Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


40th Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2014

Event Details

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Poster Session #466
Monday, May 26, 2014
7:00 PM–9:00 PM
W375a-d (McCormick Place Convention Center)
43. Validation and Utility of The Autism Classroom Evaluation
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
STACY A. CLEVELAND (Marcus Autism Center), Dana Zavatkay (Marcus Autism Center; Emory University), Chiara M. Cunningham (Marcus Autism Center at Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta), Julie Eshleman (Marcus Autism Center), Lisa M. Cymbor (Marcus Autism Center)
Abstract: Increasingly children with autism are being educated in specialized classrooms designed to be sympathetic to the needs of this population and to address the unique cluster of symptoms. A validated evaluation tool is needed to identify strengths and needs of existing educational and behavioral services at the classroom level, to ascertain what consultation and training services are necessary, and to facilitate prioritization of the services. The Autism Classroom Evaluation (ACE) was developed to meet these needs. The ACE is used to assess aspects of classroom environment, skill acquisition programming, inclusion opportunities, and behavior management strategies in each classroom. Specific aspects of 14 constructs are evaluated in accordance with standards of practice for educating children with autism. The ACE has been completed by board certified behavior analysts in 20 classrooms for children with autism in both public and private school settings. Psychometric properties of this tool including inter-rater, test-retest, parallel-forms, and internal consistency reliability will be assessed and results presented. Additional data will show the utility of the ACE as a pre and post test measure to illustrate differences between scores obtained in classrooms with didactic training only and those with extensive consultation in addition to didactic training.
44. Peer-Yoked Contingency and Observational Learning
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
HYE-SUK LEE PARK (Kongju National University), Bongsin Kwack (Kongju National University), Heejeung Bang (Kongju National University), Myounghee Lee (Kongju National University), Sungbong Lee (Backsuk University), Hyouja Lee (Korean National University of Transportation), Jung Yeon Cho (Daegu Cyber University), Munbong Yang (Milal Special School)
Abstract: The present study tested effects of peer-yoked contingency on acquisition of observational learning. A 12-year old boy with Autism and a 12-year old boy with brain injury participated in the study. Five picture sets of five unknown items were used as stimuli. During the pre-intervention condition, participants were required to sit next to a peer who was receiving direct instruction on labeling presented stimuli, Set 1and Set 2. The experimenters provided feedback to correct or incorrect responses of the peer and tested if the participants learned the new items through observing the peer receiving instruction. Both of the participants didn't show observational learning during the pre-intervention conditions. During intervention conditions, a yoked contingency was in effect: Both of the participant and the peer should emit correct responses in order to gain an access to reinforcers. Both of the participants demonstrated observational learning with Set 1 and Set 2 after the intervention. The participants showed generalization of the behavior with Set 4 and Set 5. Key words: observational learning, peer-yoked contingency, direct instruction
45. The Effects of a Graphic Organizer Training Package on the Persuasive Writing of Middle School Students With Autism
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
ANNE BISHOP (The Ohio State University), Mary Sawyer (The Ohio State University), Sheila R. Alber-Morgan (The Ohio State University), Melissa Boggs (The Ohio State University )
Abstract: This study examined the effects of a graphic organizer intervention package on the quality and quantity of persuasive writing of middle school students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Quality of students? writing was measured via analytical rubric scores and correct writing sequences. Quantity was measured by assessing total words written. Students were between the ages of 12 and 14, and all four participants had been diagnosed with ASD. The intervention consisted of an examination of a model essay and graphic organizer, a demonstration of planning and writing an essay including a mini-lesson on transitions, and a guide phase in which the interventionist and student plan and write an essay together. A multiple-baseline across participants design was used to evaluate intervention effectiveness. Findings indicated that the quality and quantity of the students? persuasive writing improved as a result of the intervention in all three measurements. A graphic organizer intervention is an effective choice to improve writing quality of students with autism.
46. Maximizing the Effectiveness of a Parent Trainjng Program
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
ALEXIS N. BOGLIO (Southwest Autism Research and Resource Center), Jamie Christman (Southwest Autism Research and Resource Center)
Abstract: Father involvement and participation is often overlooked in the literature when evaluating effectiveness of parent training programs. A twenty-five hour intensive parent training model has been demonstrated to help a primary caregiver meet a fidelity of implementation in Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT). Evaluation of fidelity scores for primary caregivers, mothers, who attend alone show lower maintenance scores at follow-up in comparison to mothers who attend with a father. In addition, fathers were able to demonstrate increased levels of fidelity over the training week through observation and not through practice with direct feedback of implementation.
