Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


34th Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2008

Program by Continuing Education Events: Sunday, May 25, 2008

Manage My Personal Schedule


Invited Paper Session #138
CE Offered: BACB

Self-Control and Social Cooperation

Sunday, May 25, 2008
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
Grand Ballroom
Area: DEV; Domain: Theory
CE Instructor: Howard Rachlin, Ph.D.
Chair: Martha Pelaez (Florida International University)
HOWARD RACHLIN (Stony Brook University)
Prof. Howard Rachlin obtained a Bachelor of Mechanical Engineering degree from Cooper Union in 1957, an MA in psychology from The New School for Social Research in 1962, and PhD in psychology from Harvard University in 1965. He is currently a Research Professor and an Emeritus Distinguished Professor of Psychology at Stony Brook University. He has written six books including Behavior And Mind (1994) and The Science of Self-Control (2000) and published more than 100 journal articles. His research focuses on self-control and social cooperation in humans and nonhumans approached from the perspective of teleological behaviorism.

Failures of self-control and social cooperation may both be described in terms of hyperbolic discounting: failures of self-control as due to discounting by delay of reinforcement -- failures of social cooperation as due to discounting by social distance. Both self-control and social cooperation may be seen as choice of distributed rewards over individual rewards: self-control as choice of rewards distributed in time -- social cooperation as choice of rewards distributed over social space. Self-control fails when the value of a large reward distributed over time (such as good health) is discounted below that of a small immediate reward (such as having an alcoholic drink). Social cooperation fails when the value of a large reward distributed in social space (such as availability of public television) is discounted below that of a small reward to oneself (keeping money rather than donating it).Patterns of behavior that maximize reward distributed over wide temporal or social distances may be selected by reinforcement and evolve over the lifetimes of individuals by a process akin to group selection in biological evolution.

Invited Paper Session #141
CE Offered: BACB

International Invited Paper - Applied Behavior Analysis in Nigeria: Barriers and Progress

Sunday, May 25, 2008
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
International North
Area: TBA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Usifo Edward Asikhia, Ph.D.
Chair: Denise E. Ross (Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Dr. Edward Asikhia is the Clinical Director for Home-Link Trust, Inc., an agency that provides behavioral and educational intervention services to children with developmental disabilities. Dr. Asikhia earned a medical degree from the University of Ibadan, Nigeria in 1985, and was trained as a psychiatrist with the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, University of Wales of Medicine Cardiff and University College Hospital in Galway, Ireland. He obtained MBA and MHPM degrees from the University of Benin, Nigeria, and trained as a behavior analyst at the University of North Texas. Dr. Asikhia provided clinical behavior therapy services at the Child and Adolescent Unit of the Department of Psychiatry, University College Hospital in Galway, Ireland. He also designed rehabilitation and aftercare programs for the Nigerian Prisons Services. Dr. Asikhia is a former Program Director for the behavioral and social intervention center of the Family Care Center, Inc. in Idaho Falls. He has published several articles on the treatment of incarcerated youth in Nigeria and head injuries. Dr. Asikhia is a member of the Nigeria Medical Association and the Inceptor Royal College of Psychiatrists.

This lecture describes a demonstration project designed to address barriers to applying behavior analysis in underdeveloped African countries. In many African countries, there is a dearth of information on the prevalence and impact of disabilities. Additionally, there are major issues in the area of government policy, cultural perspective, early screening, diagnosis and treatment of children with autism and other developmental disabilities. In the light of this situation, Home-Link Trust Inc, a developmental disabilities agency based in Idaho State, has established a demonstration project in collaboration with existing non-governmental organizations for the replication and practice of applied behavior analysis in the management of children with developmental disabilities in Nigeria. This demonstration project will serve as a bridge between the practice of applied behavior analysis in the United States and Africa. In this lecture, the long-term impact of this demonstration project on training and government support for applied behavior analysis in Nigeria will be discussed.

Symposium #145
CE Offered: BACB
Evaluating Video Modeling with Children with Autism
Sunday, May 25, 2008
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
International South
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Linda A. LeBlanc (Western Michigan University)
CE Instructor: Linda A. LeBlanc, Ph.D.

Video modeling is a popular intervention with children with autism spectrum disorders. The presenters will describe four experimental investigations of the use of video modeling to teach skills to children with autism spectrum disorders.

Strategies for Teaching Children with Autism to Imitate Response Chains Using Video Modeling.
LISA TERESHKO (ACES Village School), Rebecca P. F. MacDonald (The New England Center for Children), William L. Holcomb (The New England Center for Children), William H. Ahearn (The New England Center for Children)
Abstract: Video modeling has been shown to be a successful strategy for teaching play skills to children with autism. The purpose of the current investigation was to evaluate the prerequisites to video modeling and to teach children with autism, who did not imitate videos, to construct three toy structures through the use of a modified video modeling procedure. Four male students, ages 4 to 6, diagnosed with pervasive developmental disorder participated. The dependent variables were steps completed in the response chain of building the toy structure and attending. The independent variable was the number of steps modeled in the video. A multiple probe design within participant across the toy structures was used. There were three phases: picture only, full video, and video segments. Treatment involved a changing criterion design. The video model increased in length dependent upon the participants’ performance. Inter-observer agreement was calculated in 35% of sessions with a range of 97 to 100% agreement. Results showed that breaking down a video model was an effective strategy for teaching all participants to construct toy structures.
Teaching Social Initiations to Children with Autism via the Use of Point-of-View Video Modeling.
ALLISON SERRA TETREAULT (West Virginia University), Dorothea C. Lerman (University of Houston, Clear Lake)
Abstract: Video modeling (VM) is a widely used simulation technique that has been applied to the education of children with developmental disabilities. This method has been employed to teach skills in the areas of self help, toy play, social interaction, academic tasks, and community integration. One form of VM that lacks in-dept analysis is point-of-view video modeling (POV-VM). The current study investigated the use of POV-VM to teach four children diagnosed with autism to socially initiate with a listener. Using a multiple baseline across scripts design, the participants were taught to engage in both eye contact and vocal behavior without the presentation of a vocal discriminative stimulus from the listener. The treatment package included both the presentation of the target video as well as reinforcement for scripted behavior. While this combination proved successful for increasing the social behavior of two participants, the inclusion of prompts was necessary to achieve acquisition for a third, and rehearsal during video viewing was necessary for the fourth. These data suggest that while POV-VM may be a successful technique for teaching some skills, limitations exist that should be further investigated.
Comparing Point of View and Scene Video Modeling for Children with Autism.
COURTNEY DILLON (Western Michigan University), Kaneen B. Geiger (Western Michigan University), Linda A. LeBlanc (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Video modeling is an intervention that has been used to teach a variety of skills to children with autism. Several variants of video modeling have been developed including point-of-view video models and scene video models. While point-of-view models and scene models have both been shown to be effective, these types of video models have not been directly compared to determine whether one is differentially more effective than the other. The current study directly compared these types of video models for teaching social, adaptive, and play skills to children with autism spectrum disorders using a multielement design. Skills were yoked in pairs with one of the pair taught via scene modeling and the other taught via point-of-view modeling. The outcomes are compared with respect to level of acquisition and trials to criterion.
The Role of Preference in Video Modeling Effectiveness.
KANEEN B. GEIGER (Western Michigan University), Courtney Dillon (Western Michigan University), Linda A. LeBlanc (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Video modeling is an instructional technique demonstrated to effectively increase social skills, academic skills, daily living skills and play skills for children with autism. Charlop-Christy, Le and Freeman (2000) demonstrated that video modeling was more efficient than in-vivo modeling with children with autism, requiring fewer trials to criterion, producing greater generalization, and requiring less time and money resources than in-vivo modeling. There are several hypotheses for why video modeling is effective. One hypothesis is that children with autism prefer watching videos to looking at people, enhancing motivation and making attending to the video model automatically reinforcing, however; preference for video has not been experimentally examined. This study assessed participants’ preference for either video modeling or in-vivo modeling using a concurrent-chains arrangement. Secondary data were collected on participants’ initial preference for videos in relation to other leisure activities, attention to the model, and trials to criterion to determine if preference had any effect on video modeling effectiveness.
Symposium #150
CE Offered: BACB
Further Evaluation of Interventions Using Response-Independent/Noncontingent Schedules of Reinforcement
Sunday, May 25, 2008
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Boulevard B
Area: CBM/EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Mark P. Groskreutz (Utah State University)
CE Instructor: Thomas S. Higbee, Ph.D.

The current collection of research papers is composed of studies investigating response-independent/noncontingent schedules of reinforcement. Studies investigating the utility of these schedules with both clinical and nonclinical populations will be presented.

Using Non-Contingent Reinforcement (NCR) to Decrease Inappropriate Classroom Behavior in Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders.
THOMAS S. HIGBEE (Utah State University), Rachael D. Waller (Utah State University)
Abstract: Non-contingent reinforcement (NCR) has been shown to be an effective intervention for decreasing the severe problem behavior of individuals with severe developmental disabilities. Less is known, however, about the effectiveness of this intervention for decreasing the problem behavior of individuals with less severe disabilities and less severe forms of problem behavior. Thus the purpose of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of NCR in reducing the inappropriate classroom behavior of students with emotional/behavioral disorders in a classroom setting. Following a functional analysis, the functional reinforcer maintaining the problem behavior of each participant was delivered on an NCR schedule and the effects on both problem behavior and compliance with instructions was evaluated using a withdrawal design.
Programming Nonreinforcement Periods: Do Children Prefer Multiple or Noncontingent Schedules?
KEVIN C. LUCZYNSKI (The New England Center for Children), Gregory P. Hanley (Western New England College)
Abstract: Two evidence-based methods for delivering intermittent reinforcement for appropriate social responses maintained by social-positive reinforcement include a multiple schedule and a noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) schedule. The present study assessed the efficacy of and preference for obtaining social interaction with five typically developing children under conditions in which the availability and unavailability of reinforcement was continuously signaled or when a similar amount was provided on a time-based schedule. This study systematically extends previous research on preference for contingencies by evaluating whether preference for contingencies would persist when periods of nonreinforcement were introduced. Efficacy and preference were assessed using a concurrent-chains arrangement within a multielement design. The frequency and temporal characteristics of reinforcer deliveries and nonreinforcement periods were equal across the schedules. Interobserver agreement was collected on 60% of sessions and averaged above 95%. Three of the five children preferred to obtain reinforcement via a multiple schedule to NCR, with one child preferring the NCR schedule, and the other child demonstrating indifference. The results extend the conditions under which preference for contingencies has been observed and provides support for the selection of schedules that introduce nonreinforcement periods with a response-dependent mechanism for obtaining reinforcement.
Effects of Treatment Integrity Failures on Time-Based Treatment Schedules: A Laboratory Study.
CLAIRE C ST. PETER (West Virginia University)
Abstract: Time-based treatment schedules, otherwise known as noncontingent reinforcement schedules, are commonly used as a treatment for problem behavior. Although procedures for time-based schedules are typically straightforward, they may not be consistently implemented as designed. We assessed the effects of failures to deliver earned reinforcers (omission errors), inappropriate reinforcer delivery (commission errors), and blended omission and commission errors on FT and VT schedules, using a controlled laboratory preparation with non-clinical participants. Treatment integrity levels varied from 100% to 20% integrity. Results showed that omission errors did not result in increases in analog “problem behavior,” while commission errors and blended errors decreased treatment efficacy. These outcomes demonstrate that certain types or levels of integrity failure are more detrimental than others.
Immediate and Subsequent Effects of Response-Independent Food Delivery on Problem Behavior Maintained by Food.
LAUREN A. CHERRYHOLMES (University of North Texas), Richard G. Smith (University of North Texas), Joseph D. Dracobly (University of North Texas), Stephen F. Walker (University of North Texas)
Abstract: The immediate and subsequent effects of response-independent food delivery on problem behavior maintained by food were investigated. Each occurrence of problem behavior produced a bite of wafer in the first and third components of mixed and multiple schedules, while either response-independent delivery of food or extinction was presented in the second component. Dense and lean schedules of food delivery were assessed. Results indicated that a very dense schedule of food nearly eliminated problem behavior, a very lean schedule of food and extinction produced substantial decreases in problem behavior, but intermediate schedules did not decrease problem behavior. Response patterns were differentiated across mixed and multiple schedule arrangements, with signaled changes in the schedules (multiple schedule) generally showing more immediate and sustained effects throughout the intervention component. Implications for interpretations of the effects of the intervention will be discussed.
Symposium #151
CE Offered: BACB
Treatment of Pediatric Feeding Disorders: Outcome Measures of Different Programs Around the Country
Sunday, May 25, 2008
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Boulevard A
Area: CBM/DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Meeta R. Patel (Clinic 4 Kidz)
Discussant: William H. Ahearn (The New England Center for Children)
CE Instructor: Meeta R. Patel, Ph.D.

The purpose of this symposium is to present data from three pediatirc feeding disorders programs. The data will be presented from two hospital-based programs and one home-based program. Data will be presented by the Kennedy Krieger Institute, St. Joseph's Childrens Hospital, and Clinic 4 Kidz. All three programs will discuss their assessment and treatment methods and present data on their outcome measures.

Outcomes of Tube Dependent Children in Kennedy Krieger Institute’s Pediatric Feeding Disorders Program from 2001-2006.
RINITA B. LAUD (Louisiana State University/Kennedy Krieger Institute), Charles S. Gulotta (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Peter Girolami (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Danielle N. Dolezal (Kennedy Krieger Institute/Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), James H. Boscoe (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Elizabeth A. Masler (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Ping Wang (Kennedy Krieger Institute), R. Meredith Elkins (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: The Kennedy Krieger Institute’s (KKI) Pediatric Feeding Disorders Program (PFDP) was one of the first interdisciplinary programs established to assess and treat pediatric feeding disorders. For children admitted to this program, the etiology of food refusal behaviors varies from behavioral mismanagement to food refusal that is associated with multiple physiological disorders. In the most severe cases, chronic food refusal leads to a dependence on gastrostomy tube feedings in order to sustain a child’s caloric needs. A typical admission to KKI includes comprehensive evaluation and treatment by a team of specialists from various disciplines including a gastroenterologist, behavioral specialist, nutritionist, occupational/speech therapist, and a social worker. Goals for behavioral interventions have included decreasing tube dependence, increasing food and liquid consumption, decreasing food selectivity by texture or type, decreasing inappropriate mealtime behaviors and training parents to maintain the gains made in the program. The purpose of this study is to describe the outcomes of a five-year sample (N=144) of tube dependent children receiving intensive treatment in KKI’s inpatient and day treatment feeding program. Outcomes examined include change in percent tube dependence, weight status, oral intake and mealtime behavior. Additionally, percent of goals met, parent satisfaction ratings, and follow up data are also described.
The Center for Pediatric Feeding and Swallowing Disorders at St. Joseph’s Children’s Hospital: Assessment, Treatment and Outcomes.
MERRILL J. BERKOWITZ (St. Joseph's Regional Medical Center), Peggy S. Eicher (St. Joseph's Regional Medical Center)
Abstract: The Center for Pediatric Feeding and Swallowing Disorders at St. Joseph’s Children’s Hospital has been providing services to children exhibiting feeding difficulties for the past 7 years. Several disciplines, including behavior analysis, make up the multidisciplinary team providing these services. Several assessment and treatment strategies have been developed in the area of behavior analysis to specifically address pediatric feeding problems (e.g., Piazza et al., 2003). The current presentation will provide information regarding the demographics of the patients seen at the center and their presenting feeding problems and medical diagnoses. Levels of service, common assessment methods and treatment procedures will be also discussed. Outcome measures will be provided for both levels of service. In addition, the center’s current and future research interests will be provided.
Treatment of Pediatric Feeding Disorders: Outcome Measures for an Intensive Home-Based Program.
JENNIFER LEIGH KING (Clinic 4 Kidz), Meeta R. Patel (Clinic 4 Kidz), Angela Pruett (Clinic 4 Kidz)
Abstract: Pediatric feeding disorders are common in children with autism and other disabilities and may also be evident in typically developing children with a variety of medical issues (e.g., gastroesophageal reflux, food allergies etc.). Some children may be at risk for weight loss and may eventually be placed on gastrostomy (G-) feedings while others may not have advanced with regards to variety and textures of food. Since there are a variety of problems displayed by children with pediatric feeding disorders, it is ideal that treatment be provided by a team of professionals (i.e., pediatric gastroenterologist, occupational/speech therapist, nutritionist, social worker and/or behavior analyst). Typically these services are provided in a clinic/hospital environment; however, more recently a similar model has been used in the home environment. The purpose of this presentation is to give the audience an overview of how intensive treatment can be initiated for children with pediatric feeding disorders in the home environment using an interdisciplinary model. Data will be presented for at least 45 patients who were admitted to the Clinic 4 Kidz Pediatric Feeding Disorders Program. Results indicate that this type of intensive home-based program is effective at decreasing tube dependency, increasing oral intake, increasing variety of foods consumed, and decreasing refusal behaviors in a short period of time. The advantages and disadvantages of a home-based program to treat feeding problems will be discussed. In addition, the need for more published outcome measures will also be discussed as it relates to medical insurance reimbursement.
Symposium #152
CE Offered: BACB
Health, Sports, and Fitness Research in ABA
Sunday, May 25, 2008
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Area: CSE/CBM; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Amanda N. Adams (California State University, Fresno)
CE Instructor: Amanda N. Adams, Ph.D.

This symposium will contain papers that address topics and research in health, sports, and fitness. Topics include smoking cessation, rehabilitation regimen compliance, fitness adherence, and sports application. The blend of papers in this session represents a growing socially important application in ABA with interdisciplinary implications.

Identification of Function in Maintenance of Smoking Cessation.
JASON ALAN MARSHALL (California State University, Fresno)
Abstract: Smoking-related diseases are responsible for the loss of 440,000 lives every year, and the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that 68 billion dollars are spent annually in the United States on medical care costs attributable to smoking behavior. How might behavior analysts address this problem? Carbon monoxide measurements have been proven to be effective measurements of smoking behavior, and can be used as the primary measurement in a study. A secondary function of smoking behavior may also be identifiable using a standard FBA format . Procedures utilizing competing contingencies, and shaping have also proven effective (Dallery & Glenn 2005). In addition to these tools, the possible merits of a habit reversal procedure will be discussed.
Effects of a Feedback Package on Tactical Behaviors in Youth Basketball.
MANOEL RODRIGUES-NETO (The Ohio State University), Phillip Ward (The Ohio State University)
Abstract: Recent studies in behavior analysis in physical activities suggest the effectiveness of specific techniques such as goal setting and feedback aiming improvements in performance and skill acquisition. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of the instructional strategies consisting in a package including goal-setting, public posting and verbal reinforcements and its effects on the generalization of individual performances and outcomes of youth female basketball players. It focuses on variables that focus on tactical behaviors (positioning) and behavior outcomes (shooting percentage) instead of just technical skills. The results show that the package was effective during and after the intervention with tactical behaviors in youth basketball.
A System of Identifying and Neutralizing Aversives to Increase Exercise Behaviors.
LARAINE WINSTON (University of South Florida/Behavior Analysis Services Program)
Abstract: Obesity is a serious and growing problem in the United States with potential harmful consequences for individuals, as well as society as a whole. Behaviors that lead to a healthy weight for an individual are often associated with potent and immediate aversive consequences and these contribute to inconsistent participation and recidivism among those who begin a program of regular exercise. Aversives frequently reported by exercise participants are organized into a self-report based assessment. Corresponding strategies intended to weaken specific aversive stimuli are identified and recommended to individuals based on their ratings of the intensity of their aversion to them and the degree to which each has reduced their past exercise behavior.
Contingency Contracting, Reinforcement Assessment and Generalization: A Guide for Self-Care with Compliance of Therapeutic Intervention.
Abstract: Failure to comply with and maintain therapeutic exercise regimes, following work-related musculoskeletal injuries, incurs significant individual and societal cost. Individuals who sustain such injury are considered to be at-risk for life-long chronic pain (Hestbaek et al., 2003; Pengle et al., 2003) and co-morbidity of depression and obesity. In addition, repeat musculoskeletal injury to the same body part is common. These individuals will benefit from maintenance of exercise treatment both during and following release from care by a treating professional (Waddell, 1998; McGorry et al., 2000; Borkaen et al., 2002). An issue of importance includes the coping strategies common to people who have sustained traumatic injury. These strategies frequently contribute to long term disability, both physical and emotional (Victorson et al., 2005; Dahl, Hayes, Luciano, & Wilson, 2005). Behaviorally based self-management contracting has the potential for both immediate and long term benefits of therapeutic compliance and minimization of co-morbidity following musculoskeletal injury.
Symposium #154
CE Offered: BACB
Noncontingent Reinforcement: Treatment Efficacy and Translational Experimentation
Sunday, May 25, 2008
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Stevens 1
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Carrie S. W. Borrero (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Richard G. Smith (University of North Texas)
CE Instructor: Carrie S. W. Borrero, Ph.D.

Noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) refers to the time-based delivery of a reinforcer independent of responding, such that there is no contingency between a response and a reinforcer. NCR has frequently been implemented as a treatment for problem behavior and generally has been shown to be effective in reducing levels of problem behavior. In the first paper, Severtson, Carr and Lepper will describe a quantitative review of NCR-based interventions to assess the efficacy of NCR as a treatment for problem behavior. In the second paper, Sloman, Vollmer, Samaha and Bosch will describe a comparison of momentary differential reinforcement of other behavior (mDRO) to NCR schedules, in the context of treating problem behavior. In the third paper, Carreau et al. will describe an evaluation of variable-interval (VI) schedules based on fixed-time schedules (FT) to measure the persistence of problem behavior when extinction procedures were implemented.

Noncontingent Reinforcement as Treatment for Problem Behavior: A Quantitative Review.
JAMIE M. SEVERTSON (Western Michigan University), James E. Carr (Western Michigan University), Tracy L. Lepper (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) is a function-based treatment for problem behavior that has produced robust effects across a variety of response topographies, reinforcement functions, and populations. Several narrative literature reviews have adequately described the NCR treatment literature. The purpose of this presentation is to quantitatively analyze and classify the empirical support for NCR using the criteria developed by The Task Force on the Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures (1995). Of the 59 studies identified for analysis, 24 met the criteria to be included in treatment classification. Based on the Task Force guidelines, fixed-time reinforcer delivery (plus extinction and schedule thinning) was classified as well established, while fixed-time reinforcer delivery (plus extinction) and variable-time reinforcer delivery (plus extinction) were deemed probably efficacious.
A Clinical and Laboratory Evaluation of Noncontingent Reinforcement and Momentary Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior.
KIMBERLY SLOMAN (University of Florida), Timothy R. Vollmer (University of Florida), Andrew Samaha (University of Florida), Amanda Bosch (University of Florida)
Abstract: Noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) has been demonstrated to be an effective treatment for various forms of problem behavior. However, some studies have shown that NCR may result in adventitious response-reinforcer pairings and, hence, subsequent increases in or maintenance of problem behavior. In momentary differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO), a reinforcer is delivered only if responding is absent at the end of the interval. We conducted two studies to evaluate the effectiveness of NCR and momentary DRO. The purpose of the first study was to conduct a clinical evaluation of NCR in the treatment of problem behavior. During the NCR fading procedure, we observed adventitious response-reinforcer pairings and increases in problem behavior. Next, we evaluated variations of momentary differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO). Results showed that momentary DRO was effective at preventing response reinforcer pairings and decreasing problem behavior. In the second study, we conducted laboratory evaluations of NCR and momentary DRO using non-human animals as subjects. Results showed that momentary DRO was more effective at reducing responding than NCR, and had comparable rates of reinforcement to NCR. Implications for the use of momentary DRO in application will be discussed.
A Further Examination of Behavioral Momentum Effects Arranged by Noncontingent Reinforcement.
ABBEY CARREAU (Kennedy Krieger Institutue), Iser Guillermo DeLeon (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Michelle A. Frank (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Mandy M. Triggs (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Melissa J. Allman (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Yanerys Leon (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Ahearn, Clark, Gardenier, Chung, and Dube (2003) recently suggested that stimuli delivered on a variable-time schedule during treatment of problem behavior can produce behavioral momentum effects, making problem behavior more resistant to subsequent intervention. However, their study involved automatically reinforced problem behavior and the challenge involved delivery of reinforcers thought to compete with the problem behavior. Automatically reinforced behavior may prove cumbersome in momentum analyses because differences in reinforcement rates, a critical aspect of the analysis, are difficult to quantify with precision. In the present study, we superimposed schedules of fixed-time (FT) reinforcement onto variable-interval (VI) schedules of reinforcement for problem behavior maintained by positive reinforcement and measured the persistence of problem behavior during subsequent periods of extinction. These effects were compared to behavioral persistence in extinction following an identical VI schedule without the superimposed FT schedule. The results thus far indicate that the addition of the FT schedule produced momentum effects, evidenced by increased latency to extinction and increased rates of problem behavior during extinction. These results are discussed in terms of potential effects of NCR on problem behavior when extinction is implemented with less than perfect integrity.
Symposium #157
CE Offered: BACB
Assessment, Treatment and Validation of Pathological Gambling: BIG-SIG Symposium 2
Sunday, May 25, 2008
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
Chair: Maranda Trahan (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale)
CE Instructor: Mark R. Dixon, Ph.D.

