Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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31st Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2005

Program by Continuing Education Events: Saturday, May 28, 2005


Manage My Personal Schedule

 

Workshop #W55
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Schedule-Induced Behaviors: Origins of Excessive Behaviors and Procedures to Minimize Their Influence
Saturday, May 28, 2005
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
Williford A (3rd floor)
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
CE Instructor: Jeff Kupfer, Ph.D.
JEFF KUPFER (Florida Residential Solutions, LLC)
Description: Schedule-induced or adjunctive behaviors (sometimes maladaptive and always excessive) are behaviors that are maintained at a high probability by stimuli that derive their reinforcing properties as a function of parameters governing the availability of some other class of reinforcement. In non-human subjects, some schedules of reinforcement have been shown to generate strange behaviors such as: polydipsia, attack against members of its own species, self-induced escape, pica, and hyperactivity; In human subjects, these same schedules can exaggerate behaviors such as fluid intake, aggression, pacing, grooming, eating, stereotyped behavior, smoking and, quite possibly-- wretched excess. This presentation is an introduction to schedule-induced behaviors. A brief video-tape will be shown demonstrating various types of schedule-induced behaviors in a rat and pigeon. Studies describing functional relationships with reinforcement schedules and generator schedules (i.e., schedules that promote schedule-induced behaviors) will be reviewed, as well as functional assessment and measurement strategies. Alternative reinforcement strategies in applied settings will be reviewed and case studies will be presented comparing fixed- vs. variable-DRO schedules.
Learning Objectives: At the completion of the workshop participants will be able to: - Provide introduction into schedule-induced behavior and expand functional analysis approaches - Review methods to measure and assess schedule-induced behavior - Describe possible pitfalls in using common schedules of reinforcement - Provide alternatives to minimize the influence of schedule-induced behaviors
Activities: Participate in discussion regarding: contents of literature review; measurement and assessment suggestions; procedures to maximize effects of positive reinforcement and minimizing the influence of reinforcement schedules that induce excessive behaviors; and environmental management strategies to channel excessive behaviors into more productive and adaptive outlets.
Audience: Professionals and paraprofessionals actively involved in developing, implementing and monitoring behavior treatment plans, students that desire a review of schedule-induced behaviors and implications.
Content Area: Theory
Instruction Level: Intermediate
 
Workshop #W56
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Treating Clients with Maladaptive Habits, Tics, Tourettes Syndrome, and Stuttering Using the Habit Reversal and Regulated Breathing Treatment Program
Saturday, May 28, 2005
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
Boulevard A (2nd floor)
Area: DDA; Domain: Basic Research
CE Instructor: R. Gregory Nunn, Ph.D.
R. GREGORY NUNN (National University)
Description: Maladaptive and undesirable habits, tics, Tourettes Syndrome (TS), and stuttering are extremely common problems which can seriously affect the personal relationships and self-esteem of individuals who suffer from them. Because these problems can cause acute psychological distress, many different types of treatments for them have been developed. Habit Reversal is a behavioral treatment approach which has proven to be an effective, General treatment for habits and tics including TS (Azrin & Nunn, 1973; Azrin & Nunn, 1977; Nunn, 1978; Azrin, Nunn & Frantz, 1980; Azrin & Peterson, 1988a; Finney, Rapoff, Hall, & Christopherson, 1983; Franco, 1981; Zikis, 1983: Miltenberger, 2001).
Learning Objectives: At the completion of the workshop, participants will be able to: - Identify and diagnose maladaptive habits, tics, TS, and stuttering with children and adults. - Understand the theoretical rationales that have spawned the many treatments for these types of problems. - Understand the Habit Reversal and Regulated Breathing Treatment Procedures. - Understand common pitfalls of treatment and ways of overcoming them.
Activities: In this Workshop we will discuss the identification, nature, and treatment of children, adolescents, and adults with these type of problems. Specifically we will cover the diagnosis and treatment of individuals using the Habit Reversal and Regulated Breathing Treatment Procedures of Azrin and Nunn as well as treatment variations that have evolved from their original work. Case studies are included where possible and workshop participants are strongly encouraged to provide input.
Audience: All practitioners, educators, and other professionals working with children, adolescents, or adults presenting with these types of problems.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Basic
 
Workshop #W57
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Toilet Training for Autistic & Encopretic Children: Data-Based Bio-Behavioral Intervention
Saturday, May 28, 2005
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
Williford B (3rd floor)
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Michael Ben-Zvi, M.A.
MICHAEL BEN-ZVI (NATAV Private Practice, Israel)
Description: While early intensive interventions are widely used to improve communicative, cognitive and other skills, toilet training for autistic children is still a challenge to behavior analysis. Encopresis is a very disturbing illness, not so rare with normal children. The combination of those two is even worse. The use of Reflexes and Respondent conditioning (in combination with operant conditioning) is needed for complex behaviors that are only partly Operant. The purpose of this workshop is to address that need, especially for the acquiring of proper bowl movement on toilet, both for Encopretic and Autistic children. The workshop will cover the theoretical assumptions behind the intervention, the protocol of treatment and its accommodations to each child. Ethical considerations, Data collection and decision making in the course of intervention will be discussed. Case studies will be presented, and the toilet training of urination will be addressed shortly.
Learning Objectives: At the completion of the workshop, participant will be able to: - Know and understand the protocol of intervention - Explain the intervention to parent of non trained child - Gather the required data for decision making before and through the intervention - Detect the relevant symptom of Encopresis and apply the proper intervention. - Address ethical considerations and rejections. - Support parents through implementation of the intervention.
Activities: Activities will include presentation of both rational and practical issues, analyzing data records, practicing the collection of data on relevant Data sheets, and discussion of questions.
Audience: Behavior analysts, consultants and program managers of interventions with autistic population, clinicians who address Encopresis, parent of Encopretic and autistic children.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
 
Workshop #W58
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
How to Train Caregivers in Functional Behavioral Assessment and Treatment Development
Saturday, May 28, 2005
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
4A (4th floor)
Area: TBA; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Julia T. O'Connor, Ph.D.
JULIA T. O'CONNOR (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Description: As the functional behavior assessment methodology has expanded from the highly controlled research context to homes, schools and community settings, more questions have arisen regarding how to incorporate the family and other caregivers of the client into the assessment and treatment process. Caregiver participation in behavioral assessments allows the clinician to establish a context that more closely replicates the conditions in the natural environment. This workshop is designed to train professionals how to collaborate with parents throughout the functional analysis and treatment development process. The primary focus will be to assist the professional in teaching parents and other caregivers of children with developmental disabilities how to analyze behavior and develop function based treatment strategies in a collaborative relationship. Participants will have the opportunity to practice in small groups. Materials will be provided to participants including how to define behavior, identify target situations, and identify potential reinforcers as well as sample data collection sheets and other handouts describing the principles of applied behavior analysis and conducting functional analysis.
Learning Objectives: At the completion of the workshop, participants will be able to: - Train caregivers how to define target maladaptive behaviors. - Train caregivers to conduct stimulus preference assessments and functional analyses in home and community settings. - Train caregivers to identify appropriate alternative/adaptive behaviors. - Train caregivers how to link functional analysis outcomes to possible treatment strategies. - Assess caregiver integrity on implementation of the functional analysis and treatment.
Activities: Participants will be involved in didactic presentation, discussion, and interactive activities.
Audience: Clinicians working with parents with developmentally disabled children with behavior problems. Masters level therapists, psychologists, and family members are welcome. Participants should have a fundamental understanding of the principles of applied behavior analysis.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
 
Workshop #W59
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Pediatric Sleeplessness: Identification and Intervention
Saturday, May 28, 2005
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
Stevens 5 (Lower Level)
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Robert W. Montgomery, Ph.D.
ROBERT W. MONTGOMERY (Reinforcement Unlimited), JASON T. CAVIN (The Learning Tree, Inc.)
Description: Pediatric sleeplessness and sleep disruptions are among the most common concerns of parents. Excessive sleepiness in a child is a symptom that is often underrecognized and misinterpreted, but when left untreated can lead to serious behavioral, academic, developmental, and medical consequences. Pediatric sleeplessness is widely prevalent and often behaviorally based. Research supports that pediatric sleeplessness can be treated effectively with nonpharmacologic interventions. This workshop will review the nature of sleep and sleep disruption (including common pediatric sleep disorders), and introduce the participant to behavioral treatment strategies (e.g., extinction, parent education, positive routines, sleep hygiene). Finally, behavioral interventions for children with special needs will be discussed (i.e., developmental disabilities, ADHD, and mood disorders).
Learning Objectives: At the completion of the workshop, participants will be able to: - Recognize the three main types of sleep disruption. - Analyze the environment, in light of the research, in order to maximize the potential for restful sleep. - Describe the most common behavioral mistakes made during sleep preparation and list research supported sleep preparation habits that increase the likelihood of productive sleep. - Have criteria for when to refer those with sleep disruption for medical evaluation.
Activities: Didactic and interactive discussion will be conducted throughout the session. Participants are encouraged to come with questions and case examples as an interactive session will be included.
Audience: BCBAs, BCABAs, consultants, teachers, parents, and anyone interested in how sleep impacts behavior and how to improve the sleep of children and adolescents.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Basic
 
Workshop #W60
CE Offered: BACB
Private Practice Model of Consulting
Saturday, May 28, 2005
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
Continental B (1st floor)
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Terence G. Blackwell, M.A.
TERENCE G. BLACKWELL (CERG Management, Inc.), PAUL F. CONLEY (Paul Conley Publishing)
Description: The workshop is designed to teach people how to establish their own professional consulting business using a Private Practice Model. Topics include: how to identify clients, pricing of services, leveraging your time, building your business through centers of influence, creating a public presence and getting beyond creating a income, to designing a lifestyle.
Learning Objectives: At the completion of the workshop, participants will understand: - Defining your niche market - Determining the structure of a Private Practice - Creating a public presence - Assessing the viability of your business
Activities: Analyzing behaviors that lead to successful business models for Private Practitioners; behavior of successful marketing of services; Business Model review, case study of successful independent Private Practice Models.
Audience: Individuals interested in establishing Private Practice model consulting business in the field of ABA.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Basic
 
Workshop #W61
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
The Use of Computer and Video Technology with Children with Autism
Saturday, May 28, 2005
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
Joliet (3rd floor)
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Mary Ellen McDonald, Ph.D.
MARY ELLEN MCDONALD (The Genesis School), MICHELE LEYKUM (The Genesis School), ERIN SPARACIO (The Genesis School)
Description: Often children with autism have great difficulty learning new skills, and one factor that often impedes learning by children with autism is the social component of the learning process. The use of video-based intstruction has been successful in teaching a variety of new skills. This workshop will provide information on a variety of video-based instructional methods that can be used successfully to teach skills to children with autism. Specific methods to be reviewed will include: video modeling, video rehearsal, video priming. In addition to video-based instruction, computer-based instruction and a combination of the use of video and computer technology will also be discussed.
Learning Objectives: At the completion of the workshop, participants will be able to: - Describe at least 3 video-based instructional methods that can be used with children with autism - Describe at least 2 uses of video modeling with children with autism. - Explain how reinforcement contingencies can be used through video contingencies - Provide a rationale for using computer or video technology for children with autism
Activities: Participants will observe video clips depicting a variety of video-based instructional techniques. Participants will be asked to select a behavior that they would like to increase using video-based instruction and will work on developing a plan to use video-based instruction to teach a skill. Volunteers will also have an opportunity to sample computer-based technology programs.
Audience: Special educators, psychologists, school personnel, behavior analysts and parents
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
 
