Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


36th Annual Convention; San Antonio, TX; 2010

Event Details

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Poster Session #406
CBM Poster Session 4
Monday, May 31, 2010
12:00 PM–1:30 PM
Exhibit Hall A (CC)
61. The Effects of Auditory Stimulation on Repetitive Behavior
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
DANIELLE BROOME (University of Florida), Amanda Bosch (University of Florida), Timothy R. Vollmer (University of Florida), Andrea Zawoyski (University of Florida)
Abstract: Forehand and Baumeister (1970) showed that the rate of stereotypic behavior (e.g. body rocking) of developmentally disabled individuals increased when the individuals were exposed to auditory stimulation; however, the study did not account for the auditory preference of the listener. The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of highly preferred and lesser preferred auditory stimulation on the rate of repetitive behavior (e.g. nail biting, hair twirling). Participants were five typically functioning adults, and sessions were conducted in a laboratory room at a major university. The individuals in this study participated in a paired-choice preference assessment to determine the relative preference of auditory stimulation (e.g. pots banging, a running mower, and a rainforest). A modified functional analysis was conducted to determine which condition (alone, demand, free activity) evoked the most repetitive behavior. The individual was then exposed to this condition with either the most or least preferred auditory stimulation or no sound, and rate of repetitive behavior was recorded. Preliminary results show that auditory stimulation decreases repetitive behavior in typically functioning adults, which is contrary to the effects of auditory stimulation observed with developmentally disabled individuals. Implications for these effects will be presented.
62. Home and Car Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Rural Outpatients Psychiatric Smokers and Nonsmokers
Area: CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
Maureen Kathleen Flynn (University of Mississippi), NICKI JEANE (University of Mississippi), Tom Lombardo (University of Mississippi)
Abstract: The discovery of substantial health risks from environmental tobacco smoke exposure has led to worksite and public building smoking bans as well as to personal bans or restrictions in homes and automobiles. Home and car smoking restriction prevalence and predictor studies have been conducted with several sub-groups of the general population, but not with rural outpatient psychiatric smokers and nonsmokers – which was the purpose of this study. Participants were recruited from community mental health centers in northern Mississippi and 85 people participated in this telephone survey study. Results showed that among smokers, those with home smoking restrictions smoked significantly fewer cigarettes per day, had lower FTND scores, and had lower ratings of disagreement in the harmful effects of ETS exposure. Additionally, for smokers, trying to stop smoking for 1 day or longer in the past 12 months was associated with both having home smoking restrictions and restricting personal tobacco use in the home. Regarding car smoking restrictions among smokers, being married or living with a significant partner and trying to stop smoking for 1 day or longer in the past 12 months were associated with having car restrictions. Also, smokers with car smoking restrictions had significantly lower ratings of disagreement in the harmful effects of ETS exposure. Home and car smoking restriction prevalence rates were unexpectedly similar to the general population.
63. The Most Effective Variable of Squiggle Game for Promoting Participants’ Communicative Behaviors
Area: CBM; Domain: Experimental Analysis
KAORI GOTO (Tokiwa University), Tetsumi Moriyama (Tokiwa University)
Abstract: The squiggle game is believed to be effective for clients’ communicative behaviors. However, there are no empirical studies investigating which variables composing the game effectively control clients’ communicative behaviors. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of variables composing the game on participants’ communicative behaviors. The variables investigated are exchange of squiggles, observing the drawing process, and the interpretation of transformed drawings. The participants were forty college students. The students who do not know each other were paired. Each pair was assigned to the following four groups randomly; the standard game group, the no-exchange group, the group for having no opportunity of observing partner’s drawing process, and the group for observing transformed pictures without interpretation. Each participant of each pair conversed with her/his partner both before and after the game. Each conversation was evaluated on the rating scale which studied participants’ communicative behaviors. The results showed that the score was the most highest in the group for observing the transformed pictures with interpretation, that is, the standard game group. Thus, the most effective variable of the game for promoting participants’ communicative behaviors is the interpretation of transformed pictures.