Although there have been a variety of studies discussing pathological gambling, many questions still remain as to the assessment, treatment and validation of pathological gambling. The purpose of this symposium will be to examine various improvements to work on pathological gambling. Four empirical studies will be presented in which different dimensions of pathological gambling were examined. The first presentation will be a discussion on the Gambling Functional Assessment (GAF). The second presentation will review a behavioral therapy treatment package to decrease pathological gambling. The third presentation will explore novel dependent measures in pathological gambling and possible future of gambling studies. The final presentation will discuss the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) and its effects on pathological gambling.

Factor Analyzing the Gambling Functional Assessment Survey.
JEFFREY N. WEATHERLY (University of North Dakota), Joseph Miller (University of North Dakota), Ellen Meier (University of North Dakota), Adam Derenne (University of North Dakota)
Abstract: Dixon and Johnson (2007) introduced the Gambling Functional Assessment (GFA) as a paper-and-pencil device to identify the consequences that maintain gambling behavior. Their device had four potential consequences, attention, sensory experience, tangible gain, and escape. We had a college sample of 900 students take the GFA. Their responses were subjected to a factor analysis, which identified three rather than four factors. Specifically, items that were designed to identify the consequences of sensory experience and tangible gain group together. Two questions pertaining to the consequence of attention grouped together, as did all the questions pertaining to escape. A subsample of the original took the GFA a second time 12 weeks after the original administration. Test-retest reliability of the GFA was good. These results indicate a slightly modified GFA has utility as a functional assessment device.
Using Behavior Therapy to Treat Pathological Gamblers with Acquired Brain Injury.
JOHN M. GUERCIO (Center for Comprehensive Services, Inc.), Mark R. Dixon (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract: The present study explored the use of an 8-week behavioral therapy treatment package designed for persons with pathological gambling to reduce their gambling behavior. In the present study three individuals with acquired brain injury were exposed to a multiple baseline design where the intervention was 8 weeks of individual-based therapy for treatment of gambling. In addition to the typical self-report data that are usually collected in treatment outcome studies, we included the observation of actual gambling behavior that was allowed to take place immediately following each therapy session. Results suggest that when compared to baseline, gambling self-reports and observed behavior decreased upon introduction of the treatment package. Our results also maintained during follow up probes. In conclusion behavioral treatments for non-brain-injured individuals with gambling disorders have potential for persons suffering from such a disability, and appear externally valid when assessing actual gambling behavior in the natural environment.
The Next Paradigm of Gambling Behavior Research.
MARK R. DIXON (Southern Illinois University), Maranda Trahan (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale)
Abstract: Over the past 10 years, behavior analysts have begun to gather a fair amount of research on gambling behavior. Basic laboratory explorations have utilized human and nonhuman subjects, and clinical interventions have been attempted with promising results. To date the behavioral contributions have only scratched the surface of the phenomena of gambling, and why an individual with no history of gambling problems can become a pathological gambler. This presentation will explore the utilization of novel dependent measures as well as discuss the introduction of neglected independent variable manipulations. A possible research agenda for the behavior analyst interested in studying gambling behavior over the next decade will be presented. Emerging data that emulate this new paradigm will be used as examples of the possibilities this paradigm has to offer.
Recent Neuroscience Research and its Possible Implications for Behavior Analysts Interested in Gambling Behavior.
BRADY J. PHELPS (South Dakota State University)
Abstract: The neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) and some of its agonists have been implicated in the development of compulsive gambling, such that the Food and Drug Administration is making warnings about heightened risks of compulsive gambling mandatory in advertisements for some DA agonist prescription medications. Dopamine is argued as being a key mechanism in the our brain and behavior’s sensitivity to reinforcement contingencies; furthermore, DA mechanisms in the brain show particularly potent responses to unpredictable reinforcement contingencies. Relevant literature regarding DA, reinforcement mechanisms and gambling will be discussed.
Symposium #162
CE Offered: BACB
Int'l Symp. - Implementing the Comprehensive Application of Behavior Analysis to Schooling Model (CABAS) across Public and Independent Schools Worldwide: Considerations for Component Implementation
Sunday, May 25, 2008
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Williford C
Area: EDC/TBA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Emma L. Hawkins (The Jigsaw CABAS School)
Discussant: Susan Mariano-Lapidus (Mercy College)
CE Instructor: Emma L. Hawkins, M.Ed.

CABAS is a behavioral model of schooling drawing on 1) other behavioral models of schooling, 2) tactics and strategies from the applied and experimental branches of behavior analysis, 3) epistemology of behavioral selectionism, 4) research on CABAS components, and 5) demonstration applications to several schools. These components are applied to all areas of schooling including the students, parents, teachers, supervisors, and the University training program. Research in behavior analysis suggests a common set of effective teaching strategies. These strategies and CABAS components are demonstrated in certified CABAS schools and in public school systems. The following is a data presentation showing the effects of implementing CABAS and components of the CABAS model in a certified CABAS school in the UK and in public school settings in two states in the US.

Frequently Used Tactics Within The Jigsaw CABAS School to Improve Learner Outcomes and Teachers' Analytic Repertoires.
EMMA L. HAWKINS (The Jigsaw CABAS School), Jackie Charnock (The Jigsaw CABAS School), Sheri Kingsdorf (The Jigsaw CABAS School)
Abstract: The Jigsaw CABAS School utilizes CABAS tactics to teach children with Autism in the UK. The effects of several components will be demonstrated and discussed.
The Application and Effect of Implementing CABAS Components in Local Public School Systems in Virginia.
KATHERINE M. MATTHEWS (The Faison School for Autism), Jennifer G. Camblin (The Faison School for Autism), Beth Braddock (Virginia Commonwealth University)
Abstract: The Faison School participates in a collaborative regional project dedicated to improving educational services for children with autism in the public school systems. Data on the effects of implementing CABAS components to achieve this goal will be described here.
The Effects of Component Implementation of the CABAS Model in Public School Systems in Louisiana.
GRANT GAUTREAUX (Nicholls State University)
Abstract: We report the effects of staff training of CABAS components on teacher peformance and student outcomes across three target classrooms.
Symposium #163
CE Offered: BACB
OBM and Autism Intervention: Integrating Systems Theory and Behavior Analysis to Produce Lasting Change in Human Service Settings
Sunday, May 25, 2008
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Area: OBM/AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Michael Fabrizio (Organization for Research and Learning)
Discussant: Cloyd Hyten (University of North Texas)
CE Instructor: Michael Fabrizio, M.A.

Providing highly effective, consistent, and sustainable services to persons with Autism and related disabilities requires more than skilled clinicians and willing clients. Providing such services also requires consistent and comprehensive performance analysis and improvement efforts at all levels of a human service agency. This symposium will review how OBM blends Behavior Analysis with Systems Theory to analyze performance at all levels of an organization, describe its role in helping to ensure effective service delivery, and outline the steps that two human service agencies in the Puget Sound area have taken to help support the delivery of consistently high quality services.

Systems Theory: An Essential Component of Performance Analyses.
DONNIE M. STAFF (University of North Texas/Organization & Performance Technology), Shane D. Isley (FEAT of Washington/Organization & Performance Technology)
Abstract: The mission of any organizational intervention is to produce lasting change in employee performance. All human service agencies, for profit and non-profit, have customers, internal processes, employees, and financial responsibilities. As a result, it is key for human service agencies to view and manage their organization as a system. In order for agencies to effectively manage their organization as a system and ensure intervention quality they must (a) describe their services, (b) pinpoint important dimensions of performance for each of these services, (c) develop measures for each important dimension at the organizational, process, and job levels of performance, and (d) establish standards for each measure (Rummler & Brache, 1995). What is typically missing from organizational interventions is a thorough analysis of the remote causes of employee performance. These remote causes are typically identifiable once a map of input and output processes for an organization is examined. Interventions at any given organizational level can then be evaluated based on their effects at all other levels. This presentation will describe how organizations, regardless of their individual missions, can begin to develop measures that will help ensure intervention quality.
The Essential Role of OBM Strategies and Tactics in Quality Service Provision to Persons with Autism and Related Disabilities.
SHANE D. ISLEY (FEAT of Washington/Organization & Performance Technology), Michael Fabrizio (Organization for Research and Learning)
Abstract: Providing highly effective, consistent, and sustainable services to persons with Autism and related disabilities requires more than skilled clinicians and willing clients. While an often-overlooked feature of effective services delivery, providing such services requires consistent and comprehensive performance analysis and improvement efforts at all levels of a human service agency. Using examples of performance data from both an early childhood education program and an adolescent transitions program for persons with Autism, this presentation will briefly review OBM research and applications, describe its role in helping to ensure effective service delivery, and outline the steps Families for Effective Autism Treatment (FEAT) of Washington has taken to help support the delivery of consistently high quality services.
Measuring and Evaluating Organizational Development in an Autism Service Agency: A Report on the 1st Year of Organization for Research and Learning.
KELLY J. FERRIS (Organization for Research and Learning), Michael Fabrizio (Organization for Research and Learning), Shane D. Isley (FEAT of Washington/Organization & Performance Technology)
Abstract: The goal of organizational development for human service agencies should be to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the organizational policies and practices that affect the degree to which the organization can provide highly effective, consistent, and sustainable services to the clients and their families. This process may involve: (a) aligning key organizational outcomes with the processes and human behavior needed to produce those outcomes, (b) improving the knowledge and skills, productivity, and satisfaction of the employees, (c) improving the efficiency and effectiveness of critical processes. Organizational development should be informed by data, systems focused, and client centered. This paper will describe the development process of a small agency that delivers in-home behavior analytic services to persons with Autism and their families and present the pinpoints used to measure and evaluate the performance improvement effort. Data will be presented on process and staff performance, and in-direct consumer satisfaction.
Symposium #164
CE Offered: BACB
Behavioral Approaches to Environmental Consciousness and Sustainable Practices
Sunday, May 25, 2008
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Area: OBM/CSE; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Jeanine Plowman Stratton (Furman University)
Discussant: Timothy D. Ludwig (Appalachian State University)
CE Instructor: Jeanine Plowman Stratton, Ph.D.

In response to the increasing social awareness of environmental concerns and subsequent adoption of sustainable practices for better environmental protection and preservation, this symposium will present data from a variety of studies using behavioral approaches, namely those specific to OBM, to help promote environmentally-conscious behavior. The studies include projects conducted on college campuses ranging from energy conservation, recycling, and "smoke free" zones. Data will be presented and areas of application for future implication and social significance of continued behavioral approaches to influencing environmental preservation will be discussed.

Lights Out! A Behavioral Approach to Energy Conservation.
GEORGE HANCOCK (Furman University), Jeanine Plowman Stratton (Furman University), Austin Johnson (Furman University)
Abstract: With today’s increasing sociological awareness of global climate change and environmental sustainability, many individuals and organizations are charging themselves with the task of reducing their own impact on the Earth. One of the objective ways that entities are going about implementing this overall impact reduction is through minimizing their carbon footprint, or the amount of CO2 emitted by their everyday operations. The participants in this study were members from four staff departments at a private university in the United States. A customized checklist was designed in order to measure such human behaviors as turning off light switches, turning off computer monitors and turning off lamps throughout each employee’s office and even shared spaces. Data were collected beginning with the baseline, next data during each intervention period and finally post-intervention data was collected. The results from this study show that with some intervention techniques, primarily verbal, the amount of wasted electricity can be significantly decreased. Additional post-intervention data is still being collected and will be presented.
The Use of Visual Feedback to Reduce Paper Use in a University Computer Lab.
MICHAEL C. CLAYTON (Youngstown State University), Gregory Diamantis (Youngstown State University), Nancy White (Youngstown State University)
Abstract: An enduring financial obstacle to operating student computer labs on campus is the amount of paper used by students. The labs are there for students, but paper use can become unnecessarily expensive and gratuitous. In addition to the paper itself, there are costs associated with the printing process (e.g., toner, parts, etc.) The present research used an ABABC reversal design to reduce both paper use and waste by providing visual feedback to students using a campus computer lab. Visual feedback reduced paper use by approximately 20% saving the university a considerable amount of money over the course of the study. Results are discussed in terms of the options available to administrators as well as the utility of expanded use across campus.
Decreasing Second Hand Smoke in Breathe Easy Zones at Florida State University: Strozier Library.
JENAY R. SERMON (Florida State University), Christina Cherpak (Florida State University, Panama City), Nicole Tilden Garcia (Florida State University, Panama City)
Abstract: Second hand smoke (SHS), also known as environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) or passive smoke, is the inhalation of the side-stream smoke and mainstream smoke of smokers (smoke from the lit cigarette and from the smokers’ exhalation). SHS is responsible for an estimated 35,000 deaths of heart disease, 3,400 cases of lung cancer, and other respiratory problems such as coughing, phlegm, chest discomfort and reduced lung function. On the campus of Florida State University, second-hand smoke has been regulated through the designation of ‘Breathe Easy Zones’ throughout the campus. The legislation of the zones is not uniform and uncomfortable levels of second-hand smoke are continually observed in these designated ‘smoke-free’ areas. A multielement research design was employed to evaluate and intervene on the inappropriate smoking in Breathe Easy Zones. In order to reduce smoking in the zones, an intervention including signage and removing inappropriate cigarette dispensers from the Breathe Easy Zones was used to decrease smoking in these areas. Over the two intervention phases, smoking was reduced in the Breathe Easy Zones by 70%. This was a pilot study, due to the lack of data specifically appropriating smoking on college campuses. In conjunction with the administration of Florida State University, results can be used to modify the ‘Breathe Easy Zones’ and ensure better compliance with the university regulation.
Invited Tutorial #168
CE Offered: BACB
Tutorial: Integrating Functional Analytic and Genetic Methods to Study Gene-Environment-Behavior Relations in Autism
Sunday, May 25, 2008
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
International North
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Research
BACB CE Offered. CE Instructor: Wayne W. Fisher, Ph.D.
Chair: Jeffrey H. Tiger (Louisiana State University)
Presenting Authors: : WAYNE W. FISHER (University of Nebraska Medical Center, Munroe-Meyer Institute)

The completion of the human-genome map holds great potential for extending our understanding of gene-environment-behavior relations and behavior disorders. However, this potential can be fully realized only if the advances in genetic diagnostics are accompanied by advances in behavioral analyses that accurately characterize behavioral phenotypes. For example, in behavioral genetic studies, important behavioral phenomena seen in children with autism (e.g., echolalia, stereotypy, self-injurious behavior) are often phenotyped by a small number of items on a behavioral rating scale. This simplistic and structural approach to behavioral phenotyping often lacks precision and, more importantly, it overlooks the extent to which genes interact with environmental contingencies to influence the expression of aberrant behavior in autism (e.g., genetically mediated sensitivity to social escape as negative reinforcement for problem behavior). Functional analysis, on the other hand, provides a precise method of quantifying both the topographical and functional properties of aberrant behaviors. The accurate characterization of behavioral phenotypes using functional analysis methods should increase the power of analyses designed to identify genes that affect aberrant behavior in autism. This presentation will focus on how functional analysis methods may be used to better characterize behavioral phenotypes in autism and related disorders.

WAYNE W. FISHER (University of Nebraska Medical Center, Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Dr. Wayne Fisher is the H.B. Munroe Professor of Behavioral Research in the Department of Pediatrics at the University of Nebraska Medical Center and Director of the Center for Autism Spectrum Disorders at the Munroe-Meyer Institute. He was previously a Professor of Psychiatry at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and served as Executive Director of the Neurobehavioral Programs at the Kennedy Krieger Institute (Baltimore) and the Marcus Behavior Center at the Marcus Institute (Atlanta), where he built clinical-research programs in autism and developmental disabilities with national reputations for excellence. Dr. Fisher’s methodologically sophisticated research has focused on several intersecting lines, including preference, choice, and the assessment and treatment of autism and severe behavior disorders, that have been notable for the creative use of concurrent schedules of reinforcement, which have become more commonplace in clinical research primarily as a result of his influence. He has published over 130 articles in peer-reviewed journals, is past Editor of the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, a Fellow in the Association for Behavior Analysis International, and recipient of the APA (Division 25) award for distinguished contributions to applied research.
Panel #171
CE Offered: BACB
On Rachlin's Notion of Self-Control
Sunday, May 25, 2008
10:00 AM–11:20 AM
Area: DEV/TPC; Domain: Theory
CE Instructor: Martha Pelaez, Ph.D.
Chair: Martha Pelaez (Florida International University)
TIMOTHY D. HACKENBERG (University of Florida)
MARTHA PELAEZ (Florida International University)
M. JACKSON MARR (Georgia Tech)
MARK A. MATTAINI (Jane Addams College of Social Work, University of Illinois, Chicago)

The panelists will discuss Rachlin's notion of self-control and social cooperation. His argument is that both can be described in terms of hyperbolic discounting: "failures of self-control as due to discounting by delay of reinforcementfailures of social cooperation as due to discounting by social distance." According to Rachlin, both self-control and social cooperation may be seen as choice of distributed rewards over individual rewards: self-control as choice of rewards distributed in time, social cooperation as choice of rewards distributed over social space. Self-control fails when the value of a large reward distributed over time (such as good health) is discounted below that of a small immediate reward (such as having an alcoholic drink). Social cooperation fails when the value of a large reward distributed in social space (such as availability of public television) is discounted below that of a small reward to oneself (keeping money rather than donating it). Patterns of behavior that maximize reward distributed over wide temporal or social distances may be selected by reinforcement and evolve over the lifetimes of individuals by a process akin to group selection in biological evolution. The audience will be encouraged to participate.

Symposium #174
CE Offered: BACB
Autism Service Design for Verbal Behavior: Characteristics of Instructors, Instructional Feedback, and Student Performance
Sunday, May 25, 2008
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
International South
Area: AUT/VRB; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Michael Miklos (Pennsylvania Training and Technical Assistance Network)
CE Instructor: Michael Miklos, M.S.

This session will review reports from the Pennsylvania Verbal Behavior Project. Included will be a discussion of project outcomes, perspectives on the role of consultants who are also parents of children with autism, instructional design for teaching spontaneous mands, and a method of providing direct feedback on instructional performance during discrete trial instruction of the verbal operants.

The Pennsylvania Verbal Behavior Project: Overview and Outcomes from a Parent-Practitioner Perspective.
Abstract: Based on the literature that supports the use of basic principals of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) as the guide that leads to effective instruction for students with autism and other developmental disabilities, the Pennsylvania Verbal Behavior Project is committed to infusing ABA in the public school setting. During this session, the presenter will provide participants with a brief overview of the project as well as share her perspective and experience as both a consultant and a parent of a child with autism.
Qualitative Research on the Experiences of Mothers of Children with Autism who Become Board Certified Behavior Analysts.
MARY LYNCH BARBERA (Pennsylvania Verbal Behavior Project)
Abstract: This presentation will provide an overview of a published phenomenology entitled: "The Experiences of 'Autism Mothers' who Become Behavior Analysts: A Qualitative Study" (Barbera, 2007). Ms. Barbera will also report on an expansion of that study comparing the experiences of "autism mother" BCBA's and "non-autism mother" BCBA's within the PA Verbal Behavior Project.
Rolling Prompt Time Delay to Teach Manding for Tangibles without Item Present.
LORI L. CHAMBERLAIN (Pennsylvania Verbal Behavior Project)
Abstract: Designing verbal behavior programs for children diagnosed with autistic spectrum disorder involving establishing a mand repertoire that is functional without the item being present has been a major complexity. (Charlop,1985) A variety of time delay prompt protocols have been employed with some success to help overcome this obstacle. The present study will attempt to replicate a form of the rolling prompt procedure utilized by Sweeney-Kerwin, et al. 2007 and expand it to tangible leisure items.
Instructional Performance Feedback and Intensive Teaching of the Verbal Operants.
MICHAEL MIKLOS (Pennsylvania Training and Technical Assistance Network)
Abstract: Model description for delivering performance based feedback on instructional fidelity for a mixed and varied model of discrete trial teaching of the verbal operants. Session will detail a method of transcribing teacher behavior based on specific verbal operants. Includes a brief review of coding procedures and implications for staff training including summary of outcome data.
Symposium #175
CE Offered: BACB
Critical Outcome Measures for Education Programs for Students with Autism
Sunday, May 25, 2008
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
Continental B
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Gregory S. MacDuff (Princeton Child Development Institute)
CE Instructor: Dawn B. Townsend, Ph.D.

Systematic replication may be defined as purposefully varying one or more variables across experiments to establish the reliability and generality of results. Although systematic replication may be common with regard to intervention technology, it has not been applied with the same vigor to the design of intervention program systems. This symposium will display annual outcome measures for the Education Program of the Princeton Child Development Institute (PCDI) and display data for three systematic replications--The New York Child Learning Institute, The Institute for Educational Achievement, and the Somerset Hills Learning Institute. Measures will include annual reviews of individualized programs, home programming services, consumer evaluations, and staff training and evaluation outcomes.

Consumer Evaluation: The Role of Measures of Social Validity in Program-Wide Decision Making.
KEVIN J. BROTHERS (Somerset Hills Learning Institute), Edgar D. Machado (Somerset Hills Learning Institute), Sandra R. Gomes (Somerset Hills Learning Institute)
Abstract: Measures of social validity, that is, consumer evaluations of the significance of the goals of a program; the appropriateness of procedures; and the importance of intervention effects, have long been held in high regard to behavior analysts (Wolf, 1978). Such measures enable human-service program developers to learn consumers’ perspectives on various aspects of a program (e.g., its implementation and outcomes) and respond to consumer feedback systematically rather than reactively. This paper will describe the annual process for obtaining consumer feedback that is in use across four autism intervention agencies. Results of measures used to access consumer satisfaction from parents, child study teams, Boards of Trustees, and staff members across these four programs and the usefulness of these measures for decision-making will be discussed.
Using Collective Data from Individual Behavior Change Programs to Effectively Evaluate an Entire Education Program.
DAWN B. TOWNSEND (Institute for Educational Achievement)
Abstract: Data on client progress are highly regarded in our field and accepted to be an absolute necessity for evaluation of behavior change at the individual client level. Such data, however, when aggregated from the total client population in any education program can also be used to evaluate the effectiveness of that program as a whole. The purpose of the current presentation is to highlight the importance of evaluation of the collective data from all individual behavior change programs and its use in critically evaluating the effectiveness and fidelity of educational programs serving individuals with autism. The presenter will define the components of individualized behavior change programs considered important and relative to the evaluation, discuss measures used to evaluate each component, and share data from the last 3 years for four educational programs serving learners with autism (i.e., PCDI, NYCLI, IEA, SHLI). These data will demonstrate the importance of this measure in evaluating effective treatment for individuals with autism at the educational program level and highlight the importance of replication of results over time to substantiate claims related to the delivery of quality services to individuals with autism.
Empowering the Parents of Children with Autism.
SUSAN M. VENER (New York Child Learning Institute)
Abstract: The skills children with autism acquire in the classroom often fail to generalize to home and community settings, and skills acquired in the presence of instructors do not generalize to parents. Similarly, skills acquired at home are also unlikely to generalize to the classroom or other community settings. The purpose of this presentation is to discuss some of the ways in which intervention settings can encourage parent participation and increase the likelihood that responses will generalize across settings. This talk will also identify ways to objectively measure if intervention programs include parents as partners in intervention and successfully program for generalization of skills across people and settings. Given collaborative efforts between instructors and parents, desirable outcomes can be achieved.
Using a Data-Based Protocol to Train and Evaluate Behavior Analysts for Autism Intervention.
EDWARD C. FENSKE (Princeton Child Development Institute), Gregory S. MacDuff (Princeton Child Development Institute), Patricia J. Krantz (Princeton Child Development Institute), Lynn E. McClannahan (Princeton Child Development Institute)
Abstract: Applied behavior analysis has been documented to be effective in addressing a wide range of skill deficits and behavior excesses displayed by individuals with autism. The plethora of scientific evidence supporting applied behavior analysis has led many reviewers to label it as the treatment of choice. Outcomes for individuals with autism who receive behavioral intervention services vary—some achieve skills within the normal range and placement in mainstream classrooms. Several studies have investigated variables, such as intensity of treatment and age of intervention, that may impact upon treatment outcome. Some researchers have suggested that the integrity and quality of intervention services deserve investigation. While several publications have specified academic courses of study that provide clinicians with important theoretical knowledge, there is little information on methods for specifying clinical training goals and assessing staff competency. A staff training and evaluation protocol will be presented which includes direct measures of staff and student behavior. Benchmarks for criterion performances have been derived from data collected at PCDI and three systematic replications.
Symposium #176
CE Offered: BACB
Innovative Approaches to Antecedent Management: Use of Behavioral Relaxation
Sunday, May 25, 2008
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
Continental C
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: James T. Ellis (Melmark New England)
Discussant: Frank L. Bird (Melmark New England)
CE Instructor: Frank L. Bird, M.Ed.