47. In Your Own Backyard: A Collaboration Between Public School and Behavior Analysts
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
Gabriel Valley (Step By Step), CHRISTINE AUSTIN (Step By Step)
Abstract: A growing trend in education services is to incorporate intensive behavioral intervention (IBI) within public schools, allowing for students to receive behavioral health services to support their educational placement. This descriptive analysis provides a comparison of 3 elementary-aged students’ baseline scores at the beginning of the 2012/2013 school year, to scores received during one-year follow-up evaluations, after receiving IBI. Comparison scores were evaluated with a language skills assessment, The Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills – Revised (ABLLS-R), along with scores received on the following standardized assessments: Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children – Second Edition (KABC-2), Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ), Pervasive Developmental Disorder Behavior Inventory (PDDBI), Scales of Independent Behavior – Revised (SIB-R), and the Parenting Relationship Questionnaire (PRQ). Scores indicate that each student showed marked advances in their verbal knowledge, either maintained or obtained slightly higher nonverbal scores, and showed a decrease in rates of impeding problem behavior. The results suggest that the use of IBI within a school setting can result in increased language development and foster academic success.
48. Using The Power Card Strategy To Increase Appropriate Turn-Taking in 4th Grade Students With Autism
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
ANGELA M DAUBERT (Temple University), Shana E. Hornstein (Temple University)
Abstract: Children with autism often have very narrow and special interests. This can result in a lack of variety in play for children with this diagnosis. The Power Card strategy is a visual aid that incorporates the childs special interest in teaching appropriate social interactions including routines, pro-social behaviors, the meaning of language, and the hidden curriculum (Gagnon 2001). The Power Card strategy has been successful with improving game play of a student with autism (Keeling, Smith-Myles, Gagnon & Simpson, 2003). In this study the Power Card was a small card that had a picture of the students favorite Ninja Turtle and how to complete a turn from the point of view of the character. The participants were two male students who are diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. The research question was, Will the use of the Power Card strategy increase appropriate turn taking? The Power Card increased both initiating a turn and relinquishing a turn for both students. It showed minimal results in increasing spontaneous commenting.
49. My Turn, Together, Your Turn: Using Direct Instruction Principles to Teach 3 Young Children With ASD to Read
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
JENNIFER FROSCH (Texas A&M University)
Abstract: This reading intervention study aims to determine the effectiveness of a phonics intervention using the Direct Instruction principles of My Turn, Together, Your Turn and a token economy on reading skills of 3 young children with ASD. Three students (ages 4, 5, and 6) participated in this multiple baseline across students single case research study. Kindergarten students in Texas learn about letters and letter sounds, as well as phonemic awareness skills. Instruction in these skills will be of great benefit and increase participants' literacy skills, in addition to increasing the probability of a successful transition to the primary grades. Phases included baseline, intervention, and maintenance. This reading intervention study aims to determine the effectiveness of a phonics intervention, (along with the use of a token economy) on reading skills of children with ASD. A schedule of activities and materials were presented in a visual format. Data were collected on the number of words read correctly. Specifically, the independent variable involved students blending letter sounds, which are on squares, and sounding out the words as they touched each letter. Direct Instruction procedures were followed and listed on fidelity of implementation checklists. In addition, maintenance data were collected to determine the effects of this intervention on participants' word reading abilities after the intervention is complete.
50. Educating Students With ASD and ADHD in the Inclusion Classroom a Research-Based Case Study
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
KIMBERLY P. WEBER (Gonzaga University), Michaela N. Jones (Gonzaga University), Thomas Ford McLaughlin (Gonzaga University)
Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a token economy on on-task behaviors by two seventh grade boys with varying disabilities within a public school inclusion classroom setting. At the end of the study, the participant identified with ASD increased his on-task behaviors approximately 52%. The participant identified with ADHD increased about 59% and decreased an average of 3.3 talk-outs per minute, although there were environmental limitations that impacted the design and confounded the ability to determine an educational effect. One specific limitation was the lack of support for the general education teacher to influence the learning environment to be conducive for the students who required more structure than the curriculum typically provided. It is likely that increased support from the administration to provide training and collaboration with special educators for general education teachers would have increased the on-task behavior and participation of both participants.
