Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


40th Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2014

Event Details

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Poster Session #202
EAB Sun Noon
Sunday, May 25, 2014
12:00 PM–2:00 PM
W375a-d (McCormick Place Convention Center)
1. The Effect of Delay of Reinforcement on Reinforcer Accumulation by Rats
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
Luis Cruz (National University of Mexico), CARLOS A. BRUNER (National University of Mexico)
Abstract: Rats usually consume a response-produced food pellet immediately. However, increasing the effort to access food (e.g., distancing the food tray from the response lever), reliably results in food accumulation. These results are difficult to interpret because increases in response effort necessarily confounds the time required to access reinforcement. This experiment was conducted to study the effects of delay of reinforcement on food accumulation. Each of three rats received 50 trials daily in a chamber equipped with two retractable levers. A trial began with the extension of the left lever for 20 s. Leverpresses had no immediate consequence but were counted. When the left lever was retracted a waiting period of either 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 or 64 s began. After the waiting period, the right lever was extended for 20 s and each press resulted in a food pellet. The number of pellets was limited to left-lever responses at the beginning of the trial. Results showed that the number of pellets consumed was a negatively increasing function of lengthening the waiting period, suggesting that delay of reinforcement has indeed been confounded with response effort in previous studies. Implications for the decreasing delay-of-reinforcement gradient are discussed.
2. Tastier Treats for Rats? An Investigation of Relative Reinforcer Effectiveness of Various Flavored Bio-Serv® Pellets
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
JESSICA BUCCILLI (Central Michigan University), Robin Kuhn (Central Michigan University), Mark P. Reilly (Central Michigan University)
Abstract: Sensitive and reliable measures of behavior are necessary to adequately evaluate the effectiveness of reinforcers. Progressive-ratio schedules have been shown to generate sensitive and reliable measures of reinforcer effectiveness across reinforcers, as indicated by differential break points. In the present study, five rats responded under a progressive-ratio schedule to assess the reinforcing effectiveness of unflavored sugar, unflavored grain, banana grain, grape, chocolate, and banana sucrose pellets (Bio-Serv®). Surprisingly, results of the progressive-ratio assessment indicated that there were no systematic differences in the reinforcing effectiveness of the qualitatively different pellets, therefore two follow-up experiments were conducted. First, rats were presented with the various pellet types in multiple stimulus without replacement and free operant preference assessments. Second, the weights of the rats were increased to 95% free-feeding weight (from 85%) prior to conducting another progressive-ratio assessment for the individual pellet types. The results of these studies underscore the importance of considering factors that may influence interpretations of reinforcer effectiveness, namely schedule requirement and deprivation level.
3. Effects of Water Deprivation on Sucrose Consumption by Rats
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
CLARISSA PEREIRA (University of Sao Paulo), Paula Debert (University of Sao Paulo)
Abstract: Chronic Mild Stress (CMS) is an animal model of depression studied by different areas of research into the causes and "attenuators" of this problem, in which rats are subjected to a protocol of moderately aversive stressors applied chronicaly. Decreased intake and preference for sweet liquid substance by subjects submitted to the protocol is observed. In a study on the role of the deprivation of food and water in the set of stressors, Pereira (2009) did not observe the effects of decreased intake and preference for sucrose. The deprivation of food and water imposed previously to the protocol was raised as possibly being responsible for the results, given it differed in many aspects to what was done by Willner et al. (1987), and that it has been found as affecting consumption of sucrose (Matthews et al., 1995). The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of water deprivation specifically in the stress protocol. Three groups of subjects were proposed: Protocol (subjected to the full protocol), Deprivation (subjected only to the deprivation of water present in the protocol) and Control (no deprivation or any other stressors applied, only the intake and preference tests). Both the protocol and the deprivation were carried out in a manner similar to what was proposed by Willner et al. Preliminary results show that (1) both the deprivation of water itself and the protocol as a whole are able to affect the sucrose intake of the subjects, in a manner that seems to be similar between the two groups; (2) the consumption shown by the subjects of the control group also shows changes among the tests, which is interpreted as a sensitivity of the test to variables other than what was programed in the experiment (water deprivation or stress protocol). These results pose the question of whether the consumption and preference for sweet solutions is a good measure of the effects of the stress protocol or water deprivation, as it is used in the literature of the CMS model.