64. Using Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior to Increase Seatbelt Compliance
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
EMILY BARBA (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Robert N. Davidson (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Katharine Gutshall (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Abstract: Differential reinforcement of other behavior has been shown to decrease inappropriate behaviors within numerous populations and over various targets (Andrews, 1988; Cowdery, Iwata, & Pace, 1990; Hegel & Ferguson; Taylor, Hoch, & Weissman, 2005). To date, no published study has demonstrated the use of DRO on appropriate seating in a car seat. According to the Arizona Department of Transportation, in 2008, 82 children less than 5 years of age who were not wearing safety restraints were involved in an automobile accident; two resulted in death while the other 80 were injured. The current study involved a 4 year old typically developing female who was referred for refusal to sit and be buckled appropriately in her car seat. The purpose of this study was to increase the amount of time the child sat buckled in her car seat without protest or attempting to exit the seat utilizing a changing criterion design. Once the child was able to sit in the car seat for 30 minutes without attempting to exit, differential reinforcement was used to systematically tighten the harness a half inch at a time to the proper safety standards.
65. Utilizing Redirection and Noncontingent Reinforcement to Treat Physical Aggression in an Adult Male With an Anoxic Brain Injury
Area: CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
GLENN ADRIAN (Neurobehavioral Program), James C. K. Porter (Brock University)
Abstract: Very little applied behavior analysis research has been published on the use of redirection and noncontingent reinforcement to treat adults with acquired brain injuries. In fact, very little ABA research has been published on treating challenging behaviors in individuals with anoxic brain injuries. The purpose of this "poster presentation" will be to review the use of these strategies to treat physical aggression in a severely cognitively impaired male with additional health related problems, with the goal of providing education to ABA practitioners serving this challenging population.
66. The Assessment and Treatment of Feeding Problems in Children: A Home-Based Approach to Treatment
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
JENNIFER LEIGH KING (Clinic4Kidz), Meeta R. Patel (Clinic 4 Kidz), Michelle L. Waddell (Clinic 4 Kidz), Nissa Wendy Goldberg (Clinic 4 Kidz), Aida Miles (Clinic 4 Kidz)
Abstract: Pediatric feeding disorders are common in children with autism and other developmental disabilities and may also be evident in typically developing children. Feeding problems are generally treated by a single disciple; however, if the problems are more severe it may require treatment via an interdisciplinary team. This team may include a pediatric gasteroenterologist, occupational/speech therapist, dietician, and/or behavior analyst. The typical service delivery model has been 4-8 weeks in a hospital/clinic setting. These programs are generally located on the east coast and families in other areas may have a difficult time accessing such programs. Therefore, a similar model has been developed in the home environment so that many more children and families can get treatment. The purpose of this poster is to outline how the intensive interdisciplinary model is used in the home environment with children with severe feeding problems. The structure of the model and data collection procedures will be discussed. Also, the parent training process will be outlined. More importantly the outcome measures from the year 2004-2010 will be presented. Results indicated that this home-based model produced high levels of success. At least 95% of the patients admitted to the program met their goals.
67. Increasing Feeding Skills in Children With Severe Oral Motor Deficits and Dysphagia
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
MICHELLE L. WADDELL (Clinic 4 Kidz), Meeta R. Patel (Clinic 4 Kidz), Jennifer Leigh King (Clinic 4 Kidz), Nissa Wendy Goldberg (Clinic 4 Kidz), Aida Miles (Clinic 4 Kidz)
Abstract: Children with feeding problems may have delayed oral motor skills and/or may experience difficulty swallowing. These children may exhibit inappropriate behaviors during mealtimes to avoid eating. In these cases various consequence-based procedures such as positive reinforcement and escape extinction have been shown to be effective in increasing acceptance and decreasing inappropriate behaviors. However, once acceptance has increased other problem behaviors such as expulsion or packing (i.e., holding the food in the mouth) may develop. In some cases these behaviors may be maintained by negative reinforcement is the form of escape from swallowing (i.e., no visible food in the child’s mouth after acceptance); however, these behaviors may also emerge as a result of an oral motor deficit (e.g., lack of tongue movement, limited lip closure etc.) Very few research studies have systematically evaluated effective techniques for swallowing in children with severe oral motor deficits. In the current investigation three case studies of children with dysphagia will be presented. Data on oral intake, texture, and variety of foods consumed will be presented. A description of treatment techniques used to get these children to swallow will also be presented. In addition, research-based treatment techniques used in the behavioral and occupational/speech therapy literature for children with dysphagia will also be reviewed.