51. The Effects of Self-Monitoring in a General Education Classroom on the Academic Skills of Elementary School Students With Autism Spectrum Disorders
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
KEN HANDA (University of Tsukuba), Fumiyuki Noro (University of Tsukuba)
Abstract: The present study evaluated the effects of self-monitoring on the academic skills of two elementary school students with autism spectrum disorders in a general education classroom. A multiple-baseline-across-participants design was used. The participants were Kayo (not her real name), who was in fourth grade, and Taro (not his real name), who was in six grade. Assessment information was collected through an interview with homeroom teacher and observation in the classroom setting. The selected target academic skills were (a) listening to teacher's talk with his/her head up and (b) listening to teacher's talk without touching stationaries. The students were instructed to self-monitor own performance of target academic skills. The effects of self-monitoring were measured by behavioral observation in the classroom setting and the contextual fit scores by the teacher assessment. The results showed the students increased the rate of target academic skills in the classroom setting and generalization setting, and its effects were maintained even after a month and three months (Kayo only). Moreover, the result indicated the contextual fit scores by the teacher assessment were high.
52. Effects of Two Training Components in Computer-Aided Personalized System of Instruction (CAPSI) on Teaching the Assessment of Basic Learning Abilities (ABLA) to Autism Senior Tutors
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
LEI HU (University of Manitoba), Joseph J. Pear (University of Manitoba), Kirsten M. Wirth (St. Amant Research Centre, University of Manitoba)
Abstract: Training practitioners the Assessment of Basic Learning Abilities (ABLA; an instrument measures an individual's ability to learn some basic behavioral functions) is a major practical priority for applied behavior analysis programs providing services to individuals with an intellectual disability or autism. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of two training components on teaching the ABLA to eight autism senior tutors. The components, which were delivered through a computer-aided personalized system of instruction (CAPSI) program, involved the senior tutors (a) passing mastery-based unit assignments and (b) watching demonstration videos. A multiple baseline design across two training sequences, with a reversed order of the two components, was used to monitor the senior tutors performance. Each senior tutor showed substantial improvements in knowledge performance and in conducting the ABLA following the completion of the two training components. However, differential contributions of the components to training effects were observed; i.e., passing unit assignments was primarily responsible for knowledge acquisition while watching videos facilitated performance on conducting the ABLA. The practical implications of training procedures were also discussed.
53. The Effects of Explicit Instruction on Critical Early Literacy Skills in Play Contexts for Children With Developmental Delays
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
BLAKE HANSEN (Brigham Young University), Mallory Roberts (Brigham Young University)
Abstract: Correlational and experimental studies have identified several critical language skills that contribute to the development of reading in young children. The ability to identify and manipulate sounds in words is one of these skills. Although these skills are typically learned incidentally in the environment, some children fail to learn these skills without intervention. The study presented here combines incidental learning opportunities with explicit methods of instruction to teach these skills to six children with developmental delays. The intervention used explicit methods (prompting, time delay, modeling, and error correction) embedded in play contexts to teach kindergarten-age children with intellectual and developmental disabilities to identify and manipulate the sound structure in words. The children learned to segment syllables, identify onset sounds, and blend and segment phonemes (i.e., minimal textual repertoires). Results indicated that the six children who participated were able demonstrate these skills in play and assessment contexts to a socially significant degree. Although incidental approaches have been used in other studies to teach reading and language skills to children in this population, this study demonstrates that a low-dose intervention can increase these critical language skills.
54. Effects of Video Self-Modeling on Decreasing Disturbance Behavior in Adolescent With Intellectual Disabilities
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
EUNHEE PAIK (Kongju National University), Hyouja Lee (Korean National University of Transportation), Hyeonjeong Park (Kongju National University), Sungbong Lee (Backsuk University), Youngmo Yang (Kongju National University), Jung Yeon Cho (Daegu Cyber University), Munbong Yang (Milal Special School), Ki Soon Hong (Kongju National University)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of video self-modeling with cellular phone on the class disturbance behaviors of a middle school student with intellectual Disabilities. In this study, multiple baseline design across settings was utilized to examine the effects of video self-modeling in three settings. (i.e., special education class, inclusion class, and play ground). Target behaviors were aggression toward peers, talking out, and off-task behavior. During the intervention phases, 5-minute videos which showed the participant's appropriate behaviors were used. As the intervention, the participant watched the video with the experimenter prior to each observation session. The experimenter provided specific feedback on his appropriate behaviors and discussed about desired behaviors while they watched videos. Data were collected within 30-minute observation sessions during baseline, intervention, and follow-up phases. IOA was obtained during 25% of sessions of each experimental phase. The mean IOA was 92.77. The results showed that the intervention of video self-modeling with cellular phone was effective in decreasing the rate of the classroom disturbance behaviors across the three settings and the effects were maintained during follow-ups two weeks later. Key Words: self-modeling, cellular phone, video
55. The Effects of Phonics Instruction on the Decoding Skills of an Adolescent With Cerebral Palsy
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
PAULA CHAN (The Ohio State University), John Schaefer (The Ohio State University), Moira Konrad (The Ohio State University)
Abstract: Reading is an essential skill for academic success. However, many students with disabilities learn to compensate for their deficits using other skills. For example, a child who struggles to understand phonics might learn to memorize words as sight words, never gaining mastery of phonics. This strategy may be effective for a period of time, but will limit the students potential for becoming a proficient reader. Multiple disabilities such as physical impairment or communication delays can further obscure a persons reading ability. The purpose of this study was measure the effectiveness of explicit phonics and phonemic awareness instruction for a 19-year-old man with cerebral palsy and communication deficits. Despite attending college courses, the participant had reading proficiency comparable to a second grader, with emerging decoding skills. The intervention focused on teaching phonics, segmenting, and blending, using a multiple baseline design across phonemes. Preliminary results indicate the intervention was effective in teaching decoding skills. Authors will discuss the findings and implications for research and practice.
