Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


40th Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2014

Event Details

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Poster Session #208
DDA Sun Noon
Sunday, May 25, 2014
12:00 PM–2:00 PM
W375a-d (McCormick Place Convention Center)
106. Using Applied Behavior Analysis and Smart Technology for Meeting the Health Needs of Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities
Area: DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
LINDA K. HAYMES (Touro University California), Keith Storey (Touro University California), Ana Maldonado (Touro University California), Michal Post (Touro University California), Joyce Montgomery (Vallejo City Unified School District)
Abstract: Individuals with intellectual disabilities often have special health care concerns such as diabetes, kidney disease, severe allergies, progressive illnesses, respiratory weaknesses, obesity, to name only a few. Smart technology can be an asset for individuals with intellectual disabilities for better managing their health care needs. Smart technology is increasingly being used in health care settings but the technology has not been developed specifically for individuals with intellectual disabilities. It is possible that the smart technology will not be effective or may need to be modified for individuals with Intellectual Disabilities to effectively use. We see key components in developing appropriate access and use of smart technology for the health of people with intellectual disabilities being: (a) systematic instructional methods, based upon applied behavior analysis, for consistent and accurate use of the technology, (b) modifying the current technology for people with intellectual disabilities, (c) guidelines for implementation, (d) and resources for getting the technology.
107. Assessing Visual Observation of Distress for Individuals With Intellectual and Developmental Disibilities
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
DANIEL CLARK (Kennedy Krieger Institute, University of Maryland Baltimore County), Griffin Rooker (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Jennifer R. Zarcone (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Louis P. Hagopian (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Breau and colleagues (Breau et al., 2003; Breau, Finley, & McGrath, 2002; Breau, McGrath, Camfield, & Finley, 2000) developed the Non-Communicating Childrens Pain Checklist (NCCPC), a scale on which primary caregivers rate sensitivity to pain during naturally occurring painful stimulation (e.g., self-injury, accidents, post-surgery, etc.) to help determine when individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) are in pain. The NCCPC-R is a checklist of six domains of pain and has been assessed on children with IDD with and without SIB (Breau et al., 2000). However, it is unclear how feasible and reliable the NCCPC-R is for daily use with patients that often appear distressed frequently. We completed the NCCPC-R, for patients admitted to a hospital unit that treats severe problem behavior, following occurrences of injury and within 24 hours when no injury was apparent. Scores at the time of injury averaged 16.6 (range, 13-23), while scores when no injury was present averaged 0.3 (range, 0-1) providing support for this instrument. Results indicate the NCCPC-R may be a valid and useful measure of pain that can be used in an ongoing fashion for clinical care. Additionally, repeated observation with the NCCPC-R may be effective for measuring changes in distress caused by injuries over time.
108. Effects of Extinction for Aggression and Elopement and Differential Reinforcement for Work Completion in a Sheltered Workshop
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
ZACHARY VARGO (Youngstown State University), Stephen Ray Flora (Youngstown State University)
Abstract: Workshops that employ clients with developmental disabilities may not be equipped to deal with highly persistent aggressive behaviors. As a result, aggressive clients risk expulsion from these services. The current study effectively used extinction to reduce physical aggression and elopement while differential reinforcement established and maintained vocational task completion of a twenty-three year old male with autism, mood disorder NOS, and seizure disorder. This successful intervention removed the threat of expulsion from workshop services
109. Visual Scanning, Reaction Time, and Heart Rate: Indicators of Perceptual Deficits in Low Reading Ability Children
Area: DDA; Domain: Basic Research
David Wayne Mitchell (Missouri State University), NONAH M. OLESEN (Missouri State University), Kirsty M. Kulhanek (Missouri State University), Carrie Melia (Missouri State University), Bret T. Eschman (Missouri State University), Keith M. Gora (Bemidji State University)
Abstract: First-grade children with literacy skills below normal limits were assessed via a series of visual learning laboratory tasks. The laboratory tasks employed Heart Rate (HR), Reaction Time (RT), and Visual Scanning (VS) measures. The evidence found in this descriptive study (slow RTs to incomplete letter presentations and failure to name correctly incomplete letters), suggest that low reading ability children lack basic letter identification skills. This is further supported by the direction of HR change. HR acceleration is associated with naming of previously learned information, whereas HR deceleration is associated with encoding of new/novel information, which was evident on the incomplete letter presentations. The HR findings are consistent with those found with low reading ability adults. Less exhaustive and systematic VS is associated with failure to attend to stimulus detail in normal and special populations (e.g., attention deficit disorder or autism). The majority of these children displayed less developed VS patterns to a face and while reading a 5-word sentence. It is suggested that intervention schemes that focus on attention to detail could be of benefit in increasing VS and visual discrimination learning, which in turn could improve basic reading skills.