4. Effects of Moving Direction of an Imprinted Stimulus as a Reinforcer on Chicks’ Operant Responses
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
FUKUKO HASEGAWA (Tokiwa University), Tetsumi Moriyama (Tokiwa University)
Abstract: As chicks usually follow their mothers moving away from them in their natural habitats, moving direction of an imprinted stimulus from chicks seems to have some effects on their filial responses. Further, an imprinted stimulus comes to be a reinforcer for chicks’ operant responses. The present study investigated the effects of moving direction of an imprinted stimulus on chicks’ operant responses reinforced by the stimulus. Seven newly hatched chicks were imprinted to a moving red cylinder, and trained to emit key-peck responses using the stimulus as a reinforcer. The stimulus moved back and forth in the apparatus. After that, we investigated the effects of the moving direction of the stimulus on their key-peck responses based on a modified multiple-baseline design. In the first baseline condition, the stimulus moved back and forth. In the second condition, four chicks of them were exposed to the stimulus approaching them. The remaining three chicks were exposed to the stimulus moving away from them. In the last condition, each chick was exposed to the stimulus moving in the opposite direction. The results showed the effects of the movement of the imprinted stimulus as the reinforcer on the chicks’ operant responses remained to be investigated.
5. Omni-Directional Light Device for Operant Conditioning in Planaria
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
DALE C. GREGORY (Western Michigan University), Neil Deochand (Western Michigan University), R. Wayne Fuqua (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Planaria are cephalized flat worms that demonstrate exceptional regenerative capabilities. There has been renewed interest in operant conditioning planarians as a result of using automated behavior analysis devices (Blackiston et al., 2010; Schromat & Levin, 2013). The planaria will sometimes become dormant and reduce the surface area of its body to light exposure. This response can interfere with testing, therefore an onmi-directional device for delivering light was constructed to utilized light alone, rather than combining shock and light in an attempt to train two discrete operant responses. These two studies could help better inform future research on how to best shape more sophisticated operant behavior and conceptualize how to invest the physiological properties of this organism from the standpoint of a behavioral assay.
6. Effects of Different Consequences Used in the Training of Pre-requisite Abilities to Solve a Problem in Pigeons (Columba livia)
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
Hernando Borges Neves Filho (Universidade de São Paulo), Rodrigo Dicezare (Universidade de São Paulo), Daniel Assaz (Universidade de São Paulo), MIRIAM GARCIA-MIJARES (Universidade de Sao Paulo)
Abstract: In the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, a series of works with pigeons suggested the spontaneous interconnection of previously acquired behavior (SIPA) as a process behind new behavior. There are, however, few studies exploring the parametric variables responsible for SIPA. The present work manipulated the consequences used during the training of two abilities necessary to solve a problem. Four pigeons (Columba livia) were trained to 1) push a box towards a green light placed at random, with food as consequence, and 2) to climb and peck a steel ring, with water as consequence. In the final test, the pigeons had to push the box towards the steel ring (a repertoire never explicitly trained), climb the box and peck the ring. None of the subjects solved the problem. After this first failure, all subjects went through retraining of the two abilities, this time using the same reinforcer for both, food. Half the subjects then solved the task, in different manners, suggesting that the kind of reinforcer used in the training of each ability is a crucial variable for the interconnection of independently trained repertoires in a test situation.
7. Stimulating Research in Comparative Psychology with the Affordable Propeller Experiment Controller
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
CHRIS VARNON (Oklahoma State University), Charles I. Abramson (Oklahoma State University)
Abstract: A common theme throughout research in learning and behavior is the need for automated experimental techniques. This necessity is especially prevalent in comparative psychology, where specialized equipment is required to study a variety of species. Unfortunately, commercial research equipment is often expensive and primarily focuses on only the most popular laboratory species. These issues can be a hindrance for comparative research, and we have found that custom engineered automation presents an affordable and powerful solution. After exploring many alternatives, we designed the Propeller Experiment Controller specifically to address the needs of behaviorists and comparative psychologists. We believe that inexpensive automation systems, such as the Propeller Experiment Controller, can generate new interest in comparative psychology by making truly comparative experiments an affordable possibility. Additionally, low-cost automation also creates new possibilities for classroom experiments on principles of behavior, and application such as automated enrichment at farms and zoos. This presentation will discuss issues in implementing custom designed automation, describe equipment used by our laboratory, and provide an introduction to using the Propeller Experiment Controller for application, research and teaching demonstrations in comparative psychology.