56. Procedure of Reading Teaching for Students With Intellectual Disabilities Involving Teachers and Parents
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
PRISCILA BENITEZ (Universidade Federal de São Carlos), Ricardo M. Bondioli (Universidade Federal de São Carlos), Camila Domeniconi (Universidade Federal de São Carlos)
Abstract: The study aimed to evaluate three interventions applied in three different contexts (regular class, especial class and residence) to reading teaches seven words with three syllables. The interventions were distributed in seven experimental conditions (A, B, C, AB, BC, AC, ACB). The conditions were applied isolated and simultaneous. The condition A was structured by activities computerized to teach isolate word, applied by the special teacher in the special class. The condition B was compound by books applied by parents in the residence. The condition C was compound oral reading of text by regular teacher in the regular class. The condition AB was compound by intervention A plus B and so on. The participants were five learners with intellectual disabilities included regular school. Each learner was exposed to seven alternating teaching conditions. In the pretest except A2 that read five words correct, the others showed low reading performance. In the posttest all learners improved their performances in reading tasks. A3 read all correct words. The procedure was efficient to teach reading tasks for learners with intellectual disabilities, involving formal and informal educators.
57. The Effects of Physical Movement Before Class on Decreasing Off-Task Behaviors of Students With Intellectual Disability
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Yi-Tien Tsai (National Tao-Yuan Special School), PEI-YU CHEN (National Taipei University of Education)
Abstract: This study aims to investigate the effects of a 10-minute physical movement before class on decreasing off-task behaviors during instruction. Three students with intellectual disability in a vocational special education school in Taiwan participated in this study. A single-subject A-B-A-B design was applied for each participant. Using a partial interval recording system, two observers recorded four off-task behaviors of each participant, including looking away from the instructor, playing objects, chatting or playing with classmates, delayed response to demands. The inter-observer reliability ranged from 90% to 100% across participants and social validity of the intervention was addressed by interviewing other teachers in the classroom. The results showed that the physical movement before class intervention successfully decreased three out of four off-task behaviors. Although the effect of intervention on delayed response to demand was not as prevalent, the percentage of intervals of two intervention phases still showed a slightly decreasing trend. The results of teacher interview also confirmed the effects of the physical movement intervention on students off-task behaviors. The teachers also reported about the maintenance and generalization effects of the intervention. Application for education and suggestions for future research were provided at the end of this study.
58. Teaching Generalized Pretend Play and Related Behaviors To Young Children with Disabilities
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
ERIN E. BARTON (Vanderbilt University )
Abstract: Children with disabilities play less often and demonstrate fewer varied pretend play behaviors than children with typical development. In this study, a multiple probe design was used to examine the relation between teachers’ use of the system of least prompts and contingent imitation and the acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of pretend play and related behaviors by 4 children with disabilities. Results indicated the teachers’ use of the intervention package was functionally related to increases in the children’s frequency and diversity of pretend play and related behaviors. Children also maintained responses in sessions without prompts and generalized across toys and contexts. The findings replicate previous studies on adult prompting of pretend play and extend the literature by assessing generalization of children’s pretend play across contexts and measuring measuring intervention and implementation fidelity. Overall, this study provides a strong argument for engaging in systematic instruction of play, including pretend play, for children who do not display such behaviors.