110. Teaching the Activity of Daily Living Skill of Table Setting to Individuals with Developmental Disabilities With the Instructional Method of Discrete Trial Teaching Using a Multiple Baseline Design
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
RENEE PILI (Hawthorne Foundation)
Abstract: Discrete trials are regarded as an effective teaching method for individuals with developmental disabilities. Most individuals learn through observing others and exploring their environments; as well as engaging with, playing with or communicating with others, which is something that individuals with developmental disabilities have great difficulty with. In a Day Habilitation Program, 3 participants were given a program of setting the table. During baseline, individuals were asked to identify the proper materials for setting the table. A match-to-sample method was used to teach the consumers what the table setting materials were. During intervention phase, individuals were asked to identify the proper placement of materials for setting the table. It was found that baseline measurements were stable and when the intervention phase was implemented using DTT, data ascended for all participants. Results indicate that the participants (Stephanie, JP, and Joe) all had ascending trends with the ADL skill of setting the table across successive sessions. The results support the current data indicating success with DTT. The evidenced based method used in this particular study was a multiple baseline design across participants.
111. Functional Assessment of Problem Behavior Occurring during Transitions Between Activities
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
CLELIA GARANCE DELTOUR (New England Center for Children), William H. Ahearn (New England Center for Children), Stacy Cohen (New England Center for Children)
Abstract: Children with autism and related disabilities may present with difficulties during transitions, both between locations and between activities (Davis, 1987). As behavior analysts, we aim to identify the conditions under which problem behavior occurs and its maintaining variable. The purpose of this study was to develop and conduct an assessment of problem behavior occurring during transitions for two participants with a disability. First, we identified for each participant several preferred, neutral, and non-preferred activities using caregiver surveys and a structured assessment. Second, we conducted a preference assessment to further clarify the results obtained using the caregiver surveys and structured assessment and identified one preferred, one neutral and one non-preferred activity for each participant. Finally, we conducted a functional analysis of problem behavior occurring during transitions between the activities identified in the preference assessment. Interobserver agreement data have been collected for at least 33% of conditions across all phases of the study and mean occurrence agreement is above 90%. The preliminary results obtained suggest that problem behavior occurred when the transition involved a worsening in the reinforcement condition, for example terminating one activity to initiate another less preferred activity (negative reinforcement contingency).
112. Preparing Children with Multiple Disabilities to Take a Hearing Test: A Technology-Transfer Project
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
CAROL CUMMINGS (The University of Kansas), Yusuke Hayashi (Penn State Hazleton), Kathryn Saunders (The University of Kansas), Dean C. Williams (The University of Kansas)
Abstract: The purpose of this technology-transfer research program is to develop instructional programming for teaching nonverbal children with multiple disabilities to complete a behavioral audiometric evaluation in a clinic. The end goal is to produce a program that teachers, parents, or therapists can use outside the clinic to prepare children prior to an appointment. The program has been developed so that the operator controls the tones presented and their decibel levels. The participant is taught a simple successive discrimination task - to press a button in the presence of a tone and not in its absence. The poster describes the process of development, and presents representative data from a participant exposed to the most refined version of the procedures. The participant was a nonverbal boy with Down Syndrome. He was said to be untestable by his audiologist. Training occurred over four sessions, and generalized to the cliniche successfully completed a standard exam, and also an exam using bone conduction.