8. Compound Symmetry With Matrix Algebra
Area: EAB; Domain: Theory
J.C. PEDRO ARRIAGA-RAMIREZ (UNAM FES Iztacala), María Guadalupe Ortega-Saavedra (FES Iztacala UNAM), Angela Maria Hermosillo-Garcia (Facultad de Estudios Superiores Iztacala, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México), Sara E. Cruz-Morales (FES Iztacala UNAM)
Abstract: Compound symmetry is a condition that shows that the different conditions in a repeated measures experiment are independent. Compound symmetry and homogeneity of variances are two critical conditions in repeated measures designs. In this work, we show how compound symmetry is calculated and how a hypothesis of independence of conditions is reliably accepted using matrix algebra. We show with a database how to calculate a variance-covariance matrix and how to evaluate the hypothesis that the compound symmetry condition is tenable, and the independence of conditions. In addition, we show how with matrix algebra calculations are easier and with fewer steps, we obtain the criteria to evaluate both conditions, compound symmetry and homogeneity of variance. We show how to use the program Math Cad to work with matrix algebra. This program is easier to use than other database programs such as Excel. This program produces variance-covariance matrices in few steps. In addition, the program calculates determinants in one-step.
9. Choosing Conventional MTS Tasks versus MTS Tasks Embedded in a Game Context: Effects on Reading Acquisition
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
DEISY DAS GRAÇAS DE SOUZA (Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos), Leonardo Brandão Marques (Universidade Federal de São Carlos)
Abstract: The improvement of literacy rates depends critically on effective teaching procedures. A computerized teaching program for individual application has been successful in teaching rudimentary reading skills to children with a history of school failure (de Rose et al., 1996). The program comprises a series of 20 lessons. Each lesson is a combination of four blocks of MTS and CRMTS tasks: the students learn to match pictures to spoken words and printed words to spoken words; they also match (through constructed response MTS) printed words to identical printed words (transcription). Tests evaluate emergent relations between pictures and printed words and emergent reading (textual behavior) and writing (dictation taking). The main evidence of the efficacy of this teaching program is that, after completing it, the students read most of the words included in the lessons and they also read novel words (recombinative reading). However, keeping the students engaged in these learning activities has been a challenge. This study evaluated the impact of ludic (game-like) activities on the maintenance of the behaviors required to complete the teaching lessons. Two teaching conditions were available at the beginning of each session and the stundent could choose among those two conditions.: (1) Condition one presented standard matching-to-sample (MTS) and CRMTS tasks on a plain background; (2) Condition two presented mini-games interspersed among the same MTS and CRMTS tasks. The research questions were whether the students would prefer Condition 2 (would it function as a ludic environment?) over Condition 1 and whether Condition 2 had and improving effect on the overall results of the teaching program. On both conditions the same four trial blocks were presented in the same order. A stringent criterion of 100% correct was required on each block. Two interval variables was tested for 2 groups. The majority of the participants showed a preference for Condition 2, across the teaching sessions, suggesting that the games played a "ludic"or motivational function. Further evidences of the motivational effects of the mini-games were more spontaneous engagement on the computer tasks and less errors. Learning rates and the amount of words read and written correctly at the end of the teaching program were similar under both conditions. The games were an effective tool to enhance the power of the reinforcing contingencies involved in the original teaching proce
10. The Effects of Different Conditions of Shaping in Lever Pressing Acquisition
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
IVÁN BÁRCENAS (Universidad de Guadalajara), Carlos Torres (Universidad de Guadalajara), Carlos Javier Flores Aguirre (Universidad de Guadalajara), Gonzalo Fernandez (Universidad de Guadalajara)

Shaping procedures are widely used in the experimental analysis of behavior. However, these procedures include a variety of ways in their implementation, which could have an effect on the strength of the operant (frequency and / or response rate). The present study aims to evaluate different conditions of shaping and their effect on performance in temporal schedules. Twelve rats served as subjects, divided into 3 groups at random. Group 1 was exposed to three experimental phases. In the first phase, the rats were exposed to a schedule of non-contingent delivery FT 60s. Later, during phase 2, rats were exposed to a concurrent schedule crf-FT 60 s. Finally, during Phase 3, subjects were exposed to a temporal schedule, the T cycles lasted 60 s. Group 2 was exposed to the same conditions as Group 1, except for the FT 60 s schedule. Subjects in group 3 were exposed only to the temporal schedule. The results showed that Group 1 presented a response distribution closer to the T cycle length rather than the other two groups.

