|Recent Developments in Evidence-based Practice and Their Relevance for the Field of Applied Behavior Analysis|
|Monday, May 25, 2009|
|1:30 PM–2:50 PM |
|North 122 BC|
|Area: EDC/CSE; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis|
|Chair: Oliver Wendt (Purdue University)|
|Abstract: Evidence-based practice (EBP) is increasingly being recognized as the preferred approach to clinical practice in Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA). EBP involves the integration of research evidence with clinical expertise and stakeholder perspectives to derive the best possible decisions for a client. The EBP process involves: asking a well-built question, searching for and appraising evidence, applying the evidence, and evaluating the application.
Implementing EBP, however, can be difficult. Practitioners can experience barriers such as lacking skills and knowledge, missing resources (e.g., no access to research databases), and limited time. Consequently, evidence-based journals have evolved that try to translate research into practice, thereby reducing EBP implementation barriers.
The growing importance of EBP can also be attributed to the desire to know if an intervention is effective. ABA practitioners and their clients want to know what outcomes will be improved by an intervention, how much improvement to expect, how long the intervention will last, and how much it will cost. Such questions can be answered by systematic reviews of research evidence and institutions such as the Campbell Collaboration have evolved to produce, disseminate and maintain systematic reviews.
This symposium will highlight these current EBP movements and discuss their relevancy for the ABA field.|
|The Campbell Collaboration (C2): Bridging the Research-Practice Gap|
|CHAD NYE (University of Central Florida)|
|Abstract: This paper will provide a summary of the Campbell Collaboration’s mission to promote the collection, synthesis, and analysis of scientific evidence through systematic reviews to address ‘What Works’ in interventions, treatments, programs, or instruction. C2 is an international research network that produces systematic reviews of the effects of educational and social interventions. C2 is based on voluntary cooperation among researchers of a variety of backgrounds. C2 currently has five Coordinating Groups: Social Welfare, Crime and Justice, Education, Methods, and the Users group. The Coordinating Groups are responsible for the production, scientific merit, and relevance of systematic reviews. They provide editorial services and support to review authors. C2 is modeled after its sibling in health care, the Cochrane Collaboration. Cochrane had been producing systematic reviews since 1994; many of its members saw the need for an organization that would produce systematic reviews of research evidence on the effectiveness of behavioral, educational, and social interventions. Support for this idea from social and behavioral scientists led to the creation of C2 in 2000. Of special interest to the ABA field, is the Education Coordinating Group, which prepares, updates, and disseminates systematic reviews of high-quality educational and training interventions to improve education and learning.|
|Producing Systematic Reviews of Single-subject Research Through C2|
|OLIVER WENDT (Purdue University)|
|Abstract: This presentation will provide an overview on how to conduct a systematic review of single-subject experimental designs (SSEDs) through the Campbell Collaboration (C2). SSEDs typically rely on within-subject experimental controls and use of time series data to establish the effectiveness of an intervention. The adoption of evidence-based practice (EBP) in disability, health care and rehabilitation fields demands that practitioners do not rely on any one individual study but rather the aggregated evidence from a synthesis of studies using SSEDs. In EBP, systematic reviews of SSEDs constitute one of the most persuasive forms of scientific evidence. Systematic reviews of SSEDs rank higher on evidence hierarchies than an individual SSED.
The Campbell Collaboration offers excellent editorial service and peer review for authors of systematic reviews. Publishing a review with C2 increases visibility and impact. Campbell can offer financial assistance for certain projects, assistance with searching and other forms of methodological support.
The steps in producing a Campbell systematic review are:
1. Selecting a topic
2. Title registration
3. Establishing a review team
4. Developing a protocol (project plan)
5. Undertaking the systematic review
6. Publishing the review|
|The Role of Evidence-based Journals as Evidence-Based Information Sources|
|RALF SCHLOSSER (Northeastern University)|
|Abstract: This paper will illustrate how evidence-based journals provide structured abstracts of appraised research studies and systematic reviews, thus reducing barriers to engaging in evidence-based practice (EBP). When trying to incorporate EBP in daily practice, clinicians often face considerable implementation barriers, including a beginning knowledge and skills base about EBP, lack of resources (e.g., access to pertinent databases), and insufficient dedicated EBP time. Perhaps the most time-consuming EBP activity that also requires the most expertise is the searching for and critical appraisal of evidence. Clinicians require knowledge of and skills in searching various sources in order to retrieve the best and most current evidence in an efficient manner. Clinicians also require knowledge of various factors that contribute to the internal and external validity of research. This presentation will highlight the roles of evidence-based journals among the array of evidence-based information services in order to negotiate these barriers to EBP implementation. The presenter will draw from experience as founding editor of Evidence-based Communication Assessment and Intervention, a new evidence-based journal in the area of communication disorders.|
|Translating Research to Practice through Evidence-Based Practice Journals in Education|
|MARK D. SHRIVER (Munroe-Meyer Institute)|
|Abstract: This presentation will discuss issues specific to the translation of research to practice with an emphasis on the role of dissemination of research to practitioners based on lessons learned in the development and on-going publication of the Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools (JEBP). The mission of JEBP is to positively influence the daily practice of school psychologists and educators through dissemination of studies demonstrating the successful application of an evidence-based practice for an educational setting. Articles published in JEBP facilitate the translation of research to practice by (a) using non-technical language, (b) outlining an evidence-based practice, (c) describing the literature supporting the effectiveness and theoretical underpinnings of the practice, (d) describing the findings of a study in which the practice was implemented in an educational setting, and (e) providing readers with the information they need to implement the practice in their own schools. Implementation Guidelines are another key element of JEBP; these guidelines summarize an evidence-based practice and can be used as pull-out handouts in educational settings for guiding implementation of the practice.|