Behavioral relaxation training has been shown to be an effective technique to reduce severe, challenging behaviors and teach appropriate alternative behaviors. This technique used in combination with modeling, feedback, and reinforcement is a powerful behavior change procedure. The purpose of the present symposium is to share findings from three case studies in which behavioral relaxation was included as part of a multicomponent intervention package. Positive findings resulted in each example suggesting that individuals with autism may be taught to use behavior relaxation techniques as an antecedent management strategy.

Relaxation Training as a Procedure to Reduce Active Resistance during Intervention.
JOANNE COUGHLIN (Melmark New England)
Abstract: In settings that serve individuals with significant dangerous behaviors, physical intervention may be necessary in order to ensure safety. Given the restrictive nature of these procedures and the risk of injury, other approaches may be preferred. Research suggests that relaxation training is an effective technique to reduce challenging behaviors and may serve to decrease staff physical involvement. The purpose of the present study was to introduce an alternative means of de-escalating intense challenging behaviors with physical intervention through the training of relaxation techniques. An 18-year-old man diagnosed with autism, PTSD, and a mood disorder participated in the study. The relaxation training package consisted of positive practice during which the participant was taught to request time to lie on a mat. Over a three-month period, reinforcement was delivered contingent on relaxation initiation and to shape appropriate positioning and relaxation techniques. This treatment package wareplicated across settings. Relaxation training resulted in a significant decrease in the percentage of procedures requiring physical intervention by staff compared to baseline. Implications will be discussed in light of the risks and benefits for the participation in relaxation training.
Longitudinal Study Addressing the Tantrum Behavior of a Child with Autism and Landau Kleffner Syndrome.
KERI BUTTERS (Melmark New England)
Abstract: In order to be effective change agents, behavior analysts must address the numerous, multi-faceted variables in long-term behavior management. The present study assessed the effects of a multicomponent treatment package implemented across a six year period on the tantrum behavior of an eight-year-old male diagnosed with autism and moderate Landau Kleffner Syndrome. Upon admission, the participant exhibited an average of 24 tantrum episodes per month, for an average of 124 minutes per month. Subsequent to a functional assessment, a treatment package consisting of functional communication training and antecedent management strategies (e.g., relaxation training) was implemented across two settings. The participant was taught to request a break by pointing to an icon. During the break, the participant relaxed in a preferred chair and engaged in incompatible, calming behavior. Over the six year period of treatment implementation, tantrum behavior showed a general decreasing trend with reductions to near zero levels. Interobserver agreement percentages over the past 15 months averaged 100 percent. These findings were maintained over time.
Use of Behavioral Relaxation and Time-Out Procedures to Decrease Challenging Behaviors.
HELENA L. MAGUIRE (Melmark New England)
Abstract: Behavioral relaxation procedures have been shown to be an effective means to teach adaptive behaviors to children and adults with special needs who would benefit from specific strategies to decrease challenging behaviors. In the present study, an eleven- year-old individual diagnosed with autism and severe language impairment was taught to engage in specific relaxation procedures during positive trial sessions followed by prompted trials when defined target problem behaviors were demonstrated. In conjunction with the relaxation procedures, time-out procedures were used in an effort to decrease aggressive and self- injurious behaviors. Over the course of two years, findings revealed a significant decrease in target behaviors and an increase in adaptive behaviors (e.g., increased communicative requests to relax prior to displaying targeted behaviors). Implications for these findings as well as a discussion of classroom-based implementation will conclude the presentation.
Symposium #178
CE Offered: BACB
International Symposium - Strategies to Support the Inclusion of Children with Autism in General Education Classrooms
Sunday, May 25, 2008
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
Continental A
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Joel P. Hundert (Behaviour Institute)
CE Instructor: Joel P. Hundert, Ph.D.

Despite gains that many children with autism may have made while receiving early intensive behavioral intervention, without additional support, they may not be able to learn the same curriculum as the classmate, complete seatwork assignments independently, interact appropriately with peers on the playground or actively participate in class lessons. This symposium will present four papers that describe strategies to support children with autism in general education classrooms through interventions provided by home-based or center-based behavioral services. Each of the four papers will present the details of specific interventions used and child outcome data. Two papers will describe case studies of specific behavioral interventions to support children with autism in inclusive setting. A third paper will present the results of a study comparing high versus low numbers of embedded instruction trials on skill acquisition and generalization for a child with autism in a general education classroom. A fourth paper will describe the results of using priming of academic work in a treatment center to produce improved academic performance of a child with autism in a general education classroom. These papers as a group provide information on practical and effective interventions for children with autism in inclusive school settings.

The Use of Embedded Instruction to Teach Children with Autism in General Education Settings.
JOEL P. HUNDERT (Behaviour Institute), Donna C. Chaney (Behaviour Institute), Karen Edwards (Behaviour Institute)
Abstract: Embedded instruction holds promise as an intervention that can be used to teach children with autism in general education settings, particularly when there is a sizeable discrepancy between the academic skill level of the child with autism and the academic skill level of the rest of the students in the class. Embedded instruction has been shown to be effective in teaching IEP objectives to children with autism in general education classrooms and has been rated by educators as an acceptable intervention. However, there are not a large number of studies of the effectiveness of embedded instruction and research on variables associated with the effectiveness of embedded instruction is almost non-existent. For example, typically the total number of embedded instructional trials per day has been relatively low. Presumably, increased learning may occur with increased number of embedded instruction trials delivered per school day. This paper will describe the results of a study in which the number of embedded instruction trials implemented for an 11-year-old child with autism was either high (60) or low (30) and effects examined on acquisition and generalization of skills in a general education classroom.
Full Inclusion of a Middle School Student with Autism: Target Objectives, Intervention Techniques, and Data Collection.
TIFFANY BAUER (Coyne and Associates), Len Levin (Coyne and Associates), Hyunwoo Kim (Footprints Behavioral Interventions), Arlene Watanabe (Saddleback Valley Unified School District)
Abstract: The ultimate goal of intensive behavioral intervention for children with autism is inclusion in regular education, with little or no supplemental classroom support. This presentation will present data on the performance of a student with autism as she makes the transition from full inclusion with support in Grade 6 in elementary school to full inclusion without direct support in Grades 7 and 8 in middle school in the public school system. In Grade 6, subtle classroom participation objectives were identified (e.g., teaching the student to select an appropriate time–which is likely to differ from day to day–to write down that day’s homework assignment) so direct classroom support could be faded when the student graduated to the middle school. A three-part intervention plan was implemented to facilitate acquisition of responses necessary to successfully navigate through fluid classroom situations. In Grade 7, the student performed very well academically, even without direct support, but socializing and participating in group lessons or activities still posed significant challenges. New targets were identified and a new measurement system was implemented to assess quality of social responses.
Supporting Children with Autism in General Education Settings: Strategies to Promote Success.
AUDREY MEISSNER (New Haven Learning Centre)
Abstract: Some children with autism who have received early intensive behavioral intervention achieve a level of functioning at which they are judged to be ready to transition from a treatment setting to a general education classroom. This transition may involve an initial assessment of the readiness of children with autism for supported inclusion, the provision of staff from the treatment setting to assist children with autism in general education classrooms, and the preparation of the receiving teacher for supported inclusion. This paper will describe several case examples of procedures used to support children with autism who have transitioned from a center-based treatment setting to general education classrooms. The description of the case studies will include the assessment of inclusion readiness, techniques used in the general education classroom for children with autism to complete class level academic work, play appropriately with peers, and follow classroom routines independently.
Effects of Priming Delivered in a Center-Based Program on the Academic Performance of Children with Autism Attending General Education Classrooms.
NICOLE WALTON-ALLEN (Behaviour Institute), Joel P. Hundert (Behaviour Institute), Jane Lee (Behaviour Institute), Amy Finkelstein (Behaviour Institute)
Abstract: There are a number of children with autism who need additional assistance to function successfully in an inclusive educational setting. One possible form of this support is to provide targeted intervention to children with autism in a center-based program for part of the school week, while the children also attend general educational classrooms with support for the rest of the school week. For such a strategy to be effective, the impact of targeted interventions delivered in the center-based program must transfer to improve the adjustment of children with autism in general education classrooms. For example, a child with autism may receive practice in academic work in the center-based program that he or she would subsequently experience in the general education classroom. This paper will describe the use of priming provided in a private special education school to help two children with autism who also attended general education classrooms. Results of the effects of priming delivered in the specialized setting on the participation and academic performance of children with autism in the general education classroom will be presented.
Panel #184
CE Offered: BACB
A Video Demonstration of Present Moment and Acceptance Processes in ACT
Sunday, May 25, 2008
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
Boulevard C
Area: CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Kelly G. Wilson, Ph.D.
Chair: Kelly G. Wilson (University of Mississippi)
BARBARA S. KOHLENBERG (University of Nevada School of Medicine)
STEVEN C. HAYES (University of Nevada, Reno)
MICHAEL J. DOUGHER (University of New Mexico)
KELLY KOERNER (University of Washington)

Acceptance and present moment work are significant components of ACT. Descriptions of such interventions imperfectly capture the cadence, pace, and tone of the work. A video demonstration of acceptance and present moment done by Dr. Kelly Wilson will be featured in this clinical round table. Drs. Kelly Koerner, Barbara Kohlenberg, Steven Hayes, and Michael Dougher will discuss the interventions. Discussion will focus on both the clinical aspects of the video as well as on a behavioral analysis of the interventions.

Symposium #186
CE Offered: BACB
Challenges of Providing Behavior Analysis Services In a Behavioral Health System of Care
Sunday, May 25, 2008
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
Area: CSE; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Michael Stoutimore (Intermountain Centers for Human Development)
Discussant: Todd R. Risley (University of Alaska)
CE Instructor: Teresa A. Rodgers, Ph.D.

Intermountain Centers for Human Development (ICHD), a private not-for-profit agency established in 1973, provides out-of-home and home-based support services in Arizona and New Mexico to a variety of at-risk populations including Native American children and adults, children and youth who are emotionally and behaviorally challenged, adults who have been diagnosed with serious mental illnesses, and individuals with developmental disabilities. Intermountain has been inspired and invigorated by the continuing contributions of pioneers such as Sidney Bijou, Judy Favell, Betty Hart, Todd Risely, Roland Tharp, Ralph Bud Wetzel and Montrose Wolf. Over the past 35 years, Intermountain has collaborated with a wide variety of organizations in the development of strategies and best practices to promote the preservation of families and the successful community stabilization and reunion of family members. This symposium will address some of the unique opportunities, successes and challenges for behavior analysis to further collaborate within the behavioral health system of care.

The Growth and Development of a Behavior Analytic Agency Providing Behavioral Health Services.
DAVID K. GILES (Intermountain Centers for Human Development)
Abstract: This paper will describe some of the critical influences and stages of evolution to meet community needs within an agency providing positive behavioral treatment strategies leading to and throughout its life as a behavior health agency. One early and persistent strategy has been the establishment and maintenance of a Board including influential community activists and dedicated behavior analysts
Overcoming Challenges to Providing Quality Behavioral Health Services.
AARON A. JONES (Intermountain Centers for Human Development), Michael Stoutimore (Intermountain Centers for Human Development)
Abstract: A few of the challenges and solutions of a behavioral agency providing services in a behavioral health (aka mental health) environment will be discussed with an eye toward setting the stage for sharing and exchanging best practices. Some of the issues to be discussed include the Medicaid mandate to directly link services to DSM diagnoses; supervising and training behavioral health professionals who must provide clinical supervision to trained behavior analysts; and implementation of quality of life improvement strategies such as “crowding out” behaviors by teaching replacement behaviors. This process takes place in a traditional therapeutic system of care.
Meeting the Demand for Services By a Recognized Profession: The Quest for Licensure of Board Certified Behavior Analysts.
TERESA A. RODGERS (Intermountain Centers for Human Development)
Abstract: The variables that led to a quest for behavior analysis licensure will be discussed, as well as the strategies and progress toward obtaining it. Heuristic goals are to solicit additional information and strategies, and recruit others to join this effort. Issues include: (a) in behavioral health BCBA’s are able to provide services as behavioral health technicians within licensed behavioral health service agencies with supervision by licensed professionals such as social workers, psychologist, counselor and marriage and family therapists; (b) the behavioral health system of care recognizes behaviorally based practices; however, the majority of professionals providing these services have limited training in applied behavior analysis; and (c) many within the behavioral health system assume that behavior health professionals can implement behavior analysis best practices after receiving brief in-service training.
Symposium #187
CE Offered: BACB
The ABAI Practice Board: Addressing Issues Relevant To Practice
Sunday, May 25, 2008
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
Area: CSE/TPC; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Thomas L. Zane (The Center for Applied Behavior Analysis at The Sage Colleges)
Discussant: Catherine A. Bryson (Board of Cooperative Education, Albany)
CE Instructor: Thomas L. Zane, Ph.D.

The mission of the Practice Board is to consider issues related to the work of behavior analysts everywhere, including research, practice, and ethics and to address issues relevant to the practice of behavior analysis. This symposium will explore issues that affect behavior analysts work.

Views from Academia.
MICHAEL F. DORSEY (The Vinfen Corporation)
Abstract: Behavior analysts practicing in academia have unique considerations and needs, such as being the sole behavior analysts in a department. This presenter will discuss concerns unique to behavior analysts working at colleges and universities.
Views from the Real World.
CATHERINE A. BRYSON (Board of Cooperative Education, Albany)
Abstract: Behavior analysts practicing in schools and human service organizations have unique issues related to their practice. This presenter will cover some issues that impact their provision of behavior analysis to various client groups.
Putting the ABAI Practice Board Into Practice.
JANET S. TWYMAN (Headsprout)
Abstract: ABAI has recently created two new Boards (the Science Board and the Practice Board) to address membership concerns. The Practice Board will focus the Association initiatives relevant to practice, such as increasing practitioner resources, developing additional continuing education activities, representing ABAI on practice issues, and strengthening communication among practitioners and between practitioners and scientists. This presenter will describe various issues that the Board will be addressing over the coming months and years, and will request audience input for further activities.
Symposium #191
CE Offered: BACB
Extensions of Experimental Analysis to Assess Appropriate Behavior of Adolescents
Sunday, May 25, 2008
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
Area: EAB/EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Jennifer A. Sellers (AdvoServ)
Discussant: Terry J. Page (AdvoServ)
CE Instructor: Jennifer A. Sellers, Ph.D.

The utility of the functional analysis (FA) methodology in identify environmental reinforcers maintaining problem behavior and developing robust treatments has been well documented over the past 20 years (Iwata et al., 1994, Hagopian et al., 1998). However, FA of problem behavior is not always feasible due to the severity of problem behavior, time constraints, or lack of resources. A variety of experimental analyses (e.g., antecedent and concurrent operant) have been successful in identifying environmental reinforcers of appropriate behavior (Conroy & Stichter, 2003; Finkel et al., 2003). The purpose of this symposium is to examine extensions of experimental analyses to the assessment of appropriate behavior. The symposium will include three presentations in which FA of appropriate behavior was conducted with adolescents with problem behavior. The presentations will evaluate the utility of experimental analyses to identify the maintaining variables of appropriate behavior and develop robust treatments. The assessment of appropriate behavior is evaluated via FA, concurrent operant analysis, and assessment based treatments. In addition, FA and concurrent operant assessments are compared in relation to reinforcers identified and treatment efficacy. The findings indicate the need for continued evaluation of FA of appropriate behavior across settings, individuals, and topographies of behavior.

Comparison of Findings Across Functional Analysis and Concurrent Operant Assessments.
CHRISTOPHER J. PERRIN (The Ohio State University), Jennifer A. Sellers (AdvoServ), Brandon M. Badley (University of Delaware), Alonna Marcus (AdvoServ)
Abstract: The utility of extended functional analysis (FA) methodology has been demonstrated in the assessment of problem behavior. However, functional analysis methodology may be contraindicative or result in inconclusive findings. One alternative is to assess appropriate behavior within a concurrent operant analysis (COA) (Finkel, et al. 2003). The purpose of this study was to compare the results of an FA of problem behavior with the results of both a brief and extended COA. Three adolescents with developmental disabilities and problem behavior participated in the study. A FA, extended COA, and brief COA were conducted with each participant. Sessions were 5 minutes and frequency data were collected on choice and problem behavior. In the COA, the relative preference for attention, demands, and tangible items were measured by choice between two social situations on a fixed time 30 s schedule. The extended COA consisted of multiple repetitions of each condition whereas a single session for each condition was conducted in the brief COA. For all participants, the results of the functional analysis were similar to the results of the extended COA. Interobserver data were collected for at least 30% of sessions and averaged at least 80% for all participants.
Functional Analysis of Appropriate Behavior with Adolescents.
JENNIFER A. SELLERS (AdvoServ), Christine Strickland (AdvoServ)
Abstract: Functional analysis (FA) methodology has been successful in identifying the environmental reinforcers maintaining a variety of problem behaviors (Asmus et al., 2004). The use of FA methodology is not appropriate for all topographies of behavior (e.g., life threatening self-injury). Alternative assessments such as structural analyses have been successful in identifying a variety of environmental variables that occasion appropriate behavior (Conroy & Stitchter 2003). The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the utility of FA methodology in identifying environmental reinforcers maintaining the appropriate vocalizations of three adolescents with developmental disabilities and problem behavior. A functional analysis of appropriate behavior was conducted with each participant. Appropriate vocalizations were followed by 30 s access to positive reinforcement in the tangible and attention conditions or a 30 s break from demands in the escape condition. Problem behavior did not result in a planned consequence. Sessions were 5 minutes and data were collected on the frequency of appropriate and problem behavior. Interobserver agreement was obtained on 25% of sessions and averaged 80% or higher for each participant. The results indicated the functional analysis methodology was successful in identifying at least one environmental reinforcer for appropriate vocalizations for each participant.
Teacher Implemented Treatment Probes for Problem Behavior: A Consultative Procedure for Functional Analysis of Classroom Behavior.
ELIZABETH L.W. MCKENNEY (University of Florida), Nancy Waldron (University of Florida), Maureen Conroy (Virginia Commonwealth University)
Abstract: Classroom-based assessments of problem behavior have typically used various forms of descriptive functional behavioral assessment methodology, or FBA (Ervin et al., 2001). There is a dearth of research that has extended the use of experimental functional analysis (FA) methodology to work with typically developing students, students with mild to moderate disruptive behavior, or adolescents (Boyajian et al., 2001; Broussard & Northup, 1997; Ervin et al., 1998; Flood, et al., 2002; Jones et al., 2000; Moore et al., 2002). This investigation examined a teacher implemented FA conducted in general education classrooms with typically developing adolescents. Data will be presented on the integrity with which three general education middle school teachers implemented FA procedures to assess the function of appropriate classroom behavior of typically developing adolescents who also demonstrated disruptive behavior. Behavioral consultation and performance feedback procedures were used to support teacher integrity, following teacher training as outlined by Iwata et al. (2000), Jones et al. (2000), and Wallace et al. (2004). Integrity data before, during, and following training will be presented, as well as the results of a multielement FA on appropriate classroom behavior. Interobserver agreement was obtained on an average of 25% of all sessions and averaged at least 70%.
Symposium #198
CE Offered: BACB
Current Intervention Applications in OBM
Sunday, May 25, 2008
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Jeanine Plowman Stratton (Furman University)
CE Instructor: Jeanine Plowman Stratton, Ph.D.

This symposium will present a variety of OBM research projects, showcasing some of the most commonly used interventions in OBM research. Two studies examined ways to improve the effectiveness of employee work tasks in restaurant settings, one manipulating a unique feature of feedback while another used a package intervention to increase selling and customer service behaviors. Another study examined the use of antecedents to improve the cleanliness of gym equipment. The fourth used a reinforcement program to enhance the effectiveness of a smoking cessation program in a primary healthcare facility.

Altering the Temporal Positioning of Feedback to Improve Closing Task Performance at a Restaurant: Timing Can Make a Difference.
CHRIS A. SAWYER (Furman University), Rhett Abraham (Furman University), Jeanine Plowman Stratton (Furman University), Melissa A. Wilson (Furman University)
Abstract: This performance improvement project was conducted to examine the effect of management inspection and individual feedback on server performance of two closing behaviors at a privately-owned restaurant: rolling silverware and wiping tables. Participants included four experienced waitstaff employees. Employees worked two consecutive shifts each day. A baseline data collection phase was followed by an inspection and feedback phase. This study used a multiple base design across shifts per participant in which feedback was delivered following each shift. Levels of both behaviors improved during the intervention phase for each participant. The improvement was greater in the second shift behavior than in the first shift. This difference may be due to the timing of feedback delivery. Feedback functions and implications will be discussed.
The Effects of Implementing Performance Management to Increase Selling at "19th Hole" Bar & Grill.
YASSER ABOUL FETOUH (Florida State University), Michael A. Thompson (Florida State University), Stephanie Toelken (University of South Florida), Jon S. Bailey (FSU, BMC, FABA)
Abstract: The present study sought to increase selling behaviors. The behaviors pinpointed were customer greeting, presentation of daily specials, and up-selling. A progression of the 12 diagnostic questions were implemented resulting in two intervention packages that featured visual prompts, task clarification, role-play, and manager training. As a result, customer greeting increased from 0% to 70%, presentation of the daily special increased from 0% to 50% and up-selling also increased from 0% to 50%.
Increasing Gym Sanitation at a College Fitness Facility.
SHAYLA R. ELLIS (Florida State University), Melissa A. Brewer (Florida State University), Emily Pearson (Florida State University)
Abstract: An increasing number of American's enter fitness facilities daily in order to improve their health. However, upon entering the facility and utilizing the equipment they come into contact with a number of germs and bacteria which can be potentially harmful. This study sought to increase the frequency of gym patrons sanitizing their equipment after use through the use of antecedent manipulations in a reversal design.
Butt-Out: An Evaluation of Smoking Cessation Methods.
AMBER L. WATTS (Florida State University), Jon S. Bailey (FSU, BMC, FABA), Marco D. Tomasi (Florida State University)
Abstract: The current study evaluated a preexisting smoking program at the University's fully accredited primary care facility. This program uses smoking cessation aids along with providing support and encouragement from the staff. Smoking cessation aids are offered at half price to students who demonstrate a commitment to quitting and agree to weekly 30-minute meetings with a facilitator. This study also designed a smoking cessation program plus a voucher-based reinforcement program. This consisted of the use of vouchers for motivation. Participants could earn vouchers for a carbon monoxide (CO) reading of equal to or less than 4 parts per million (ppm). The participants were randomly assigned to an experimental condition. Group 1 incorporated the use of a smoking aid, and Group 2 incorporated the use of a smoking aid plus the use of vouchers. There were 2 students participating in this study. For inclusion of this study, all participants had to be current smokers over 18 years of age. An AB repeated across participants design was used to evaluate the smoking cessation programs. During the intervention, cigarette smoking was reduced with both participants. Results suggest behavioral methods used with smoking aids have the potential to reduce cigarette smoking among college students.
Symposium #200
CE Offered: BACB
Acquisition of Verbal Capabilities Using Principles of Verbal Behavior Analysis with Students in Elementary and Middle School
Sunday, May 25, 2008
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
Area: TBA/VRB; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Dana Visalli-Gold (Columbia University Teachers College)
CE Instructor: Dana Visalli-Gold, Ph.D.

This symposium will address the acquisition of verbal capabilities using the principles of verbal behavior analysis with students in elementary and middle school settings. The three papers focus on inducing observational learning, self-editing, and rates of learning with children diagnosed with developmental and behavioral disabilities. The first paper addresses the effects of students observing teacher presented learn units on the emergence of selected untaught structural and grammatical components of writing samples and the effectiveness of the observing students writing. The second paper focuses on the effects of written mands on written compositions. The final paper investigates the effects of an immediate correction procedure and the students' use of answer keys on learn units to criterion for target behaviors.