11. Emergent Symbolic Matching in Elderly With Alzheimer's Disease
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
MARIANA DUCATTI (Rosana Ducatti Souza Almeida), Andreia Schmidt (University of Sao Paulo)
Abstract: The emergent symbolic matching (ESM) occurs when an undefined sample stimulus is related with an undefined comparison stimulus without previous teaching. The purpose of this study was to investigate if elderly with dementia, residents the long-stay institutions, demonstrate ESM in matching to sample (MTS) task. Participants were five elderly women, between 75 and 91 years, one of which was diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment and the others with Alzheimer's dementia (AD). An auditory-visual MTS task was conducted with four names of people (A) as sample and four pictures of people (B) as comparisons. A sample stimulus (A1) was presented with a comparison stimulus (B1) for six consecutive trials. After, a new sample was introduced (A2) with two comparisons stimuli (B1 -B2) for six consecutive trials; then, a block of six trials with the relations A1B1-A2B2 was presented. The stimuli A3 and A4 were introduced gradually in the training (in blocks of six consecutive trials, like A1B1 and A2B2 training) and the corresponding comparison stimuli were also introduced gradually. All elderly demonstrated ESM on the first trial in which the new sample and comparison stimulus were presented, but elderly with AD showed no maintenance of the relations throughout the study.
12. How Hard is a Rat Willing to Work to Release a Trapped Rat?
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
LISA HIURA (Reed College), Lavinia C. M. Tan (Reed College), Timothy D. Hackenberg (Reed College)
Abstract: Although social reinforcers are widely used throughout the experimental analysis of behavior, their relative reinforcing value is poorly understood. To better assess the value of social reinforcement, we used a novel experimental paradigm in which rats lever presses opened a trap door and released a second rat from a restraint. Three pairs of rats were studied: one in each pair was the free rat, whose responses were examined; the other was the trapped rat, which could escape when the door was raised. Free rats were first trained to lever press for food on a progressive (PR) ratio schedule, in which the requirements increased by 1 response with each PR reinforcer. Free rats were then studied in the escape procedure in which responses released a trapped rat into the chamber for 10 seconds of social reinforcement. Break points (largest completed ratio) were established and maintained under both food and social reinforcement, indicating that both events functioned as effective reinforcers, though were consistently higher under food than social reinforcement. Subsequent conditions will explore the effects of social deprivation on social reinforcement.
13. Probability of Reciprocation in Situations of Risk
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
STEPHANIE STILLING (Western Michigan University), Zachary Zimmermann (Western Michigan University), Cynthia J. Pietras (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: This study experimentally investigated human sharing in laboratory tasks that simulate environmental variability and resource scarcity (shortfall risk). The project looked to determine whether a risk-reduction model of sharing developed by evolutionary biologists (derived from a risk-sensitive optimization model known as the energy-budget rule) can predict human cooperative behavior. Twelve participants responded to earn points exchangeable for money when point gains were unpredictable. Failures to acquire sufficient points resulted in a loss of accumulated earnings (a shortfall). Participants were given the choice between working alone or working with others and sharing accumulated earnings. The difficulty of meeting the earnings requirement was manipulated across conditions by changing the probability of reciprocation of the partner to investigate the effects of economic context on sharing. Sometimes sharing was the optimal strategy, and other times working alone was the optimal strategy. Results indicate that participants chose the sharing option when it was optimal to do so; thereby conforming to the predictions of the risk-reduction model of sharing. These results contribute to the understanding of how environmental context and social stimuli influences cooperation and sharing in situations involving risk.
14. Risk as a Function of Response Effort to Gain Points
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
RYAN C. SPEELMAN (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract: Individuals take risks when they invest, gamble or play games of chance. The amount of risk taken may depend on whether the item risked was earned, won or awarded. Losses may be less aversive when playing with “house money” contributing to greater overall risk. Conversely an investment of time, money or resources in acquiring an item may increase the subjective value of the item leading to less overall risk. The purpose of this study is to measure the level of risk as a function of the response effort required to gain points. Twenty-five competitive basketball players were recruited and randomly assigned to one of three groups each representing either a low, moderate or high work requirement to earn points. Participants were then given shots of varying point values and degrees of difficulty in which to wager points. Results indicate participants who required a low response effort to gain points took significantly more risk as evidenced by choosing shots with the least probability of success. Those that were required to earn their points took significantly less risk evidenced by choosing shots with the highest probability of success.