68. Using Time-Out as an Effective Treatment Intervention for Feeding Problems in Children
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
NISSA WENDY GOLDBERG (Clinic 4 Kidz), Meeta R. Patel (Clinic 4 Kidz), Michelle L. Waddell (Clinic 4 Kidz), Jennifer Leigh King (Clinic 4 Kidz), Aida Miles (Clinic 4 Kidz)
Abstract: Feeding problems in children have been hypothesized to be maintained by negative reinforcement in the form of escape. Studies have shown that escape extinction may be a necessary treatment component in increasing acceptance of food/liquid. Generally time-out is not a prescribed intervention for behaviors maintained by negative reinforcement; however, in some cases it may be effective if escape extinction alone is not effective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate time-out as a viable intervention for two children with feeding problems. Data indicate that escape extinction alone was not effective in increasing oral intake and decreasing refusal behaviors. However, when time-out was implemented in conjunction to the modified escape extinction procedure refusal behaviors decreased.
69. Increasing Self-Feeding of Table Texture Food Using an Avoidance Procedure
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
JENNIFER M. KOZISEK (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Valerie M. Volkert (Munroe-Meyer Institute), Lara Barnett (Monroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Erin K. Feind (Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Abstract: While research has examined procedures to increase acceptance of lower-textured food using a non-self feeder protocol (e.g., pureed; Piazza, Patel, Gulotta, Sevin, & Layer, 2003; Reed et al., 2004), these procedures are not considered to be age-typical for a child older than 2 years of age (Carruth, Ziegler, Gordon, & Hendricks, 2004). Furthermore, little or no research has been conducted to evaluate procedures to increase self-feeding of higher textures when the child lacks the motivation but not the skill to self-feed. The current study examined the effectiveness of an avoidance procedure in increasing self-feeding of table-textured foods for a 4-year-old-boy diagnosed with food selectivity. While this child exhibited high levels of acceptance during treatment with escape extinction using a non-self feeder protocol and a wet-ground texture, further treatment was needed to progress him toward age-typical eating. Treatment consisted of feeding the child a bite of food at a wet-ground texture on a Nuk brush using escape extinction if the child did not independently accept his bite of table-textured food. During treatment, the child’s independent acceptance increased to high levels, and his inappropriate meal time behaviors decreased. Thus, this procedure was effective in increasing the child’s self-feeding of table-textured food.
70. Benefits of the SpecialNeeds Feeder With Infants With Pediatric Feeding Disorders
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CANDICE M. JOSTAD (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Cathleen C. Piazza (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Valerie M. Volkert (Munroe-Meyer Institute), Rebecca A. Groff (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Charis L. Farrell (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Jason R. Zeleny (Monroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Heather J. Kadey (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Victoria Stewart (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: Pre-term and chronically hospitalized infants lack the ability to coordinate the suck-swallow-breathe response effectively enough to sustain themselves via oral feeds. Because these children must be gavage-fed for sustenance, they miss early opportunities to strengthen the sucking response, which often leads to deficits in sucking behavior when the child is presented with bottle feedings. In the current investigation, we treated three children whose sucking behavior was insufficient for maintaining full oral bottle feeding. The treatment consisted of presentation of formula via a SpecialNeeds® Feeder, which is designed so that the caregiver can deposit a controlled amount of liquid into the child’s mouth even if the child is not sucking. Use of the SpecialNeeds® Feeder resulted in greater oral intake relative to a traditional bottle for all 3 children and was associated with increases in sucking on the SpecialNeeds® Feeder and a traditional bottle over time for 2 of 3 children.
