Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis InternationalĀ® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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35th Annual Convention; Phoenix, AZ; 2009

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Symposium #285
CE Offered: BACB
New Evidence On Emergence of Naming, Reinforcement For Tacts, Autoclitic Frames, Capacity For Sameness
Sunday, May 24, 2009
3:30 PM–4:50 PM
North 132 BC
Area: DEV/EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
Chair: R. Douglas Greer (Columbia University Teacher's College and Graduate School of Arts and Sciences)
CE Instructor: Guy Bruce, Ed.D.
Abstract: We present findings from three sets of experimental analyses on emergent verbal developmental cusps or foundation cusps for verbal development. Two experiments will be presented on the effects of monitoring training on the emergence of observational learning and Naming with middle school students lacking one or both of these capabilities. The next paper describes two experiments on the emergence of novel usage of autoclitic frames as a function of multiple exemplar training. The third presentation concerns experimental analyses of the effects of the intensive tact protocol on the emergence of conditioned generalized reinforcement for tacts. The final paper presents experiments on the effects of the emergence of the capacity of sameness on accelerated learning. These findings add to the evidence on the identification and induction of verbal developmental cusps and verbal developmental cusps that constitute new learning capabilities. The findings have relevance to the basic science of verbal behavior and applied interventions to advance verbal development.
 
Effects of a Monitoring Protocol on Observational Learning and the Emergence of Naming
DARCY M. WALSH (Teachers College Columbia University), R. Douglas Greer (Columbia University Teacher's College and Graduate School of Arts and Sciences)
Abstract: Two Experiments were conducted with middle school students from disenfranchised families with poor academics. In Experiment I, a counterbalanced multiple probe design across 6 participants was used to test the effects of the 3 stages of the Observational System of Instruction (peer tutoring, yoked-contingency, peer monitoring) on Naming, Observational Learning, and social verbal interactions. In Experiment 2, a multiple probe design across participants was used to test the effects of the 3 stages of the Observational System of Instruction on Naming and Observational Learning in Lecture form. The results showed that the Naming and Observational Learning repertoire emerged as a function of the 3 stages of OSI and appropriate verbal interactions among peers increased. These data suggest that middle school students with academic delays may be missing either Naming or observational learning and that a monitoring intervention for resulted in wither the emergence of Naming or observational learning or both.
 
The Effects of Multiple Exemplar Instruction on the Acquisition and Subsequent Abstraction of Autoclitic Frames
NICOLE LUKE (Columbia University Teachers College), R. Douglas Greer (Columbia University Teacher's College and Graduate School of Arts and Sciences)
Abstract: This study tested the effects of the use of multiple exemplar instruction on 8-typically developing preschoolers ability to use autoclitic frames for spatial relations (on, under, beside, above, below) using novel tacts and novel stimuli. Pre-intervention unconsequated probes (20-trial probes) showed participants were missing novel usage of autoclitic frames of specificity. They demonstrated age appropriate verbal developmental cusps and capabilities but were missing novel usage of autoclitic frames of specificity. Subsequently, the participants received multiple exemplar training sets with known tacts until mastery. Post interventions probes tested for the participants' use of autoclitic frames and found that teaching training sets of tacts using the frames of specificity with multiple exemplar instruction occasioned the use of frames in novel functions and with novel stimuli. The results demonstrated the effectiveness of the multiple exemplar instructional protocol suggesting that such experiences result in the emergence of autoclitic frames. The evidence advances our understanding of the verbal developmental theory further extending contemporary treatments of Skinner's verbal theory as it pertains to the development of verbal behavior in typically developing children.
 
The Effect of Adult Approvals As Conditioned Reinforcers Through The Implementation of The Intensive Tact Procedure
JEANINE SCHMELZKOPF (Box 76 Teachers College Columbia University), R. Douglas Greer (Columbia University Teacher's College and Graduate School of Arts and Sciences)
Abstract: I report two experiments on adult approvals as conditioned reinforces as a result of the implementation of the intensive tact procedure. In the first experiment, procedures used in previous studies were used to determine if adult approvals function as conditioned generalized reinforcers for three pre-school aged students for a performance and three learning tasks both prior to and following the implementation of the intensive tact procedure. That is, pre and post intervention functional analyses of approval as reinforcement for learning and performance were conducted. The intensive tact procedure was consistent with the procedures used in prior studies and consisted of 100 tact learn units were presented to each of the participants daily in addition to their baseline numbers of instructional presentations. Following the mastery of five sets of tact learn units, the participants were again presented the performance and three learning tasks to determine if the intensive tact procedure was effective in conditioning adult approvals as reinforcers. The data demonstrated that intensive tact intervention resulted in acquisition of conditioned reinforcement for learning and performance
 
Effects of Acquisition of Crossmodal Abstraction on Rate of Learning and Generalized Imitation
SHIRA A. ACKERMAN (Columbia University Teachers College), R. Douglas Greer (Columbia University Teacher's College and Graduate School of Arts and Sciences)
Abstract: We tested the effects of inducing the verbal developmental cusp for cross modal abstraction for sameness across the senses on the rate of learning curriculum goals with 6 preschool aged children diagnosed with autism. Pre and post probes were conducted to test for the emergence of developmental capabilities and cusps including generalized body movement imitations, generalized object use imitation, and early speaker operants. All 6 participants were taught to match to sample across all 5 senses and acquired cross modal abstraction with novel stimuli. Prior to the implementation of the capacity for sameness procedure, all 6 students were presented with learn unit instruction across visual match to sample and pointing as a listener response. The participants were matched based on the number of learn units to criteria, the number of learn unit presentations required to achieve objectives, across learn unit instruction during baseline. Following the acquisition of cross modal abstraction, learn unit instruction for the same curriculum areas were represented to test for learning rate. The data showed that the rate of acquisition for curriculum goals increased as well as the assessed developmental capabilities and cusps for generalized body movement imitation and generalized object usage imitations for all 6 participants.
 

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