15. Behavioral Analytical Measures of an Animal Model of Autism Based on Maternal Immune Activation
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
MARIA ISABEL MUNOZ BLANCO (University of Nevada, Reno), Kenneth Hunter (School of Medicine, University of Nevada, Reno), Linda J. Parrott Hayes (University of Nevada, Reno), Rebekah Aquino (University of Nevada, Reno), David Legaspi (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: The epidemiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has shown a significant increase over the past years (Newschaffer, et al., 2007). There is evidence that individuals diagnosed with autism exhibit histological changes in the hippocampus (Bauman & Kemper, 1994; Bailey et al, 1998; Kemper & Bauman, 1998). Part of the research on neuropathology includes the study of inflammatory changes in the brain (i.e. Welch et al. 2005). The Maternal Immune Activation project (MIA) was created to investigate the notion that the neuropathology of autism is caused at least in part by the brains response to inflammation by providing a behavioral account of the most characteristic symptoms of autism. In order to accomplish this goal, a group of treated and a group of untreated mice are being tested with respect to their social interactions, learning patterns and maintenance as well as habituation tests. These measures were selected as a follow up from research on behavioral characteristics observed in children with autism (i.e. Bijou & Ghezzi, 1999; Spandin & Brady, 1999; Szabo, 2013). The present poster shows results from this project. Early data analysis show differences between control and experimental group in all the variables controlled.
16. The Influence of Multivariable Data Displays on Problem Solving: An Analog of Resource Allocation
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
MOLLI LUKE (University of Nevada, Reno), Mark P. Alavosius (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: Multivariate data displays serve as a way to enable evidence-based decisions in the context of complex, interrelated variables. They describe complex events and make relations along various dimensions more salient (Tufte, 1983, 1990). Data displays are a frequent tool for communication, yet, as stated by Gilbert (2007), “data are plentiful, but data are not information until they tell us something” (p. 67). Therefore, it is importance to evaluate the communication components that will ensure the data are presented in a way that is valuable to the audience. The ubiquity of data displays to guide decision making and problem solving, especially by researchers, leaders and policy makers necessities research to understand how communication of multivariate data displays influence problem solving. This poster describes a study that evaluated the effects of two forms data displays (line graph and tables) as well as the effect of strategic instructions on the accuracy of problem solving. Results indicated that with strategic instructions and line graphs, participants had more accurate predictions of future trends in the data. In the presence of tables, accuracy was lower, even after strategic instructions. Implications and future research on effective communication using data displays is discussed.
17. An Investigation of Social Values in Relation to Social Action by way of the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
GENEVIEVE M. DEBERNARDIS (University of Nevada, Reno), Linda J. Parrott Hayes (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: In generating social change, it is important to consider the relationship between an individual’s values and their accompanying actions. One method of revealing these values is through the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP). During this assessment, an individual is shown a series of pairings of category items and terms. This procedure can be used to measure the implicit attitudes and beliefs of an individual. Given the great need for community action pursuant to combating child sex trafficking, it is clear that an investigation of how individuals’ values and actions are aligned is called for. A better understanding of this relationship may lead to more effective methods for generating community support and social change. Results from this study help to reveal the relationship between an individual’s self report (i.e., survey), social values (i.e., IRAP performance) and social action (i.e., degree of volunteerism) in regards to the issue of child sex trafficking. These findings also reveal useful information about the IRAP as an assessment tool and its predictive validity with respect to action. Ways in which agencies can target the community for involvement with social change are also discussed.
18. Probability and Accuracy of Feedback as Conditions to Analyze Interactive Styles in Ambiguous Situations
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
ELIA NATALIA FUENTES GONZALEZ (Universidad de Guadalajara), Carlos Torres (Universidad de Guadalajara), Nora Rangel (Universidad de Guadalajara)
Abstract: An experiment was carried out in order to identify interactive styles through an ambiguous situation. Interactive styles, defined as within-subjects consistencies and differences between-subjects, should occur across time and across situations. Two variables have been selected to design two kinds of ambiguous situations: probability of occurrence of feedback and accuracy of feedback. Eight adults were exposed to two experimental conditions in three phases to a code-breaking game (Mastermind) involving on one hand the probability of occurrence of feedback (with a direct replication) and on the other hand the accuracy of feedback (like a systematic replication). Participants were assigned to two groups exposed to a different order of the values of each condition. The results showed reliable profiles in all participants when the permanence time in the situation was correlated with the number of attempts to solve the task, and each of them with the feedback condition presented. In two of the three phases, regardless the order and the codes found, the results support the reliability of within-subject consistencies across time and situations. However, in the first condition presented, there were more individual differences than in replications.