Workshop #W62
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Communication-Based Behavior Interventions
Saturday, May 28, 2005
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
Continental C (1st floor)
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: John J. Pokrzywinski, M.A.
JOHN J. POKRZYWINSKI (Arlington Developmental Center), DIANA BRADBERRY (Arlington Developmental Center), RICHARD W. POWELL (Shelby Residential and Vocational Services), IRFA KARMALI (Shelby Residential and Vocational Services)
Description: This workshop emphasizes positive reinforcement of alternative behaviors to reduce problem behaviors (replacement behaviors). It encourages procedures that increase the contextual fit of behavior support plans; presents procedures that allow identification and manipulation of setting events and discriminative stimuli; Discussion includes procedures to encourage a communication-based environment. The procedures described in the workshop are designed to: Emphasize nonaversive and naturalistic procedures to reduce the likelihood of problem behaviors; increase the acceptance of behavior support plans, and thus the likelihood of success and generality; and increase collaboration between professional and direct-support staff.
Learning Objectives: At the completion of the workshop, participants will be able to: - Identify and discuss procedures to reduce problem behaviors by emphasizing positive reinforcement of alternative behaviors (replacement behaviors). - Identify and discuss procedures to modify antecedent & setting event manipulations which reduce the occurrence of problem behaviors and the need for corrective interventions. - Identify and discuss procedures that increase the acceptability of behavior support plans and increase the likelihood of success and generality (contextual fit). - Describe and discuss procedures to encourage a communicative environment. - Describe and discuss procedures to increase collaboration between all team members and direct-support staff.
Activities: Workshop activities include discussions of Eliminative versus educative strategies to deal with problem behaviors; Antecedent events & contextual variables; Functional behavior assessment & replacement behavior development; Discrete trial training (DTT) and natural environment training (NET); Verbal behavior considerations.
Audience: Behavior Analysts, Speech-Language Pathologists, Direct-Support Staff & Supervisors, Psychologists, Nurses, Advocates, Independent Support Coordinators, and others.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Basic
 
Workshop #W63
CE Offered: BACB
Graphing with Microsoft Excel
Saturday, May 28, 2005
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
4C (4th floor)
Area: PRA; Domain: Basic Research
CE Instructor: Kimberly A. Schulze, Ph.D.
SARAH E. ROBERTS (Minnesota Autism Center), KIMBERLY A. SCHULZE (St. Cloud State University), EMILY RUDRUD (St. Cloud State University), ERIC RUDRUD (St. Cloud State University)
Description: articipants will be provided with systematic instruction on graphing single-subject research designs with Microsoft Excel. Single-subject designs covered include: ABAB, Multiple Baseline, Alternating Treatments, and Cumulative Records. Participants will also learn to graph session-by-session learner acquisition data. Participants will be provided with a CD providing detailed text instructions, a streaming video with demonstrations, and templates for learner acquisition data.
Learning Objectives: At the completion of the workshop, participants will be able to: - Enter data on Excel spreadsheet for appropriate single-subject research design. - Graph data for single-subject design. - Edit graph content (titles, axis, background, condition, trend lines). - Graph learner acquisition data.
Activities: Participants will be provided with instruction and practice in graphing single-case designs. We encourage participants to bring laptop computers to practice entering data and graphing results.
Audience: Practitioners and researchers who need to graph data in an efficient manner. Faculty and graduate students who teach behavior analysis.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Basic
 
Workshop #W64
CE Offered: BACB
Introduction to Data Collection Methods
Saturday, May 28, 2005
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
Boulevard B (2nd floor)
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Bobby Newman, Ph.D.
BOBBY NEWMAN (Room to Grow), TAMMY HAMMOND NATOF (Effective Interventions)
Description: Too often, individuals who are attempting to apply behavior analytic instruction have not been trained in the usage of a full range of data collection methodologies. They have one or two particular systems that are in use at their program (e.g., percent correct or frequency), but avoid the use of a myriad of other data collection strategies (e.g., fluency, latency, probe data, etc.). This is an introductory level workshop that will describe various systems of data collection commonly used within Applied Behavior Analytic settings (e.g., intensive programs for individuals diagnosed with developmental disabilities, mainstream educational settings, adult rehabilitation programs). Various systems of data collection in applied settings will be introduced and explored. These will include: frequency data, rate measures, latency, magnitude, duration, percent correct (in a trial by trial format), and probe data. In addition, specific data sampling techniques such as Partial Interval Recording and Momentary Time Sampling will be discussed. How and when to use each of the above will be discussed, and practice will be provided from videotaped and audio examples. A pop quiz of given scenarios will also be provided, and participants encouraged to discuss which data collection system they would employ for each scenario and why.
Learning Objectives: At the completion of the workshop, participants will (be able to): - Learn the definitions of each of the several types of data collection listed above - Learn how to use each type of data collection. - Learn when to use each type of data collection. - Practice systems of deriving inter-observer agreement - Teach others data collection strategies.
Activities: Participants will hear lecture and will partake in practice in the various types of data collection described.
Audience: This is an introductory level workshop for parents and direct care providers, as well as staff trainers.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Basic
 
Workshop #W65
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Preference-Based Teaching: Procedures for Helping People with Developmental Disabilities Enjoy Learning Without Problem Behavior
Saturday, May 28, 2005
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
Waldorf (3rd floor)
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Dennis H. Reid, Ph.D.
DENNIS H. REID (Carolina Behavior Analysis and Support Center), CAROLYN W. GREEN (J. Iverson Riddle Developmental Center)
Description: This workshop will describe a preference-based teaching approach for helping people with developmental disabilities enjoy learning functional skills without problem behavior during teaching sessions. The focus is on how to make teaching programs highly preferred (as indicated, for example, through indices of happiness and absence of indices of unhappiness). A program approach will be described and demonstrated that: (a) enhances the preferred nature of teaching programs to increase learner enjoyment in participating in the programs, and (b) removes the motivation for problem behavior that often occurs in attempts to escape or avoid the programs. Specific strategies to be described include how a teacher or instructor can build rapport with a learner and establish his/her attention as a reinforcer, using preferred events as antecedents and consequences to teaching sessions, interspersing preferred events within instructional trials, incorporating efficient choice opportunities within the teaching process, and timing the scheduling of teaching sessions to promote learner enjoyment. Summaries of recent behavior analytic investigations will also be provided to demonstrate the evidence base of preference-based teaching.
Learning Objectives: At the completion of the workshop, participants will be able to: - Describe how to include a preferred event before, during and after a teaching session to enhance the preferred features of the session for a learner with disabilities. - Describe how to use establishing operations to maximize the preferred nature of at least one aspect of a teaching session. - Describe how at least one learner choice can be embedded within a teaching session to enhance the preferred nature of the session for a learner. - Describe three things a teacher can do to establish his/her attention as a preferred event for a learner.
Activities: Activities of participants will include: (1) listening to instructor lecture/presentations, (2) viewing overhead presentation of key points, (3) completing pencil and paper activities relating to scenarios depicting applications of key points, (4) viewing role-play demonstrations of target procedures by instructors, (5) practicing target procedures in role-play situations with performance feedback by instructors (provided until individual participants demonstrate competency in accordance with performance checklists employed by instructors) , and (6) opportunities to ask questions of instructors and receive instructor answers.
Audience: The target audience includes anyone who implements skill-acquisition teaching programs with people who have developmental disabilities including autism. Examples of target audience participants include teachers, teacher assistants, residential direct support and supervisory staff, vocational support staff (e.g., job coaches), behavior analysts, behavior specialists and technicians, and parents.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
 
Workshop #W66
CE Offered: BACB
The Teaching of Successful Intelligence
Saturday, May 28, 2005
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
Williford C (3rd floor)
Area: TBA; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: T. V. Joe Layng, Ph.D.
JOANNE K. ROBBINS (Morningside Academy), T. V. JOE LAYNG (Headsprout)
Description: When the environment requires a learner to produce verbal stimuli that sequentially and systematically make one pattern of behavior more likely than another in order to meet a contingency requirement, reasoning is defined. This process is akin to what Skinner (1969) described as an "inspection of reinforcement contingencies" such that an individual can describe behavior that meets contingency requirements without direct shaping or rules. Procedures have been developed that train learners in reasoning and in the inspection of the requirements for reinforcement in most problem solving situations. The workshop will begin with a brief introduction to approaches to teaching intelligence, including Sternbergs analytical, practical, and creative intelligences, and an overview of effective and ineffective thinking skills strategies. The body of the workshop will be spent actively applying a Talk Aloud Problem Solving (TAPS) method derived from Bloom, 1950, and Whimbey & Lockhead, 1999) for teaching effective reasoning, and a method of teaching analytical thinking, Fluent Thinking Skills (FTS), (Robbins and Layng, 2004) based upon generating and answering questions that can be used for elementary school through graduate school and for effectively solving everyday problems at home and in the workplace.
Learning Objectives: At the completion of the workshop, participants will be able to: - Define and distinguish between reasoning and analytical thinking. - Describe the relation between reasoning, analytical thinking, and intelligence - Apply TAPS and FTS to a variety of situations requiring reasoning or analytical thinking. - Describe how to teach TAPS and FTS to others.
Activities: Discuss reasoning and analytical thinking as described in workshop introduction; Play TAPS game to learn basic concepts; In groups of two, Apply TAPS to solve problems with one person taking the role of problem solver and the other the role of active listener. Both individuals will take turns as problem solver and active listeners; Play FTS game to learn basic concepts, Apply FTS to quickly learn a difficult subject unfamiliar to most participants.
Audience: Those who work in educational, therapeutic, or business settings where reasoning, thinking or the teaching of intelligence is important.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Basic
 
Workshop #W67
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Using Behavior Systems Technology in Teacher Education Programming: Principles, Practice, and Hands-On Applications
Saturday, May 28, 2005
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
4D (4th floor)
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Thomas L. Sharpe, Jr., Ed.D.
THOMAS L. SHARPE, JR. (University of Nevada, Las Vegas), DANIEL W. BALDERSON (University of Nevada, Las Vegas)
Description: The workshop will provide introduction to, and hands on application of, a data supported protocol for the (a) comprehensive description, (b) discrete and sequential analysis, and (c) feedback and goal-setting activities necessary to effective teacher training in postsecondary classroom and on-site K-12 deliberate practice environments. Workshop activities include (a) introduction to the importance of a behavior systems approach to teacher training, (b) hands-on observation system construction, and (c) simulated data collection and analysis activities designed for instructional purposes. Additionally, detailed explanation and hands-on interaction with protocols designed for a range of logically sequenced training activities are provided, including (a) classroom video observations, (b) on-site data-based assessment and immediate feedback and goal-setting, and (c) research and development into effective educational practice. Workshop participants will leave with a conceptual and applied familiarity with behavior systems educational protocols designed for effective professional training practice. Participants will be provided with a complimentary copy of the complete software tools and methods procedures on CD ROM, and MSWORD files of all necessary illustration materials in relation to the educational protocols discussed as a function of workshop participation. *While some computer hardware will be provided, it is recommended that workshop participants bring their own IBM compatible laptop hardware to facilitate hands-on workshop interactions.
Learning Objectives: Workshop participants will exit with technologically-based instructional skills in the area of applied behavioral teacher training. Skills include the ability to (a) design observation systems that match with training objectives, (b) construct video-based observational learning laboratory experiences in relation to training objectives, (c) implement on-site data-based feedback and goal-setting experiences to determine if training objectives have been met, and (d) develop a set of applied research activities to document the relative effectiveness of professional training activities. At the completion of the workshop, participants will be able to: - Discuss in conceptual and applied ways the principles and practice of applied behavior systems analysis in relation to professional teacher training. - Construct observation systems relevant to their particular professional teacher training objectives. - Design and implement video-based observational learning activities in relation to educational objectives for professionals in training. - Understand and apply a range of computer-based data collection and analysis techniques in relation to recommended data-based on-site feedback and goal setting instructional protocols. - Develop an applied research agenda in relation to professional training objectives to determine the relative effectiveness of instructional efforts.
Activities: Activities include review of applied behavior systems analysis in relation to professional training activities; hands-on application of observation system construction designed as compatible with professional training objectives; hands-on application of observational laboratory development in relation to the classroom instruction of relevant behavior analytic professional training objectives; hands-on application of data-based on-site feedback and goal-goal setting protocols in relationship to deliberate practice activities of professional trainees; and introduction and review of recommended research activity development in relation to determining the relative effectiveness of recommended professional training activities.
Audience: Advanced graduate students and behavior analysts working in the area of professional teacher education in specific, and in the area of postsecondary training for professional competencies in general. Those working in postsecondary educational settings where focus is on the education, on-site training, and assessment of professional practice competencies, and who are challenged with how to teach, describe, and analyze highly interactive behavioral transactions should find the workshop experience and complimentary materials particularly appealing to a wide range of professional training, assessment, and applied research applications.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Basic
 