59. Say the Term or the Definition When Using SAFMEDS?
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
CAMERON GREEN (Florida State University, Brohavior  ), Joshua K. Pritchard (Florida Institute of Technology), James Booth (Brohavior), Mark Malady (Brohavior; HSI/WARC), Scott A. Miller (University of Nebraska Medical Center)

This study compared "See Term/Say Definition" to "See Definition/Say Term" when using SAFMEDS to study ABA terms. Two young adult participants practiced six sets of approximately 30 flashcards using the SAFMEDS procedure. The flashcards were accessed online through the website and were terms and defintions about Applied Behavior Analysis. An alternating treatments design was used to evaluate which of two stimulus conditions was more effective at promoting learning (“See Term/Say Definition” or “See Definition/Say Term”). The design was also counterbalanced across participants. Outcome measures included: number of timings required to reach fluency in the opposite channel once fluency was achieved in the first, corrects and incorrects during first trial in opposite channel once fluency was achieved in the first, pre-test/post-test scores and duration on an intro to ABA exam, and pre-test/post-test timings on “Hear Term/Say Definition” channel. As SAFMEDS are often used to study and learn terms and definitions, it is important to address which learning channel leads to the sorts of outcomes students are interested in achieving. One possible flaw with the “See Definition/Say Term” channel is faulty stimulus control: responding could be controlled by irrelevant stimuli such as specific words or definition length.

60. Positive Behavior Supports for Challenging Middle School and High School Classes and Settings
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
RICK SHAW (Behavior Issues)
Abstract: Children with Emotional Behavioral Disorders (EBD) can engage in challenging behaviors in the classroom; such as being disruptive noncompliant, and off-task. Teachers are spending valuable instructional time redirecting challenging behaviors, as opposed quality teaching. For response marking, behaviors were marked by the teacher clicking on a tally counter, and giving a verbal statement of expectations. With peer pressure students were encouraged to keep each other on-task, and not engage with students that were being disruptive in class. If the class was at or below the criteria for the frequency of teacher redirections (DRL), they received daily rewards (candy) and bi-weekly rewards (movie). Seven high school classes (six special education classes and one English Language Learner class) participated in this study. There were a total of 84 students, 67 males and 17 females, mostly with specific learning disabilities and/or emotional behavior disorders. Teacher redirections decreased in all classes, which, allowed for more time for lessons, quality instruction, and a less disruptive classroom environment.
61. Study of Longitudinal Exposure for Increasing Children’s Vegetable Consumption
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
SUJIN LEE (Yonsei University), Kyong-Mee Chung (Yonsei University)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine an effectiveness of longitudinal exposure program for increasing children’s vegetable eating. The data was collected from 3 different daycare centers. 44 parents out of 59 parents who agree to let their children participate in this program were used for the data. Total of 44 children, aged one- year- old to 3-years -old either participated in the exposure program or be assigned to control group for 6 months. Children who were assigned to experiment group participated in the exposure program with real vegetable for 10 minutes twice a week. Results showed that children in experiment group consumed more vegetables after 6months while there was no change in control group. Also, there were significant differences in age groups. 2 years old and 3 years old children eat more vegetables than 1 years old children. However, there was no significant difference between boys and girls. These results showed that longitudinal exposure was an effective method to reduce food neophobia and to increase vegetable consumption. Implications and limitations were also discussed.
62. Don't Just Customize, Personalize: Innovative iPad APP Implementation for Unique Learners
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
JONATHAN IZAK (SpecialNeedsWare)
Abstract: This session will focus on advancing clinical outcomes through customization and personalization in implementing AAC and behavior learning technology. Research will be presented on topics including visual scene displays and just-in-time programming that demonstrates how specific customizations, allowed for by advancements in technology, can increase joint attention, turn taking, and language acquisition in learners. Practical applications of this research will then be presented using examples of the specific improvements such techniques have had on behavior and communication outcomes in home, school, community, and vocational environments. These examples will incorporate individuals at a variety of developmental levels and ages, including preschoolers, adolescents and adults. In particular, these examples will show how visual instructional tools, visual expressive tools and visual organizational tools were customized and personalized to meet the needs and abilities of individual learners. Attendees will then be instructed on best practices for assessing individuals to determine the tools best suited to the learner and how to customize them towards their specific needs through the use of the AutisMate app. On the communication side, this will involve determining whether visual scenes or grid displays are appropriate for each individual. Demonstrations of implementation will be given in creating customized content including visual scenes, grid displays, visual schedules, video models, visual stories and more. Each of these areas will be illustrated through real life examples of successful implementations for learners with varying degrees of communication, behavioral and social abilities that have increased their independence and self-determination. Lastly, the importance of communication between, and participation of, family members, educators and professionals is required to successfully personalize assistive technology to the specific needs of an individual, which will result in increased levels of independence. Effective tools and strategies for efficient collaboration of those involved in the development of the learner will be demonstrated, including specific examples of how this has been successfully accomplished in practice.
Keyword(s): poster session



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