19. Chess and Behavioral Processes
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
MACK S. COSTELLO (Western Michigan University), Neil Deochand (Western Michigan University), R. Wayne Fuqua (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Constructs in behavior analysis are perhaps more strongly linked to overt behavior and less tangled in theoretical terms. Two learning processes that are well studied in behavior analysis are contingency-shaped behavior and rule-governed behavior. While these processes do not exactly match on to their cognitive process counterparts (intuition and deliberative thinking, for example), contingency shaped behavior can be thought of as playing a part in intuition, or being functionally similar, depending on the level of analysis. Both involve behavior that is not necessarily conscious or thought out. The same similarities can be gleamed with rule-governed behavior and deliberative thinking. Both involve decision making within constraints, and may require more cognitive effort than their unconscious counterparts. Chess skills certainly involve rule-governed behavior (i.e., players memorize many different openings and endgames for different scenarios) and contingency-shaped behavior (i.e., skills increase through being placed in unfamiliar scenarios and finding ways to win; this occurs through playing many games normally). The study reported here evaluated chess play among players of differing skill levels. This procedure was used to track changes in chess playing as a function of various training procedures, some designed to show rule governed behavior, some designed to show contingency shaped behavior.
20. Behavior of Young People in Final Competition of Tae Kwon Do
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
DEYANIRA SOLACHE (Universidad Autonoma de Aguascalientes), Ana del R. Cervantes-Herrera (Universidad Autonoma de Aguascalientes), Francisco J. Pedroza-Cabrera (Universidad Autonoma de Aguascalientes)
Abstract: The combat competition Tae Kwon Do is performed by classifying competitors by gender, age and weight (category). Particularly the intermediate category (Light) is characterized by the speed of ultra-light categories and strength of heavy categories. As this category is presented as one of the strongest in the competitions of Tae Kwon Do. Within the XVIII National Olympic tournament of Tae Kwon Do held in Aguascalientes, Mexico in 2013 were recorded and analyzed the final fights of 8 young fighters, belonging to the Light category, according to their age. Two men aged 13 and 37-39Kg. (81.57-85.98Lb), two females aged 15 and 45-46Kg. (99.20-101.41Lb), two boys aged 17 and 56-59Kg. (123.45-130.07Lb), and two females aged 20 and 58-62Kg. (127.86-136.68Lb). The analysis was performed under an exhaustive and exclusive code observation consists of 4 components: offensive behavior (kicking and punching), defensive behavior (blocks), unsportsmanlike conduct and tactical resources (guards, feints, etc.). The results were proceeding in rate per minute due this 8 fights differ in duration. The results from this observation allowed the designee of suggestions for coaches with students belonging to these categories, in order to get changes in fighters's behavioral patterns, to achieve combat effectiveness and better results in upcoming competitions.
21. Operant Recombination Applied to a Martial Arts Context: Teaching Karate-Do Fighting Through Recombination of Single Strikes and Sequences of Strikes
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
TIAGO FRANCA (i5 - Behavior Coaching Institute), Elenice Seixas Hanna (Universidade de Brasilia)

The present study investigated the effect of the training of strike units and strike sequences over the performance in a simulated Karate-do fight and offers a new methodology to study learning in martial arts, based on the Operant Recombination paradigm. Four university students from 18 to 30 years old, with no previous experience in martial arts, were divided into two groups: Group Element (P1 and P2) where the participants started learning single strikes, and Group Sequence (P3 and P4) were the participants started learning strike sequences. The participants performed two experimental conditions. In Element Condition, 6 strike units of punches and kicks were taught and, in Sequence Condition, 4 sequences built with three strike units were trained. Each condition was composed of three stages of training (acquisition, standing focus and moving focus). During acquisition Karate-do strike units or strike sequences were taught by instruction, shaping and modeling. In standing focus stage the participant practiced the previously learned strikes on a stationary target. In moving focus stage the participant repeated the previously learned strikes on a moving target. All participants learned quickly and with fewer errors all the strikes and sequences. Before and after each condition a test with a real adversary was held. In the tests the adversary punched and kicked slowly and repeatedly. The training increased the movement rates of strikes in subsequent tests. The Element Condition increased the rates of strike units and the Sequence Condition increased the rates in strike sequences. Each experimental condition ended with generalization test, just like a Karate-do fight. In these tests the movements of defense were more frequent and attacks decreased compared to the previous test, but there was no systematic effect of the experimental conditions. During the fights the participants used the strikes and sequences previously taught, but also sequences that were not taught with strike combination. The results were discussed based on studies of recombinative learning and methodological refinements were suggested.