Workshop #W68
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Performance Management in Service Delivery for Children with Autism: Measuring and Attaining Exemplary Staff Performance
Saturday, May 28, 2005
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
Stevens 1 (Lower Level)
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Michael Fabrizio, M.A.
MICHAEL FABRIZIO (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting), HOLLY ALMON (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting), SARA J. PAHL (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting), AMY KING (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting), ALISON L. MOORS (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting)
Description: This workshop will provide participants multiple opportunities to learn how to evaluate service delivery staff performance in three critical areas: verbal behavior about the service being delivered, contingency-shaped behavior involved in delivering the service, and verbally-mediated behavior involved in problem solving related to the service being delivered. Sample forms and feedback systems will be shown, and participants will practice evaluating staff performance via contrived practice and videotape review.
Learning Objectives: At the completion of the workshop, participants will be able to: - Describe three important repertoires to be developed in service delivery personnel. - Evaluate examples of service personnel�s performance related to verbal behavior about service. - Evaluate examples of service personnel�s performance related to contingency-shaped service behavior. - Describe at least three sample repertoire areas which relate directly to each participant�s own service delivery personnel.
Activities: Throughout this workshop, participants will: Participate in discussion about topics being addressed; complete evaluations measuring service delivery personnel verbal behavior; complete evaluations measuring service delivery personnel contingency-shaped behavior through the review of multiple videotaped examples; complete evaluations measuring service delivery personnel verbally-mediated behavior using real life sample performance data; and begin to develop instruments to measure each of the above in the work each participant supervises or performs in their professional life.
Audience: People supervising the performance of staff members delivering services to persons with disabilities. Individuals supervising and designing instructional or skill-building programs.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
 
Workshop #W69
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Re-evaluating Practice, the Big Picture, or Why We Really Do What We Do
Saturday, May 28, 2005
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
Private Dining Room 4 (3rd floor)
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Kimberly A. Smalley, Ph.D.
KIMBERLY A. SMALLEY (Behavior Support Consultation Advocacy)
Description: Take a few minutes and remember why we are in this, what our objectives are, and what our output should achieve. This workshop will present lively discussion around the greater context in which we work, peoples lives. With specific regard to individuals with developmental disabilities and challenging behavior we will task analyze our practice to assure that our interventions are socially valid, acceptable, and result in real beneficial quality of life change. Working backwards from where we want to be (LROP) using crowding out, manipulating molar variable to acquire a "goodness of fit" and teaching to strengths, how do we get from here to there? Discussion will hopefully include facilitating contrived and natural networks of support, enriched environments, communication, pivotal skill building, gainful employment, and sex.
Learning Objectives: At the completion of the workshop, participants will be able to: - Be able to discuss and plan for social validity and acceptability of interventions in schools and families. - Generate practical examples of manipulating molar variables, 'Crowding out", teaching incompatible and or alternative behaviors, that have practical meaning in a consumers life. - Self assess outcomes of behavioral practice and long-term implications for the folks you serve. - Conduct informal ecological assessments (such as circles of support or other social density tools) around the soft and fuzzy components of life (Recreation and leisure skills /friends/ relationships).
Activities: Brief informal self-assessment/ survey
Audience: Direct service staff who work with individuals with developmental disabilities (such as individuals with MR/DD ASD), those who design and implement behavior support plans, Teachers, families, consumers.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Basic
 
Workshop #W70
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Strategies for Successful Inclusion Programming in a Public School Setting
Saturday, May 28, 2005
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
Stevens 2 (Lower Level)
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Jill E. McGrale Maher, M.S.
KERRIE M. OTIPOBY (Marlborough Public Schools), JACKIE M. WARD (Marlborough Public Schools), BENJAMIN R. BRUNEAU (Marlborough Public Schools), CARRIE ROBBINS (Marlborough Public Schools), JILL E. MCGRALE MAHER (Marlborough Public Schools), AMANDA J. SPITZER (Marlborough Public Schools), JENNIFER TERAKEDIS (Marlborough Public Schools), ALISON L. MOORS (Marlborough Public Schools)
Description: As a result of the trend toward inclusion in general education settings, many public schools are faced with the task of developing programming for students on the autism spectrum. Many strategies based on the principles of applied behavior analysis, however, have been more likely to occur in more restrictive settings. Specific guidelines and strategies are limited for successful inclusion. Furthermore, the majority of data-based strategies to promote successful inclusion have been conducted in primarily pre-school settings. This workshop will focus on data-based strategies to successfully include pre-school, elementary, and middle school students on the autism spectrum in general education settings. In addition, strategies for teaching social and age-appropriate leisure skills will be discussed, including social skills groups, social coaching, reverse inclusion strategies, and methods to teach appropriate play skills. Participants will acquire the skills necessary to develop high-quality data-based inclusion programming, including: 1. How to determine which skills to address in inclusion settings; 2. Identification of appropriate inclusion opportunities; 3. Education for general educators; 4. Data collection systems for educational objectives; 5. Development of data systems to determine for individual students the amount and type of support required and data-based strategies to fade staff support; 6. Strategies to fade support; 7. Reinforcement system strategies for inclusion settings; 8. When and how to provide modified academic instruction; 9. Social skills training program will be reviewed, including strategies for the development of assessments, teaching programs, and strategies for generalization; 10. Strategies of teaching appropriate per interaction and play skills. Participants are encouraged to bring actual student profiles to use in exercises.
Learning Objectives: At the completion of this workshop, participants will be able to: - Identify key considerations in the development of high-quality data-based inclusion - Develop data systems to determine for individual students the amount and type of support required - Identify data-based strategies to fade staff support. - Identify strategies for the development of social skills assessments and teaching programs
Activities: Didactic instruction; Discuss and develop a list of essential data; Develop a plan for collecting data on educational objectives.
Audience: Behavior analysts and teachers working with students on the autism spectrum
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
 
Workshop #W71
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Instructional Design for Students with Special Needs: Identifying Critical/Variable Attributes for Effective Programming
Saturday, May 28, 2005
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
Stevens 3 (Lower Level)
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Alison L. Moors, M.A.
ALISON L. MOORS (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting), KELLY J. FERRIS (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting), MICHAEL FABRIZIO (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting), HOLLY ALMON (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting), LESLEY LUCAS-PAHL (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting)
Description: Once teachers have established scope and sequences from students Individualized Education Plans (IEPs) or assessment reports, they must still create a plan for how they will break up the skills into teachable units. To divide each skill into teachable units, teachers must (1) identify the critical and variable attributes of instructional stimuli and (2) plan for cumulative programming within the instruction. This workshop will help teachers identify critical and variable features to better design appropriate instructional sequences and plan systematically for ongoing cumulative review necessary to facilitate student learning and skill retention of what they have learned thus far within any given instructional sequence.
Learning Objectives: At the completion of this workshop, participants will be able to: - Identify critical and variable attributes of instruction. - Identify the boundaries of critical attributes. - Design instructional sequences based on the identified critical features. - Plan for cumulative programming within instruction. - Learn to Fast Cycle through the designed sequence based on students performance.
Activities: Group and individual practice discrimination critical from variable attributes; Individual practice outlining critical attributes of a skill; Practice writing instructional sequences; Writing instructional sequences with cumulative programming; Drawing Fast Cycle tracks on instructional sequences based on data based decisions.
Audience: Professionals whose job descriptions include program/instructional design for students with special needs.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
 
Workshop #W72
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Teaching Students with Autism to Respond to Threatening Social Situations in Mainstream Settings
Saturday, May 28, 2005
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
Stevens 4 (Lower Level)
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Lori E. Bechner, M.A.
LORI E. BECHNER (Alpine Learning Group), JULIA R. FISHER (Alpine Learning Group), CAREN GANS (Alpine Learning Group), ALEXANDRA HOLBERTON (EPIC School)
Description: Children with autism who are included in mainstream settings may encounter threatening social situations such as teasing, name calling, bullying, and being told to do inappropriate things for the humor of others. Without the skills needed to respond appropriately in these threatening social situations, individuals with autism in mainstream settings are often at risk for being taken advantage of which can result in physical and emotional harm, as well as result in limited social relationships with peers. Research in training self-protection skills has concentrated on teaching typically developing children to respond when presented with physically harmful situations. Research in teaching self-protection skills to individuals with developmental disabilities, although limited, has also focused on teaching individuals to respond when presented with physically harmful situations. There is, however, little research focused on teaching individuals with developmental disabilities to respond to threatening social situations. This workshop will describe potentially threatening social situations, and discuss strategies to teach students with autism to respond to such situations.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of this workshop, participants will be able to: - Describe threatening social situations which may be encountered by children with autism in mainstream settings - List and describe strategies to teach students with autism to respond to threatening social situations - Understand and discuss use of video review and peer procedures - Review and explain sample curricula to teach applicable self protection skills.
Activities: Didactic presentation, discussion, video, sample curricula.
Audience: Behavior Analysts, educators, other clinicians working with children with autism, graduate students.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
 
Workshop #W73
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Designing and Implementing Effective, Accurate and Comprehensive Behavior Intervention Plans
Saturday, May 28, 2005
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
4B (4th floor)
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Jose D. Rios, M.S.
JOSE D. RIOS (CalABA Past President), EVANGELINA HURTADO (Therapeutic Pathways), JOHN YOUNGBAUER (North Los Angeles County Regional Center)
Description: Effective intervention requires well-defined description of procedures, plans must be clinically accurate and they must be implemented with integrity. Support staff and teachers can best assist individuals with problem behaviors when they have the guidance of a well-designed and effective intervention plan. Unfortunately, behavior plans for persons with developmental disabilities are often poorly designed- they often lack clinical accuracy for the individuals specific behavior problems and are often difficult to implement. This workshop will address plans that are clinically challenged and review problems and the necessary steps needed to remedy them. Beginning with the importance of an accurate functional assessment, this workshop will review how to design plans in residential and educational settings. We will discuss and critique poorly designed plans and describe common problems that we have encountered in these plans. The workshop also will address staffs concerns and barriers in the implementation of treatment plans and will also provide some steps to remedy these problems.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of this workshop, participants will be able to: - Better evaluate treatment intervention plans for individuals with behavior problems. These guidelines include how to define procedures effectively, implement clinical accuracy, and treatment integrity. - Use the Rights to Effective Treatment when designing plans and understand how they apply to treatment design and implementation. - Address environmental factors that affect the accurate implementation of treatment plans in residential facilities and educational settings. Participants will learn helpful tips used in consulting with staff and supervisors to improve the effectiveness of treatment plan implementation. - To recognize common problems found in poorly designed behavior plans and to correct such problems when they occur.
Activities: This workshop will be primarily didactic with a review of some handouts and checklists.
Audience: This presentation is geared for individuals who are or will soon be designing, evaluating or implementing functional assessment and intervention plans. The primary focus is the use of behavior plans within residential settings although examples involved in educational settings also will be addressed.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
 
Workshop #W74
CE Offered: BACB
Talk the Talk, Walk the Walk: A Training Model for Behavior Analysts to Teach Theory and Clinical Skills to Teachers and Paraprofessionals
Saturday, May 28, 2005
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
Lake Erie (8th floor)
Area: TBA; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Justin A. DiDomenico, M.S.
JUSTIN A. DIDOMENICO (Partners in Learning), KATHLEEN MCCABE-ODRI (Partners in Learning), LAURA KENNEALLY (Partners in Learning), LORI A. LORENZETTI (Partners in Learning)
Description: Developing competencies in Applied Behavior Analysis requires a mastery of both theory and application. Successful Behavior Analysts require both an in depth knowledge of theory and the ability to apply the skills in clinical and school settings. This workshop is designed for trainers to teach the competencies of ABA to teachers, paraprofessionals and other clinical staff to master both theory and demonstrate core clinical skills required to enact IEP goals. Participants will be able to identify core competencies in theory and train staff to display these skills to mastery in applied settings. Trainers will receive a manual and DVD with video models and training modules.
Learning Objectives: At the completion of the workshop, participants will have learned (about): - The key components of theory required to train teachers and paraprofessionals. This includes paper and pencil mastery exams. - How to teach and measure clinical skills in applied settings. - How to develop skills to measure the staff�s skill acquisition of clinical skills. - create a program to motivate and monitor the staff�s skill acquisition. - To create and design individual core competencies for each staff member tailored to their skill level of both mastery of theory and application. - How to create and maintain home programs to ensure generalization of skills across settings.
Activities: Using lecture, video demonstrations, handouts and discussion, participants will learn the key training protocols for staff to effectively implement ABA based IEP goals.
Audience: This workshop is designed for Behavior Analysts who train teachers and paraprofessionals who work with children with autism. This will help teach the staff to understand and demonstrate the core competencies of Applied Behavior Analysis in order to be effective practitioners.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
 