The Effects of Students’ Observation of Teacher Presented Learn Units on the Writing of the Observing Students.
DANA VISALLI-GOLD (Columbia University Teachers College)
Abstract: his experiment was conducted to test the effects of students observing teacher presented learn units on the emergence of selected untaught structural and grammatical components of writing samples and the effectiveness of the observing students writing. The teacher delivered learn units to a peer confederate while the target students observed those learn units. The teacher monitored the observing student's written products for the emergence of untaught components both before and after the instructional sessions. Ten middle school students were selected to be in one of two conditions, either learn units (peer confederates) or observed learn units (target students). The observing student (the target students) corrected heir own writing according to the learn units delivered to a confederate student. Thirty minutes following these instructional sessions, a probe was conducted. Two of the observing students did not monitor the instructional sessions by correcting a writing assignment in the first treatment phase. The results for this experiment showed that observing instruction while monitoring the instructional sessions functioned to increase the correct usage of all levels of the dependent variable.
The Effects of Written Mands on Written Compositions.
DR. SHIRA A. ACKERMAN (Columbia University Teachers College), Dana Visalli-Gold (Columbia University Teachers College), Dolleen-Day Keohane (Columbia University Teachers College & CABAS)
Abstract: These two experiments tested the effects of written mands on the written compositions of four participants. Written mands are a component of writer immersion. Written mands were defined as requests, questions, or comments between the students and the teachers exclusively in written form. The students were required to request items, assistance, or to ask questions in the written form in their notebooks for the duration of the school day. The dependent variables for student 1, 3, and 4 were the number of self-editing responses, initial sentence starters, number of words used per writing sample, number of correctly spelled words per writing sample, and the mean number of words used per sentence. The dependent variables for Student 2 were self-editing responses, initial sentence starters, number words per writing sample, number of correctly spelled words per writing sample, and the number of sentences per writing sample. The implementation of written mands was effective in improving the spelling, initial sentence starters, number of words per writing sample, the number of sentences per writing sample, and lead to the emergence of the self-editing repertoire for all participants.
Immediate Correction Procedures and their Effects on Learn Units to Criterion for School Aged Students.
KRYSTL GIORDANO-PADILLA (Columbia University Teachers College), Dana Visalli-Gold (Columbia University Teachers College), Dolleen-Day Keohane (Columbia University Teachers College), Dr. Shira A. Ackerman (Columbia University Teachers College)
Abstract: This experiment investigated the effects of an immediate correction procedure and the students' use of answer keys on learn units to criterion for target behaviors. The immediate correction procedure was implemented to ensure that the correction procedures were indeed functioning as correction The student immediately reviewed and responded to the teacher's behavior in the presence of the antecedent and teacher consequences. Following the successful implementation of the immediate correction procedure, the answer key procedure was implemented. The students immediately consequated their behavior for the entire assignment using the answer key under direct supervision of the teacher. The data showed that all participants emitted higher levels of correct responding during the immediate correction procedure and even higher levels during the answer key procedure. In both of these procedures the learn unit was revisited and the teacher consequences were presented while the students were attending to the antecedent while reviewing and responding to their consequated assignment. The students higher levels of correct responding significantly decreased their total learn units to criterion across the targeted behaviors.
Invited Paper Session #201
CE Offered: BACB

Long-term Maintenance of Functional Communication Training

Sunday, May 25, 2008
11:00 AM–11:50 AM
International North
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: David P. Wacker, Ph.D.
Chair: Joel Eric Ringdahl (University of Iowa)
DAVID P. WACKER (University of Iowa)
Dr. David P. Wacker is a Professor of Pediatrics and Special Education at The University of Iowa. He directs two outpatient clinic services for children and adults with disabilities who engage in severe problem behavior. He is the Principal Investigator on an NICHD-funded research project evaluating the long-term effectiveness of functional communication training in home settings. He previously served as the Editor of the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, as a standing panel reviewer for the National Institutes of Health, and as the President of the Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. He received the 2000 Applied Research Award for Outstanding Contributions to Applied Behavioral Research from the American Psychological Association's Division 25 and the 2002 Distinguished Research Award and 1987 National Educator of the Year Award from the Arc of the United States. In 2007, Dr. Wacker was named ABA International Fellow. Dr. Wacker has chaired well over 40 dissertations and his students have gone on to become outstanding clinicians and scientists, including several professors and Associate Editors for the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis.

We have completed 4 years of a 5-year NIH-funded project that is evaluating long-term maintenance associated with functional communication training. Approximately 20 children have enrolled in the project. All children are 6 years of age or younger, have developmental disabilities, and display aberrant behavior such as self-injury. Parents conducted functional analysis and functional communication training session in their homes with weekly coaching from project investigators. Treatment sessions were videotaped and coded using a 6-sec partial-interval recording system. IOA was recorded for approximately 30% of all sessions. Treatment continued for up to 1 year for each participant. Throughout treatment, probes of aberrant behavior, manding, and task completion were conducted in which various components of the treatment package were removed (e.g., mand card) or changed (e.g., time in demands increased from 5 to 15 minutes). The purpose of these probes was to determine if aberrant behavior increased or adaptive behavior decreased when these components were altered. In this talk, I will present the results of these probes and will discuss the results relative to resurgence, maintenance, and response strength.

Invited Paper Session #202
CE Offered: BACB

International Invited Paper - Autism, Joint Attention, and Verbal Behavior: Down to Basics of an Operant Analysis, Suggesting Technological Applications at Almost Every Step

Sunday, May 25, 2008
11:00 AM–11:50 AM
Grand Ballroom
Area: TPC; Domain: Theory
CE Instructor: Per Holth, Ph.D.
Chair: Ted Schoneberger (Stanislaus County Office of Education)
PER HOLTH (Akershus University College)
Prof. Per Holth received his degree from the University of Oslo. He is interested in behavior analysis in general; in basic research as well as conceptual issues and various areas of application. His specific interest in an operant analysis of joint attention arose while he was the Program Director at the Center for Early Intervention in Oslo (2000-2003), working with children diagnosed with autism, and joint attention phenomena have remained among his main research interests. He is one of the founders, and member of the editorial troika, of the European Journal of Behavior Analysis (EJOBA) and is now employed as a professor of behavior analysis at Akershus University College, Norway.

Joint attention, a synchronizing of the attention of two or more persons, has been an increasing focus of research in cognitive developmental psychology and behavior analysis. Much of this interest is grounded in the fact that children diagnosed with autism may display a syndrome-specific deficit in joint attention. Phenomena typically considered include gaze following, monitoring, social referencing, and protoimperative and protodeclarative gestures. First, from an operant perspective, a conceptual analysis is in order both because the concept of joint attention has come to refer to a number of different phenomena and because the specification of reinforcement contingencies can replace vague cognitive language of "intention," "sharing," and "theory of mind." Second, even if almost completely unrecognized in modern psychology, some very basic phenomena now studied in the context of joint attention, such as protoimperative and protodeclarative communication, were analyzed as verbal operants by Skinner more than 50 years ago. Third, certain contingencies and schedules of reinforcement that have been investigated in behavioral laboratories are directly relevant to devising procedures that aim to correct deficiencies in joint attention skills, for instance, in children with autism. A behavior-analytic perspective is inherently practical, suggesting technological applications at almost every step.

B. F. Skinner Lecture Series Paper Session #214
CE Offered: BACB

Finding the Consistency of Social Behavior in its Stable Variability

Sunday, May 25, 2008
1:30 PM–2:20 PM
Grand Ballroom
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
CE Instructor: Walter Mischel, Ph.D.
Chair: Allen Neuringer (Reed College)
WALTER MISCHEL (Columbia University)
Dr. Walter Mischel is the Robert Johnston Niven Professor of Humane Letters in Psychology at Columbia University where he has been since 1983. Before Columbia, he taught at the University of Colorado (1956-1958), Harvard University (1958-1962), and Stanford University (1962-1983). He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 2004 and to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1991, and in 2007 was elected president of the Association for Psychological Science (APS). Mischel’s work over 50 years has (1) re-conceptualized research and theory in personality and social psychology on the stability and variability of behavior and its links to situations; (2) clarified basic mechanisms underlying delay of gratification, and future-oriented self-control; and (3) traced the implications of self-control ability for development over the life course. He received the APA Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award, the Distinguished Scientist Award of the Society of Experimental Social Psychologists, the Distinguished Contributions to Personality Award of the Society of Social and Personality Psychologists, and the Distinguished Scientist Award of APA's Division of Clinical Psychology. He is past editor of Psychological Review, and was president of APA Division 8 (Social and Personality), and of the Association for Research in Personality.

To build a science of the person, the most basic question is: How can one identify and understand the psychological invariancethe basic coherence and organization-- that distinctively characterizes an individual and that underlies the variations in the thoughts, feelings, and actions that occur across contexts and over time? This question proved particularly difficult because discrepancies soon emerged between the expressions of consistency that were expected and those that were found. The resulting classic personality paradox became: How can we reconcile our intuitions---and theories---about the invariance and stability of personality with the equally compelling empirical evidence for the variability of the persons behavior across diverse situations? Which is right: the intuitions or the findings? I discuss some advances to answer this question since it was posed decades ago. These findings have allowed a resolution of the paradox, and provide the outlines for a conception of the underlying structure and dynamics of behavior, and its links to situations, that seems to better account for the data on consistencies and variability in the expressions of individual differences. This conception is applied to the analysis of self-control, focusing on the ability to delay gratification, and its determinants, development, and implications over the life course.

Symposium #216
CE Offered: BACB
Addressing Core Deficits: Developing Social Repertoires in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Sunday, May 25, 2008
1:30 PM–2:50 PM
Continental B
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Kim D. Lucker Greene (Behavior Management Consultants, Inc.)
Discussant: Sarah Robinson (Agency for Persons with Disabilities)
CE Instructor: Kim D. Lucker Greene, Ph.D.

This symposium will present 3 papers demonstrating social skills instruction for children with autism, carried out in three different formats/settings; computer-based parent training, university center-based student teaching, and a community-based social skills group with typical and non-typical peers . Data on childrens' social interactions and parents' social skill instruction will be presented. Video demonstrations will also be used to illustrate procedures used in these different instructional formats.

The Saturday Social Club: A Weekend Social Skills Group for Young Children with Autism.
HEATHER R. MUMMAW (Behavior Management Consultants, Inc.), Kim D. Lucker Greene (Behavior Management Consultants, Inc.)
Abstract: One of the most significant problems for people on the autism spectrum is difficulty in social interaction. This difficulty is, of course, made more significant by problems with speech and language. The purpose of a social skills group is to teach and guide social interaction of the children participating in the group, so as to teach them how to successfully engage with others in an effort to establish and maintain peer relationships. Many schools and some private agencies are implementing variations on the theme of friendship clubs or social-skills clubs. These are typically small, adult-supervised groups of children brought together to help one or more children in the group learn appropriate social behavior. The adult—and eventually the other children—acts as a social-skills coaches. The goal of the social skills groups is to increase functional social skills that children can use in everyday social settings. These groups focus on reinforcing positive behaviors such as following instructions and routines, functional communications skills, cooperative play and sharing, and positive non-verbal communication skills such as eye contact. In this paper we will present a model social skills program designed by a group of behavior analysts with Behavior Management Consultants, Inc. The “Saturday Social Club” is designed to provide children on the autism spectrum with the ability to converse, share, and play interactively with both children on the spectrum and typical peers. Data on peer interactions will be presented. Video clips will be used to illustrate the implementation of this specialized social skills therapy group.
Social Skills Training in a Center-Based Program for Children with Autism.
KARLY MARRIOTT (California State University, Fresno), Amanda N. Adams (California State University, Fresno)
Abstract: Developing social skills is one of the most important goals of behavior therapy for children with autism, but is also one of the more difficult areas to develop within a structured therapy session. Due to many factors including the lack of availability of other children and the predominance of one-on-one tutoring with an adult, many children in behavior therapy do not have the opportunity to interact with other children to practice and generalize social skills. A clinic, center, or school setting offers advantages, namely, the availability of other children. Having additional staff on hand can also be an advantage of these programs. Structuring interaction and collecting relevant data on such interactions remains a challenge. In this paper we will present several methods developed at the Central California Autism Center for collecting data and structuring social interaction between children in our center setting. These methods are likely to be highly replicable in many settings
A Computer-Based Program for Teaching Parents How to Embed Social Skills Instruction during Play Activities.
MAE R. BARKER (University of Florida)
Abstract: Due to the increasing number of children being diagnosed with autism, there is a critical need for finding better, more efficient ways to train parents on how to educate their children with autism. Parents of children with autism can play a key educational role in their children’s lives by providing systematic instruction to address the core deficits of autism. The purpose of this project is to evaluate the effectiveness of a computer-based training program (using Microsoft PowerPoint) for teaching parents how to implement social skills instruction during play activities. The training will focus on teaching parents how to initiate instruction and how to deliver discrete-trial based instruction in the context of the natural environment. Prior to the parent participant receiving the computer-based training, the researcher will assess the child’s social skills using sections of the ABLLS-R (Partington, 2006). The researcher will review these results with the parent and select instructional targets for the parent to teach his/her child during the project. During baseline, the parent will be asked to focus on teaching these skills during play activities, and data will be collected on the parent’s instructional delivery and the child’s acquisition of social skills. Following baseline, the parent will receive the computer training and the parent and child behavior will be subsequently measured to examine the effect of the training. This type of research has implications in disseminating ABA technology to an increasing number of families impacted by ASD.
Symposium #217
CE Offered: BACB
Direct Measurement of Verbal Behavior to Evaluate Response to Treatment: Use of the ADOS
Sunday, May 25, 2008
1:30 PM–2:50 PM
Continental A
Area: AUT/VRB; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Suzannah J. Ferraioli (Rutgers University)
Discussant: Sandra L. Harris (Rutgers University)
CE Instructor: Lara M. Delmolino, Ph.D.

Group studies of treatment outcomes for children with autism typically utilize standardized assessments of cognitive functioning, adaptive behavior, and language as primary dependent variables.(e.g., Lovaas, 1987; Sallows & Graupner, 2005; Smith, Groen, & Wynn, 2000). More recent attention has been paid to assessing changes in the core features of autism using measures such as the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule. (ADOS; Lord, Rutter, DiLavore & Risi, 1999) Although the ADOS was not designed to assess change, some investigators are using the assessments rating score (Owley et al., 2001) or combining the structure of the assessment with other behavioral coding systems to assess response to treatment (Lord & Corsello, 2005). Clinically, the practice of targeting specific verbal operants for instruction has become widespread. Strategies for assessing the development of verbal behavior across groups of children are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of such interventions; to supplement existing single subject research demonstrations (Carr & Firth, 2005). The following series of investigations explore strategies for direct measurement of verbal behavior within the semi-structured assessment offered by the ADOS, addressing issues of measurement and evaluation of treatment outcome.

Increased Frequency of Verbal Operants Following Behavioral Treatment for Preschoolers with Autism: Measurement Within a Semi-Structured Assessment.
MEGAN P. MARTINS (University of Colorado), Lara M. Delmolino Gatley (Rutgers University)
Abstract: Direct measurement of variables of interest in order to document improvement in socially significant behavior is central in the field of applied behavior analysis. This study was the first in a series exploring the direct measurement of verbal behavior during an annual semi-structured assessment of play and communication. Ten preschoolers with autism participated in annual ADOS assessments prior to and after approximately one year in a comprehensive behavioral program. Videotapes of the ADOS were coded by experimenters who recorded the frequency of each child’s mand, tact, echoic, and intraverbal responses. In addition, information about the quality and topography of each response was recorded. The experimenters rated whether each mand was prompted or a gesture, point, vocalization, one-word, and/or multi-word phrase, and whether each response was directed at an adult by using eye contact or an adults’ name. The findings revealed significant improvement in participants’ verbal behavior after approximately one year of treatment with noticeable increases in the rate and complexity of spontaneous mands across children. In addition, tact and intraverbal responses increased and all verbal behavior responses were more often accompanied by gesture and were more socially directed after one year of treatment. Issues in measurement and reliability are discussed.
Comparison of Frequency and Interval Data Collection Methods for Measuring Improvement in the Verbal Behavior of Preschool Children with Autism.
KATE E. FISKE MASSEY (Rutgers University), Lara M. Delmolino Gatley (Rutgers University)
Abstract: Pilot work assessing improvements in verbal behavior for preschool children with autism supports the utility of applying an observational code to behavior occurring within annual ADOS evaluations. Previous research found that measurement of the frequency, quality, and topography of the primary verbal operants before and after one year of treatment revealed measureable improvements for individual children and across a group of ten children. However, preliminary application of the behavioral code was time consuming and presented reliability challenges. To address these limitations, a second study explored whether the observed improvements in verbal behavior across a group of children were also captured with an interval coding system. When interval data were compared to frequency data, comparable findings were revealed, with greater reliability and in a more time-efficient manner. In addition, interval data offered more information about the distribution of verbal responses across an ADOS session. Findings are discussed in terms of their application to measurement of treatment outcome for programs targeting verbal behavior and the practical application of a complex behavioral code.
Evaluating Progress in the Development of Verbal Behavior in Early Intervention Programs for Children with Autism Under Three.
VALBONA DEMIRI (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center), Lara M. Delmolino Gatley (Rutgers University)
Abstract: Early, intensive behavioral intervention for autism spectrum disorders with children under the age of three is becoming more common in light of increased diagnostic precision and awareness. Ongoing evaluation of response to treatment for these young children is needed in the literature. This paper explores application of a behavioral code for direct measurement of verbal behavior to assess improvement following involvement in early intervention within an applied behavior analysis model. Pre- and post-intervention ADOS assessments will be scored according to the instrument’s rating scales as well as a verbal behavior coding system. Measured changes in the frequency and quality of verbal behavior responses will be compared to changes in the ADOS ratings. In addition, preliminary data regarding the measurement of verbal behavior in a sample of typically developing young children under 3 years of age within the context of an ADOS is offered to highlight developmental factors and variability in the verbal behavior of children under the age of 3.
Symposium #218
CE Offered: BACB
Evaluations of Practices Used in Behavior Analytic Interventions for Children with Autism
Sunday, May 25, 2008
1:30 PM–2:50 PM
International South
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Adel C. Najdowski (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Discussant: James E. Carr (Western Michigan University)
CE Instructor: Adel C. Najdowski, Ph.D.

The papers in this symposium touch upon two important topics in behavior analytic intervention for children with autism. The first is related to practices used for data collection during discrete trials instruction and the second is related to practices that lead to generalization of skills taught during intervention. The first presentation in this symposium will show results from an evaluation of continuous data collection versus first-trial data collection during discrete trials instruction. The second presentation will show an assessment of generalization of pure tacts in the natural environment as a result of teaching impure tacts during discrete trials instruction. The third presentation will show a comparison of using free operant to restricted operant procedures on generalization of skills. From the first presentation, attendees of this symposium will learn which of the evaluated methods of data collection appear to be more accurate. From the second two presentations, attendees will learn whether generalization of skills is more or less likely given the evaluated practices.

An Examination of Data Collection Methods in an Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention Program for Children with Autism.
ADEL C. NAJDOWSKI (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Ryan Bergstrom (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Vardui Chilingaryan (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Susie Balasanyan (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Barbara C. Aguilar (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: There is a growing debate regarding the frequency with which data needs to be collected during discrete trials instruction (DTI) for children with autism. Cummings and Carr (in press) compared continuous (trial-by-trial) to intermittent (first trial only) data collection methods and found overall that targets mastered via the intermittent data collection method were mastered in slightly fewer sessions, but that targets mastered via the continuous data collection method were slightly better maintained. To keep true to the intermittent data collection method, the authors did not continue to collect data on the remainder of the trials conducted in the intermittent condition sessions as this could compromise quality of therapy. This study used continuous versus intermittent data to make decisions of mastery, but still collected data on all trials to determine if data on the first trial versus all trials would lead to similar or different conclusions about a child’s performance. Results showed that both methods predicted mastery at similar times and that both were correct as responding was maintained.
Assessing Generalization of Discrete Trial Impure Tact Training to Pure Tacts in the Natural Environment.
VARDUI CHILINGARYAN (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Jonathan J. Tarbox (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Romelea Manucal (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Ellen Kong (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Abstract: A common criticism of discrete trial training (DTT) is that it may not produce generalization to more natural settings. Natural environment training (NET) occurs in the natural environment from the start and is said to produce better generalization. However, some have suggested that, particularly in the case of verbal behavior, the operants which are taught in DTT may be functionally distinct from those taught in NET. That is, the controlling variables for verbal behavior in unstructured natural environments are not necessarily the same as those for verbal behavior occurring in the context of DTT. In this study, we used a standard DTT training format to teach two children with autism tacts of picture cards and assessed for generalization to unstructured probe sessions in their homes. Generalization to “pure” tacts in the unstructured natural setting did not occur and NET instruction was required to establish pure tacts there. In a second study, we taught a third child with autism to tact everyday items in their home environment and assessed for generalization to tacting picture cards in a DTT setting and again did not find generalization. Results appear to suggest that generalization should not be expected between DTT and unstructured settings, and vice versa, and that tacting may have to be directly established in each respective setting.
A Comparison of Free Operant and Restricted Operant Procedures on Generalization of Academic Tasks with Young Children with Autism.
RACHEL S. F. TARBOX (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Jonathan J. Tarbox (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Amy Kenzer (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Abstract: Initially, ABA programs for children with autism utilized only Discrete Trial Teaching (DTT). However, ABA programs continue to evolve, placing greater emphasis on the generalization and spontaneity of skills learned, and it has been suggested that generalization is difficult to acquire for skills that have been taught via DTT. One approach that has recently garnered attention is fluency instruction. As opposed to DTT, fluency instruction is a free-operant teaching procedure that utilizes a rate measure of behavior. Proponents of this approach suggest that free operant procedures promote the development of enduring behavioral repertoires. However, there is limited empirical evidence to support the use of a DTT versus a fluency approach with respect to the generalization of skills. The purpose of the current investigation was to compare the effects of free operant and restricted operant procedures on the generalization of academic skills with children with autism.
Symposium #219
CE Offered: BACB
Extending ABA Social Skills Training for Children with Autism
Sunday, May 25, 2008
1:30 PM–2:50 PM
Continental C
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Gerald E. Harris (Texas Young Autism Project)
Discussant: Gerald E. Harris (Texas Young Autism Project)
CE Instructor: Gerald E. Harris, Ph.D.

Deficits in the social functioning of children with autism can be challenging to address. The complexities and subtleties of social interactions often require more exactness and forethought in the application of ABA procedures. While some success in using ABA techniques to improve social skills has been reported, there are many social skill areas not yet fully addressed or even understood. This symposium presents data and new information on procedures used within an ABA Treatment Center for children with autism to extend and improve their social functioning. The first presentation focuses on generalizing social behaviors, initially trained through interactions with adult therapists, to more natural peer interactions. The second presentation looks at teaching children with autism to modulate their voice volume in response to specific environmental stimuli in order to better communicate socially. The third presentation offers data on a new application of an emotional coding system, using specific facial cues, which can help in teaching children with autism to understand and express emotional subtleties more effectively. Together, these three studies extend our knowledge of, and ability to modify, the social skills of children with autism.

Using Environmental Cues to Teach Volume Modulation to Young Children with Autism.
KRISTEN MCCLINTOCK (Texas Young Autism Project), Maureen Childs (Texas Young Autism Project), Ehsan Bayat (Texas Young Autism Project), Gerald E. Harris (Texas Young Autism Project)
Abstract: Children with autism often display prosodic deficits (McCann, 2003). Prosodic problems are often life-long even if other areas of language improve. Voice volume is one aspect of prosody which people use to communicate their affect and pragmatic intent (Crystal, 1969). A study conducted by Fetherston, Brothers and Poulson (2007) trained distance as the discriminative stimulus for volum modulation for children with autism. The current study extended those findings with the additional components of training for adjusting volume levels due to ambient distracters and speaking to a listening partner whom is out of sight. Participants were four children enrolled in a discrete trial applied behavior analysis program. All participants displayed a lack of variation of volume at baseline. Using verbal imitation skills, the children were taught to vary their volume dependent upon the distance of the listening partner as well as to adjust for ambient sounds. Results demonstrated that children with autism could be taught to adjust their volume levels according to listener distance, and environmental sounds. Interobserver agreement was above 85% for all phases. This study has practical applications in the treatment of autism.
Generalization of Adult Trained Social Skills to Interactions with Typical Children.
JOHN SALINAS (Texas Young Autism Project), Ehsan Bayat (Texas Young Autism Project), Gerald E. Harris (Texas Young Autism Project)
Abstract: Research has shown that children with autism can learn to initiate play (Gaylord-Ross, Haring, Breen & Pitts-Conway, 1984), usconversational scripts (Krantz & McClannahan, 1993) and engage with other children through peer modeling procedures (Charlop & Walsh, 1986; Pierce & Schreibman, 1995; Werts, Caldwell & Wolery, 1996). However, many treatment centers utilize adults to teach social skills and may not have access to typical children to use in treatment. The purpose of this study was to examine an in vivo social initiation intervention for children with autism using adults and then evaluate generalization of the skills to interactions with typical peers. Participants were three children with autism who had deficits in sociainitiation. The subjects acquired social initiation skills while interacting with two adult therapists, and then were able to generalize the skills to novel adults. However, the subjects needed training sessions with typical children to generalize the skill to similar age peers. Interobserver agreement was 90% for training and generalization probes. This study’s findings suggest that children with autism may require specific training with typical peers in order to generalize adult trained social skills to peers interactions.
Training Affective Expression Coding in a Treatment Center for Children with Autism.
ALEXIS HYDE-WASHMON (Texas Young Autism Project), Trea Drake (Texas Young Autism Project), Catriona Cullum (Texas Young Autism Project), Gerald E. Harris (Texas Young Autism Project)
Abstract: Understanding and expressing emotion through facial cues is a prominent characteristic of effective social communication, and is often deficenit in children with autism. Using ABA procedures to teach such social communication depends on adequately operationally defining emotional constructs. This study identified overt facial characteristics (e.g., brow, nose, and mouth movement) indicative of seven emotional states displayed by typically developing children. Treatment staff was then trained to code the seven emotional states utilizing the techniques of written description, practice with visual media, and performance feedback. Agreement between observers was above 90%, indicating a good ability to use those specific cues to code affect. There was also good evidence of generalization of skills, once adequately trained, by the staff across children. These findings indicate that the affective expression coding system can be effectively implemented in a treatment center for children with autism. Using this coding system to operationalize nonverbal communication target behaviors, both expressive and receptive, and then monitor intervention procedures designed to promote affective communication in children with autism has the potential to greatly improve their social outcome.
Symposium #221
CE Offered: BACB
FAP All Over
Sunday, May 25, 2008
1:30 PM–2:50 PM
Boulevard C
Area: CBM/CSE; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Daniel J. Moran (Trinity Services)
Discussant: Robert J. Kohlenberg (University of Washington)
CE Instructor: Daniel J. Moran, Ph.D.