71. Use of a Flipped Spoon and Chin Prompt to Increase Swallowing
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
JACK R. DEMPSEY (Munroe-Meyer Institute), Cathleen C. Piazza (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Rebecca A. Groff (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Jennifer M. Kozisek (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: Previous research has demonstrated that procedures based on negative reinforcement (e.g., nonremoval of the spoon [NRS]) are highly effective in treating food refusal among pediatric populations. Because oral intake of calories consists of several behavioral components (i.e., accepting, swallowing), in some situations, treatment with NRS has been shown to increase food acceptance but not swallowing. After accepting the food or drink into their mouths, such children will either pack or expel the substance. This behavior may result from insufficiently developed oral motor skills resulting from the individual’s history of food refusal. In the present study, we identified a child who displayed high levels of food acceptance and near-zero levels of mouth cleans (a measure of swallowing). The purpose of the current research was to examine whether the use of NRS in conjunction with techniques to facilitate the swallowing process (chin prompt and flipped spoon) was more effective than treatment with NRS alone. Results indicated that a treatment package combining NRS with both the flip spoon and chin prompt techniques produced a greater increase in the percentage of mouth cleans than NRS alone or in conjunction with only one of the two swallow-facilitation techniques.
72. The Effect of Texture Manipulation on Swallowing in a Child With a Feeding Disorder
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
JASON R. ZELENY (Monroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Cathleen C. Piazza (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Heather J. Kadey (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: Packing is a problem encountered in children with feeding disorders in which a child accepts, but then pockets (holds food in his or her mouth without swallowing) accepted food. Patel, Piazza, Layer, Coleman, and Swartzwelder (2005) reduced the packing of 3 children diagnosed with a feeding problem by reducing the texture of presented food. Patel et al. hypothesized that reducing the texture of presented foods reduced the response effort associated with eating, thereby reducing packing. The purpose of the current investigation was to replicate and extend the findings of Patel et al. We identified 1 child who packed bites of accepted foods. The initial evaluation demonstrated that the child packed some, but not all foods. Treatment consisted of reducing the texture of only the packed foods using a smoothie blender to puree the foods. The treatment was successful in decreasing packing and allowing the child to continue to eat the foods that were not associated with packing initially at a higher texture. In addition, the texture manipulation was the only treatment component necessary to increase consumption (e.g., escape extinction was not necessary to alter acceptance and inappropriate mealtime behavior). Results are discussed in terms of response effort and skill deficit.
73. Using a Changing Criterion Design to Promote Fitness and Weight Loss in an Overweight Adult
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
STEPHEN RAY FLORA (Youngstown State University)
Abstract: The changing criterion design consists of setting an initial reinforcement criterion, or goal, for a target behavior and once that criterion is consistently met, a new criterion is set. The new criterion remains in place until it is consistently met then the criterion is changed again and so on gradually changing the rate of the target behavior. With the changing criterion design when functional control exists, stepwise changes in behavior, the dependent variable, are seen with step wise changes in the treatment, the independent variable. In the current study, a daily walking goal was the criterion in effect and functioned as the treatment for increasing steps walked daily as measured by a pedometer. When the walking goal, the current criterion in effect was consistently met it was adjusted upward by 20% from the previous criterion. This procedure resulted in a significant increase in physical activity and a significant weight loss for the subject who was an overweight 49 year old male. This result shows that ABA designs, particularly changing criterion designs can function, in and of themselves, as treatment to effectively and meaningfully change behavior.