Workshop #W75
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Application of ABA to Learning Disabilities: Strategies for Reading Acquisition and Motivation
Saturday, May 28, 2005
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
Lake Huron (8th floor)
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Sara White, M.A.
JENNIFER M. GILLIS MATTSON (State University of New York, Binghamton), SARA WHITE (State University of New York, Binghamton), RAYMOND G. ROMANCZYK (Institute for Child Development)
Description: Approximately 5% of children have a learning disability, including reading disorders. Recent research suggests that children who have a reading disability have impaired phonemic awareness and decoding skills, which are necessary skills for beginning reading. Research also suggests that individuals with learning disabilities have deficits in social skills. This workshop will primarily cover reading disabilities, but will also provide information and strategies for improving students social behavior. The first part of the workshop will provide an overview of the current research on reading interventions. A short-term, intensive, after school reading clinic model that utilizes the framework of ABA for both reading instruction and improving social behavior will be described. Topics will focus on implementing a behavioral assessment specifically designed for reading, selecting individualized reading goals for children, implementation of token economy systems within a reading program, and data collection and analysis strategies to assist with monitoring student progress. This workshop will also review a unique software program to assist teachers, parents, or other professionals, with material selection and construction. This software program contains letters, phonemes, blends, diphthongs, digraphs, nonsense words, and grade-level sigh vocabulary words that are printable in flashcard formats. The software was initially developed in 2000 and refined over the past four years.
Learning Objectives: At the completion of the workshop, participants will have learned (about): - The current research on interventions for reading disabilities. - An individualized goal selection procedure that includes how to use standardized assessment data and behavioral assessments to select appropriate goals for reading (all levels). - Effective teaching methods for reading instruction within an ABA framework. - Motivational strategies that may be effectively implemented for individuals with reading disabilities. - A database that contains letters, phonemes, blends, diphthongs, digraphs, nonsense words, and grade-level SV words. The database will allow participants to print out flashcards for teaching. - Reading curricula and receive a goal sequence for reading instruction - How to incorporate social skills training into reading interventions, as exemplified by the after school reading clinic model that will be presented.
Activities: 1. Lecture on current research on interventions for reading disabilities; 2. Lecture on individualized goal selection; 3. Group exercise on developing goals from standardized and behavioral assessment; 4. Lecture on behavior analytic teaching strategies as applied to reading disabilities; 5. Overview of software for instructional material development; 6. Lecture on appropriate curricula for students with learning disabilities; 7. Group exercise on the use of reading curricula; 8. Group exercise on incorporating social skills development into instruction for students with learning disabilities.
Audience: This workshop is designed for teachers, parents, and professionals and paraprofessionals providing reading instruction to students (Kindergarten through 6th grade level)
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
 
Workshop #W76
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
A Model for Supporting Individuals with Severe Dysfunctional Behaviors in Community Settings
Saturday, May 28, 2005
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
Lake Michigan (8th floor)
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Stephen C. Luce, Ph.D.
STEPHEN C. LUCE (Melmark), ANGELA F. SMITH (Melmark), JAMIE PAGLIARO (Melmark)
Description: Individuals who exhibit severe dysfunctional behaviors can be successfully maintained in community settings with the proper support. Five components have been identified as essential to a successful program: psychiatric consult services, a behavior support plan, staff training, communication amongst staff, and funding. This workshop will provide an overview of the staff training literature, highlighting the pyramidal model and performance feedback methods. Participants will also learn strategies to facilitate meetings with program stakeholders to identify meaningful behavioral outcomes and to conduct functional behavior assessment. Finally, the five essential components will be reviewed, and case studies will illustrate direct applications that resulted in program success.
Learning Objectives: At the completion of the workshop, participants will be able to: - Identify the five components of a successful program for maintaining individuals with severe dysfunctional behaviors in community settings. - Cite research-based staff training methods (performance feedback, pyramidal model, etc.) - Facilitate meetings with program stakeholders to identify meaningful behavioral outcomes and to conduct functional behavioral assessment. - Identify maintenance and generalization strategies to ensure long-term program success.
Activities: 1. Lecture and question/answer session on the staff training literature; 2. Practice the task-analyzed steps of facilitating effective meetings with program stakeholders to identify meaningful behavioral outcomes and to conduct functional behavioral assessment; 3. Review the five essential components of successful programming for individuals with severe dysfunctional behavior in community settings; 4. Evaluate case studies.
Audience: This workshop is geared towards program administrators, behavioral consultants and clinicians providing support to individuals with severe dysfunctional behaviors in community-based settings. Participants should be familiar functional assessment procedures and the current literature on reducing dysfunctional behavior.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
 
Workshop #W77
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Compassion and Behavior Change: Using Relationship to Enhance Acceptance Interventions for Health Related Behaviors
Saturday, May 28, 2005
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
Private Dining Room 3 (3rd floor)
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Elizabeth Gifford, Ph.D.
ELIZABETH GIFFORD (Center for Health Care Evaluation), BARBARA S. KOHLENBERG (University of Nevada School of Medicine), JOANNE DAHL (University of Uppsala, Sweden), TOBIAS LUNDGREN (University of Uppsala, Sweden)
Description: This workshop is designed to help clinicians develop usable skills in relational and acceptance-oriented behavior therapies. Specifically, we will focus on using corrective experiences within the treatment session to facilitate client awareness, acceptance, cognitive and behavioral flexibility, and personal fulfillment. Participants will learn skills from Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Functional Analytic Psychotherapy. The workshop will focus on health related behaviors, including addiction treatment and behavioral medicine.
Learning Objectives: At the completion of the workshop, participants will have learned (about): - Acceptance based interventions for health related behaviors, including addiction, epilepsy, and smoking. - The therapeutic relationship in treatment for medically relevant disorders. - How to maximize the potential of acceptance based interventions through relationship processes. - Enhancing the development of competence in functional analysis through supervision.
Activities: Participants will view tapes, engage in discussion and exercises, and listen to presentation of didactic material.
Audience: Practitioners interested in enhancing their therapeutic relationships, and improving skills in acceptance based interventions for health related behaviors.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
 
Workshop #W78
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
The ABC's of Consulting in School Districts
Saturday, May 28, 2005
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
Astoria (3rd floor)
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Kristen M. Villone, Ph.D.
KRISTEN M. VILLONE (Melmark), NOELLE M. GREEN (Bancroft NeuroHealth)
Description: One of the biggest challenges behavior analysts face when consulting in school districts is balancing the role of "invited guest" with the role of "professional with expertise." Consultants working in school districts may also be challenged more by the behavior of the service providers than that of the identified student(s). The experiences of a veteran consultant (with 16 years consulting experience) and a relatively new consultant (with 9 years clinical experience) will offer unique perspectives on strategies and approaches they have found invaluable.
Learning Objectives: At the completion of the workshop, participants will be able to: - Describe common types of services most often requested by school districts. - Identify/address the primary "client" and/or presenting problem(s). - Understand the importance of body language, staff perceptions, documentation, and communication during classroom observations. - Have a better sense of a consultant's role (and how to establish boundaries). - Learn common mistakes made by consultants and how to avoid them. - Obtain a "blueprint" of how to set up/conduct classroom observations. - Obtain a "blueprint" of the veteran consultant's basic ABA training seminar. - Learn strategies that build teamwork and motivate staff when you're a "visitor" in their "home." - Have a better understanding of the interpersonal dynamics and contingencies in school districts. - Develop a better understanding of how to address ethical issues which may arise during consultations.
Activities: Participants will receive handouts to aid reviewing the workshop�s learning objectives during the first part of the workshop. The second part of the workshop will consist of a problem-solving discussion of different types of obstacles, scenarios and case examples the presenters have experienced. As time permits, audience members will be encouraged to present their own obstacles/issues for problem-solving.
Audience: Anyone interested in consulting in school districts, especially relatively new consultants who have ABA experience teaching children with developmental disabilities and training staff in clinical settings.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Basic
 
Workshop #W79
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
An In-Depth Look at Prompting and Other Strategies for Teaching Cognitive Skills to Children with Autism
Saturday, May 28, 2005
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
Lake Ontario (8th floor)
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: John McEachin, Ph.D.
JOHN MCEACHIN (Autism Partnership), DORIS SOLUAGA (Autism Partnership)
Description: To obtain best outcomes for children with autism it is necessary to identify and develop teaching strategies that enable children with profound learning difficulties to master a body of knowledge that comes easily to typically developing children. Prompting and systematic prompt fading are among the most widely used strategies for enabling children with autism to learn important concepts. There are a number of different methods of selecting prompts and planning for the reduction of prompts which have been demonstrated to be effective. Unfortunately, in the research literature there are very few head-to-head comparisons of various prompting strategies. There is, however, a clearly defined body of knowledge that provides us with general principles from which a systematic, but flexible approach can be derived which serves as a sensible starting point for developing teaching strategies. This workshop will describe the advantages and disadvantages of various approaches in widespread use and to provide a conceptual framework for understanding what we are actually doing when we use prompts. We will look at prompts that occur prior to the SD, simultaneously with the SD, and after a delay. We will also discuss strategies for teaching concepts that do not rely on prompts as traditionally conceptualized, but rather rely on arranging a sequence of learning tasks that lead the student to discovery of the the concept being taught.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the workshop, the participant will be able to: - Recognize important differences between simple discriminations and conditional discriminations and select appropriate teaching strategies accordingly. - Identify advantages and disadvantages of pure trial and error learning vs. errorless learning and considerations for deciding what point to aim for along the high error - low error continuum. - Identify the main sources of possible inadvertent prompts that need to be controlled when conducting discrete trial teaching and methods for eliminating them. - Choose prompting strategies that not only facilitate correct responding, but lead the student to meaningful understanding of the concept being taught.
Activities: Lecture, discussion, video, role play
Audience: Individuals who use discrete trial teaching to increase cognitive skills of children with autism and related disorders and those who provide supervision and training.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
 
Workshop #W80
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Behavioral Relaxation: Training and Scale
Saturday, May 28, 2005
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
Private Dining Room 2 (3rd floor)
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
CE Instructor: Victoria Stout Kubal, M.S.
VICTORIA STOUT KUBAL (Independent provider), VANESSA STOUT HUAMAN (Loyola Center for Health and Fitness, Loyola Medical Hospital)
Description: Relaxation techniques are an integral part of the successful treatment of those exhibiting anxiety-related, pain-related, and/or anger-related behaviors. The sooner a client learns relaxation and other types of self-control techniques, the safer his/her internal and external environments may become. In addition, due to limitations in funding, providers must often demonstrate that extensive treatment progress has been made within a relatively short period of time. Poppens (1998) Behavioral Relaxation Scale (BRS) is an assessment tool for measuring the progress of an individual demonstrating the 10 overt relaxed behaviors taught to criterion with Behavioral Relaxation Training (BRT). BRT can be an effective part of treatment for individuals with emotional/mental disorders, hyperactivity, schizophrenia, traumatic brain injury, physical limitations, and/or restricted cognitive/intellectual capabilities. This workshop will provide an opportunity to experience Poppens (1998) Upright Behavioral Relaxation Training (URT) by means of labeling, modeling, imitation, practice, and corrective feedback. Once workshop participants are proficient in demonstrating URT and can verbally describe these 10 relaxed behaviors and corresponding examples of unrelaxed behaviors, then they will be taught assessment of URT using the BRS. Finally, participants will learn how to calculate inter-rater reliability of the BRS across observers as well as between participant and instructor.
Learning Objectives: By the end of the workshop, each participant will be able to: - Position his/her own body in alignment with the 10 overt relaxed behaviors from Upright Behavioral Relaxation Training (URT). - Write a description of each of the 10 overt relaxed behaviors from URT in his/her own words and provide corresponding examples of unrelaxed behaviors. - Give another individual appropriate feedback so that the other individual can correct himself/herself according to the 10 URT postures. - Observe, record, and assess another individual�s performance of the 10 relaxed behaviors from URT by accurately using the Behavioral Relaxation Scale (BRS). - Accurately calculate BRS inter-rater reliability across participant observers and also between participant and instructor. - Compare and graph BRS inter-rater reliability scores.
Activities: Verbal Behavior: Listen to a presentation regarding the physiological effects of relaxation, the history of using relaxation training to treat psychological disorders, and Poppen�s development of Behavioral Relaxation Training and the Behavioral Relaxation Scale. Labeling and Modeling: View a live demonstration of the 10 postures included in Upright Behavioral Relaxation Training (URT). Each relaxed posture will be labeled, described topographically, and demonstrated physically. Modeling and Imitation: Learn how to breathe diaphragmatically, then imitate the other 9 relaxed behaviors of URT while viewing an instructor as model. After each participant has proficiently demonstrated each posture separately, he/she will practice relaxing all 10 areas at the same time. Feedback: Practice silently while the instructors are giving each individual corrective feedback. Later, workshop participants will form pairs and alternate practicing URT and giving each other corrective feedback. Criterion Tests: Take URT Written Criterion Test; score one another�s criterion tests; repeat URT Written Criterion Test. Take BRS Written Criterion Test; score one another�s criterion tests; repeat BRS Written Criterion Test. Assessment: Behavioral Relaxation Scale scoring methodology will be explained and demonstrated. All observers will simultaneously score the model. The instructor will score BRS along with the workshop participants. Reliability: Calculate inter-rater reliability scores.
Audience: The target audience for this workshop is comprised of BCBAs and BCABAs who work with the following populations: clients with anxiety disorders, pain-related difficulties, or anger management problems; individuals with traumatic brain injury; persons exhibiting hyperactive or repetitive behaviors; clients exhibiting schizophrenic behaviors; and persons who experience an extreme amount of stress. Professionals with a strong interest in Behavioral Medicine, Clinical Behavior Analysis, Family and Child Therapy, and/or Health and Fitness Training will also benefit from attending this workshop.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Basic
 