Functional Analytic Psychotherapy was developed to guide clinical behavior analysts to foster rich and intense curative relationships with their clients. FAP has been discussed as a worthy intervention during individual psychotherapy, especially with individuals dealing with depressive repertoires. Using relationship factors in a functional analytic approach to clinical concerns can expand beyond the walls of the individual therapy room. FAP is being used by behavior analysts in psychosocial rehabilitation centers with individuals dealing with severe mental illness, in sex offender treatment programs, and in residential facilities with adolescents. This symposium will discuss the use of FAP in different scenarios.

Using FAP with Severely Mentally Ill Individuals.
CARL INDOVINA (Trinity Services), Thane A. Dykstra (Trinity Services), Kim Schontz (Trinity Services), Daniel J. Moran (Trinity Services)
Abstract: This presentation will discuss the use of Functional Analytic Psychotherapy with individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia, dual diagnoses, and other psychosis disorders. We will discuss the function of psychotic behavior and the social consequences involved with psychotic behavior. We will also show how FAP relates to the expressed emotion literature and how it can be integrated in family interventions aimed to help the client. We will review Functional Analytic Rehabilitation (FAR; Holmes, Dykstra, et al., 2003), and how a highly structured treatment environment helps maximize contact with relevant contingencies associated with effective illness management. The typical CRBs observed in these environments will be reviewed, and we will discuss using the five FAP rules to assist in treatment.
FAP with Adolescents.
REO NEWRING (Girls and Boys Town), Chauncey R. Parker (University of Washington)
Abstract: FAP was not designed for use with misbehaving youth but don't let the topography and population fool you. We will address several areas of potential difficulty when working with adolescents using FAP: assessment (i.e., who is the client, what is the problem, what are the goals, and who needs to change?), treatment (elaboration on or modifications to the 5 rules needed to effectively treat adolescents), and the relationship (i.e., trust, confidentiality, and mattering). The use of FAP in a residential treatment setting will also be discussed.
FAP and Sex Offender Treatment.
KIRK A.B. NEWRING (Lincoln Correctional Center)
Abstract: Sex offender treatment providers are among the larger population of treatment providers being directed to practice evidence-based practice, empirically-supported treatments, and the like. However, a recent landmark publication on sex offender treatment outcome and the following discussion are suggestive of the field lacking an empirically-supported treatment. Lacking the, the most ethical approach is evidence-based treatment. Risk assessment research have identified the important variables (risk factors) related to sexual reoffending. Functional Analytic Psychotherapy can be a useful, and evidence-based approach, for addressing these risk factors. Trials and tribulations to be discussed.
Symposium #224
CE Offered: BACB
Interdisciplinary Applications of Behavior Analysis: Speech, Language, Literacy, and Mobility
Sunday, May 25, 2008
1:30 PM–2:50 PM
Stevens 2
Area: DDA/EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Michael J. Cameron (Simmons College)
CE Instructor: Michael J. Cameron, Ph.D.

This symposium will focus on the application of behavior analytic methodologies for the assessment and treatment of interdisciplinary issues. We will demonstrate the broad application of behavior analysis via four data-based studies. The first study centers on the structural analysis and treatment of severe childhood stuttering. The second study demonstrates how behavior analytic procedures can be used for teaching conversational skills to a child with a language delay. The next study demonstrates how reading comprehension can be enhanced as a result of procedures based on the basic principles of applied behavior analysis. And the final study will focus on teaching orientation and mobility skills to a child who is blind. The importance of demonstrating the relevance of behavior analysis across disciplines will be emphasized within this symposium.

Structural Analysis and Treatment of Severe Stuttering.
MICHELE D. MAYER (HMEA), Cathy J. Booth (Private Practice), Michael J. Cameron (Simmons College)
Abstract: Stuttering is a communication disorder in which the flow of speech is broken by repetitions, prolongations, or abnormal stoppages of sounds and syllables (APA, 2000). The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, delineates several important observations centered on stuttering; simply stated, stuttering is governed by context, and ostensibly there is a need to understand the interactional relationship between speech and prevailing contexts. The purpose of this study was to conduct a structural analysis to identify the conditions that exacerbated the stuttering behavior of a 4 year-old boy and to use the results of the structural analysis to inform treatment. Results of the structural analysis suggested a co-variation between speech production and disfluent motor performances. In consequence, fluency training, in the area of motor performances, was introduced in a multiple baseline design fashion to assess improvements in speech production. Motor movement fluency training resulted in a 30 to 60% improvement in speech production. Inter-observer agreement data were collected on 100% of all opportunities and exceeded 95% agreement. The relevance of structural analyses and direct, simultaneous intervention in the areas of speech production and motor movement are discussed.
Teaching Initiation of Language to Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.
SUSAN AINSLEIGH (Simmons College), Rebecca Fontaine (Simmons College)
Abstract: Children with autism spectrum disorders often demonstrate difficulty in the ability to initiate conversations. Indeed, impairment in the ability to initiate a conversation is listed as a diagnostic component of autistic disorder (DSM-IV, 2000). Even in those individuals diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder who demonstrate adequate speech, such as those with Asperger syndrome, impairments in initiation of language for social interaction are often seen (Atwood, 2000). Strategies for increasing the frequency or complexity of interactional language may be unsuccessful for an individual in natural social situations because they fail to capitalize on natural opportunities to initiate a conversation with another person. This study examines the use of a number of behavioral strategies, including a variety of prompting strategies and antecedent manipulations, to increase initiation of conversation with three children diagnosed with either pervasive developmental disorder or Asperger syndrome. The effectiveness of various forms of prompting, including echoic verbal prompting, textual prompting, and gestural prompting were compared, as were different formats of textual prompting, to determine superiority of effect. Results showed that combining echoic and textual prompting produced higher levels of social initiation. Strategies used to promote generalization of this skill are included.
Language, Literacy and Applied Behavior Analysis.
STEPHANIE NOSTIN (Speech Therapy Group, LLC., Beverly, MA), Michael J. Cameron (Simmons College)
Abstract: Comprehension is the process of simultaneously extracting and constructing meaning through interaction and involvement with written language. For many beginning readers, comprehension strategies must be explicitly taught. Several strategies, based on the basic principles of applied behavior analysis, can be useful for teaching reading comprehension skills. The aim of this study was to demonstrate how the complexity of the task demand (i.e., reading and comprehending text) can be managed by using: (1) methods for scaffolding whole-task practice, (2) simple-to-complex sequencing, (3) using alternative tasks such as worked-out examples and completion tasks, and (4) the step-by-step presentation of procedural information for extracting information from text. Three struggling readers served as participants in this study. A reading comprehension instructional program (consisting of the aforementioned components) was applied using a multiple baseline across subjects experimental design. Dependent variables included: (1) answers to comprehension questions, (2) elaboration during story “re-telling”, and (3) retention of information. Following the implementation of the reading comprehension program each participant improved their performances on each outcome measure by at least 50%. Inter-observer agreement was calculated after viewing video taped performances and exceeded 85% agreement. The interrelationship between applied behavior analysis and literacy development is emphasized in this study.
Applications of Behavior Analysis to Support Orientation and Mobility Training.
MICHAEL J. CAMERON (Simmons College), Barbara Birge (Perkins School for the Blind), Martha Majors (Perkins School for the Blind)
Abstract: Orientation and mobility training (O & M) helps blind or visually impaired children know where they are in space and where they want to go (orientation). It also helps children execute a plan to get to a desired destination (mobility). The purpose of this study was to demonstrate how the results of a stimulus control analysis of movement and behavior analytic procedures could be used to increase independent movement in a young girl with congenital blindness, developmental disabilities, and a protracted history of falling to the floor during sighted guide instruction. Independent variables included: (1) use of a cane, (2) freedom of movement as a reinforcer for tolerating assisted movement, and (3) the use of a supported routine. Dependent variables included: (1) distance traveled per opportunity, (2) instances of falling, (3) generalization across teachers, and parents, and (4) generalization across environments. The results of this study resulted in an eradication of falling, assisted mobility throughout the course of her day, and generalization across teachers, parents, and environments. Inter-observer agreement data were collected on 60% of all movement opportunities; there was 100% agreement on all measures. The implications of addressing orientation and mobility challenges via a behavior analytic approach are highlighted.
Symposium #225
CE Offered: BACB
Can We Decrease Problem Behavior without Extinction?
Sunday, May 25, 2008
1:30 PM–2:50 PM
Stevens 3
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Brian A. Iwata (University of Florida)
Discussant: F. Charles Mace (University of Southern Maine)
CE Instructor: Brian A. Iwata, Ph.D.

Although extinction is the most direct method for reducing the frequency of problem behavior, the procedure is sometimes difficult or impossible to use due to practical constraints (e.g., severity of problem behavior, size of client, inability to control the maintaining reinforcer). Three studies will be presented in which attempts were made to treat problem behavior with procedures that did not include extinction: (a) blocking, (b) negative reinforcement for compliance, and (c) combined antecedent interventions.

Structural and Functional Characteristics of Attention as a Consequence for Problem Behavior.
CARRIE M. DEMPSEY (California State University, Stanislaus), Brian A. Iwata (University of Florida), Jennifer Lynn Hammond (University of Florida)
Abstract: Attention has long been recognized as a source of reinforcement for problem behavior. However, little is known about its reinforcing characteristics. One common form of attention, response blocking, often is prescribed as a means of protection, yet its effects on problem behavior maintained by attention are unknown. Study 1 consisted of a structural analysis of attention. Direct observations were conducted of individuals who engaged in problem behavior, and attention delivered by caretakers was categorized according to a number of features (reprimand, warning, statement of concern, movement, physical contact, delivery of tangible item, etc.). Results showed a wide range of variation in the types of attention delivered by adults. Study 2 was an attempt to determine whether minimal attention in the form of response blocking was sufficient to extinguish attention-maintained problem behavior. Blocking (without any other forms of attention) was implemented initially but was found to be unsuccessful in decreasing the problem behavior of all participants. Elimination of problem behavior was observed subsequently when blocking was combined with either differential reinforcement or noncontingent reinforcement. These results suggest that response blocking per se might maintain problem behavior but that blocking might not compromise treatment effects when combined with other reinforcement procedures.
Analysis of Competing Contingencies for Escape-Maintained Behavior: Effects of Reinforcer Magnitude.
JENNIFER LYNN HAMMOND (University of Florida), Brian A. Iwata (University of Florida), Sarah Elizabeth Bloom (University of Florida)
Abstract: Previous research has shown that problem behavior maintained by social-negative reinforcement (escape) can be treated without extinction by delivering positive reinforcement (e.g., an edible item) for an alternative response (e.g., compliance). By contrast, delivering escape for compliance generally has been ineffective in the absence of extinction. It is possible, however, that negative reinforcement for compliance might be effective if the magnitude (duration) of reinforcement for compliance is larger than that for problem behavior. We evaluated the effects of reinforcer magnitude on escape-maintained behavior when both problem behavior and compliance were reinforced. Across all treatment phases, compliance produced escape of an equal, greater, or (in some cases) lesser magnitude than problem behavior. For 2 of 7 participants, problem behavior decreased when equal magnitudes of reinforcement were provided for both response options. For the remaining participants, however, results showed that enhancing the magnitude of negative reinforcement for compliance was not an effective treatment for problem behavior maintained by escape in the absence of extinction.
Effects of Combined Antecedent Interventions on Problem Behavior Maintained by Escape.
NATALIE ROLIDER (University of Florida), Brian A. Iwata (University of Florida)
Abstract: Extinction has been shown to be an important component of treatment for problem behavior maintained by negative reinforcement (escape). Prevention of escape, however, may be difficult to do with large or combative individuals. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of two antecedent interventions (instructional fading and the high-probability instructional sequence) when problem behavior continued to produce escape. Following a functional analysis of the targeted problem behavior, a compliance assessment was conducted to identify instructions for which there were high- and low-probabilities of compliance. Next, instructional fading and the high-p sequence were evaluated first separately, and if necessary, in combination.
Symposium #226
CE Offered: BACB
Evaluations of Offense Related Behavior in Sex Offenders with Developmental Disabilities
Sunday, May 25, 2008
1:30 PM–2:50 PM
Stevens 1
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Jorge Rafael Reyes (University of Florida)
Discussant: Joel Eric Ringdahl (The University of Iowa)
CE Instructor: Jorge Rafael Reyes, M.S.

This symposium will include three papers on the assessment and treatment of sex offenders with developmental disabilities. In the first presentation Astrid Hall will discuss the development of the mobile plethysmograph and show data related to the assessment of arousal in community settings. In the second presentation, Tim Vollmer will discuss the use of covert assessments in the assessment of high-risk behavior for sex offenders with developmental disabilities. In the third presentation, Jorge R. Reyes will describe the application of a paired-choice preference assessment format to evaluate visual preference for male and female children and adults. The discussant will be Joel Ringdahl who has published extensively in the areas of behavioral assessment and developmental disabilities.

The Use of a Mobile Plethysmograph in the Assessment of Sex Offenders with Developmental Disabilities.
ASTRID HALL (Seguin Unit), Jorge Rafael Reyes (University of Florida), Timothy R. Vollmer (University of Florida), Gregory Jansen (State of Florida/Seguin Unit)
Abstract: Evaluations of generalization and maintenance have been relatively absent in the assessment and treatment of sex offenders with developmental disabilities. For example, it is not known whether arousal levels achieved in clinical settings would be similar to arousal levels outside of clinical settings, and furthermore, it is not known whether any treatment success obtained in clinical settings would transfer to real-world settings. Therefore, the purpose of the current clinical evaluation was to evaluate the use of a mobile plethysmograph that allows for arousal assessments to occur outside of clinical settings. Four adult male sex offenders with developmental disabilities have participated as part of their ongoing clinical assessment and treatment. First, clinic-based plethysmograph assessments were conducted. Second, the mobile plethysmograph was tested in the clinic. Results showed similar patterns of arousal using both the non-mobile and the mobile plethysmograph. Third, the mobile plethysmograph was tested away from the clinic using target videos and photos. Fourth, the mobile plethysmograph was tested in the community during normally occurring community activities. Results showed that the device was capable of capturing periods of arousal and non-arousal for both participants. Potential treatment implications for the use of the mobile plethysmograph will be discussed.
The Use of Covert Assessments for Sex Offenders with Developmental Disabilities.
TIMOTHY R. VOLLMER (University of Florida), Jorge Rafael Reyes (University of Florida), Cristina M. Whitehouse (University of Florida), Gregory Jansen (State of Florida/Seguin Unit)
Abstract: The assessment and treatment of sex offenders has typically revolved around evaluating and attempting to eliminate arousal to inappropriate stimuli (i.e., males and females under the age of 18). Whereas focusing on arousal has been shown to be important, it may only capture features of sexual offending that are more respondent in nature. Other factors may be more operant in nature and also important to consider in the sexual offense process. For example, how an individual behaves while in potentially high-risk situations (e.g., presence of children), would be important to determine. Therefore, the present study involved assessing responding of sex offenders diagnosed with developmental disabilities in high-risk situations. Specifically, we investigated how individuals responded while in the presence of high-risk materials (e.g., magazines that contained pictures of children) The procedures were based on other studies that involved covertly observing people placed in high-risk situations (e.g., Himle et al., 2005). Assessment results showed a range of responses such as avoiding the materials, looking at the materials briefly, and looking at the materials the entire duration of the session; however, in all cases, the methodology proved useful in identifying targets for behavior change. Implications for sex offender treatment programs will be discussed.
The Use of a Paired-Choice Preference Assessment Format for Sex Offenders with Developmental Disabilities.
JORGE RAFAEL REYES (University of Florida), Timothy R. Vollmer (University of Florida), Andrew Samaha (University of Florida)
Abstract: Some components of assessments for sex offenders involve indirect measures of preference (e.g., asking if they prefer children or adults, etc). Past research has shown that indirect measures are typically poor predictors of actual preference. In this presentation, we will describe a visual preference assessment method for sex offenders with developmental disabilities. In the assessment, participants are seated at a computer monitor and presented with a choice among two pictures. The pictures vary in terms of gender and age and each picture is presented with every other picture twice. When a selection is made, the other picture disappears and the chosen picture enlarges and is presented in the center of the screen for 10 seconds. The data are then analyzed in terms of the percentage of time that each picture was selected. The results showed clear preferences for different age and gender categories across participants. The use of preference assessments as a component of an overall assessment and treatment model will be discussed.
Symposium #231
CE Offered: BACB
An Analysis of the Effectiveness of Using an Acoustical Marker (TAG) on the Acquisition of Various Skills in Children with Autism and other Developmental Disabilities
Sunday, May 25, 2008
1:30 PM–2:50 PM
Area: EDC/DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Theresa McKeon (TAGteach International)
Discussant: Julie S. Vargas (B. F. Skinner Foundation)
CE Instructor: Julie S. Weiss, M.S.

Three presentations analyzing the effectiveness and efficiency of using an acoustical stimulus in conjunction with reinforcement and various teaching and prompting strategies will be presented. Applied Behavior Analysts are dedicated to finding effective ways to teach skills to participants with autism and related disorders. Standard teaching curricula are typically based on the use of prompting and shaping procedures. One way to augment standard prompting and shaping procedures is to pair an auditory or visual event with the delivery of reinforcement to mark the correct response. TAG Teach is a technology based on the use of markers or auditory stimuli paired with the delivery of reinforcement to shape new behaviors. TAG stands for Teaching with Acoustical Guidance and is a direct descendent of the clicker technology presented by Karen Pryor in her popular book Dont Shoot the Dog. Practitioners of TAG Teach argue for its effectiveness in many endeavors designed to teach motor skills such as gymnastics and dancing. The three data-based papers presented here successfully demonstrate how to incorporate aspects of TAG Teach technology into some of our standard curriculum to teach basic motor skills with participants for whom prior attempts have been unsuccessful.

Demonstration of the Effectiveness of Using a TAG to Promote Skill Acquisition for Students with Autism.
JULIE S. WEISS (The New England Center for Children), Myrna E. Libby (The New England Center for Children)
Abstract: Applied Behavior Analysts are dedicated to finding effective ways to teach skills to participants with autism and related disorders. One way to augment standard prompting and shaping procedures is to pair an auditory or visual event with the delivery of reinforcement to “mark” the correct response. A multiple baseline across participants was used to assess the effectiveness of adding such an acoustical marker to the reinforcement component of standard acquisition curriculum. Student skill areas were selected because they were IEP objectives with ongoing program implementation and unsatisfactory progress and/or lack of acquisition. Four participants diagnosed with autism and between the ages of eight and twenty were included. The only modification from ongoing training was the addition of an acoustical stimulus contingent on correct responding before the delivery of reinforcement. All participants acquired the previously unlearned skill. Inter-observer agreement data were collected in at least 40% of sessions and averaged 95%. Procedural integrity data were taken in at least 40% of sessions and averaged 95%. Possible behavioral processes involved in the apparent usefulness of the acoustical stimulus are discussed.
Teaching Eye-contact in Response to a Peer’s Initiation using Tag Teach Peer Tutoring.
KATHERINE A. JOHNSON (Advances Learning Center), Elizabeth Paige Adams (Advances Learning Center), Katrina A. Fallon (Advances Learning Center)
Abstract: In a multiple baseline across subjects design, Tag Teach methods were used in conjunction with peer tutoring to teach children to respond with immediate eye contact to a peer calling his/her name. Four young children diagnosed with PDD-NOS were taught to reinforce each other’s eye contact, using Tag Teach methodology. Sessions were held during a weekly social skills group in which the four children participated. Three of the students had worked on this skill previously, with very limited success, using massed trials, incidental teaching techniques in distributed trials, prompting, and positive reinforcement in the form of tokens. The method for the current study included teaching students how to use the hand-held “tagger,” teaching them when to reinforce by using discrimination training, and then gradually removing adult interaction to allow the students to run the practice sessions themselves. Generalization data were taken throughout the course of the study. Tag Teach methods were more effective in increasing eye-contact as a response to peer’s initiations than previously-used methods for most students.
Evaluating the Influence of TAG Teach on Increasing Self-help Skills with Individuals with Severe Developmental Disabilities.
LAUREN C. WASANO (STE Consultants), Sarah E. Trautman-Eslinger (STE Consultants)
Abstract: Tag Teach or Teaching with Acoustical Guidance incorporates the use of a tagger (audible marker) while pairing it with positive reinforcement and shaping in order to quickly teach a vast repertoire of skills to individuals in a variety of populations. Among these skills include self-help and daily living skills, which are an integral skill set for individuals with Developmental Disabilities (DD) to acquire. The current study focused on utilizing TAG Teach to increase the toileting and appropriate drinking (other than a baby bottle), in addition to other types of target behavior that warranted intervention (e.g., hands-on behavior and object mouthing) in two males diagnosed with severe DD. Historically, these skills had been targeted for intervention; however, the various methodologies used had deemed unsuccessful for both participants. Results showed that target behavior increased after the first session with the use of TAG Teach.
Symposium #232
CE Offered: BACB
Recent Research in OBM and BBS: From the Lab to the Corporate Office
Sunday, May 25, 2008
1:30 PM–2:50 PM
Area: OBM/CSE; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: David A. Wilder (Florida Institute of Technology)
CE Instructor: David A. Wilder, Ph.D.

Four studies in OBM and BBS will be presented. The first study examined the effect of rules on employee performance in a human service setting. The second study examined the effects of contingent access to high vs. low preference items on employee performance in a laboratory setting. The third study investigated the effects of observer presence on individuals work-related behavior both within-session and across sessions. The fourth study evaluated the effects of variations of self-monitoring on safe posture performances during typing of four office workers in a simulated office setting.

The Effect of Rule Delivery on Employee Adherence to Procedures at a Residential Treatment Facility.
JAMES L. SQUIRES (Florida Institute of Technology), David A. Wilder (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: The way in which rules impact workplace performance has been a topic of discussion in the Organizational Behavior Management community for some time. However, rules, or contingency specifying stimuli as they have been described, have not been evaluated in an applied setting before. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of rules in the workplace. Participants included two employees at an intensive residential treatment facility. The dependent variable was the percentage of sign out/in cells completed on the form. First, a goal was set for employees based on baseline performance. Employees were then given one of two randomly assigned goal-rules. Goal-rules consisted of a praise goal-rule or a reprimand goal-rule. Goal-rules were administered at the start of each shift. The corresponding contingency described in the goal-rule was delivered (i.e., praise or reprimand) if the employees met the goal. Performance increased dramatically over baseline levels after the introduction of the Goal-Rules. Performance then decreased during the reversal phase, and then increased once again at the reintroduction of the goal rules. Slight differences in performance were noted between the two types of goal-rules for each participant.
The Effects of Varied versus Constant High, Medium, and Low Quality Stimuli on Performance.
BYRON J. WINE (Florida Institute of Technology), David A. Wilder (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: Previous research has shown that children prefer varied to constant reinforcement when identical stimuli are used (Egel, 1980) and that this holds true for some individuals even when the constant reinforcement is of higher quality and the varied reinforcement is of lesser quality (Bowman, Piazza, Fisher, Hagopian, & Kogan, 1997). The purpose of this study was to compare the delivery of varied versus constant high, medium, and low quality stimuli on performance among two adults on a computer-based task in an analog employment setting. For both participants, constant delivery of the high quality stimulus produced the greatest increases in performance over baseline; the varied presentation produced performance comparable to constant delivery of medium preference stimuli. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for the selection and delivery of stimuli as part of employee performance improvement programs in the field of organizational behavior management.
Investigating the Effects of Observer Presence on Individuals' Work-Related Behavior Both Within-Session and Across Session.
ANGELA R. LEBBON (Western Michigan University), John Austin (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: A multi-phased multiple baseline design across participants was used to evaluate the inter-session effects of observer presence on participants’ body posture behavior, time on-task, and productivity. The intra-session effects of observer presence on participants’ body posture behavior, time on-task, and productivity were examined by utilizing within-subject, phase-by-phase comparisons across three minute time blocks (wherein nine video frameshots represented each three minute block). Of the 30 behaviors exposed to observer presence (across all participants), 22 demonstrated reactivity and 14 demonstrated habituation when analyzed across sessions (i.e., inter-session effects). Of the 36 behaviors exposed to observer presence, 29 demonstrated reactivity and 20 demonstrated habituation when analyzed within sessions (i.e., intra-session effects).
Improving Safety Posture Using Self-Monitoring: Some New Variations.
KRYSTYNA A. ORIZONDO-KOROTKO (Western Michigan University), Shannon M. Loewy (Western Michigan University), Nicole E. Gravina (Western Michigan University), Angela R. Lebbon (Western Michigan University), John Austin (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: The present study evaluated the effects of variations of self-monitoring on safe posture performances during typing of four office workers in a simulated office setting. The study employed a safety checklist with six dependent variables: Wrists, neck, shoulders, back, arms, and legs. Secondary dependent variables were productivity and accuracy of self-monitoring. The independent variable for the first two participants was a combination of accuracy training and self-monitoring of a target behavior for safety during typing. Participant 1 also received a change in workstation set-up (the addition of a wrist pad). For the last two participants, the independent variable was a differing of the frequency of self-monitoring (every five minutes, then every two minutes) of a target behavior for safety during typing. Results varied for all participants, ranging from significant improvements to no improvements with different dependent variables. Implications, advantages, limitations, and suggestions for future research will be discussed.
Invited Tutorial #238
CE Offered: BACB
Tutorial: Developing Adherence among Children with Chronic Health Conditions
Sunday, May 25, 2008
2:30 PM–3:20 PM
Grand Ballroom
Area: CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
BACB CE Offered. CE Instructor: Michael Rapoff, Ph.D.
Chair: Ann Branstetter-Rost (Missouri State University)
Presenting Authors: : MICHAEL RAPOFF (University of Kansas Medical Center)

This tutorial is designed to provide a review of the literature regarding medical adherence among children with chronic health conditions, such as asthma and arthritis. In addition, clinical behavioral interventions which may be applied to increase adherence are presented in detail along with current outcome data.