22. Experimental Analysis of Fear Behavior in Children and Adults
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
LESLIE VALERIA BRISENO ZAMORA (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico), Christian Cruz (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico), Alejandro Ceron Martinez (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico), Veronica Luna Hernandez (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico)

Within psychology Interbehavioral has begun analysis of fear, based on the theoretical elucidations performed was marked the same as: a) A particular type of behavior, b) An interaction that requires a conventional reagent system (language), because the person makes linguistic constructions regarding an event, object or organism, this constructions are made according with the individual's referential and/or situational history; and c) Fear behavior is configured as a behavioral tendency. In order to empirically test the fear behavior characterization, a study was conducted, the aim was: evaluate the effects of the referential history on the behavior of fear in children and adults. Participate 10 children (between 10 and 12 years of age) and 10 adults (between 20 and 25 years of age), they were assigned to one of three groups: 1) Control Group, 2) Confirmed Referential History Group, and 3) Denied Referential History Group. The results were discussed around to the Interbehavioral notion of fear, mainly emphasizing in linguistic constructions made by the participants.

23. The Contribution of Maximum Point Criteria and Treatment Integrity Failures on the Effectiveness of the Good Behavior Game
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
JOLENE R. SY (Saint Louis University), Kathleen Mack (Saint Louis University), Olivia Gratz (Saint Louis University), Sarah Koerkenmeier (Saint Louis University)
Abstract: Problematic behavior is a common barrier to learning during academic instruction. The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is a contingency management system that is effective in reducing problematic behavior in various grade levels (e.g., Barrish et al., 1996; Donaldson et al., 2011). It involves dividing a class into teams, establishing a maximum point criterion, scoring points contingent upon instances of for problem behavior, and providing reinforcement to the lowest-scoring team and team(s) that perform below criterion. We explored the effectiveness of the GBG with a previously unexamined population: students diagnosed with emotional disorders. We compared levels of problem behavior and treatment integrity across teacher- and researcher-implemented versions of the GBG using an alternating treatment plus reversal design. GBG efficacy was maintained even though teachers had 18% lower average treatment integrity relative to researchers. In addition, problem behavior was more likely to decrease relative to baseline when teachers used lower maximum point criteria relative to researchers. Results suggest that decreases in treatment integrity may not be problematic if maximum point criteria match decreased levels of treatment integrity.
24. Increasing Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity in Preschool Children
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
ALLISON J. MORLEY (Syracuse University), Brian K. Martens (Syracuse University), Joseph E. Underberg (Syracuse University), Stephanie J. Long (Syracuse University)
Abstract: Low level of physical activity is an important contributor to childhood obesity. The present study evaluated the effects of fluency training in gross motor skills on preschool childrens levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity on the playground. Two typically-developing preschool-aged girls who engaged in low levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity participated. A multiple-probe design across 2 play contexts (outdoor toys, open space) was used to evaluate the effects of training 3 gross motor skills relevant to the outdoor toys context (i.e., jumping, hopping, alternate 1-foot/2-feet hopping) to a fluency criterion. Play probes during baseline and after the fluency criterion was met were conducted in both play contexts. Results showed increased levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in the outdoor toys context but not the open space context after fluency training. Implications for the use of fluency training in gross motor skills as an efficient and practical way to increase levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in children are discussed.
25. Analysis of Challenging Behavior's Patterns Using Web System for School and Preschool Aged Children With Disabilities of South Korea Focused on Residential Facilities
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
YUNHEE SHIN (Daegu University), Hyo shin Lee (Daegu University), Mi Young Jin (Daegu University), Jungbae Kang (Daegu University), Sungbum Kim (Daegu University), Chae jin Park (Daegu University)

The purpose of this study is to determine challenging behavior's patterns for school and preschool aged children with disabilities by age in the Korean residential facilities. Participants were 13 residential facilities for disabilities in South Korea. The number of records were 1,151 for 10 years. The Data was analyzed by frequency analysis and percentage. Type of challenging behavior were aggressive, depression/anxiety, self injury behavior, anti-social behavior, stereotype, sexual abuse, somatic, eating, elimination, sleep problems, attention deficit by criteria of DSM-IV, Lee(2004). On-line behavior analysis system, Homi.Info was used for collecting data of challenging behaviors. The data's rate of agreement for accuracy was 89%. The results of this study are as follows, This table shows the frequency of challenging behaviors by age. The frequency of preschool aged is 241, school aged 8 to 13 years is 460, and the from 14 to 18 is 450. The total frequency is 1151. In preschoolers, the most frequent challenging behavior types are somatic, and SIB. Number of somatic is 82, and SIB is 75. Depression and anxiety are the next most frequent. These behaviors are correlated with medical problems. In school aged 8 to 13 years, there are 4 outstanding behaviors for this group. Number of somatic and SIB is still quite high in frequency. In addition, Elimination and Aggressive behavior are remarkably common in this age group. The most frequent behavior in this age group is Urinate in other inappropriate place as elimination type, with a frequency of 61. Frequency of teasing peers and biting peers as aggressive type are 23, 15, respectively. In the period of school aged, 14 to 18 children, behaviors are different from other age groups, Frequency of somatic and SIB are still presented but there are not high. Frequency of stereotype, depressive/anxiety, and attention deficit are higher than others. The patterns in this age group are various and wide. Therefore, children with disabilities in facility have different behavior patterns by age. Preschooler have noticeable somatic behaviors and SIB. School aged children(8 to 13) also have Somatic and SIB, and even elimination and aggressive. Elimination problem is not serious for preschooler, however, it's problem for school aged children by teacher's perception. School aged children(14 to 18) display more various challenging behavior-Stereotype, depressive/anxiety and Attention deficit behaviors-than other group.

