Moors Consulting), Shelley McInnis (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting)
Abstract: This paper will highlight a methodology for teaching social skills to a small group of 12 and 13 year old boys. This methodology incorporates techniques from fluency based instruction, video modeling, video feedback, role play, direct instruction and a variety of reinforcement strategies. Data and video clips will be presented to highlight the effectiveness of the programming.
Increasing Independent Play through the Use of Activity Schedules and Precision Teaching in a Young Child with Autism.
HEIDI CALVERLEY (University of British Columbia & Fabrizio/Moors Consulting), Kelly J. Ferris (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting)
Abstract: Characteristics of Autism are often described in terms of the noticeable deficits in appropriate play. This paper will detail the steps taken to increase the independent play in a young child with autism through the use of activity schedules and Precision Teaching. Data will be provided documenting the acquisition of appropriate independent play tasks and the transition of those tasks to an activity schedule. Video will also be provided demonstrating the steps within the process.
Decreasing Socially Incompatible Behavior that Competes with Social Responding.
ALISON L. MOORS (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting), Kelly J. Ferris (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting)
Abstract: Children with autism not only have marked deficits in social interaction skills, but they also may have self stimulatory/stereotypy needs which often impede their ability to contact socially reinforcing contingencies. This paper will demonstrate the use of the Standard Celeration Chart for highlighting the progress of social interaction skills and decrease in self stimulatory behaviors for a 10 year old child with severe autism and paralysis who uses an augmentative communication device.
Symposium #482
CE Offered: BACB
Fluent Responding in Staff and Students: A Predictor of Outcome
Tuesday, May 30, 2006
12:30 PM–1:50 PM
Regency V
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Kara Muirhead (HMEA)
Discussant: Kara Muirhead (HMEA)
CE Instructor: Kara Muirhead, None

Binder (1996) discusses the outcomes of fluency including, retention, endurance, application and performance standards. Fluency is an often overlooked stage in learning. Most training for staff and teaching programs for children focus on accuracy only methods. When a skill is fluent, it becomes second nature, increasing the probability for retention, endurance and application. Performance standards are individualized in order to promote these outcomes. The studies in this symposium, individualize strategies in order to attain fluent responding in staff and students. The monitoring of staff implementation could have a direct effect on child outcomes. Performance feedback and video modeling are two strategies that can be applied in order to increase treatment integrity in the absence of an on site consultant. Comparisons between its use within analogue vs. in vivo settings will be discussed. Binder (1996) discusses the outcomes of fluency including, retention, endurance, application and performance standards. Fluency is an often overlooked stage in learning. Most training for staff and teaching programs for children focus on accuracy only methods. When a skill is fluent, it becomes second nature, increasing the probability for retention, endurance and application. Performance standards are individualized in order to promote these outcomes. The studies in this symposium, individualize strategies in order to attain fluent responding in staff and students. The monitoring of staff implementation of programming when a consultant is not on site is a challenge. Improper treatment implementation could have a direct effect on child outcomes. Personalized systems of instruction and video modeling are two strategies that can be applied in order to increase treatment integrity in the absence of an on site consultant. Performance feedback is a more direct method of increasing performance. All of these strategies have been shown effective in increasing fluent responding in staff and students.