74. Effects of a Multidisciplinary Camp Program on Obesity, Eating Self-Efficacy, and Habits in Overweight Children
Area: CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
Minhee Kim (Yonsei University), HYUNSUN AHN (Yonsei University), Joo-hee Kim (Yonsei University), Boo Yeol Choi (Yonsei University), Justin Y. Jeon (Department of Sport and Leisure Studies, Yonsei University)
Abstract: Several researches showed that a multidisciplinary camp program is effective for overweight or obese children to lose weight and change their eating habits. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a multidisciplinary camp program and follow-up. Sixty children (41 boys and 19 girls, aged 10 to 12, BMI 26.53±3.81kg/m2) participated in a summer camp. Among those, 32 children were re-assessed at 1-month follow-up. Dependent variables were body mass index (BMI), child dietary self-efficacy scale (CDSS), weight efficacy life-style questionnaire (WEL), physical self-efficacy (PSE), and weight-related eating habit. Seven day intensive summer camp consisted of physical activities, dietary intervention, and behavior modification. Behavior modification sessions included goal-setting, self-monitoring, self-recording, stimulus control, reinforcement, and behavior-contracting. After the camp, children were encouraged to maintain physical activities and diet using behavior modification skills. At the end of the camp, children lost BMI 0.79 kg/m2 (p<.005), and WEL and weight-related eating habit were improved significantly. At 1-month follow-up, the decrease of BMI and the increase of weight-related eating habit score were maintained. In addition, improvement in WEL and weight-related eating habit significantly influenced the decrease of BMI. Several suggestions and practical issues to implement the effective multidisciplinary camp program were discussed.
77. The Effect of Behavioral Contingency Management on Nutritional and Exercise Related Behaviors and Weight Loss
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CAROL BRADLEY (Stephen F. Austin State University), Robin Rumph (Stephen F. Austin University), Glen L. McCuller (Stephen F. Austin State University), Michael Walker (Stephen F. Austin State University), Chris Ninness (Stephen F. Austin State University), Evelyn Sauceda (Stephen F. Austin State University), Elizabeth Kelly (Stephen F. Austin State University)
Abstract: Two subjects from an elementary school who were each more than 20% above their desired weight received an individually designed program of nutrition and exercise. Each subject was interviewed regarding nutrition and exercise behaviors. Each student recorded a weekly log of the foods, amounts and time of all food eaten and all exercise activities. Based on this information an individual program was designed for each subject. A multiple baseline design across subjects was utilized. Baseline conditions consisted of informal lectures and discussion of nutrition and exercise. The treatment conditions consisted of individually arranged reinforcement contingencies for compliance with nutritional and exercise behaviors within the subject’s plan. Nutrition-related behaviors, exercise-related behaviors and body weight were recorded.
78. Developmentally-Based Baseball Training: A Preliminary Examination of Personal Goal Setting for a 9-Year-old Boy
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CHARLES HORACE VENNIE (The Pennsylvania State University), Kimberly A. Schreck (The Pennsylvania State University, Harrisburg)
Abstract: In attempting to create the next professional sports star or world class athlete, parents and coaches often pressure children and adolescents to perform skills above their developmental and physical abilities. With high levels of competition and rigorous training regimens that are not based on developmental and physiological norms, childhood sports related injuries could increase. Although coaches attempt to be trained in the newest technologies and trends within their respective sports, few coaches (or parents) know how to develop athletic training programs that are developmentally appropriate for various age groups - maximizing technical and tactical training. Furthermore, even fewer individuals understand the importance of motivating children toward physical fitness, taking data on the progress of training, or using data to make decisions for future training sessions. This poster displays preliminary data for a 9 year old boy’s progress in a developmentally based baseball training program. The results show that using personal goal setting and monitoring age-specific records for exercises results in improved athletic performance.
79. The Back for Action Program: A Single-Case Component Analysis of the Effects of Self-Monitoring, Feedback, and Consultation Based on a Contextual and Functional Assessment
Area: CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
MELANIE S. BURKHARDT (School of Nursing and Midwifery, Curtin University), David J. Leach (A/Prof School of Psychology, Murdoch University)
Abstract: The BAP is a behavioral intervention program involving multiple components. It focuses on building small cumulative increases in the amount of physical involvement in everyday activities. The poster describes a single-case study of a man aged 76. After a baseline period, components of the intervention package were analyzed separately and in combination. The experimental phases alternating with return to baseline conditions were (a) feedback on pedometer readings, (b) feedback on self-recorded daily activities, (c) collaborative behavioral consultation based on a contextual functional assessment of his everyday activities and (d) a self-management phase. The results provided strong support for the combination of collaborative consultation with feedback compared to the results of feedback alone. Self-management was successfully carried out by this man and positive results were maintained over a 1-month period post intervention. Increases in daily activity also had significant effects on this man’s biochemical, physical and psychological health measures as well as quality of life indicators.



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