26. The Application of Functional Analysis Procedures to Students’ Academic Responding
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
MAUREEN O'CONNOR (University of Nebraska-Lincoln), Edward J. Daly III (University of Nebraska-Lincoln), Polly Daro (University of Nebraska-Lincoln), Mallory Johnson (University of Nebraska-Lincoln), Whitney Strong (University of Nebraska-Lincoln), Mackenzie Sommerhalder (University of Nebraska-Lincoln)
Abstract: Although functional analysis has over 30 years of empirical support with a wide range of populations and behaviors, very few studies have applied the methodology to academic responding. In the current study, functional analyses were conducted with three 2nd-grade students referred for poor math computation fluency. The analyses included three common stimulus conditions, but the target for reinforcement was academic responding. A multielement design was used to examine the impact of the reinforcement conditions on each student’s rate of correct digits per minute. Results (displayed below) demonstrated that the functional analyses produced differentiated patterns of responding across students. For student 1 and 2, escape produced higher rates of correct digits per minute, whereas for student 3, comparable rates of correct digits per minute were obtained for the attention and escape conditions and both were superior to the control condition. The results of this study suggest that differentiated stimulus function can be obtained for at least one form of academic responding. Given that many students with behavior problems in schools have concurrent academic deficits, these results may stimulate future research on stimulus function for academic repertoires as a more efficient method for identifying potential behavioral targets for intervention programs.
27. The Relation Between Assessment Session Length and Identified Function(s) of Problem Behavior
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
JENNIFER ANDERSEN (The University of Iowa), Anna Ing (The University of Iowa), Shaun Wilkinson (The University of Iowa)
Abstract: Functional analysis of problem behavior (FA) is the premier assessment model to identify the function of problem behavior and to inform treatment decisions. Applied settings often face limitations on the amount of time available to complete these analyses. Thus, the effects of reducing the length of each assessment session has been evaluated as a way to increase the efficiency of conducting an FA while maintaining valid results. Multiple studies have shown that briefer assessment sessions may yield similar response patterns to longer assessment sessions (Wacker, Berg, Harding, 2004; Wallace & Knights, 2003; Wallace & Iwata, 1999). Two differences between brief and extended assessment sessions are the amount of exposure to the establishing operation and opportunities to experience the reinforcement for problem behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between session length and number of functions identified. Articles published in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis between 1990 and 2011 were reviewed for inclusion in this analysis (n = 169). Preliminary data analyses suggest that the length of the assessment sessions may influence the likelihood of identifying multiple functions for problem behavior. Implications for assessment and treatment will be presented.
28. Analysis of the Scientific Practice in Research Training
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
ABDIEL FLORENTINO CAMPOS GIL (Universidad Veracruzana), Enríque Zepeta García (Universidad Veracruzana), Agustin Daniel Gomez Fuentes (Universidad Veracruzana)
Abstract: The approaches to the phenomenon of scientific research from psychology traditionally consider the method (as a set of rules for the attainment of true knowledge) is the logical category to which an individual must adjust their actions to ensure that the work is scientific. The model of Individual Scientific Practice (MPCI) that is proposed in this study assumes that the scientific research is an individual practice framed in socio-cultural interaction. (Ribes, 2010). The study included ten students of both sexes between 25 and 45 years old of a master’s program in research in applied psychology. The model author made some clarifications about Wittgenstein Notions and its use on the psychology. Base on these analysis the purpose of this study was evaluate the scientific practices of the group leader and the participant’s trough a matrix designed with the categories of the MPCI. First it was obtained the internal coherence of the matrix; second the participants analyzed the leader published articles, and third, the researchers evaluate the student’s research project, a report of progress and a final document. The latest paper supports the thesis. The results are analyzed from the similarities between scientific practice group leader and participants of this study.
Keyword(s): poster session



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