113. Increasing Child Compliance With Essential Routine Procedures: Acquisition & Generalization
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
KELLEY L. HARRISON (The University of Kansas), Kimberley Zonneveld (The University of Kansas), Kristin Miller (The University of Kansas), Courtney Moore (The University of Kansas), Pamela L. Neidert (The University of Kansas)
Abstract: The presence of certain stimuli during essential-routine procedures (e.g., hair cuts, dental exams, etc.) may evoke noncompliance in children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (Shumacher & Rapp, 2011). This can be a serious problem particularly when a procedure requires the use of sharp objects (e.g., scissors). The study evaluates the effects of demand fading plus reinforcement for increasing compliance with essential-routine procedures. A multiple baseline across subjects design, combined with a multiple probe design, was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention. To date, seven children with developmental disabilities have participated. To date, results indicate that mere exposure to the simulated environment increased compliance for three children. However, training was necessary to increase compliance for five children. Successful generalization during natural environment probes was observed for one child. However, decreases in negative vocalizations and use of physical restraint in the natural setting (e.g., salon, dental office) were observed across all participants. This research extends the literature by assessing the extent to which treatment effects generalize to the natural setting with the relevant professional implementing the procedure and by identifying relevant stimuli to facilitate generalization.
114. The Effects of Multiple Exemplar Instruction of the Induction of the Naming Capability: Determining Whether Naming Can Be Induced Prior to Mastery of All Response Topographies
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
SUSAN BUTTIGIEG (Teachers College, Columbia University), Lamis Baowaidan (Teachers College, Columbia University), Ellen Henighan (The Fred S. Keller School), Jessica Alverio (Fred S. Keller School), Exodia Mack (Fred S. Keller School)
Abstract: We tested the effects of multiple exemplar instruction across listener and speaker topographies on the induction of Naming using a delayed multiple baseline across participants design. The dependent variable was the number of correct responses to point, tact, and impure tact responses during probe sessions. The independent variable was multiple exemplar instruction across match, point, tact, and intraverbal responses. We conducted probes to test for Naming after mastery of each response topography. There were two conditions: a) conventional MEI and b) increased response requirement MEI. Participants were paired in dyads based on levels of verbal behavior. In conventional MEI, each response (M, P, T, IT) was consequated. In the increased response requirement condition, once a response topography was mastered during MEI, it was no longer consequated. We sought to 1) test whether Naming could be acquired prior to mastery of all four response topographies and 2) determine whether consequences were necessary for mastered response topographies in order to acquire Naming. Results are pending at the time of this submission.
115. Effects of Noncontingent Reinforcement Within a Comprehensive Treatment Package to Reduce Physical Disruption During Work Tasks
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
JORDAN LILL (Urbandale Community School District), Julie McKibben (Urbandale Community School District), Sean D. Casey (The Iowa Department of Education), Jennifer Gilmore (Heartland Area Education Agency)
Abstract: The physical disruption of a 17-year old female student in a integrated school setting was evaluated using descriptive assessments and a concurrent operants assessment. Results of the assessment suggest that physical disruption was maintained by both positive (gain tangible) and negative reinforcement (escape). Treatment was created using a comprehensive treatment package including functional communication training (FCT) and escape extinction (EE). Greater treatment effects were demonstrated in a reversal design (ABAB) when noncontingent access to preferred items (NCR) during work was added to the treatment package. One-month, two-month, and four-month follow-ups indicated physical disruption was reduced to zero levels with the inclusion of NCR within the treatment package. The results of this case study replicate effects demonstrated in other studies that also demonstrated NCR can be a critical component within a comprehensive treatment package that can decrease rates of problematic behavior in a school setting.
116. Effects of Pressure Vest on Behavioral/Physiological Measures of a Child With Developmental Disability
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
MELINDA SNODGRASS (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign), Mary Pietrowicz (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign), Karrie Karahalios (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign), Jennifer Kim (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign), Mindy Borden (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign), Laura DeThorne (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign), Mariana Aparicio Betancourt (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign), James Halle (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign)
Abstract: Children with developmental disabilities are often reported to have difficulty regulating sensory input and modulating behavior, which could negatively impacts their participation in community activities. To address issues with sensory regulation, occupational therapy and sensory integration interventions have often been used. One tool for children who are suspected to benefit from tactile input is the application of a pressure vest that applies pressure across the upper body and can be worn across a variety of settings. Despite its common use, there is lack of scientific studies showing cause-effect relations between the use of pressure vests and a positive change in an individuals arousal level and behavior. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the effect of wearing a pressure vest on behavioral/physiological measures of one child with a developmental disability using a single-case reversal design. Results indicated that the pressure vest did not improve behavior for this student. Instead, the teachers instructional practices (i.e., systematic vs. unstructured) appeared to be the primary factor impacting the childs behavior. The study and the discussion are strengthened by the variety of expertise on the multidisciplinary team including professionals from Special Education, Speech and Hearing Sciences, Computer Science, and Occupational Therapy.