Symposium #17
CE Offered: BACB
Even More Evidence Against the Overjustification Effect: A Behavioral Analytic Analysis of the Effects of Reinforcement on Intrinsically Motivated Behavior
Saturday, May 28, 2005
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
Williford B (3rd floor)
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Rebecca A. Barenz (Columbus Organization)
Discussant: Stephen Ray Flora (Youngstown State University)
CE Instructor: Charna Mintz, Ph.D.
Abstract:

This symposium will include three papers regarding the experimental analysis of the effects of reinforcement on intrinsically motivated behavior. Moreover, results will be discussed with respect to future research and implications for practice.

 
The Effects of Expected and Unexpected Reinforcers on Play Behavior: A Behavior Analytic Analysis of the Overjustification Effect
BECKY PENROD (University of Nevada, Reno), Charna Mintz (Columbus Organization), Michele D. Wallace (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effects of extrinsic reinforcement on intrinsically reinforced behaviors in relation to the overjustification effect. We evaluated the effects of expected and unexpected reinforcers on play behavior. After baseline, reinforcer were delivered based on an increase in play behavior, subsequently extinction was implemented. Results demonstrated that reinforcement (regardless of expectation) increased play behavior and following the implementation of extinction play behavior remained high. Thus these results do not suport the overjustification effect. Results will be discused with respect to future research and with respect to the implications for clinical practice.
 
A Behavior Analytic Analysis of the Effects of Reinforcement on Intrinsically Motivated Academic Performance
CHARNA MINTZ (Columbus Organization), Michele D. Wallace (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effects of extrinsic reinforcement on intrinsically reinforced behaviors in relation to the overjustification effect. We evaluated the effects of expected and unexpected reinforcers on performance during academic activities. After baseline levels were established, reinforcement was provided for increases in academic performance, subsequently extinction was implemented and levels of academic performance were measured. Results indicate that providing reinforcement (regardless of expectations) increases academic performance and that when extinction is implemented performance maintains. Thus, the results do not support the overjustification effect with respect to academic settings. These results will be discussed with respect to future research and clinical practice.
 
Effect of Reinforcement Schedules on Intrinsic Motivation and the Overjustification Effect
SCOTT W. HARRINGTON (University of Nevada, Reno), Michele D. Wallace (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: This investigation evaluated the effects of different reinforcement schedules (fixed and variable) on intrinsically motivated playground behavior. After baseline levels of playground behavior were established, reinforcement was delivered based on either a fixed or variable ratio 4 schedule. After increases in playground behavior were observed, extinction was implemented. Following extinction, playground behavior maintained at high levels, thus not demonstrating the overjustification effect. Moreover, followup data were obtained at a 2-week followup, were in participants still engaged in higher levels of playground behavior than during baseline. Implications with respect to the suggestion that rewards harm intrinsically motivated behavior will be discussed.
 
 
Invited Tutorial #29
CE Offered: BACB
2005 ABA Tutorial: Designing Instructional Programs and the Systems to Create and Disseminate Them
Saturday, May 28, 2005
2:30 PM–3:20 PM
International North (2nd floor)
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
BACB CE Offered. CE Instructor: Janet S. Twyman, Ph.D.
Chair: John Austin (Western Michigan University)
Presenting Authors: : JANET S. TWYMAN (Headsprout)
Abstract:

The knowledge gleaned from behavior analysis, instructional design, formative and summative evaluation procedures, and an organizational systems approach can be combined to create successful instructional programs with a broad, stable effects across numerous learners. An example of this is Headsprout Early Reading, an online reading program currently being used with thousands of children. The development of this highly effective behavioral program, (from identifying instructional objectives, applying the instructional design process, building the program, iterative testing, releasing the program to the public, to ongoing revisions), is non-linear and involves a process of continual adaptations based on sensitive measurement of the entire system. It also requires coordination and collaboration among various components of the organization, from instructional design and user testing, to graphics, sound and engineering. Further systems are needed distribute the program. This tutorial will discuss the organizational systems necessary to build and disseminate instructional programs and describe how they can be replicated across other products.

 
JANET S. TWYMAN (Headsprout)
Janet, a noted teacher, administrator, and researcher, is the Vice President of Instructional Development at Headsprout, where she significantly contributed to the development of Headsprout’s Generative Learning Technology and led the effort to build that technology into a highly effective beginning reading program. Janet developed the research methods and systems that led to Headsprout’s ground–breaking scientific formative evaluation model of program development--coordinating all elements of instructional design, scripting, graphic creation, animation, sound engineering, story development and writing, software engineering, and usability testing within the research model. Janet was formerly the Executive Director of the Fred S. Keller School, a model early childhood center, and an adjunct Associate Professor at Columbia University Teachers College. Janet is a long time advocate and investigator of research–based instruction and systems design. While at the Keller School and Columbia, she conducted research and taught courses focusing on effective instruction, technology and education, teacher development, and systems approaches to effective education. She has published experimental studies with a particular emphasis on the verbal behavior of children, and on topics of broader conceptual interest. She is a board member of several schools and organizations, and is currently on the Executive Council of the Association for Behavior Analysis. In addition, she oversees the Association’s graduate program accreditation processes. Janet earned her Ph.D. from Columbia University, Teachers College. She holds certification as an elementary and special education teacher and as a principal/school administrator.
 
 
Panel #35
CE Offered: BACB
Eliminating Meaningful Differences in Young Children: What Behavior Analysts Can Now Do: A Discussion of Dr. R. Douglas Greer's Tutorial
Saturday, May 28, 2005
2:30 PM–3:20 PM
Lake Michigan (8th floor)
Area: DEV/EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Jacob L. Gewirtz, Ph.D.
Chair: Jacob L. Gewirtz (Florida International University)
JACOB L. GEWIRTZ (Florida International University)
DOLLEEN-DAY KEOHANE (Teachers College, Columbia University & CABAS)
RUTH ANNE REHFELDT (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract:

This panel is dedicated to Ernst Moerk

 
 
Symposium #39
CE Offered: BACB
Contemporary Issues in Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) Rehabilitation: Staff Interaction, Fluency and Discounting
Saturday, May 28, 2005
2:30 PM–3:50 PM
Williford A (3rd floor)
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: John M. Guercio (Center for Comprehensive Services)
Discussant: Michael P. Mozzoni (Timber Ridge Group, Inc.)
CE Instructor: Michael P. Mozzoni, Ph.D.
Abstract:

This symposium will look at diverse issues in staff-client interactions, client skill acquisition and impulsivity. The first study deals with assessing staff-client interactions using the PEARL Interactional assessment tool, and Group Activity Monitoring Form developed by Reid and Parsons. The second study uses the hyperbolic discounting laboratory model to assess adolescent impulsivity. Implications of the data may be helpful in gaining a better understanding of impulsive behavior as being a trait or a state. The third study used fluency training to help an adult re-learn his own autobiography. These studies demonstrate the multifaceted nature of applied behavior analysis within the neurorehabilitation setting, from organizational behavior management to clinical applications, and to experimental inquiries. They are all designed to increase client outcomes and our understanding of ABI.

 
The Observer Effect and its Role in Effective Staff Training in Rehabilitation Settings for Persons with Acquired Brain Injury
JOHN M. GUERCIO (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract: A staff training package was utilized across residences in a facility treating individuals with acquired brain injury (ABI) and severe unwanted behavioral issues. A pre-test questionnaire was distributed to staff to determine their views related to participant care and proactive behavioral approaches. The training package incorporated both elements of public posting and having staff perform some of the observations related to appropriate staff interactions in order to build upon their skill sets in these areas. The elements of the treatment package were introduced sequentially across each of the residences employed in the study in a multiple baseline format. The dependent measures that were employed in the study were the pre-test assessment mentioned above, as well as the PEARL Interact ional assessment tool, as well as the Group Activity Monitoring Form developed by Reid and Parsons (Reid & Parsons, 2002). Posttest measures were also taken to determine the degree of improvement not just in staff behavior, but also in staff attitudes towards positive, proactive behavioral rehabilitation.
 
Delay Discounting in Adolescents with Acquired Brain Injury
DANYL M.H. EPPERHEIMER (Center for Comprehensive Services), Pamela A. Tibbetts (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract: The present paper describes a series of studies which attempted to assess the utility of hypothetical choice money tasks for adolescents with acquired brain injuries. First, we assessed choices between hypothetical monetary amounts of 1000 dollars at various delays and smaller amounts of money available immediately. After observing significant deviations in performance from other published studies, we adjusted the maximum amount down to 100 and then to 20 dollars. Closer approximations to hyperbolic discounting were observed. Finally we arranged conditions in which real monetary amounts were available to the adolescents either immediately or after 1 week based on their preference. Again, closer approximations to hyperbolic discounting were observed. These data suggest a need for slight modifications of the traditional hypothetical money choice task when utilizing participants with acquired brain injury. Implications of our data for a better understanding of impulsive behavior as being a “trait” or a “state” are presented.
 
Comparing Accuracy Training with Fluency Training Using Autobiographical Questions with an Individual with a TBI
JEFFERY SMITH (Timber Ridge Ranch), Mark Sigler (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: A single subject multiple baseline design was used to compare the effects of fluency training with accuracy training with an amnesic adult with a severe brain injury. Autobiographical memory questions were presented on flashcards to test accuracy and fluency acquisition. Baseline data was conducted for one week; twice per day, once for each set of accuracy and fluency questions. Training for accuracy was conducted for 22 days while training for fluency occurred for 56 days. Questions were delivered twice a day similar to that in the baseline phase. Edibles were delivered contingent upon correct responses to each question during training. Results for accuracy show an increase in correct answer frequency from 1.9 correct per minute during baseline to 6.4 correct per minute during training and showing a 337% increase in frequency of correct answers per minute after treatment. There was a 633% increase in frequency of correct answers per minute concerning fluency after treatment while the individual correctly responded to 1.5 questions during baseline to 9.5 correct per minute during treatment.
 
 
Symposium #45
CE Offered: BACB
Functional Analysis and Treatment of Complex Interresponse Relations between Severe Behavior and Stereotypy
Saturday, May 28, 2005
2:30 PM–3:50 PM
Continental A (1st floor)
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Louis P. Hagopian (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Wayne W. Fisher (Marcus Autism Center)
CE Instructor: Louis P. Hagopian, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Although not typically targeted for intervention, stereotypic and ritualistic behaviors can be problematic when they occur at high rates, interfere with acquisition of new skills, or when they lead to more severe behavior such as aggression or self-injury. The current symposium will address issues related to the assessment and treatment of stereotypic and ritualistic behaviors that are functionally related to severe problem behavior. The first presentation will illustrate two forms of response-response relations: one in which blocking stereotypic behavior induces aggression; and one in which self-injury had a higher probability of occurrence following stereotypy (revealed via a conditional probability analysis). The second presentation will illustrate how severe problem behavior can be maintained by gaining access to materials that are necessary for engaging in automatically reinforced stereotypy. The third presentation will illustrate a similar response-response between complex ritualistic behavior and severe problem behavior. In addition to presenting assessment methodologies for identifying response-response relations between stereotypic behavior and severe problem behavior, interventions designed to reduce these behaviors, based on an analysis of those relations, will be presented and discussed.