MICHAEL RAPOFF (University of Kansas Medical Center)
Dr. Michael Rapoff received his Ph.D in Developmental and Child Psychology in 1980 from the University of Kansas and completed a two year post-doctoral fellowship in Behavioral Pediatrics at the University of Kansas Medical Center. Dr. Rapoff is currently Ralph L. Smith (Distinguished) Professor of Pediatrics, Vice-Chair for Research/Scholarship and Faculty Development, and Chief of the Behavioral Pediatrics division in the Department of Pediatrics at the University of Kansas Medical Center. Dr. Rapoff is a licensed psychologist in Kansas and Missouri and is listed in the National Registry of Health Service Providers in Psychology. His research interests over the past 27 years has focused on psychosocial issues affecting children and adolescents with chronic diseases, including adherence to medical regimens, pain, and psychosocial adjustment. He has been funded by NIH and Maternal and Child Health to evaluate strategies for improving adherence to medical regimens for children with asthma and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) and by the Arthritis Foundation for evaluating a cognitive-behavioral pain management program for children and adolescents with JRA. Dr. Rapoff has 74 publications in journals or books, including a single-authored book published in 1999 on pediatric medical adherence (Adherence to Pediatric Medical Regimens, New York: Kluwer/Plenum). In 2003, Dr. Rapoff received the Distinguished Scholar Award from the Association of Rheumatology Health Professionals, a division of the American College of Rheumatology, in recognition of outstanding rheumatology scholarship. Also in 2003, Dr. Rapoff was elected as a Fellow in the Society of Pediatric Psychology, Division 54 of the American Psychological Association. Dr. Rapoff is currently funded by NIH to evaluate the efficacy of a computer-based CD-ROM program (Headstrong) for treating chronic headaches in children. In addition to his research, Dr. Rapoff trains clinical psychology students in health psychology and pediatric psychology and teaches residents and medical students. He also sees patients 1½ days per week in his Behavioral Pediatrics Outreach Clinics in Lawrence and Prairie Village, Kansas.
Invited Symposium #240
CE Offered: BACB
International Symposium - Values in Behavior Analysis
Sunday, May 25, 2008
2:30 PM–3:50 PM
International North
Area: CSE/TPC; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Saul Axelrod (Temple University)
CE Instructor: Maria R. Ruiz, Ph.D.

Overt values statements are a relatively recent development within the field of behavior analysis. For far too long we have allowed others, primarily our critics, to describe our values for us, and it is time that we begin to speak for ourselves. Core values are important characteristics of an organizations verbal practices and as our community endeavors to build a coherent system from which to promote effective cultural practices, we are reminded that values function as guides to action and play a key role in helping us through ethical dilemmas. In order to present ourselves convincingly to our consumers and the public we need a serious debate about our values: What do we consider the most important features or contributions of behavior analysis to the culture? We will present data from a survey study of core values in a sample of ninety-four behavior analysts discuss the implications for behavior analytic practices.

Values in the Science and Practice of Behavior Analysis
GERALD A SHOOK (Behavior Analyst Certification Board)
Abstract: This session will briefly review the place of values in the science and practice of behavior analysis and it will identify some of the possible reasons why overt values statements are a relatively recent development within the field. Values will be examined within the context of professional behavior analysis and examples will be given of the integration of values into current and future professional practice.
Dr. Gerald L. Shook is Chief Executive Officer and Founder of the Behavior Analyst Certification Board, Inc. He holds a Ph.D. in Psychology and is a Board Certified Behavior Analyst with over 35 years experience in behavior analysis. Dr. Shook has taken an active role in developing certification in several states, as well as internationally, and has published and presented extensively in the area of credentialing and Behavior Analysis as a profession. He conducted statewide distance education university graduate training in several states and consulted nationally on development of statewide behavioral service and training systems. He currently holds adjunct appointments in the College of Education and Graduate College at Penn State. Dr. Shook was on the Executive Council of the Association for Behavior Analysis International, where he also was Coordinator of the Legislative and Public Affairs Committee and the Affiliated Chapters Board. He was President of the Florida Association for Behavior Analysis. He served on the Editorial Boards of The Behavior Analyst, Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, and Behavior Analysis in Practice. Dr. Shook is a Trustee of the Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies, and a Fellow of ABAI. He received the Florida Association for Behavior Analysis’ Award for Outstanding Service; the California Association for Behavior Analysis’ Award for Outstanding Contributor to Behavior Analysis; The Society for the Advancement of Behavior Analysis’ Outreach Award and Award for Public Service; and the Outstanding Alumni Award from Western Michigan University.
Let's Talk Seriously About our Values: How to Reach our Consumers and Fight Off the Competition
Abstract: For far too long we have allowed others, primarily our critics, to describe our values and it is time to go on the offensive. In order to present ourselves convincingly to our consumers and the public we need a serious debate about our values: What do we consider the most important features or contributions of behavior analysis to the culture? While others see us as "manipulative" and "controlling" many of us think of behavior analysis as promoting individual worth, independence, and choice. Our dedication to data collection, research design, and a science of behavior leaves us open to criticism from those promoting "freedom" and our commitment to the study of behavior gives a big target to the vast majority of psychologists who are promoting cognitive processes and self help as solutions most any human behavior problem. I will discuss these issues and propose several alternative ways of describing and presenting our values in an attempt to tip public opinion our way.
Dr. Jon S. Bailey has contributions spanning a number of areas over the past 35 years. He has mentored over 50 Ph.D. students, many of whom have gone on to careers of excellence. This is no small task because he has been the lone behavior analyst in his department for many years. He also is a superb teacher at the undergraduate level and has received numerous university awards for instructional excellence. Dr. Bailey has been the moving force behind the growth of behavior analysis throughout the state of Florida. He was a member of the state review committee for behavior analysis in the 1970s, he founded the Florida Association of Behavior Analysis in the 1980s, and he initiated the meetings of the Organizational Behavior Management Network in the 1990s. Finally, it should be noted that Dr. Bailey also is one of our field’s eminent researchers. The largest proportion of his work has been published in the flagship journal of our field, Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. Many of his articles were innovative in defining new areas of research for applied behavior analysts.
Values and Behavior Analytic Practices
MARIA R. RUIZ (Rollins College), Bryan T. Roche (National University of Ireland, Maynooth)
Abstract: As scientists and practitioners behavior analysts must make frequent decisions that affect others. In concert with our scientific tradition our guide to best practice has been scientific principles. Yet scientific principles alone may not be sufficient to guide our decisions in situations with potentially conflicting outcomes. In such cases, values function as guides to action and play a key role in helping us through ethical dilemmas. The feminist research tradition has given us many examples of the confluence of science and political values and reminds us that personal, social and contextual influences or contextual values are ever present and the rules of evidence of scientific inquiry are not adequate to screen out their influence. Therefore, behavior analysts should examine the assumptions they hold when deciding between conflicting generalizations from their findings. As our community endeavors to build a coherent system from which to promote effective cultural practices, it is important to recognize that as pragmatists we are not searching for solutions that are ultimately “true” or “right”. We are instead making decisions about the best possible courses of effective action. When the decision is difficult because the case is not clear-cut, behavior analysts would do well to draw from the work of pragmatist philosopher John Dewey, in particular his notions of pluralistic dialogue and communal consensus to establish acceptable means of deciding.
Dr. Maria R. Ruiz is a professor of psychology at Rollins College and recipient of the Arthur Vining Davis faculty award for excellence in teaching. As a licensed psychologist and Board Certified Behavior Analyst she has consulted in the field of autism and developmental disabilities for over twenty five years. Dr. Ruiz has a long standing commitment to the wide scale delivery of quality behavior analysis services. She has served the Behavior Analysis Certification Board as a panelist for the certification exam and on the certification board exam committee, testified as expert witness and chaired the State of Florida Behavior Analysis Peer Review Committee. Dr. Ruiz received her doctorate from the University of Florida and completed a post doctoral fellowship in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Biology at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. She has conducted laboratory research to investigate animal models of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and applied behavioral research in clinical settings. Her combined interests in the conceptual analysis of behavior and social sources of behavioral control led her to develop conceptual bridges across behavior analysis and feminist psychology and her work has been published in feminist and behavioral journals. A recent extension of this interest is her collaborative work to develop behavioral methodologies applying equivalence relations in identifying behavioral processes embedded in cognitively-based implicit tests (e.g. Implicit Association Test or IAT). Dr. Ruiz has served as reviewer for Feminism and Psychology and currently serves on the editorial boards of Behavior and Social Issues and The Behavior Analyst.
Normative Premises in Applied Behavior Analysis and Literature
ERIK ARNTZEN (Akershus University College ), Jon A. Lokke (University College of Ostfold, Norway), Gunn Lokke (University College of Ostfold, Norway)
Abstract: Normative premises as ethics, moral, and values are parts of the reinforcement and punishment practices, and not a reified part of ourselves as may be argued in philosophy and traditional psychology. Core values are important characteristics of an organization’s verbal practice. Values are materialized as aims and results and connected to ideal guiding patterns of behavior - as in professional standards (Cooper et al., 2007). Our goal in this study was to expand the descriptive knowledge about values in behavior analysis. We used a survey (Bailey, 2006) to study core values reported by groups of behavior analysts. The main findings based on the responses of 94 participants were that effective, evidence based treatment, and improving quality of life, were scored relatively high. In addition, we conducted a literature review. In accordance with the data from our first study, behavior analysts should engage in their client’s values and the significance of the treatment. Goals should be taken into consideration equal to behavioral functions, reliability and procedural integrity. The findings showed that clinical significance is mentioned in under half of the cases. We suggest that an assessment of clinical significance and the client’s values should be included in clinical articles.
Prof. Erik Arntzen received his Ph.D. from University of Oslo, Norway, in February 2000. Arntzen’s dissertation was focusing on variables influencing responding in accord with stimulus equivalence. He is currently Professor in Behavior Analysis at Akershus University College (AUC). Dr. Arntzen is the head of the master program in behavior analysis at AUC. His research contributions include both basic and applied behavior analysis, with an emphasis on research in relational stimulus control and verbal behavior. He has also been interested in ethical considerations and core values in the field of behavior analysis. Dr. Arntzen is one of the editors of European Journal of Behavior Analysis and has served on the editorials board of several journals, including the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, The Psychological Record, International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, and The Behavior Analyst Today.
Symposium #244
CE Offered: BACB
Immediate Value, Delay of Reinforcement and Change in that Delay Determine Overall Value: Developmental and Clinical Implications
Sunday, May 25, 2008
2:30 PM–3:50 PM
Area: EAB/CBM; Domain: Basic Research
Chair: Michael Lamport Commons (Harvard Medical School)
CE Instructor: Michael Lamport Commons, Ph.D.

Traditionally, the concept of utility comes from economics. It is the probability of obtaining a reinforcer times its value. In behavior analysis, we use rate of reinforcement and immediate value. Here we discuss a four variable general discounting model that has properties of a number of economic and behavioral theories. The value of reinforcement, Ai, reflects the immediate value of reinforcement. The value varies with the goods and services delivered the individuals interests, drives, ambition and clinical state. Clinically, depression lowers the value. The second variable is delay as found in discounting models. It is a negative power function. Clinically, over discounting is associated with impulsivity and character disorders. Addicts find the short term pain of withdrawal unbearable even considering the cost of addiction. The third variable, change in delay is represented here as changes in the time between reinforcements rather than the change in probabilities that is often characterized as risk. Some people are oversensitive, fearing dying in a plane crash or from terrorist bombing more than the constant risk of smoking or lack of exercise. Clinically, the hording kind of OCD is associated with fear of immediate loss of giving something up rather than benefits of having space and order.

General Discounting Model for Overall Value: Clinical and Developmental Implications.
MICHAEL LAMPORT COMMONS (Harvard Medical School)
Abstract: Traditionally, the concept of utility comes from economics. It is the probability of obtaining a reinforcer times its value. In behavior analysis we are more considered with continuous time rather than discrete choice. So the value of a reinforcement schedule has been characterized by the matching law. Here we discuss a general discounting model that has properties of a number of economic and behavioral theories. The value is the sum of the probabilities of individual reinforcing events divided by the delay (raised to some power) and the relative change in delay. Relative change in delay is the change in delay divided by the delay. There are than four parameters, one for each variable. Each variable represents a major function of the organism. There is variability among organisms with respect to these parameters. In people, some of this variation may be benificial and other variations may be associated with behavioral problems.
The Role of Immediate Value of Reinforcement on Overall Value: Clinical and Developmental Implications.
Abstract: The immediate value, Ai, reflects the immediate value for any given reinforcement. This value may vary from individual to individual with respect to the event serving as the reinforcer. The reinforcing or punishing value of the delivery of various goods and services may have different values depending on a number of variables. Therefore the value of Ai is determined by the individuals’ evolutionarily programmed and acquired drives, interests, current drive states, ambition and clinical state. A person with depression may have low values of Ai in general. A person is described as Enterprising if money is a relatively powerful reinforcer. Another person is described as Investigative if discovering new knowledge is a relatively powerful reinforcer. A biological scientist is described as ambitious in pursuing the discovery of a vaccine for HIV/AIDS, so any outcome will only be viewed in light of progress towards that major goal. Thus, a reinforcer will only be seen as valuable if it reflects advances in knowledge towards finding a vaccine. Each local reinforcer will not cause satiation until a vaccine is found, but it will maintain the rate of searching for new insight into the problem, and only in this way it is valuable.
The Role of Delay on Overall Value: Clinical and Developmental Implications.
Abstract: The second variable di, represents traditional delay of reinforcement discounting. It is a negative power function, with k1dk3 in the denominator. When k3 = 1, it reduces to the hyperbolic discounting model. In economics the probability of a reinforcer is replaced by the rate of reinforcement. The time between reinforcers is often represented as delay of reinforcement. Self control literature shows that adults who over discount tend to be impulsive and may have personality disorders whereas for children this is normal. When young children get hurt, they cry as if their pain will last for ever, but the minute the pain leaves them they may act happy and joke. In addiction, the immediate joy swamps the long term pain of the addiction. The short term pain of withdrawal is unbearable even compared to the long term cost of addiction. In spending, the immediate feeling of satisfaction outweighs the troubles of being in debt. In psychosis, people might not even register potential reinforcing stimuli even with zero delay. Whereas these people will have a steeply falling curve, ambitious people will have relatively flat curves for discounting because they are willing to wait for results.
The Role of Change in Delay on Overall Value: Clinical and Developmental Implications.
MICHAEL LAMPORT COMMONS (Harvard Medical School)
Abstract: In economics, probability characterizes risk. In behavior analysis, the equivalent is change in delay of reinforcement. Here we track the relative changes in delay, ?di /di as the time between reinforcements divided by the delay rather than the change in probabilities. The value of a reinforcer is lowered when there is an increase in relative delay. When people engage in avoidance of an increase in relative delay, this is equivalent to risk avoidance. The difference is that the value being lowered due to an increase in delay is a direct perception of value, whereas avoidance of risk occurs when people are presented with the future possibility. Consider the risk of dying in a plane crash or terrorist attack. With these events there seems to be a rapid change in the density of punishment. Contrast this with the acceptance of a high rate of death from smoking or inactivity. Many compulsive collectors and hoarders cannot give something up because the immediate loss is too great compared to the long term benefit of not having to store it. They also may have great difficulty in making decisions or even acting on the ones that were decided.
Symposium #246
CE Offered: BACB
OBM in Clinics and Academia: Systems Approaches
Sunday, May 25, 2008
2:30 PM–3:50 PM
Area: OBM/AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Cloyd Hyten (University of North Texas)
CE Instructor: Cloyd Hyten, Ph.D.

We will discuss applications of systems-based OBM approaches to improving organizational functioning in 4 different organizations, including profit and nonprofit clinics and in academic instruction.

Improving Administrative Operations for Better Client Service in a Medical/Behavioral Services Clinic.
STACEY HACKETT-RODTS (University of North Texas), Cloyd Hyten (University of North Texas)
Abstract: A non-profit health services organization specializing in developmental delays recently experienced turnover in the management of their administrative department, installed new operations software, and hired new clinicians. After multiple client complaints, they requested investigation of their administrative infrastructure. The goal of our consulting collaboration is to improve the quality of appointment intake information, enhance communication with clients, reduce no-shows, decrease wait list times, and continue to provide high-quality client care in accord with the organization’s business priorities. Assessment included investigation of the application process from initial client contact to appointment, direct observation of Client Services, clinician input forms, financial records, and client satisfaction interviews. Data demonstrated the critical need to address no-shows and the negative impact they have on the organization. Intervention included changing appointment reminders, revising some administrative processes, and restructuring of the client base to free up more appointment slots for new patients. Forecasted results include a reduction of no-show appointments allowing the organization to reduce appointment lag time, increased cash flow into the organization, increased administrative employee ownership in daily routines, and improved administrative department management.
Systems Approaches to Improve Undergraduate Performance.
ANA BARBARA NEVES (University of North Texas), Cloyd Hyten (University of North Texas), Donnie M. Staff (University of North Texas), Shane D. Isley (FEAT of Washington)
Abstract: Application of system theory to describe and analyze the “Teaching Assistant and Teaching Fellowship System “ - an organization designed to teach undergraduate students in Behavior Analysis introductory courses at University of North Texas. Supersystem and process maps were developed, based on informal assessments, interviews and questionnaires. Results indicated room for improvement on communication of goals, strategies and desired outputs; internal and external feedback; measurement procedures and data analysis. Analysis of interventions derived from this analysis suggested effects such as reduced micromanagement of students, effective use of signs of progress as feedback to students, and facilitation of helpful interactions between consultants, supervisors, staff and students.
Systems Analysis to Enhance Client Throughput and Client Outcomes in a Parent Training Clinic.
VALORI N. BERENDS (University of North Texas), Cloyd Hyten (University of North Texas)
Abstract: System analyses emphasize the importance of providing the most valuable services to clients and other receiving systems. In educational environments, this translates to preventing dropouts and advancing student repertoires. Using the principles of systems analysis as a guide, this study compared two class schedule formats used by Behavior Management and Parenting Services (BMAPS) in order to address the following research questions: 1) What effects do 2 different class formats have on student attrition and appointment keeping? 2) What effects do 2 different class formats have on student outcomes on a pre and posttest assessment? BMAPS provides parent education to individuals referred by Child Protective Services. The current research included approximately 200 referred clients with an appointment or class scheduled with BMAPS between January 1, 2006 and September 22, 2007. Data was collected by reviewing client files for class attendance and performance records. Results of this study allow BMAPS to enlist the class format that is correlated with better attrition rates and client outcomes.
Avoiding Hourly Pay Traps: Performance Measurement and Pay in a Private Autism Clinic.
CARLA M. SMITH (University of North Texas), Cloyd Hyten (University of North Texas)
Abstract: Companies providing services for children with autism and other developmental disabilities face fast paced growth and high turnover. These factors, when mixed with a tenure based raise system and hourly pay can spell financial trouble for a business—no matter how great their service provision. This paper reports on the process and outcomes of a performance pay system created for a company with 6 regional treatment centers. Information regarding the development of a performance pay package includes measurement and feedback tools, performance scorecards and child progress measures. These measures can be useful to other treatment service providers including managers and owners. This paper will discuss strategic considerations and practical realities in transforming conventional evaluation and pay systems to performance-based systems. Included are critical OBM notions of enhanced focus on outcomes instead of traditional emphasis on staff activity and staff tenure, multi-dimensional measurement, and the impact of pay on staff performance.
Symposium #251
CE Offered: BACB
Implementing Behavior Programs and Preference Assessments: How Can we Improve our Practices?
Sunday, May 25, 2008
3:00 PM–4:20 PM
Continental B
Area: AUT/OBM; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Shawn E. Kenyon (The New England Center for Children)
Discussant: Ronnie Detrich (Wing Institute)
CE Instructor: Shawn E. Kenyon, M.S.

This symposium discusses the use of different feedback types in order to increase treatment integrity while implementing behavior programs. It further discusses the degree to which the use of a single trial preference assessment would be comparable to the use of a full assessment. The first paper utilizes written quizzes and feedback on quiz performance to increase accuracy in behavior program implementation. Three graduate students performances were evaluated while implementing a behavior plan with a 17-year-old student diagnosed with autism. Data from a multiple baseline intervention across staff members indicate that quizzes and feedback on quiz performance were effective in increasing behavior program implementation. The second paper implements video feedback and self-monitoring for the same purpose. Three graduate students performances were evaluated while implementing a behavior plan with a 15-year-old student diagnosed with autism. Data from a multiple baseline intervention across staff members indicate that self-monitoring via video samples was effective in increasing behavior program implementation. Finally, a third study evaluated the degree to which the results of one-trial multiple-stimulus preference assessments conducted with two individuals diagnosed with autism corresponded with those obtained from full, standard preference assessments. Results indicated that outcomes of one-trial and full preference assessments were comparable. The first two papers provide alternatives to standard feedback while the third paper provides an alternative to full, standard preference assessments. Taken together the three studies suggest methods that could save time and effort on the part of the clinician while not jeopardizing treatment integrity.

Evaluating the Effects of Feedback on Procedural Integrity.
UTAH W. NICKEL (The New England Center for Children), Paula Ribeiro Braga-Kenyon (The New England Center for Children), Erin C. McDermott (The New England Center for Children), Shawn E. Kenyon (The New England Center for Children), Bethany L. McNamara (The New England Center for Children), William H. Ahearn (The New England Center for Children), Eileen M. Roscoe (The New England Center for Children)
Abstract: A high level of procedural integrity, the precision with which the independent variable is applied, is necessary to ascertain the effects of treatment. One method for increasing procedural integrity is providing feedback based on direct observations. The present study evaluates the effectiveness of feedback in the form of weekly quizzes on the implementation of a problem behavior treatment plan for one student diagnosed with autism and that engaged in high rates of severe forms of self-injurious behaviors. Procedural integrity data were collected during a 10 minute observation period. IOA was collected in 55.3% of observations (avg. 93.6%). Weekly quizzes consisted of fill in the blank questions regarding treatment protocol. Quizzes resulted in an increase in procedural integrity for one teacher and no change in a second teacher until verbal feedback on observations was delivered. These data replicate findings of prior research, and also indicate that the type and amount of feedback may vary among teachers. These data, along with suggestions for future research, are discussed.
Increasing Procedural Integrity through Video Self-Monitoring.
KELLY A. PELLETIER (The New England Center for Children/Northeastern University), Bethany L. McNamara (The New England Center for Children), Paula Ribeiro Braga-Kenyon (The New England Center for Children)
Abstract: We examined the effects of a training program using video self-monitoring on the procedural integrity of staff implementing behavioral guidelines for one child with autism. Three staff members with low or declining scores were asked to be involved in the treatment. Treatment incorporated a mock guideline implementation video that allowed the participant to learn to score with a procedural integrity scoring tool. Each participant then watched one of their own baseline videos and scored it in tandem with the experimenter; a comparison of the scores paired with verbal feedback from the experimenter concluded a training session. IOA was conducted in 33% of sessions and ranged from 98-100%. Data for one participant showed an increase in level from baseline to perfect implementation in the context of three video observations. Treatment for the remaining two participants will begin shortly and a maintenance probe is scheduled to be conducted for all participants.
A Comparison of the Outcomes of One-Trial and Full Standard Preference Assessments.
JASON CODERRE (The New England Center for Children), Jason C. Bourret (The New England Center for Children)
Abstract: Preference assessments are conducted in order to identify items that will be used as reinforcers for adaptive behavior. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the degree to which the results of one-trial multiple-stimulus preference assessments correspond with those obtained from full, standard preference assessments. Two individuals diagnosed with autism participated in the study. Results showed correlation between the outcomes of one-trial and full preference assessments and a consistent hierarchy in preference over an extended period of time for all assessments for both participants. Findings are discussed in terms of the effects of degrading the number of trials and replications conducted during preference assessments.
Symposium #252
CE Offered: BACB
Increasing Skills Essential to Social and Vocational Success for Adolescents with Autism
Sunday, May 25, 2008
3:00 PM–4:20 PM
Stevens 4
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Peter F. Gerhardt (Organization for Autism Research)
Discussant: Peter F. Gerhardt (Organization for Autism Research)
CE Instructor: Lori E. Bechner, M.A.