117. Using Video Modeling to Train Staff to Conduct Task Analyses and Use Prompts Appropriately
Area: DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
Abstract: Video modeling was used as a staff training tool to teach direct care staff in a residential setting how to conduct task analyses and to use prompts appropriately. The experimental design used for this study was a multiple baseline across participants. The independent variable in this study was a video of the experimenter modeling the appropriate prompting procedure used during each step of a task analysis and when implementing a behavior support plan. The experimenter utilized that phase of the protocol that instructed staff to teach from a task analysis and use the prompt hierarchy (gestural, verbal and gestural, model, and physical). Each of the tasks used for this study contained at least five steps and were tasks with which the consumer was unfamiliar. The results of the current study demonstrated that video modeling can be a useful tool to teach staff how to properly prompt an individual through a variety of different tasks, it also showed that not all staff participants will respond to the video model. These results showed that some staff can be trained using a video model paired with didactic training, or with the video model itself to depict how staff will be expected to use a variety of skills, including the prompting hierarchy, to perform their job duties in a more effective manner.
118. Segment-Unit Reading With MTS Procedure For The Students With Intellectual Disabilities
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
MIKIMASA OMORI (Keio University), Jun'ichi Yamamoto (Keio University)
Abstract: Students with intellectual disabilities (ID) often show the reading difficulties, especially in reading comprehension. For these students, repeated reading training is widely used to improve reading comprehension score. However, it is sometimes difficult for students with ID to improve their reading skills by reading whole sentence repeatedly. In addition, because they sometimes show the lack of expressive vocabulary, we used matching-to-sample (MTS) task to evaluate their reading comprehension skills. Since students with ID can read and comprehend the words or segments well, we presented each segment of the stories sequentially. In the present study, we examined whether four students with ID improved their reading comprehension through segment-unit reading with MTS procedure. During the baseline, students were required to read whole six stories and answer the two questions from each story as MTS test. In the training, we used only three stories. Students were asked to read each segments sequentially and answer the questions by making choice responses. The results indicated that all students could improve reading comprehension skills of not only their trained stories but also untrained stories. Results suggested the segment-unit reading training can be applied to the students with ID by combining MTS procedure.
119. Training Parents From Distance Via Internet Technology: A Pilot Study
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
HEDDA MEADAN (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign), Melinda Snodgrass (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign), Lori Meyer (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign), Moon Chung (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign), Kimberly Wolowiec-Fisher (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign), James Halle (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign)
Abstract: We describe a pilot study of the Internet-based Parent-Implemented Communication Strategies (i-PiCS) program that provides long-distance training and coaching via the Internet to parents of young children with disabilities. The program is designed to teach parents to use four evidence-based teaching strategies to improve their childs social communication skills: (a) environmental arrangement, (b) modeling, (c) mand-model, and (d) time delay. We describe the potential of the Internet to help practitioners overcome challenges to providing early intervention services. Using a multiple-baseline design across naturalistic teaching strategies within each family, we studied the effect of the i-PiCS program on parents implementation of each strategy. We also examined the effect that changes in the parents use of the strategies have on their childrens communicative behavior. Methods and results from this pilot will be presented. The participating parents increased the rate at which they used these strategies and the quality with which they used the strategies following training and coaching. Children increased the number of time they initiated communication with their parent. We will also discuss potential barriers, benefits, and implications for practice and research for internet-based parent training programs.