 
Analysis and Intervention of Stereotypy-Severe Behavior Relations
ERIC BOELTER (Kennedy Krieger Institute), David E. Kuhn (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Stephanie A. Contrucci Kuhn (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Louis P. Hagopian (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Although not typically targeted for treatment, stereotypic behavior can be problematic when it is excessive such that it interferes with adaptive behavior or when it leads to more severe behavior. Data are presented from four individuals with developmental delays, ages 5-20 years, that engaged in various forms of stereotypic behavior that appeared related to aggression or self-injury. For the first two participants, response blocking for stereotypic behavior was found to occasion aggression. An intervention including competing stimuli targeting stereotypic behavior effectively reduced stereotypy as well as aggression. Conditional probability analyses were conducted with the other two participants and indicated that probability of problem behavior (self-injury) was increased following the occurrence of stereotypy. A procedure that interrupted engagement in stereotypy was then implemented and resulted in decreases in self-injury. These data suggest that stereotypy may function as part of a response chain that culminated in self-injury. Collectively, the findings suggest that response-response relations between
 
An Examination of the Relation Between Core and Associated Symptoms of Autism
ROBERT-RYAN S. PABICO (Marcus Autism Center), Wayne W. Fisher (Marcus Autism Center), Henry S. Roane (Marcus Autism Center), Terry S. Falcomata (Marcus Autism Center), Alyson N. Hovanetz (Marcus Autism Center)
Abstract: Autism is a disorder characterized by core (e.g., stereotypic behavior) and associated symptoms (e.g., aggression, SIB). The present study examined the relationship between these two types of behavior exhibited by two boys diagnosed with autism. For both participants an alone analysis demonstrated that stereotypy (e.g., fast-forwarding and rewinding videos) persisted in the absence of social reinforcement (i.e., automatic reinforcement). Analyses of associated symptoms indicated that these responses were maintained, in part, by access to the materials necessary to engage in stereotypy (e.g., a television to manipulate). That is, the core and associated symptoms of autism were maintained by an interrelated functional relation. These results were used to develop an intervention in which the participants received access to stereotypy contingent upon appropriate communication while problem behavior was placed on extinction. Results indicated that the use of an alternative response decreased problematic behaviors to socially acceptable levels. Interobserver agreement, which was calculated for at least 25% of the sessions, exceeded 90% for both participants. Results are discussed in terms of examining potential interrelated functions between the essential and associated symptoms of autism.
 
Functional Analysis and Treatment of Problem Behavior Maintained by Access to Rituals-Permitted Situations Through the Use of Functional Communication and Discriminative Stimuli
STEPHANIE A. CONTRUCCI KUHN (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Lynn G. Bowman (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Dawn E. Resau (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Lisa M. Toole (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Individuals with autism often display restricted patterns of behavior described as inflexible adherence to specific nonfunctional routines or rituals (DSM-IV-TR). It has been hypothesized that some individuals may engage in problem behavior to gain access to situations where ritualistic behavior is permitted (Murphy, Macdonald, Hall, & Oliver, 2000). However, experimental functional analyses and treatment evaluations targeting this behavioral function have not been described. In the current study, functional analyses indicated that the problem behavior of two individuals functioned to gain access to rituals-permitted situations. The individuals were taught to communicate for permission to engage in rituals using picture exchange. Next, a discriminative stimulus was used to signal periods of time when reinforcement for communication was available and another stimulus was used to signal periods of time when reinforcement was not available (i.e., extinction was in place for communication). Both procedures were used in conjunction with extinction for problem behavior. This intervention was effective in reducing problem behavior for the two children who participated. For one participant, the discriminative stimuli alone were effective in reducing problem behavior at the terminal schedule goal. For the other participant, schedule thinning with discriminative stimuli was necessary in order to maintain low levels of problem behavior.
 
 
Symposium #46
CE Offered: BACB
Future Directions in Incorporating Fluency-Based Instruction into ABA Intervention for Older Learners with Autism
Saturday, May 28, 2005
2:30 PM–3:50 PM
Continental B (1st floor)
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Sandra L. Harris (Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey)
Discussant: Robert LaRue (Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey)
CE Instructor: Mary Jane Weiss, Ph.D.
Abstract:

The Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center has been in the process of incorporating fluency-based instruction for learners with autism over the past few years. The papers will address an overview of the research outcomes compiled over a two-year period, implications related to quality of life, and the use of these data to direct future research for adolescents and adults with autism. The first paper will review the results of preliminary single-subject studies with one adolescent and two adults with autism. Data will be presented on the acquisition of fluency targets and the generalized effects of this type of instruction. The paper will also include reliability data and procedural integrity measures on 20% of instructional sessions for all three studies. The second paper will focus on the collateral effects of fluency-based instruction on quality of life indicators for the three subjects used in the preliminary research reviewed in the first paper. The third paper will discuss the overall implications for future research in fluency-based instruction for older learners with autism. A review of the conclusions based on preliminary research in light of the most efficient approach to this type of instruction and the most widespread generalized effects will be detailed.

 
Establishing the Effect of Fluency-Based Instruction in Adolescents and Adults with Autism: A Review of Three Single-Subject Studies
MARLENE COHEN (Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey), Donna L. Sloan (Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey)
Abstract: Many learners with developmental disabilities may demonstrate challenging behavior in a number of contexts. Challenging behavior that occurs during the completion of vocational tasks may significantly impact employment prospects for an adolescent or adult with autism. Fluency-based instruction is documented to be effective in building fine motor component skills to fluent rates across learners of various age and skill levels. In order to establish the effects of fluency-based instruction with regard to rates of challenging behavior and the development of skills necessary for increased independence, three single-subject studies were conducted using an A-B design with replications. The papers will address an overview of the research outcomes compiled over a two-year period and the evaluation of generalized effects of such instruction.
 
Quality of Life Indicators Associated with Fluency-Based Instruction for Older Learners with Autism: Some Possible Collateral Effects
DONNA L. SLOAN (Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey), Marlene Cohen (Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey)
Abstract: In the field of Applied Behavior Analysis, intermediate and ultimate goals should be selected with regard to quality of life issues. When establishing and implementing these goals, professionals should keep in mind the associated positive effects on the person as well as their caregivers. While these principles guide our practice, we frequently do not conduct direct measurement of quality of life indicators. One presumed effect of fluency-based instruction on three older learners with autism is that positive affect was increased as a result of instruction. This paper will review quality of life measurement outcomes for three subjects collected through ratings of randomly presented video clips by independent observers. The method of data collection and the results will be detailed.
 
Guidelines for Future Research in Fluency-Based Instruction with Older Learners: Conclusions Drawn from Preliminary Research
MARLENE COHEN (Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey), Donna L. Sloan (Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey)
Abstract: Preliminary fluency research indicates the utility of placing emphasis on the instruction of component skills and adduction to composite skills as well as the reduction of response effort and the decrease in challenging behavior. This provides valuable information for professionals as a future direction for working with older learners with autism. Conclusions drawn from this research were compiled to make inferences with regard to common skill deficits and the corresponding cumulative impact on learning, selection of research design, selection of targets for fluency, meaningful measures of progress, and the generality and maintenance of fluency-based instruction. Initial findings from ongoing research will also be discussed.
 
 
Symposium #48
CE Offered: BACB
Practical Applications of Preference-Assessment Technologies for People with Severe Disabilities
Saturday, May 28, 2005
2:30 PM–3:50 PM
Stevens 1 (Lower Level)
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Carolyn W. Green (J. Iverson Riddle Developmental Center)
Discussant: Dennis H. Reid (Carolina Behavior Analysis and Support Center)
CE Instructor: Dennis H. Reid, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Three investigations will be presented demonstrating how behavioral preference-assessment procedures can be used in practical ways to enhance life quality among people with severe disabilities and autism. In the first presentation, data will be presented showing conditions in which opinions of support staff can be used to accurately identify certain preferences of people with severe disabilities (validated through systematic assessments). Data will also be presented showing conditions in which opinions of support personnel are not likely to be accurate. In the second presentation, a practical protocol for empirically identifying work preferences will be presented. The protocol provides a means of using the most time-efficient process to identify preferences, followed by subsequent assessment processes if necessary that are more likely to identify preferences but are more time consuming. Data demonstrating the validity of the protocol will be presented based on results involving 11 workers with severe disabilities. In the third presentation, a teaching process will be presented that increases indices of happiness and reduces problem behavior occasioned by teaching programs. The process, involving embedding of preferences within teaching strategies, will be described using validation data from three behavior analytic studies.

 
Use and Misuse of Staff Opinion to Identify Consumer Preferences
CAROLYN W. GREEN (J. Iverson Riddle Developmental Center), Marsha B. Parsons (J. Iverson Riddle Developmental Center), Dennis H. Reid (Carolina Behavior Analysis and Support Center)
Abstract: This presentation will present data collected with 33 support staff and 11 adults with severe disabilities concerning the accuracy of staff opinion regarding the work preferences of the consumers. Staff opinion was assessed using rankings of preferred work tasks and then validated through systematic preference assessments. Results indicated that when staff strongly agree with each other regarding most preferred work tasks, the tasks are more likely to be preferred by respective consumers relative to tasks for which the staff do not consistently agree. Results also indicated that staff are more accurate in identifying work tasks that are most disliked or nonpreferred among workers with severe disabilities and autism than they are in identifying work tasks that are highly preferred. Overall, results indicate that staff opinion of work preferences among workers with severe disabilities are likely to be accurate only under well-specified conditions.
 
A Practical Protocol for Identifying Work Preferences Among Adults with Severe Disabilities and Autism
MARSHA B. PARSONS (J. Iverson Riddle Developmental Center), Donna Towery (J. Iverson Riddle Developmental Center), Dennis H. Reid (Carolina Behavior Analysis and Support Center), Carolyn W. Green (J. Iverson Riddle Developmental Center), Lindsey P. Lattimore (J. Iverson Riddle Developmental Center), Leah Brackett (J. Iverson Riddle Developmental Center)
Abstract: This presentation will describe results of an evaluation of a protocol for identifying work preferences among adults with severe disabilities and autism. The protocol begins with the most time-efficient, systematic preference assessment (multi-stimulus without replacement), followed by less time-efficient assessment processes (e.g., paired-item assessment) that are more likely to identify work preferences but require more time to administer. Results indicated that the protocol identified work preferences for 10 of 11 participating workers with severe disabilities. Time efficiency measures supported the least-to-most time requirements of the sequential assessment processes. Data on work performance further validated the accuracy of the assessments, in that each worker consistently worked on chosen or preferred work tasks. Work tasks that were less preferred also were accompanied by more problem behavior relative to highly preferred work tasks.
 
A Preference-Based Approach to Enhancing Learning and Reducing Problem Behavior During Teaching Sessions
CAROLYN W. GREEN (J. Iverson Riddle Developmental Center), Dennis H. Reid (Carolina Behavior Analysis and Support Center), Jeannia Elaine Rollyson (J. Iverson Riddle Developmental Center), Susan Passante (J. Iverson Riddle Developmental Center)
Abstract: This presentation will describe a preference-based approach to teaching learners with severe disabilities. The preference-based teaching program involves presenting identified learner preferences before, during, and after teaching sessions. Results from an investigation using a multiple probe design across learners will be presented to demonstrate that the approach fosters skill acquisition while reducing problem behavior occasioned by instructions presented as part of teaching sessions. Results also demonstrate that improvements in teaching proficiency by instructors do not represent a confound to the effects of the preference-based aspect of the teaching approach, which was a concern with previous research with the program. Discussion focuses on removing the establishing operation for problem behavior by making the teaching more preferred and less aversive for learners.
 