As individuals with autism approach adulthood, it becomes increasingly important to focus on skills that will promote social and vocational success. Bathroom and mealtime skills are essential to minimize stigmatization in community and vocational settings. Cooperative activity schedules promote working collaboratively on vocational tasks and allow for decreased instructor supervision.

Teaching Teamwork: Using Activity Schedule to Teach Adolescents with Autism to Work Cooperatively.
ERIN B. RICHARD (Alpine Learning Group), Barbara Hoffmann (Alpine Learning Group), Hannah Hoch (Alpine Learning Group), Bridget A. Taylor (Alpine Learning Group)
Abstract: As learners with autism approach adulthood, an important goal of their programming is for them to work with less supervision. One means of reaching that aim is to teach learners to complete tasks in pairs or groups so that one staff person can supervise many learners simultaneously. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of prompting and reinforcement to teach three pairs of adolescents to attend to a shared activity schedule and cooperatively complete vocational tasks (e.g., cleaning a kitchen). This study was conducted in a small private school for children with autism. A multiple baseline design was used across three pairs of learners. During the initial baseline, each pair was told to complete a vocational task without an activity schedule present. In the subsequent baseline, the pairs were provided with activity schedules detailing the steps of a vocational task and told to complete the job. During intervention, learners were prompted to complete designated steps of the task and provided reinforcement for independent and accurate responding. Results indicated that after intervention, there was an increase in cooperative responding (i.e., completing the task together by each learner referencing the schedule and performing the next component step). Interobserver agreement data were collected during 30% of the sessions and averaged over 90%. Results are discussed in terms of future research for increasing learners’ ability to work collaboratively in pairs or groups.
Reducing Rapid Food Consumption in an Adolescent with Autism.
Abstract: Individuals with autism may consume meals rapidly, which can be socially stigmatizing. Anglesea et Al. (2006) effectively utilized a time-based vibrating pager to increase latency to consume meals in teenagers with autism. The purpose of the current study was to extend this work. A reversal design (ABAB) was used to assess the effects of the implementation of an audio device (“Mini-me”) to increase the inter-response time (IRT) between bites during mealtime for a 14-year-old male with autism who attends a center-based ABA program. The audio device was then systematically faded. At baseline, the mean IRT between bites was 12.8 seconds, and the mean number of bites per minute was 5.19. When the audio device was introduced, mean IRT increased to 38.5 seconds, and mean bites per minute decreased to 1.68. Mean percent of independent use of the audio device was 97.4%, and mean percent of independent waiting between bites was 86.5%. When the conditions were replicated, results were similar. During the fading procedure, mean IRT and number of bites per minute remained at target levels (mean IRT = 37.6 seconds, mean bites per minute = 1.75). Mean percent of independent use of the audio device and waiting between bites were also maintained at criterion level, and mean percent of counting between bites was 92.2%. Implementation of the audio counter with fading procedure was successful in reducing rapid food consumption for this participant. Future steps include generalization to the home setting, maintenance, and long-term follow-up.
Teaching Public Restroom Skills to Individuals with Autism.
LORI E. BECHNER (EPIC), Peter F. Gerhardt (Organization for Autism Research)
Abstract: As individuals with autism enter adolescence, several social subtleties involved with public restroom use become increasingly important. The purpose of the current study was to examine the use of behavioral strategies to teach public restroom skills: selecting the correct restroom door (male vs. female), minimizing exposure while standing at a urinal, and looking straight ahead while standing at a urinal. Three adolescent males with autism participated in this study. A multiple baseline across target components was used for each participant; a multiple baseline across participants was used to measure total acquisition across participants. Interobserver data were collected for 30% of sessions, and were higher than 90%.
Symposium #253
CE Offered: BACB
Recovery from Autism: Case Studies of Best Outcome from Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention
Sunday, May 25, 2008
3:00 PM–4:20 PM
Stevens 5
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Jonathan J. Tarbox (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
CE Instructor: Jonathan J. Tarbox, Ph.D.

The overarching consensus within the medical community is that recovery from autism does not exist. However, a significant amount of scientific research has demonstrated that early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) produces functioning in the typical range for some children with autism who receive it. This symposium describes the cases of three children who achieved this outcome. For these cases, we present pre- and post-intervention scores on standardized assessments, school placement outcomes, and describe the dates of program introduction and mastery. It is clearly noted that the case studies take place over several years and are uncontrolled that is, they do not contain experimental designs.

Defining Recovery from Autism.
JONATHAN J. TARBOX (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Doreen Granpeesheh (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Fernando Guerrero (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Dennis Dixon (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Adel C. Najdowski (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Amy Kenzer (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Abstract: The overarching consensus within the medical community is that there is no cure for autism. More than 20 years of research on applied behavior analytic treatment for autism has consistently demonstrated that a significant proportion of children make dramatic gains via behavioral intervention, including achieving a level of functioning indistinguishable from typically developing children of the same age. In this discussion paper, we propose a position on defining recovery from autism. We describe a provisional definition of recovery and we review relevant scientific research. The concept of recovery from autism is controversial but the tone of this paper is not. We describe the results of both scientific research and common clinical observations from more than 20 years of practice in the behavior analytic community.
Catching-Up to Typical Development: Age-Appropriate Functioning Following Behavioral Intervention.
SARAH CHO (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Jonathan J. Tarbox (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Abstract: This presentation describes the early behavioral intervention program delivered to a young child with autism. The child resided in California and was 3-years-old at intake. After receiving intensive behavioral intervention, he achieved scores in the average range on tests of intelligence, language, and adaptive functioning. In addition, he is succeeding in regular education without support.
Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention for a Child with Autism: Another Success Story.
DENISE M. RHINE (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Jonathan J. Tarbox (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Abstract: This talk describes the course and outcome of behavioral intervention for a toddler with autism. Reggie was 2 years and 4 months old, living in the upstate New York area, and had a diagnosis of autism which he received from an independent developmental pediatrician. Reggie had a moderate to severe delay in language and emitted utterances which were typically one word in length. After just under 3 years of intensive behavioral intervention, Reggie’s pediatrician removed his diagnosis of autism. Post-treatment, Reggie scored in the average range on tests of IQ, language, and adaptive behavior, and did not qualify for autism or autism-spectrum on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Scale (ADOS). Reggie is currently succeeding in a typical kindergarten classroom, without an IEP or special supports of any kind.
Complete Remediation of Autism via Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention in a Toddler Diagnosed with Autism.
MARY ANN CASSELL (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Fernando Guerrero (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Abstract: This presentation describes the course and outcome of treatment for a toddler living in Virginia, with a confirmed diagnosis of autism, who received early intensive behavioral intervention. At the end of intervention, the client scored in the typical range on tests of language, IQ, and adaptive behavior, and was succeeding in a regular education placement without support.
Symposium #255
CE Offered: BACB
Individuals with Severe Behavioral Issues in the Community: A System for Comprehensive, Behavioral Support
Sunday, May 25, 2008
3:00 PM–4:20 PM
Area: CSE/DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Robin Williams (Sierra Regional Center)
Discussant: W. Larry Williams (University of Nevada, Reno)
CE Instructor: W. Larry Williams, Ph.D.

Service delivery for individuals with challenging behavior within community settings is often fractured or disjointed given the multiple individuals, organizations and philosophies involved. This symposium will address delivery of comprehensive behavior support for individuals with disabilities and challenging behavior in normal community settings. Encompassed within that will be an overview of three programs which provide critical features and behavioral supports within Nevadas service delivery system. Issues with respect to coordinated services in a statewide initiative to reduce institutionalization to zero and provide wraparound, comprehensive support plans will be presented. In addition, methods for acquiring and maintaining funding, data collection, and current as well as future research initiatives and service coordination will be discussed. It is the intention of this symposium to provide practical strategies for implementing and sustaining integrated community, behavioral supports for challenging individuals.

The Process of Change: Renewal of a Service Delivery System.
DONALD A. JACKSON (Nevada Division of Mental Health & Developmental Services), Robin Williams (Sierra Regional Center), W. Larry Williams (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: As in most states, Nevada’s services for people with disabilities and significantly challenging behavior problems was lacking in the methods and procedures necessary to move to a fully community-based, full inclusion model of services. This paper will define the actuarial data, parameters of the existing service delivery system, and starting points for Nevada’s evolution to a comprehensive community support model. Data will be presented on service staff wages and education problems and the lack of adequate supervision and certification processes for providers. Gaps and duplications in services due to the lack of standardized and coordinated service entities and the absence of a functional protocol for minimal therapeutic and training methods and procedures will also be addressed. Based on this assessment, and framed in terms of the existing philosophical, economic, political, and social conditions, a blueprint for change was developed for Nevada’s service delivery system. A description of the resulting intervention protocols and strategies, and the system for ensuring the coordination of the various entities will be presented.
Systems Change: Methods and Barriers to Coordinated Service Delivery.
SHARLET D. BUTTERFIELD (University of Nevada, Reno), Donald A. Jackson (Nevada Division of Mental Health & Developmental Services), Jeremy E. Rafacz (Sierra Regional Center)
Abstract: Based on the assessment of the gaps in community-based services in Nevada, it became apparent that new delivery strategies were required to address the need for positive behavioral supports, provider training, and crisis intervention and prevention services within the community. This portion of the symposium will describe the procedures developed to deliver these services and discuss some of the challenges these three programs experienced and continue to experience with respect to funding, organizing and providing wraparound, comprehensive support plans. The initial program is PBS-NV, a grant-funded organization designed to coordinate positive behavior programs for the state of Nevada. The second program is BECS-PBS, which addresses the unique issues involved in implementing behavior programs within provider agencies. The final program is an intensive services system within two regional centers for responding to crisis intervention and prevention services for individuals with disabilities. This presentation will discuss how to avoid overlap in providing services and how to coordinate services and supports for an individual with developmental disabilities. In addition, acquiring funding to support current initiatives and future services and research will be presented.
Challenges Associated with Coordinating Data Monitoring Systems for Service Delivery.
JEREMY E. RAFACZ (Sierra Regional Center), Sharlet D. Butterfield (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: Human service delivery models are responsible for developing, maintaining, and presenting information regarding the services they provide. Whether these service entities must answer to grant funding sources or governmental bodies results are necessary to validate the continued support of these efforts. Data will be presented on the development of comprehensive data collection systems that seek to capture the services provided in the community. Although each service entity was developed to address a pervasive need, namely individuals with behavioral challenges, the means by which this need was addressed differs. The presentation of data will specifically include demographics of the persons’ receiving services, types of service provided, quality of life measures, and the inclusion of crisis interventions into community settings. Case examples of successes will be provided in order to demonstrate the efficacy of a wraparound, comprehensive approach to service delivery. Additional discussion will consider the complications associated with compiling vast amounts of data, behavioral or not, and the implications for statistical analyses.
Symposium #256
CE Offered: BACB
Social Skills Instruction across the Lifespan for Persons with Developmental Disabilities
Sunday, May 25, 2008
3:00 PM–4:20 PM
Stevens 1
Area: DDA/EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Wendy A. Machalicek (University of Texas at Austin)
Discussant: Eric Rudrud (St. Cloud State University)
CE Instructor: Wendy A. Machalicek, M.Ed.

In this symposium we present recent research regarding social skills instruction across the lifespan for persons with developmental disabilities. The symposium consists of four papers from major universities conducting research on social skills assessment and intervention. In the first presentation researchers from St. Cloud State University will present findings regarding the use of stimulus control techniques to train social cue discrimination for a 65-year-old woman with developmental disabilities. The second presentation will be from St. Cloud State University and examines the use of social vignettes and role play to teach abuse prevention skills to an adult with developmental disabilities. Finally, researchers from the University of Texas at Austin summarize the use of picture prompts and correspondence training on the playground to increase the on-task, play correspondence, and social behaviors of children with developmental disabilities.

Training Appropriate Social Skills through Stimulus Discrimination to an Elderly Woman with Moderate Mental Retardation.
MAY L. BAIRD (St. Cloud State University), Chaturi Edrisinha (St. Cloud State University)
Abstract: The effectiveness of training social cue discrimination utilizing stimulus control techniques was evaluated in a 65-year-old woman at a state supported day program facility. Target behavior was identified as excessive talking (near continuous talking). Excessive talking was detrimental to successful social integration with typical peers and resulted in social isolation and peers being annoyed by Margaret’s behavior. We evaluated the effectiveness of two stimulus control conditions using an alternating treatments design. In the SD condition a green card was used to signal a social condition when talking was appropriate while a red card was used in an S-Delta condition to signal the social condition when talking was inappropriate. Ten-second partial interval data were collected across five-minute sessions. Results indicated that clear discrimination between the two conditions was reached. Stimulus generalization was then evaluated across two instructors and two settings. Finally, social validity data were collected to access the efficacy of meaningful treatment. The importance of training an individual to determine appropriate and inappropriate times to attempt engaging in conversations as well as issues of enhancing quality of life for an older, aging population with mental retardation and developmental disabilities are discussed.
Social Skills Training to Teach Abuse Prevention for an Adult with Developmental Disabilities.
CHATURI EDRISINHA (St. Cloud State University), Shawn J. Vesel (St. Cloud State University), Jon J. Sargeant (Opportunity Manor Inc.)
Abstract: The purpose of this research was to teach abuse prevention skills to an adult with developmental disabilities. Prior to intervention conditions, the participant repeatedly agreed to go places, give hugs, and divulge personal information including social security and phone numbers to strangers. This behavior resulted in the participant being vulnerable to abuse and prevented him from successful community integration and independent social mobility. Three social vignettes were designed to address the three putative vulnerable scenarios. Persons unknown to the participant agreed to act as strangers and solicited the participant. Following intervention, the participant was able to demonstrate the skills needed to avoid and properly report situations that may result in physical, sexual, and financial abuse. Our research has provided the participant with the skills necessary for increased independence in the community, and therefore, a higher quality of life. Results are discussed as being consistent with the goals of applied behavior analysis to effect meaningful improvement in behaviors that are important to the participant in his/her natural environment.
Increasing the On-Task, Play Correspondence and Social Behaviors of Children with Developmental Disabilities using Picture Prompts and Correspondence Training on the Playground.
WENDY A. MACHALICEK (University of Texas at Austin), Karrie Shogren (University of Texas at Austin), Russell Lang (University of Texas at Austin), Jessica Hetlinger Franco (University of Texas at Austin), Mandy J. Rispoli (University of Texas at Austin)
Abstract: School age children with developmental disabilities often have limited play skills and fail to participate in typical playground activities. Instead, children with developmental disabilities may spend the majority of their playground time engaged in solitary and sometimes inappropriate activities. Unfortunately, recess is is a typical occasion for interaction with typically developing peers, so children engaged in solitary activities are missing this crucial opportunity to develop social skills. In the first phase of this study, a multiple baseline design across participants was used to determine the effectiveness of using picture prompts and correspondence training to increase the on-task, play correspondence, and social behaviors of three children with developmental disabilities while on the playground. Results indicate that all three participants' on-task, play correspondence, and peer interaction behaviors increased, while challenging behavior decreased.
Symposium #257
CE Offered: BACB
Staff Training and Developmental Disabilities
Sunday, May 25, 2008
3:00 PM–4:20 PM
Stevens 2
Area: DDA/AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Peter Sturmey (Queens College, City University of New York)
Discussant: Dennis H. Reid (Carolina Behavior Analysis and Support Center, Ltd.)
CE Instructor: Peter Sturmey, Ph.D.

Applied behavior analysis (ABA) depends crucially on dissemination of effective behavioral technology to routine caregivers such as parents, staff, teachers and human service supervisors. Thus, ABA must address teaching skills to routine service providers and disseminating effective practices across entire services. This symposium exemplifies this effort. The first paper reports the effects of behavioral skills training which incorporated the use of general case training into role place on parent acquisition and generalization of discrete trial teaching skills and the effects on child responses. The second paper reports the effects of using instructions, modeling, rehearsal, and feedback to teach various staff to use incidental teaching and its effects on the frequency of mands in children with autism. The final paper reports the effects of discontinuing restrictive behavioral procedures at a state facility for adults with intellectual and other developmental disabilities.

The Effects of General-Case Training and Behavioral Skills Training on the Generalization of Parents’ Use of Discrete-Trial Teaching.
JOHN CLAUDE WARD-HORNER (Queens College and The Graduate Center, The City University of New York), Peter Sturmey (Queens College, The City University of New York)
Abstract: One concern with training individuals in discrete-trial teaching (DTT) is the generalization of skills to non-trained-teaching situations. This study employed behavioral skills and general-case training to train three parents to conduct DTT. A multiple baseline across participants experimental design was used to assess the effects of parent training on the generalization of parents’ DTT performance to non-trained programs. Following training, all parents generalized DTT. Implications of programming for generalization and the effects of parent training on child performance are discussed.
The Effects of a Behavioral Skills Training Package on Teacher Implementation of a Manding Procedure in Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder.
DARLENE NIGRO (Queens College, The City University of New York), Peter Sturmey (Queens College, The City University of New York)
Abstract: A “mand” may be defined as a verbal operant in which the response is reinforced by a characteristic consequence. Manding is a good first behavior to teach because manding does not depend on social behavior as a secondary reinforcer. It is important that staff receive training using empirically tested procedures to make meaningful changes in children’s language repertoires. Experimenters have shown that a behavioral skills training package is an effective way to train teachers. In the present study, the experimenter used a multiple baseline design to analyze the effects of a on the number of correct steps performed by the teachers and the number of mands and prompt level at which each child’s mands occurred. The training protocol increased the number of correct steps performed by two of the three staff members and increased the children’s unprompted mands for reinforcers. Therapist and child performance generalized across locations. Behavioral skills training is an effective way to train staff to teach children with an autism spectrum disorder to mand.
Effects of Discontinuing Negative Punishment Procedures Among Intellectually and Developmentally Disabled Individuals.
JOHN J. POKRZYWINSKI (Woodward Resource Center), Louis Veneziano (Woodward Resource Center), Cynthia Sparrow (Woodward Resource Center), Don Lehman (Woodward Resource Center), William F. Steffen (Woodward Resource Center)
Abstract: Punishment is defined as a consequence following an operant response that decreases the likelihood of that response occurring in the future. A substantial body of research has indicated that the use of punishment procedures can be extremely effective in reducing problematic behaviors displayed by individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. However, the use of punishment procedures is controversial. Some have gone so far as to state that punishment procedures may violate the rights of the person being treated. The general consensus in the fields of applied behavior analysis and developmental disabilities is that punishment procedures are not encouraged. This paper examines the effects of discontinuing response cost and time-out; two commonly used negative punishment procedures, at a state-operated residential treatment facility for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The practical and theoretical implications of discontinuing these negative punishment procedures, especially as they relate to restraint usage, are discussed.
Symposium #258
CE Offered: BACB
Early Experience and Language Ability: From Observational Learning to Derived Relational Responding
Sunday, May 25, 2008
3:00 PM–4:20 PM
Area: DEV/VRB; Domain: Basic Research
Chair: Timothy M. Weil (University of South Florida)
Discussant: David C. Palmer (Smith College)
CE Instructor: Timothy M. Weil, Ph.D.

This symposium will cover basic behavioral repertoires necessary for the acquisition of language as well as the importance of derived relational responding in building flexible use of language. The first paper will discuss the importance of observing responses with respect to the acquisition of over-arching operant classes. The second paper will extend this area to discussion of the importance of joint-attention and social referencing in establishing language repertoires and as necessary prerequisites to derived relational responding. The final paper will present data on the relational ability of children of varying capabilities (typical to moderate autism). Assessment of derived relational responding will be evaluated through comparisons of functional relational networks. Implications for programming with children diagnosed with language deficits will be discussed.

Observing Responses as Related to the Foundation of Early Higher-Order Verbal Operants.
DOLLEEN-DAY KEOHANE (Columbia University Teachers College & CABAS), R. Douglas Greer (Columbia University Teachers College)
Abstract: Observing responses associated with pre-listener repertoires are the foundation of certain early higher-order verbal operants consisting of visual, auditory, gustatory, olfactory, and tactile modalities. They form the basis of early language acquisition as related to a hierarchy of verbal developmental components suggested by Skinner (1957; 1989) and expanded upon by others (Catania, Mathews, & Shimoff 1990; Hayes, Barnes-Holmes, & Roche 2001; Horne & Lowe 1996). Observing is intrinsic to producing and linked to the emergence of new verbal capabilities or cusps. We propose that the emergence of imitation through observation, conditioned reinforcement for looking at faces, listening to voices, looking at stimuli and print, and matching stimuli across the senses is at the root of early language acquisition across pre-listener, and visual-sensory modalities.
Precursors of Derived Relational Responding in Infancy.
MARTHA PELAEZ (Florida International University)
Abstract: The infants' ability to recognize and interpret emotions and cues from adults’ emotional expressions serves important knowledge, emotional, and communicative functions. Joint attention and social referencing appear to be critical features of these exchanges that help the child to gather information about her own thoughts, feelings and behavior in familiar and unfamiliar environments. Joint attention and social referencing also appear to be necessary precursors for the emergence of derived relational responding, which underpins much of higher cognition and language development, including perspective-taking. This presentation first addresses the establishment of infant prerequisite skills for the development of joint attention and social referencing and includes a range of behavioral interventions that appear to be effective in establishing these important capabilities and first frames. The author provides a discussion of the relationship between joint attention and social referencing and the formation of stimulus equivalence and related repertoires of relational frames. The latter part of the presentation contains information and advice to guide practitioners in the establishment of these important repertoires.
Assessment of Derived Relational Responding with Children of Varying Language Ability.
TIMOTHY M. WEIL (University of South Florida)
Abstract: The literature to date on Relational Frame Theory supports the role of derived relational responding in language ability. However, most of the studies have involved verbally-able subjects. It is only now that the experimental analysis of relational framing with developmentally disabled individuals is being pursued. Thus far, training of relational responding has shown promise with individuals with developmental disabilities. It is assumed that the establishment of simpler relational frames should permit more complex derived relational responding to occur. This study involves the identification of basic relational ability with children who range from typically developing to moderately autistic. Following training of arbitrarily applicable relations, an assessment of derived mutual and combinatorial entailed relations, which are mapped in a functional relational network allows for the identification of weak relational ability. Data will be discussed with respect to the particular relationships involved, the number of trials to acquisition for each relation, format of training trials and finally, the results of probe trials for derived responding of untrained relations. The relevance of programming language curriculum with a focus on derived relational responding will be considered.
Symposium #259
CE Offered: BACB
Establishing Generalized Outcomes through Precision Teaching: The Benefits of Standard Measurement Practices
Sunday, May 25, 2008
3:00 PM–4:20 PM
Williford A
Area: EDC/TPC; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Kimberly Nix Berens (Center for Advanced Learning, Inc.)
Discussant: Kimberly Nix Berens (Center for Advanced Learning, Inc.)
CE Instructor: Kimberly Nix Berens, Ph.D.

It is a common misconception that Precision Teaching is synonymous with fluency-based instruction, where an already established behavior is built to optimally high frequencies. The three papers included in the current symposium will attempt to clarify this misconception by illustrating the utility of Precision Teaching practices for the establishment of a broad-range of behavioral repertoires. Similarly, each paper will illustrate how, through frequency-based measures and standard charting practices, generalized or emergent effects on untrained repertoires can be easily evaluated. The findings of each paper will be discussed in relation to current behavior analysis research and practice.