Effects of Treatment Integrity on Child Outcomes in Discrete Trial Programs: A Replication and Extension.
KARA MUIRHEAD (HMEA), Sandra M. Beaton-Small (HMEA), Stacey Considine (HMEA)
Abstract: Researchers (Sarkoff & Sturmey, 2004) have recently begun to evaluate the treatment integrity of discrete trial teaching provided by direct care staff in home-based settings with children with autism. An effective and efficient monitoring system that can be utilized by supervisors of these programs is necessary due to the many other responsibilities that they have within a home visit (e.g. meeting with parents or making program changes). The present researchers previously evaluated the efficacy of a seven-step written and verbal feedback package on the implementation of discrete trial programs for children with autism in their homes that could be implemented by program supervisors. The feedback package was effective in improving staff performance, however, a correlation with marked child improvement was not observed. Therefore, the purpose of the present paper is to first, replicate the effects of the feedback package using a modified data collection system with newly hired direct care staff and second, to extend the previous research by evaluating child outcomes as they are related to staff fluency. A multiple baseline across discrete trial programs will be used with all staff-child dyads. Data will be collected on staff accuracy and fluency of program implementation and child response accuracy.KEYWORDS: Discrete trial teaching, autism, home-based, fluency, treatment integrity, staff training
Assuring the Fluency of Paraprofessional Teaching Skills in Home Based Services.
JANICE R. BOLTON (HMEA), Stefanie A. Salome (HMEA), Michele D. Mayer (HMEA)
Abstract: Research indicates that intensive behavioral treatment programs are a promising intervention for children with autism. These treatment programs are characterized by the provision of concentrated individual instruction within each treatment session so that the child receives as many learning opportunities as possible. Frequently, these programs rely upon paraprofessional staff to provide direct one to one instruction to the child under the oversight of a supervising clinician. As many of these paraprofessionals have not received formal education in the implementation of behavioral treatment and, as supervising clinicians contact may be limited, it is vital that the paraprofessionals are effectively trained. To assure that the paraprofessional is able to provide the intensity of instruction required, it is important that training packages address both accuracy and fluency of teaching. This study uses a multiple baseline across subjects to evaluate the effectiveness of a brief staff training aimed at teaching fluent implementation of discrete trial teaching. A training package using a practice to fluency aim, along with specific performance feedback, was implemented in an analogue setting and found to successfully generalize to the treatment setting.
Investigating the Effectiveness of Video Modeling and Performance Feedback to Train Staff to Fluency.
STACEY CONSIDINE (HMEA), Laurie Richardson (HMEA), Stefanie A. Salome (HMEA), Kara Muirhead (HMEA)
Abstract: Staff training is a critical concern when services for children with autism are implemented in a home-based setting. The use of both antecedent (demonstration) and consequent (feedback and checklists) conditions are important in increasing and maintaining staff skills (Harschik et al, 1989). Performance feedback has also shown to maintain staff skills (Iwata, 1982; Parsons & Reid, 1995). Many studies have shown that trained staff can implement behavioral programming for children in various settings with a high degree of treatment integrity. Accuracy of implementation does not necessarily facilitate fluency of implementation. When learners achieve certain frequencies of accurate performance they retain and remain on task or endure for periods of time. Binder, Haughton, and Van Eyk (1995) noted that endurance, the ability to continuously perform skills over increasing durations, is a by-product of fluency. The purpose of this study is to first examine the effects of video modeling and feedback in increasing staff fluency and second to examine the relationship between staff fluency and their ability to maintain high levels of responding within a session. A multiple baseline across subjects design will be used and data will be collected on staff accuracy and fluency of program implementation as well as generalization probes across settingsKeywords: fluency, endurance, staff training, video modeling, performance feedback.
Symposium #485
CE Offered: BACB
The Cutting Edge of Behavioral Treatment and Education of Young Children with Autism
Tuesday, May 30, 2006
12:30 PM–1:50 PM
Centennial Ballroom III
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Barbara A. Metzger (Winston-Salem/Forsyth County Schools)
Discussant: Barbara A. Metzger (Winston-Salem/Forsyth County Schools)
CE Instructor: Barbara A. Metzger, Ph.D.

Behavior Analysts have been extremely successful in teaching a wide variety of skills to young children with autism including language, academic, imitation and self-help. Especially important to the long-term success of a child with autism is the ability to develop functional communication and play skills. This symposium presents three innovative approaches to improving communication and play skills to children with autism. The first presentation presents a shaping methodology to teach a non-verbal child to use expressive communication. The second presentation addresses making play an essential component of an ABA program. It looks at how to teach new play skills and expand social play while at the same time keeping play fun. While the first two presentations are from the perspective of home-based programs, the third presentation takes ABA into the classroom. Successful replication of the key features of a home-based program into a group setting will increase the accessibility of ABA.

From Nothing to Words: A Shaping Procedure to Teach Verbal Skills.
VIRGINIA CAROLINE MINICOZZI (Western North Carolina Behavioral Education, Services and Treatment)
Abstract: This presentation will discuss how verbal behavior was shaped for a 2 year old with Autism who had no verbal skills initially. Tools used to determine what to teach and when to teach skills will be discussed.
Play: It’s Not Just Another Program.
ANGELA L. POLETTI (Winston-Salem/Forsyth County Schools), Sabrina Mong (Winston-Salem/Forsyth County Schools), Louise B. Southern (Winston-Salem/Forsyth County Schools)
Abstract: Autism is characterized by major deficits in play skills. We have developed an approach to teaching play which emphasizes the function, rather than the structure, of play. We will discuss the various aspects of play including: why we play; the hierarchy of play; kinds of play; assessing motivation during play; expanding play; incorporating language in play; and playing with peers. We will be presenting video footage of assorted types of play and showcasing individual students at varying levels of social play ranging from non-social to reciprocal social and beginning pretend play. We will also be sharing some of the benefits play has provided in the lives of young children with autism in home-based therapy programs.
Making ABA Work in the Classroom.
LIZA LINDENFELD (Johnston County Schools)
Abstract: The methodologies and curriculum commonly used in home-based early intervention programs were modified to be applied in a self-contained autism classroom with five students with mild to severe autism. Instruction was modified to meet the individual needs of each child. Goals were met using large group and small group instruction as well as using one-to-one instruction. One-to-one instruction was carried out during the day with the teacher and the classroom assistant. Play and communication skills for all children were focused on throughout the day in the classroom and during recess. Behavior management, a large part of making ABA work in a classroom setting, will also be discussed. Several methods of behavior management were used to ensure success for the students and to teach the students appropriate social skills in the classroom and on the playground. Video will be shown of the students during large group, small group and one to one instruction from the beginning, middle, and end of the school year.



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