 
Symposium #51
CE Offered: BACB
Int'l Symposium - Stimulus-Stimulus Pairings: Effects on Vocal/Verbal Behavior in Children
Saturday, May 28, 2005
2:30 PM–3:50 PM
Stevens 3 (Lower Level)
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Caio F. Miguel (New England Center for Children)
Discussant: Caio F. Miguel (New England Center for Children)
CE Instructor: Caio F. Miguel, Ph.D.
Abstract:

We present three papers discussing the role of stimulus-stimulus pairing in the acquisition of vocal/verbal responding in children. Recent studies have shown that pairing adult vocalizations with preferred stimuli can increase speech sound vocalizations. Termed automatic reinforcement since no direct reinforcement is provided, the procedure may establish self-produced sounds as reinforcing events to the degree that vocalizations resemble the model during pairing; thus a childs vocalizations would function as conditioned reinforcers for vocalization responses. However, effects of this procedure are temporary, suggesting that direct reinforcement may be necessary to establish durable vocal behaviors. Esch and Carr report results of 3 experiments in children with autism in which the pairing procedure (1) failed to affect echoic responding and (2) failed to increase the frequency of post-pairing responding. Normand and Knoll report similar lack of effects of the pairing procedure on post-session target vocalizations in a child with autism. Practical and theoretical implications will be discussed.Dugdale reports research using combined behavioral and cognitive protocols to investigate rapid vocabulary acquisition of typically developing children via an equivalence procedure using stimulus-stimulus pairings between words and objects. Results suggest pairings produce emergent verbal skills that have relational properties associated with stimulus equivalence.

 
Evaluating Stimulus-Stimulus Pairing and Direct Reinforcement in the Establishment of an Echoic Repertoire of Children Diagnosed with Autism
BARBARA E. ESCH (Western Michigan University), John L. Michael (Western Michigan University), James E. Carr (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Pairing adult vocalizations with preferred stimuli can increase a child’s vocalizations. Termed ‘automatic reinforcement,’ the procedure may establish sounds as reinforcing events to the degree that those vocalizations resemble the model during pairing; thus a child’s vocalizations would function as conditioned reinforcers for vocalization responses. However, effects of the stimulus-stimulus pairing procedure are temporary, suggesting that direct reinforcement may be necessary to establish durable vocal behaviors. Experiment 1 evaluated the strength of directly reinforced echoic responses following stimulus-stimulus pairings in a multiple baseline design across phonemes in 3 children with diagnoses of autism. Results showed no improvement over baseline of the pairing procedure on subsequent echoic responding. Experiment 2 was then conducted with 2 of the participants to identify effects of pairing on post-pairing vocalizations (i.e., automatically reinforced responses). This experiment, a replication of Miguel, Carr, and Michael (2002), found no increased post-session responding over pre-session vocalizations. Finally, Experiment 3 demonstrated that, for one of the 2 participants, shaping increased overall vowel frequency. The results of these experiments suggest that variables are yet to be delineated that influence the effectiveness of a stimulus-stimulus pairing procedure on (1) post-pairing vocalization frequency and (2) acquisition of a verbal operant following such pairings.
 
Effects of Stimulus-Stimulus Pairing on Vocalizations of a Child Diagnosed with Autism
MATTHEW P. NORMAND (Florida Institute of Technology), Melissa Louise Knoll (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: This study replicated and extended the evaluation of a stimulus-stimulus pairing procedure reported in two recent studies in which researchers have suggested that vocalizations can become conditioned reinforcers for their own emission as a result of stimulus-stimulus pairing. A multiple baseline design across phonemes evaluated effects of a stimulus–stimulus pairing procedure on frequency of phonemes uttered by a child with autism. Data were collected during pre-session, post-session, and follow-up periods across three conditions: baseline, control, and stimulus-stimulus pairing. During baseline, frequency of targeted phonemes was recorded absent any experimenter interaction and prior to introduction of the pairing procedure. During the control condition, the experimenter vocalized the target phoneme and, after a 20-s delay, presented a preferred stimulus to the child. Preferred stimuli were identified via stimulus preference assessment. During pairings, the same phoneme was paired with delivery of preferred items by eliminating the 20-s delay between the experimenter’s utterance and delivery of the preferred stimulus. Results from post-session observations during the pairing condition showed little or no increase in target sounds. Data from the follow-up sessions, occurring 30-m after the post-session observations, showed occasional but inconsistent increases. Practical and theoretical implications of the results will be discussed.
 
Symmetry, Equivalence, and Emergent Verbal Behavior in Young Children Following Unreinforced Exposure to Stimulus-Stimulus Pairings
NEIL DUGDALE (University of Wales, Bangor)
Abstract: During their second year of life, most normally-developing children exhibit a 'vocabulary spurt', a sudden and sustained increase in the rate at which they comprehend and produce new words. Through independent lines of study, cognitive psychologists and behavior analysts have each developed research protocols that have been (or can be) used in order to examine the emergent processes underlying this phenomenon of rapid word learning. My research program combines procedural elements from both behavioral and cognitive protocols in an attempt to advance our understanding of early vocabulary acquisition. The findings thus far suggest that very young children can learn relations between words and objects after merely a few unreinforced exposures to the word-object stimulus pairings, and that these emergent verbal skills have the relational properties associated with stimulus equivalence.
 
 
Symposium #58
CE Offered: BACB
Behavioral Safety and Ergonomics in Organizations
Saturday, May 28, 2005
3:30 PM–4:50 PM
Marquette (3rd floor)
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Sigurdur Oli Sigurdsson (Western Michigan University)
Discussant: Alicia M. Alvero (Queens College, City University of New York)
CE Instructor: Sigurdur Oli Sigurdsson, Ph.D.
Abstract:

This symposium will present data-based research in the area of postural safety and behavior analysis. Postural safety is a growing field because repetitive motion injuries can cost employees and organizations a considerable amount of time and money, as well as cause unecessary pain and difficulty for the employee. The first presenter will discuss using a descriptive assessment to identify environmental variables that contribute to safe positioning and behaviors in a pharmacy . The second presenter will present a study that utilized equipment changes and behavioral safety techniques to improve safe typing postures in an office. The final presentation will discuss factors that related to the effectiveness of a commonly used safety intervention, peer observations. The presentation will conclude with a discussion of these procedures and the future of postural safety and ergonomics in behavior analysis by an expert in the area.

 
A Descriptive Analysis of Safe and At-Risk Behaviors and Postures Performed by Pharmacy Employees
RHIANNON M. FANTE (Western Michigan University), Nicole E. Gravina (Western Michigan University), Alison M. Betz (Western Michigan University), John Austin (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: This study employed a descriptive assessment to determine factors that contributed to ergonomic safety in a small pharmacy. The pharmacy was located on a university campus and employed eight full-time workers. Three of the pharmacy employees had experienced various repetitive-motion injuries that resulted in a total of 36 lost days and 161 restricted days. Observers collected detailed naturalistic data on the pharmacy employees’ ergonomic behavior in the presence and absence of various environmental variables including a box that they placed under the computer keyboard and shoe type. Results indicated that employee behaviors were considerably safer when certain environmental conditions were present. The descriptive analysis proved valuable for aiding in the development of an intervention.
 
Using Workstation Changes and Behavioral Safety Techniques to Improve Typing Postures in an Office
NICOLE E. GRAVINA (Western Michigan University), John Austin (Western Michigan University), Debra Lindstrom-Hazel (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: This presentation will describe a study aimed at improving ergonomic typing postures in an administrative office. Participant's workstations were optimized for ergonomic safety by an occupational therapist. Results showed an improvement in some but not all postures. Participants were then provided information on ergonomic safety in an office setting resulting in very few improvements in safety. Finally, peer observations were implemented followed by graphic feedback. Postures that remained low in safety with the other interventions improved substantially during the behavioral safety intervention.
 
The Safety Observer Effect Across Various Work Conditions
ADRIENNE R. ROBEK (Queens College, City University of New York), Alicia M. Alvero (Queens College, City University of New York)
Abstract: The literature on the effectiveness of feedback is abundant but the literature on the effects of the observation process (in relation to safety) is relatively novel. The purpose of the present study is to expand on the existing observer effect findings. More specifically, it examines: (a) if observing and collecting safety data on someone engaged in particular tasks will increase the safety performance of the observer, and (b) if this effect varies across two work conditions: (1) alone condition and (2) presence of a peer condition. There is a probe of subjects in both conditions every three sessions in which the experimenter comes into the room and looks through a filing cabinet for two minutes. In other words, does employees safety performance vary in the presence of other co-workers (peers), when they are working alone, or in the presence of a supervisor (an authority figure), after conducting safety observations?
 
 
Panel #60
CE Offered: BACB
Do We Do What We Say We Should Do? Integrity, Satisfaction and Follow-up in Publication
Saturday, May 28, 2005
3:30 PM–4:50 PM
Lake Huron (8th floor)
Area: CSE/DDA; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Theodore A. Hoch, Ed.D.
Chair: Theodore A. Hoch (Northern Virginia Training Center)
JAMES KUHAGEN (Northern Virginia Training Center)
DENISE BARTIZAL (Catawba State Hospital, VA)
BARBARA J. KAMINSKI (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
YAN JIN (Central State Hospital)
Abstract:

Applied Behavior Analysis is applied, behavioral, analytic, technological, conceptually systematic, effective, and concerned with generality. Prior research examined technological and conceptually systematic aspects of publication patterns. We discuss a retrospective analysis of behavior analytic publication that replicate prior work, and extends it to consider applied, analytic, effective, and generality issues. Outcome of this analysis and of a survey of ABA members regarding training and reporting practice as they pertain to these is discussed.

 
 
Symposium #69
CE Offered: BACB
Brief, Effective and Acceptable Staff Training Methods
Saturday, May 28, 2005
4:00 PM–5:20 PM
Stevens 1 (Lower Level)
Area: DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Jamie Pagliaro (Melmark)
Discussant: Dennis H. Reid (Carolina Behavior Analysis and Support Center)
CE Instructor: Carolyn S. Ryan, M.A.
Abstract:

Although didactic training methods are not always successful in increasing workplace performance (Dyer, Schwartz, & Luce, 1984), more effective methods (modeling, immediate feedback, etc.) are often time intensive and less acceptable to participants. The present three studies demonstrate refinements of validated training methods to address these issues. The purpose of the first study was to evaluate the effect of a brief staff training procedure on number of learner-initiated incidental teaching episodes and on instructors use of the five trained incidental teaching responses. A large-scale replication of the brief instruction procedure was then conducted with 40 instructors from two schools serving learners with autism spectrum disorders. In the second study, video technology and self-monitoring were used to train instructors on correct implementation of complex behavior support plans for learners exhibiting dysfunctional behavior. Improvements in treatment integrity were achieved with minimized supervision. The third study illustrates how performance feedback and continuous improvement methods were used to initiate and maintain change in a multi-component human service agency shifting towards a behavior analytic model. A variety of measures targeting safety, protocol compliance, departmental coordination, student engagement levels and samples of staff activity will be presented in addition to scaleable strategies for affecting organizational change.

 
Effects of a Brief Staff Training Procedure on Instructors’ Use of Incidental Teaching and Learners’ Frequency of Initiation Toward Instructors
CAROLYN S. RYAN (New York Center for Autism), Nancy S. Hemmes (Queens College, City University of New York), Peter Sturmey (Queens College, City University of New York)
Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a brief staff training procedure on number of learner-initiated incidental teaching episodes and on instructors’ use of the five trained incidental teaching responses. In Experiment 1, the lead and assistant instructors from two classrooms serving learners with autism spectrum disorders were provided with a brief instruction session about how to use incidental teaching. The effects of training on frequency of learner initiations and the assistant instructors’ use of incidental teaching were measured in the assistant instructors’ classrooms during unstructured activities. Following evaluation of the effects of instruction, the two lead instructors were trained to teach their assistant instructors on conducting accurate incidental teaching. In Experiment 2, a large-scale replication of the brief instruction procedure of Experiment 1 was conducted with 40 instructors from two schools serving learners with autism spectrum disorders. Feedback from acceptability surveys revealed that instructors from both experiments found the staff training methods satisfactory. These findings suggest that the brief method improving for instructor training used in the present study is a valid initial step toward level of learner initiation and likelihood of incidental teaching in classrooms.
 