120. Teaching Sexuality to Young Adults With Developmental Differences
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
JULIE LAROSA (University of Rochester)
Abstract: Sexuality education is a topic often avoided by parents and educators of students with developmental differences and intellectual disabilities based on fears, misconceptions, and ignorance (Boehning, 2006). When parents and educators fail to approach sexuality in a collaborative manner, the student suffers, unable to understand or confused about their changing bodies (Boehning, 2006). Sexuality programs must provide students with detailed information relating to sex (Hatton & Tector, 2010). Children who possess an intellectual disability are 4.6 times (Smith & Harrell, n.d.) to 4.8 times (Boehning, 2006) more likely to be victims of sexual abuse than children who do not possess an intellectual disability. Failing to take responsibility to teach sexuality will only compound the need that currently exists. This presentation provides a summary of the issues and needs associated with educating students with intellectual disabilities on the subject of sexuality. Necessary aspects will include a discussion concerning the abstinence-only approach from a historical perspective along with the fears associated with teaching sexuality from a parent and educators point of view. Further discussion will involve developing appropriate curriculum required to approach the topic of sexuality as well as the modifications necessary to prepare students with developmental differences to assimilate in their community.
121. An Assessment of Treatment Options Used To Decrease Packing Behavior During Meal Time
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
CHRISTOPHER MAYMON (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Carrie S. W. Borrero (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Packing is a problematic mealtime behavior characterized by holding or pocketing solids or liquids without swallowing. Treatments to reduce packing may include the contingent presentation of a liquid chaser or differential reinforcement, such as providing access to preferred tangible items. In this study, we designed an assessment to compare common treatments for packing in order to determine which treatment option most greatly reduced packing in 2 children with severe feeding disorders. The assessment conditions included (1) the delivery of tangible reinforcement contingent upon mouth clean, (2) waiting for a mouth clean before presenting the next bite of food, (3) re-distributing the packed food across the child’s tongue with a Nuk© brush, (4) a flipped spoon procedure to deposit the food in the child’s mouth, and (5) continued bite presentations, wherein up to three bites were presented after a pack was observed until the third consecutive pack. Results indicated that offering tangible reinforcement contingent upon mouth cleans produced the largest decrease in packing. Potential implications for treatment design will be discussed.
122. Correspondence Between Teacher-Conducted Trial-Based Functional Analyses and Traditional Functional Analyses With High-School Aged Students
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
CASEY CLAY (Utah State University), Sarah E. Bloom (University of South Florida), Tashina Meeker (Utah State University), Heather Weese (Utah State University)
Abstract: Trial-based functional analysis is an empirical method to determine causal relations between behavior and the environment. Previous research has shown the outcome of trial-based functional analysis corresponded to the outcome of traditional functional analysis in approximately 60% of the cases. When lack of resources does not allow traditional functional analyses to be conducted, trial-based functional analysis conducted by classroom teachers may be a viable alternative. We conducted traditional and trial-based functional analyses for four high-school aged students with developmental disabilities. We found correspondence between trial-based functional analyses and traditional functional analyses for two of the four students, and partial correspondence for the remaining two students. Furthermore, school personnel displayed high procedural integrity when conducting trial-based functional analyses. Although not a replacement for traditional functional analyses, trial-based functional analyses may be a viable alternative for teachers when resources for traditional functional analyses are not available. Future research might investigate whether teachers can design interventions based on results from trial-based functional analysis.
123. Alternate Means of Functional Assessment for Sexually Inappropriate Behavior
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
MIRANDA DEPOY (Partnership for Behavior Change), Sorah Stein (Partnership for Behavior Change)
Abstract: When working with individuals who engage in socially inappropriate behavior, it is important to assess for and identify the variables maintaining the behavior (Carr & Durand, 1985; Meyer, 1999). Once we do so, we can more accurately target our interventions and maximize our success. Though it might be tempting to assume that behaviors that by topography suggest automatic reinforcement, in fact do, it is essential to conduct functional assessment of these behaviors as they may also or instead be maintained by social consequences, such as attention or escape (Mace & Belfiore, 1990). One method of assessing situations in which a behavior reliably occurs is antecedent analysis (Carr & Durand, 1985; Stichter et al., 2009). For example, Meyer (1999) conducted functional assessment of antecedent events, specifically looking at attention and difficulty of presented tasks as probable antecedents to target behavior. Examining antecedent events suggested demand and attention as reliable antecedent events, while experimental functional analysis confirmed escape as the function (Mace & Belfiore, 1990). In these cases, antecedent analysis, assessing any reliable precursor or covarying behaviors, and examining the environmental context in which the behavior occurs can provide the information needed to facilitate effective intervention.
Keyword(s): poster session



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