Investigating the Effectiveness of Video Technology to Train Direct Care Staff: Implementation of Multi-Component Behavior Support Plans
LAURA M. FREDERICK (Melmark), Jamie Pagliaro (Melmark), Stephen Gallagher (Melmark), Jeffrey R. Luke (Melmark)
Abstract: Current practice in the behavior analytic treatment of problem behaviors relies heavily on functional analysis methodology. Effective and ethical behavior support plans now include procedures to increase adaptive skills as well as reduce problem behaviors. While a positive trend, it also brings with it numerous challenges, for instance: staff training. Although didactic training methods are not always successful in increasing staff’s workplace performance (Dyer, Schwartz, & Luce, 1984), more effective methods (modeling, immediate feedback, etc) are much more time intensive. The current intervention attempted to combine video technology and supervisor feedback to develop an effective and efficient staff training model. Staff viewed a video of themselves implementing a behavior support plan with their supervisor present. They scored their performance according to a treatment integrity checklist, and the scored checklist then provided a structured format for the supervisor to provide feedback. A multiple baseline across staff showed that this staff training package was successful in increasing staff’s correct implementation of complex behavior support plans. The need for generalization of this intervention and further applications are discussed.
 
A Case Study on Scaleable Strategies for Affecting Organizational Change in a Human Service Agency
JAMIE PAGLIARO (Melmark), Stephen C. Luce (Melmark), George P. Linke, Jr. (Melmark)
Abstract: This case study will describe scaleable strategies implemented in a multi-component human service agency to affect organizational change. Staff training, performance feedback, and continuous improvement methods were evaluated across a variety of organizational measures. These measures targeted safety, protocol compliance, departmental coordination, student engagement levels and samples of staff activity. Time constraints and staff acceptability will be discussed as primary considerations in applying behavioral technology.
 
 
Symposium #71
CE Offered: BACB
Ethics and Organizational Effectiveness Within ABA
Saturday, May 28, 2005
4:00 PM–5:20 PM
Waldorf (3rd floor)
Area: TPC; Domain: Theory
Chair: Rita M. Gardner (Melmark New England)
CE Instructor: Frank L. Bird, M.Ed.
Abstract:

The Association for Behavior Analysis is an organization devoted to promoting behavior analysis as a science and a profession. Behavior analysis is a natural science approach to the study of behavior. Behavior analysis includes research on environmental factors that influence behavior as well as applications of the results of this research to problems of concern to individuals and society. Practitioners of behavior analysis include persons working in a wide variety of settings and dealing with a great diversity of behaviors and populations. Behavior analysts serve many kinds of consumers including service recipients, parents or guardians of recipients, institutional representatives, private or public agencies, and firms or corporations.Ethics and organizational effectiveness are inextricably linked. Dramatic examples of organizations that ignore their ethical responsibilities to various stakeholders and suffer serious consequences abound. Nevertheless, even in the absence of these drastic examples, organizations suffer serious consequences from their failure to address ethical issues. These consequences include high levels of staff turnover, poor staff morale, poor reputations in local communities, and the inability to provide services that are well respected. Attention to making ethics as an on-going part of the organizational discourse can provide tangible benefits to the organization.This symposium presents three papers regarding applied behavior analysis and the role of ethics. The papers discuss that a code of ethics is designed to educate and protect consumers, to provide guidance for professionals, and to retain the integrity of the discipline of behavior analysis

 
Ethical Concerns in Organizational Consultation
ARTHUR RICHARD CAMPBELL (Melmark New England)
Abstract: Consultants who provide applied behavior analytic support to the educational and behavioral needs of students in organizational settings such as public schools, are often confronted with ethical concerns which can negatively influence outcomes. Analyzing the environments in which consultation is provided is an essential component of the assessment process, which is often overlooked by consultants. As a result, support and guidance is often provided to teaching staff that have little to no control over the critical components that influence the implementation of the consultants plan. Ethical considerations arise when consultants fail to recognize and proactively address prerequisite organizational variables that influence outcomes. Methods to identify and address organizational prerequisites that set the occasion for successful consultation outcomes will be presented with specific attention to the ethical dilemmas that arise when these issues are not addressed.
 
Providing Effective Consultation Services in the Public School Environment: Maintaining the Balance Between Best Practices and the Law
JAMES T. ELLIS (Melmark New England)
Abstract: The families and educators of children with special needs are constantly faced with the challenge of making decisions about providing effective services for children. Every child with special needs is entitled to a free and appropriate education in the least restrictive environment. Although there are guidelines for providing these services, it is not uncommon for members of a child’s IEP team to differ in terms of what they think are appropriate services. Professionals who are providing consultation to children’s educational programs often play a key role in making these decisions. Furthermore, consultants are faced with the dilemma of making educational recommendations that ensure that a child is provided with a free and appropriate education as mandated by the law but that are also based on best practices as informed by the research and literature. This presentation will provide a comparison of legal guidelines and best practices as they relate to services for children with special needs and will highlight some of the ethical dilemmas that professionals can face when providing consultation services with public schools.
 
Reconciling the Business of ABA with the Science of ABA
PAUL A. DORES (Private practice)
Abstract: This presentation focuses on the issues that are raised when an empirically based technology becomes the centerpiece of a multi-million dollar commercial enterprise. Of greatest concern is the extent to which we, as behaviorists, remain true to the science of applied behavior analysis at the same time that we become promoters of that same product in a competitive market. Can science coexist with commerce without sacrificing the exact qualities that make the technology valuable in the first place? Can we continue to demand and rely upon data-based assessment of every one of our outcomes when we are faced with the realities of competition and the marketing axiom that programs that fail do not sell?
 
The Role of a BACB Mentor
FRANK L. BIRD (Melmark New England)
Abstract: The Role of a BACB Mentor
 
 
Symposium #77
CE Offered: BACB
Teaching Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders in Inclusive Settings
Saturday, May 28, 2005
4:00 PM–5:20 PM
Continental A (1st floor)
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Mariela Vargas-Irwin (CEC-Behavioral Services)
CE Instructor: Mariela Vargas-Irwin, Psy.D.
Abstract:

The education of children with autism in natural environments poses a unique set of challenges to the field of Applied Behavior Analysis. Rather than transporting children to environments that have specifically been designed to meet their needs, inclusion strives to both help children adapt to their community and to change these natural environments to meet their needs. This symposium examines different issues in the education of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in the natural environment.

 
How Do Kids Talk? Using Skinner's Classification of Verbal Behavior to Analyze Natural Language Samples
MARIELA VARGAS-IRWIN (CEC-Behavioral Services), Christine Florentino (CEC-Behavioral Services), Madhuri Vengala (CEC-Behavioral Services), Emily McCort (CEC-Behavioral Services), Steffanie Richards Koue (CEC-Behavioral Services), Rafael Castro (CEC-Behavioral Services)
Abstract: Skinner's classification of verbal behavior in mands, tacts, echoic, and intraverbals was used to analyze natural language samples of kindergarten, first grade, and second grade typically developing students. When compared to natural language samples of children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders, typical children were found to have larger proportions of tacts and intraverbals. Significant differences between typically developing girls and boys were also observed. Implications for language pragmatic and social skills training are discussed.
 
Teaching Critical Social Skills in Inclusive Settings
MADHURI VENGALA (CEC-Behavioral Services), Mariela Vargas-Irwin (CEC-Behavioral Services), Christine Florentino (CEC-Behavioral Services), Emily McCort (CEC-Behavioral Services), Steffanie Richards Koue (CEC-Behavioral Services), Rafael Castro (CEC-Behavioral Services)
Abstract: Proximity to children, receipt of social bids from other children, spontaneous verbalizations towards adults and children, and focus on toys have been identified as critical indicators of social skills in pre-school children with autism. This case presentation examines the data collected on the social behaviors of a pre-school student with Pervasive Developmental Disorder who was integrated in a typical pre-school with the support of instructor trained in Applied Behavior Analysis. During the baseline observation, the subject remained within three feet of other children 40% of intervals. He initiated verbal interaction towards another child once and did not receive any bids from other children. He remained focused on toys 100% of intervals. Post-intervention data revealed that the subject remained within three feet of other children 100% of intervals, initiated verbal social interaction with peers 53% of intervals, initiated verbal social interaction with adults 6% of intervals, received social bids 17% of intervals, and remained focused on toys 100% of intervals. For comparison purposes, social behavior data were collected on two randomly selected typically developing peers. The subject’s social behavior closely approximated that of his typically developing peers.
 
LATE Intervention for Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders
EMILY MCCORT (CEC-Behavioral Services), Leila Meehan (CEC-Behavioral Services), Mariela Vargas-Irwin (CEC-Behavioral Services), Steffanie Richards Koue (CEC-Behavioral Services), Rafael Castro (CEC-Behavioral Services)
Abstract: In the field of autism there is extensive empirical support for the importance of beginning intensive intervention immediately after diagnosis. However, intensive services are sometimes offered by local school districts only after strong parent advocacy. This case study presents pre and post intervention data for a child with Pervasive Developmental Disorder, Not Otherwise Specified who began receiving one-to-one instruction based on Applied Behavior Analysis at age eleven. The data documents the importance of advocating for behavioral education for older children.
 
Teaching Sports Skills and Sports General Knowledge to children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders
CHRISTINE FLORENTINO (CEC-Behavioral Services), Mariela Vargas-Irwin (CEC-Behavioral Services), Emily McCort (CEC-Behavioral Services), Steffanie Richards Koue (CEC-Behavioral Services), Rafael Castro (CEC-Behavioral Services)
Abstract: Many children with PDD acquire basic ball kills, such as kicking, throwing, and catching through discrete trial training. These skills, however, are difficult to put to use in natural social situations. This study examines the effect of video modeling and discrete trial training on the acquisition of basketball and soccer skills.
 
 
Symposium #78
CE Offered: BACB
The Role of Technology and the Development of Play in Young Children with Autism
Saturday, May 28, 2005
4:00 PM–5:20 PM
Continental B (1st floor)
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Rebecca P. F. MacDonald (New England Center for Children)
Discussant: Mary Jane Weiss (Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey)
CE Instructor: Rebecca P. F. MacDonald, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Play is an important part of a typical childs development and contributes to the acquisition of language and social interaction skills. Children with autism often do not develop play skills. Behavior analysts have been examining strategies for developing normalized play in children with autism for the past two decades. Modeling, prompting, and use of typical peer role models are just a few of the strategies in the literature. Most recently, video modeling has been used to teach a variety of skills, including play to children with autism. The purpose of this symposium is to present data on effective strategies for promoting play in children with autism, as well as, an overview of procedures involving technology to teach children with autism.

 
Strategies for Expanding Pretend Play in Children with Autism using Video Modeling
REBECCA P. F. MACDONALD (New England Center for Children), Sally N. Roberts (New England Center for Children), Shelly R. Cota (New England Center for Children), Kristine Wiltz (New England Center for Children)
Abstract: Video modeling has been demonstrated to be an effective procedure to teach a variety of skills, including pretend play. We will review several studies that we have conducted demonstrating the effectiveness of video modeling teaching procedures to teach independent pretend play to children with autism, as well as to teach cooperative play between children with autism and typically developing peers. In addition, we will present data from our most recent work, teaching children to expand on the scripted play using video modeling. Using a strategy that involves introducing scripted loops into the video models scripts and presenting extra toys that could be used in these loops, we found that children expand on the scripted play observed in the video. We will discuss these findings as they relate to the development of pretend play in children with autism.
 
The Effects of Choice-Making on Appropriate Play Behavior in an Integrated Preschool Classroom
ILENE S. SCHWARTZ (University of Washington), Bonnie J. McBride (University of Washington), Mark J. Larson (University of Washington)
Abstract: Three preschool children with autism participated in this study during free choice in their integrated preschool classrooms. The purpose of the study was to determine if providing children with choice of activity would be sufficient to increase their engagement during free choice time. The research questions were: 1.Is presenting children with autism a clear, 2-option choice sufficient to affect the rate of engagement during free play in an integrated classroom? 2. If not, does adding a short, but intense period of prompting affect engagement.The results of this study demonstrate that choice alone was not effective in increasing engagement for children with autism. The results also indicate that when choice was accompanied by a brief, but intense period of prompting the rate of engagement for all three children increased to levels similar to that of nondisabled children in the classroom
 
Use of Technology in Interventions for Children with Autism
TINA R. GOLDSMITH (Western Michigan University), Linda A. LeBlanc (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: A growing number of studies have investigated diverse applications of technology-based interventions with children with autism. The purpose of this paper is to review the growing empirical support for the efficacy of technology-based interventions with children with autism and to recommend future directions for research. This review will focus on five examples of technology introduced as a temporary instructional aid to be removed once the goal of behavior change has been met: (a) tactile and auditory prompting devices, (b) video-based instruction and feedback, (c) computer-aided instruction, (d) virtual reality, and (e) robotics. Future directions for research and practice with each technology are discussed.
 

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