Using Precision Teaching Methods to Establish Generalized Instructional Control with an Autistic Learner.
TIMOTHY C. FULLER (University of Nevada, Reno & Center for Advanced Learning, Inc.), Kimberly Nix Berens (Center for Advanced Learning, Inc.), Kendra L. Rickard (University of Nevada, Reno & Center for Advanced Learning, Inc.)
Abstract: It is common knowledge that establishing generalized instructional control with autistic learners poses a challenge to educators. Many procedures used for establishing such control involve discrete trials methods, which may limit generalization and require lengthy training times to produce effects. The current paper will describe how Precision Teaching methods were used to effectively and efficiently establish generalized instructional control with an autistic learner. The clinical implications of such findings will be discussed in addition to directions for future research.
Rate of Responding as a Generalized Operant.
KENDRA L. RICKARD (University of Nevada, Reno & Center for Advanced Learning, Inc.), Kimberly Nix Berens (Center for Advanced Learning, Inc.)
Abstract: In education, students’ rates on visual discrimination tasks are often used to predict the likelihood of future reading problems. However, these assessments do not generally lead to interventions to improve students’ rates of discriminations. The current presentation will discuss a procedure used to increase students’ rates of responding and the transfer of these effects to other academic tasks that involve visual discriminations. Furthermore, rate of responding as a generalized operant class will be discussed. The clinical implications of such findings will be discussed in addition to directions for future research.
Establishing Fluency of Arbitrarily Applicable Derived Relational Responding: An Application of Relational Frame Theory to Vocabulary Building with Children.
NICHOLAS M. BERENS (University of Nevada, Reno & Center for Advanced Learning, Inc.), Steven C. Hayes (University of Nevada, Reno), Kimberly Nix Berens (Center for Advanced Learning, Inc.)
Abstract: Conventional procedures for strengthening students’ vocabulary often focus on rote memorization or context learning. These procedures typically lack a focus on the core language abilities that allow for novel vocabulary words to be integrated into individuals’ repertoires. With this oversight, conventional procedures also fail to evaluate student improvements in applying new vocabulary to contexts outside of the training situation. The current ongoing investigation has identified procedures that: 1) builds the fluency of a core operant that has been related to language ability, 2) efficiently improves individuals’ vocabulary, and 3) trains novel vocabulary words that are incorporated into individuals’ repertoires in such a way that it generalizes to multiple situations. Data will be presented demonstrating the establishment of fluency in arbitrarily applicable derived relational responding across multiple frames with correlated improvements in analogical reasoning tasks.
Symposium #260
CE Offered: BACB
Evidence Based Practices Reviews: Secondary Interventions
Sunday, May 25, 2008
3:00 PM–4:20 PM
Williford C
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Cynthia M. Anderson (University of Oregon)
Discussant: Cynthia M. Anderson (University of Oregon)
CE Instructor: Cynthia M. Anderson, Ph.D.

This symposium presents 3 evidence-based practice reviews of interventions that can be used at the secondary level within a positive behavior supports model.

A Meta-Analysis of the Definition, Features and Effects of Secondary Prevention Interventions.
CAROL ANN DAVIS (University of Washington), Pei-Yu Chen (University of Washington)
Abstract: While the effect of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support has been widely supported by literature in the past ten years, the results of secondary prevention studies have been not as widely documented (Hawken & Horner, 2003). The purpose of this presentation is to summarize and synthesize the existing literature on secondary prevention interventions and to pose discussion questions linking the existing literature to the key components of SWPBS. First, we reviewed the definition of secondary prevention or targeted intervention in the existing literature. Secondly, based on the 10 key features of secondary prevention interventions listed, we reviewed empirical studies to investigate how effective the intervention was and how well each empirical study matched the definition of secondary prevention features. Results showed that the definition of secondary prevention on the PBIS website was consistent with most reviewed studies however, the review revealed some discrepancies in necessary components of secondary interventions. In addition, the literature will be discussed in terms of evidenced-based practices.
Just How Good is the Good Behavior Game?
HEATHER STERLING-TURNER (University of Southern Mississippi), Daniel H. Tingstrom (University of Southern Mississippi), Brandy Dickerson (University of Southern Mississippi), Nichole Weakley (University of Southern Mississippi), Katherine Menousek (University of Southern Mississippi)
Abstract: In recent years and driven in part by federal mandates, professional organizations such as APA and CEC have developed systematic procedures for evaluating the effectiveness of various educational and mental health practices. The primary purpose behind such initiatives is to allow relevant consumer groups, including practitioners and researchers, to make determinations of the quality of support for a body of literature focused on a given assessment or intervention procedure. The Good Behavior Game (GBG), a variation of an interdependent group-oriented contingency, is a well-researched intervention for use in classroom settings. First appearing in 1969, the GBG has been adapted for use in a variety of academic settings to manage students’ social and academic behaviors. Although individual studies and summary literature reviews of the GBG generally support the effectiveness of the intervention for producing desired behavior change, to date, the GBG has not be subjected to any of the standards for evidence-based support. In this paper, comparative data for the GBG will be presented using the various professional standards for determining intervention effectiveness. As the overwhelming majority of GBG studies employ time-series designs, discussion will primarily center on standards that allow for the evaluation of these designs.
Check-in/ Check-out as a Targeted Intervention at Elementary, Middle and High School.
ROBERT H. HORNER (University of Oregon), Jessica L. Swain-Bradway (University of Oregon), Amy Kauffman (University of Oregon)
Abstract: Check-in/ Check-out is a daily report card intervention designed for implementation as part of a multi-tiered school-wide positive behavior support implementation. This session will share results from applications of the Check-in/ Check-out procedure at elementary, middle and high schools. Emphasis will be given to the role of core behavioral features implemented within varying contexts.
Symposium #262
CE Offered: BACB
An Examination of Variables that Influence Participant Preferences among Varying Reinforcement Arrangements
Sunday, May 25, 2008
3:00 PM–4:20 PM
Area: EDC/EAB; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Iser Guillermo DeLeon (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
CE Instructor: Iser Guillermo DeLeon, Ph.D.

Behavior analysts have devoted considerable time and research effort towards developing methods to identify reinforcers for use in applied settings, and in validating those methods. Less attention has been paid to optimal arrangements for the use of those reinforcers, particularly from the perspective of the participants in question. The current set of investigations were undertaken to understand childrens preferences for one reinforcement arrangement versus another. Three of the studies used concurrent-chain schedules to identify childrens preferences for specific arrangements that included free vs. contingent reinforcement, choice of reinforcers vs. no choice of reinforcers, and distributed reinforcement vs. massed, delayed reinforcement. A fourth investigation examined how preference among available options interacts with task difficulty. Each study yields meaningful implications for the design of reinforcement programs in applied settings.

Evaluating Continuity as a Valuable Dimension of Reinforcement for Children with Developmental Disabilities.
MICHELLE A. FRANK-CRAWFORD CRAWFORD (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Julie Ann Chase (University of Maryland, Baltimore Co.), Iser Guillermo DeLeon (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Melissa J. Allman (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
Abstract: The potency of some reinforcers may be enhanced by continuous, rather than interrupted, access even though delivery to reinforcement is delayed. This study used a concurrent-chain schedule to examine the preferences of 3 participants with autism for two kinds of reinforcement arrangements: 1) smaller, temporally distributed amounts immediately following each response, or 2) continuous (uninterrupted) access to reinforcers following the completion of multiple responses. Each session consisted of 5 trials of 10 demands. The participants were given the choice of the reinforcement arrangements prior to each trial. The choice for distributed access resulted in 30s access to the activity or a piece of an edible following each demand. The choice for continuous access resulted in earning tokens for compliance, each redeemable for 30s of reinforcement (300 consecutive seconds) or 1 piece of the edible (10 edibles delivered at once) delivered after the session. When the reinforcer was an activity, all 3 participants preferred uninterrupted access to the reinforcers. When the reinforcer was an edible item, one preferred continuous access and 2 participants showed indifference. For all three participants, the continuous access condition resulted in less time to complete an equivalent amount of work.
Preference of Children for Working over Free Reinforcement.
KEVIN C. LUCZYNSKI (The New England Center for Children and Western New England College), Gregory P. Hanley (Western New England University)
Abstract: The present study sought to determine the boundary conditions for preferring contingent over noncontingent delivery of reinforcement. Two contexts were arranged that involved the delivery of a preferred edible item contingent upon a correct academic response or yoked delivery on a time-based schedule (noncontingent reinforcement [NCR]). The frequency, amount, and temporal distribution of reinforcement in the NCR schedule were yoked to the contingent reinforcement schedule. Interobserver agreement data on child selections and academic performance was collected on 53% of all sessions and averaged above 95%. After observing a preference for contingencies using a modified concurrent-chains arrangement, the fixed ratio response requirement was progressively increased. A shift or disruption in preference among the schedules was observed for 3 out of the 4 children as the schedule was increased to a fixed-ratio 10. Experimental control over the preference shift, as a function of the intermittent schedules, was demonstrated for 2 out of the 3 children. The conditions under which children may prefer to “work” to access reinforcement instead of obtaining it freely will be discussed along with the implications of our results for providing reinforcement to young children.
A Further Analysis of Children’s Preferences for Choice.
ANNA C. SCHMIDT (University of Kansas), Gregory P. Hanley (Western New England University), Stacy A. Layer (University of Kansas)
Abstract: We sought to extend previous research that has evaluated conditions under which children prefer the opportunity to choose. In the initial link of a concurrent chains arrangement, children selected a worksheet correlated with a choice, no choice, or control condition. An array of five identical stimuli was presented in each condition. Correct responses to academic stimuli in the terminal link resulted in (a) one item selected from the array by the child (Choice), (b) one item selected for the child by the experimenter (No Choice), and (c) no access to the stimuli (Control). Interobserver agreement on child selections was collected in 54% of sessions and mean agreement was 100%. In Study 1, in which edible items were presented as consequences for academic responding in the terminal links, five of six children allocated a majority of their responses to the choice condition. To assess the generality of these findings, non-edible stimuli were presented in Study 2. Preference for choice conditions was observed for all but one child. The preference for choice reemerged for this latter child when edible consequences were re-introduced. Implications for designing reinforcement programs will be discussed.
Sensitivity and Bias under Conditions of Asymmetrical Effort Requirements in Academic Tasks.
DEREK D. REED (Syracuse University), Brian K. Martens (Syracuse University)
Abstract: We conducted an experimental analysis of children's relative problem completion rates across two workstations under conditions of equal (Experiment 1) and unequal (Experiment 2) problem difficulty. Results are described using the generalized matching equation. Experiment 1 involved a symmetrical-choice arrangement in which the children could earn points exchangeable for rewards contingent on correct math problem completion. Points were delivered according to signaled variable-interval schedules at each workstation. During Experiment 1, both workstations had low effort requirements. For two children, relative rates of problem completion appeared to have been controlled by the schedule requirements in effect and matched relative rates of reinforcement, with sensitivity values near one and bias values near zero. Experiment 2 involved increasing the effort requirement to high effort at one of the workstations. Sensitivity values f0r all three participants were near one, but a substantial increase in bias toward the less effortful alternative was observed.
Symposium #264
CE Offered: BACB
Readiness for the Next Level of OBM Supporting our Community by Discussing Needs of the Outside World
Sunday, May 25, 2008
3:00 PM–4:20 PM
Area: OBM; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Kelly L. Therrien (Continuous Learning Group)
CE Instructor: Kelly L. Therrien, M.S.

The symposium is aimed at addressing some skill sets being identified as key to successful consulting by practitioners, clients, and faculty of OBM. Fundamental skill areas have been identified in OBM literature to date, and thus the presentations will focus on addressing key areas identified as need based skills for future consultants to be successful as seen by practitioners and clients of an OBM consultancy, enabling discussion of opportunities to ready future practitioners to demonstrate those skills.

OBM the Next Generation Revisited.
KELLY L. THERRIEN (Continuous Learning Group)
Abstract: Therrien and Rodriguez (ABA 2006) presented learnings from consultants of CLG on the topic of key skill sets that make for high quality and effective consulting practitioners. Recent developments in the marketplace show a growing need for those skill sets, and evaluations of the readiness levels of potential candidates interested in consulting in OBM are needed. Further investigation has been done comparing the current literature on essential skills with client feedback in regards to those same skill sets and its relevant importance from a client perspective. A review of the 2006 work and recent data will be presented.
Evaluating How we’re Doing Preparing our Future – Your Thoughts Captured Here!
AMY LEIGH AYERS (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: CLG prides itself in being an established behavior analysis consultancy, one that wants to support the future of OBM and its next generation. The author gathered data from the current academic community teaching OBM to learn more about the current methods in instructing and preparing students of OBM for the “real world.” Questions were posed to identify current strengths and weakness in preparing students for OBM practice, and barriers and enablers present in current day academic settings. These data will be presented to learn from the academic community similar to how CLG prepares organizations for future state growth.
Building on Where We Are: Making the Move to the Next Level of OBM.
TRACY A. THURKOW (Continuous Learning Group)
Abstract: The presenting authors of this symposium illustrate the current state from the perspectives of consultants, clients of OBM services, and academic faculty of OBM courses. The data can support a variety of avenues the OBM community can take to create change in how we consult, prepare, and educate our future state as a field. This presentation will support identifying potential paths and recommended strategies based on the data utilizing similar methods CLG takes with its clientele.
Symposium #265
CE Offered: BACB
International Symposium - Technology for Technology's Sake: Technical Advances to Increase the Knowledge and Use of Behavioral Principles
Sunday, May 25, 2008
3:00 PM–4:20 PM
Area: TBA/EDC; Domain: Theory
Chair: Patrick S. Williams (University of Houston, Downtown)
CE Instructor: Christine Hoffner Barthold, Ph.D.

Behavior analysts have new and powerful tools by which they can teach and assess behavioral principles and applications through computer-based technologies. This symposium will focus on the forms of innovative use of technology for teaching behavior analysis, such as graphics, multimedia, distance learning, and computer-based assessment of textual behavior. Along with conceptual suggestions for presenting behavior analytic content using technology, data will be presented that show evidence of the effectiveness of using computer-based technology to increase understanding and usage of behavior analytic principles by individuals in higher education as well as practitioners in the community.

2D or Not 2D: Is That the question?
MICHAEL KEENAN (University of Ulster)
Abstract: How do you convey to students that sense of wonderment that lies at the heart of doing science? How should we share with students the tremendous achievements of our discipline? Questions like these are an inevitable part of a teacher’s predicament at the frontline in a classroom. In this presentation, I will argue that our scientific community has given little attention to the need for innovative resources that can help the teacher. I will look at the role of the scientific image within science generally and I will show there is a sparcity of scientific images that are the hallmark of behaviour analysis. I suggest constructive ways that the ‘image problem’ of behaviour analysis can be addressed. Using 2D and 3D graphics I will show how to make the notion of the behavioural stream come alive in the form of an interactive diagram for stimulating discussion of applied and philosophical issues.
Teaching Students about Behavioral Dynamics with Multimedia.
BRADY J. PHELPS (South Dakota State University), Mandy Orth (South Dakota State University), Brandon Rauch (South Dakota State University)
Abstract: Our subject matter is a dynamic process that leaves a record of its occurrences and of on-going changes. Verbal descriptions are inadequate to illustrate the complexity and richness of the dynamics of even very basic behavioral processes. Multimedia demonstrations will be presented to offer more absorbing means to display behavior and behavior change.
Using Distance Learning to Increase Use of Best Practice with Providers Working with Children with Autism.
Abstract: With the increase of children with autism spectrum disorders and disabilities in general in childcare settings, providers are requesting more information about effective support techniques. Although distance learning is considered to be a promising, cost-effective option for training, there is little data to support whether distance learning translates into usage of best practice by care providers and positive outcomes for the children with disabilities that they serve. This project examined the impact of distance learning technology on teacher use of best practice training as well as effects on socio-communicative responding on the part of children with autism. Web-based training modules were used to teach basic behavioral principles and applications for children with autism to childcare providers in university-affiliated preschool/after-school programs. Data were collected on providers’ use of behavioral techniques with children with autism as a result of distance learning, and whether use of these techniques resulted in increased social and communication skills for children with autism.
Assessing Student Textual Behavior.
DARLENE E. CRONE-TODD (Salem State College)
Abstract: To teach behavior analysis is also to assess student behavior. The interactive nature of computer-based programs allows for ongoing assessment of complex textual behavior, as well as post-assessment for future testable questions related to teaching effectiveness. Data presented will focus on textual behavior generated by students, assessing the complexity of the task and behavior, and on using these tools for effective teaching.
Symposium #266
CE Offered: BACB
Advancing Functional Analysis Technology Through Innovative Experimental Analysis
Sunday, May 25, 2008
3:00 PM–4:20 PM
Area: TPC/DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Robert LaRue (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center)
Discussant: F. Charles Mace (University of Southern Maine)
CE Instructor: Michael E. Kelley, Ph.D.

The functional analysis methodology developed by Iwata et al. (1982/1994) advanced the field of behavior analysis in several ways. First, it decreased dependence on arbitrarily selected treatments that functioned by superimposing strong positive/negative reinforcement/punishment operations on unidentified reinforcement contingencies. Second, it linked conceptual systems (first described by Carr, 1977) to problems of social significance. Finally, it produced hundreds of replication and extension studies that have advanced the field of behavior analysis along the dimensions outlined by Baer, Wolf, and Risley (1968). The current symposium includes three studies that further advance the field by conceptually extending functional analysis technology. In the first study, LaRue et al. conducted a version of functional analysis methodology that reduced the time required to identify a function and obtained high correspondence between procedures. In the second study, Kelley et al. demonstrated that the symptoms of bi-polar disorder were accounted for by experimental analyses. Finally, Malley et al. showed both experimental evidence of a response-class hierarchy and an innovative way of proactively intervening when access to preferred stimuli was denied. Together, these studies advance the functional analysis technology and provide a foundation for future research on experimental analysis of severe behavior disorders.

Comparison of Analogue and Discrete-Trial Methodologies for Conducting Functional Analyses.
ROBERT LARUE (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center), Karen L. Lenard (Center for Outreach & Services for the Autism Community of New Jersey), Meredith Bamond (Rutgers University), Mark Palmeiri (Rutgers University), Mary Jane Weiss (Rutgers University), Michael E. Kelley (University of Southern Maine)
Abstract: Analogue functional analysis is considered to be the most accurate procedure for determining the function of maladaptive behavior (Hanley et al., 2003). However, the time and expertise required to conduct functional analyses has made their use in public schools prohibitive. As a result, brief models of functional analysis have emerged. One such model was proposed by Sigafoos and Saggers (1995). In their study, the researchers used two minute functional analysis conditions (1 minute test, 1 minute control) to evaluate the function of a maladaptive behavior for two students with autism. The current investigation sought to compare a traditional model of functional analysis (e.g., Iwata et al., 1982/1994) and a brief, discrete-trial model of functional analysis similar to procedures used by Sigafoos and Saggers (1995). Five students, aged 8 to 30, were included in the current evaluation. Students were exposed to traditional functional analyses and to the discrete trial analysis. Results indicate that there was correspondence across models for all students. In addition, the discrete trial procedure took considerably less time than traditional FA procedures (80% reduction in session time). Results are discussed in terms of compliance with the IDEA Amendments of 1997 and the social validity of functional analysis in schools.
Experimental Analysis Accounts for the Symptoms of Bi-Polar Disorders.
MICHAEL E. KELLEY (University of Southern Maine), Valerie M. Volkert (The Marcus Institute), Blair Parker Hicks (The Marcus Institute)
Abstract: Indirect assessment techniques (e.g., interviews, rating scales) are often used for intervention selection because they are relatively inexpensive and easy to administer, despite evidence that direct assessment may produce more reliable and valid information. A specific type of indirect assessment, physician interview, often produces diagnoses that lead to medicinal intervention. In the current study, a 7-year-old female was diagnosed with childhood bi-polar disorder. Treatment included a medication regimen that was ineffective in reducing the presenting symptoms that led to the diagnoses. A series of experimental analyses demonstrated the target behaviors were influenced by environmental manipulations. Results support the use of direct, experimental analyses for both confirming structural diagnostic techniques and prescribing intervention.
Two Methods of "Saying No" that Avoid an Escalating Response Class Hierarchy.
JAMIE MALLEY (University of Southern Maine), Kevin Lee Prager (MCCD/ASAT), Elaine Carolan (University of Southern Maine), F. Charles Mace (University of Southern Maine)
Abstract: Restricting an individual’s access to preferred stimuli may be interpreted as a motivating operation that increases the value of the restricted stimuli and evokes behaviors that historically have produced access to those stimuli. Among young children and individuals with developmental disabilities, the evoked behaviors may constitute a response class hierarchy of increasingly challenging behaviors. The present study compared the evocative effects of three alternative methods of denying access to a preferred activity by measuring the occurrence and escalation of oppositional, disruptive, and aggressive behaviors in one child with developmental disabilities. Latency to the first occurrence of each target behavior was measured to determine the temporal sequence or hierarchy in which the behaviors comprising the participant’s response class occurred, and the percentage of 10-second intervals in which the target behaviors occurred was measured to evaluate the relative evocative effects of the three methods of restricting access. An analysis of the participant’s response class hierarchy during four baseline sessions was followed by a counterbalanced alternating treatments design, and the replication of this sequence resulted in an ABAB experimental design. During the baseline condition of this functional behavior assessment, the participant was denied access to a preferred activity and offered a brief explanation for the restriction. In each of the baseline sessions, access to the preferred activity was delivered contingent upon a different target behavior or withheld completely. Baseline results revealed the emergence of a stable response class hierarchy under these conditions of restricted access. The second phase of the study presented two alternative approaches to restricting the participant’s access to the preferred activity: (a) denying access, offering a brief explanation for the restriction, and then presenting an alternative activity and (b) denying access until the participant fulfilled a demand requirement. Relative to baseline, both alternative approaches for restricting access to the preferred activity were shown to yield fewer evocative effects on challenging behaviors. Implications of these results are discussed in terms of proactive behavior management practices and novel methodologies for the conduct of functional behavior assessments.
Symposium #268
CE Offered: BACB
An Analysis of Teaching and Prompting Strategies in Teaching Children with Autism Play and Vocational Skills
Sunday, May 25, 2008
4:00 PM–5:20 PM
Area: AUT/EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Myrna E. Libby (The New England Center for Children)
CE Instructor: Julie S. Weiss, M.S.

Four presentations analyzing the effectiveness and efficiency of various teaching and prompting strategies on the acquisition of behavior chains will be presented. One presentation compared the use of backward and forward chaining on the acquisition of a play construction model using most-to-least prompting with a fixed delay. The effectiveness of the two chaining strategies was evaluated with an alternating treatments design. The efficiency and effectiveness of the chaining procedures varied across learners. One presentation evaluated the effects of procedural integrity on the acquisition of play skills by varying prompting errors. The rate and type of errors was functionally related to delays in skill acquisition. The third presentation investigated if independently established related repertoires would emerge as a sequential chain of vocational behaviors when an opportunity was provided for them to occur simultaneously. For the participants, the independent repertoires did occur in sequence as a complete chain when the opportunity was provided. The last presentation evaluated the effects of three levels of treatment integrity (100%, 50%, and 10%) of a physical guidance prompting procedure for appropriate play with a preschool age child diagnosed with autism. Results indicate that prompting at 100% integrity was necessary to improve responding beyond baseline levels.

A Comparison of Backward and Forward Chaining in the Acquisition of Solitary Play Skills.
JULIE S. WEISS (The New England Center for Children), Myrna E. Libby (The New England Center for Children), William H. Ahearn (The New England Center for Children), Emily P. Bennett (The New England Center for Children), Pamela M. Olsen (The New England Center for Children)
Abstract: An alternating treatments design was used to compare a forward chaining sequence and a backward chaining sequence using most-to-least with a constant delay prompting procedure. Three participants diagnosed with autism participated and the dependent variable was number of trials to acquisition of two 8-step play construction figures; each session consisted of one probe trial and 10 training trials. Generalization probes across a novel teacher and one new setting were conducted after acquisition. For all participants, both training procedures were effective. Efficiency varied across participants but was consistent across replications with similar play constructs. All participants generalized responding across a new teacher and in a new environment. IOA data were collected in at least 40% of sessions and averaged 95%. Procedural integrity data were taken in at least 40% of sessions and averaged 95%.
Generating Novel Vocational Skill Sequences of Responding by Teaching Components: Adduction.
SARA ELLIOT (The New England Center for Children), Myrna E. Libby (The New England Center for Children), Julie S. Weiss (The New England Center for Children), William H. Ahearn (The New England Center for Children)
Abstract: Five individuals diagnosed with autism were taught two separate but related vocational behavior chains. Participants were then given the opportunity to combine the two units into a longer, previously untrained sequential chain of behaviors. All five participants did independently generate a novel chain of behaviors after acquiring four components. Furthermore, this skill generalized across novel materials. All sessions were videotaped and IOA and procedural integrity exceeded 95%.
Analysis of Prompting Errors that Result in Delayed Acquisition of Play Skill Chains in Children with Autism.
GREGORY PAQUETTE (The New England Center for Children), Julie S. Weiss (The New England Center for Children), Myrna E. Libby (The New England Center for Children), William H. Ahearn (The New England Center for Children)
Abstract: This study compared the effects of different types and rate of prompting errors on the acquisition of individual play skills in children with autism. Three participants learned to put together three 12-step play figures in a forward chaining sequence with most-to-least prompting. An alternating treatments design was used to compare the effects of three prompting error conditions: no programmed errors, prompting the wrong response on 50% of the training steps and prompting a correct response out of sequence on 50% of training steps. After acquisition, generalization probes were implemented with a novel teacher and in a different environment. All sessions were videotaped. IOA and procedural integrity data were collected during 40% of sessions and averaged over 90%. All participants achieved independence in building the figures in the no programmed errors condition. The degree of interference with acquisition resulting from the error conditions varied across participants but errors did seriously impact acquisition. All participants generalized performance across teachers and environments for all play skills.
Effects of Varying Levels of Treatment Integrity on Appropriate Toy Manipulation in Children with Autism.
NICOLE C. GROSKREUTZ (Utah State University), Mark P. Groskreutz (Utah State University), Thomas S. Higbee (Utah State University)
Abstract: The effects of three levels of treatment integrity (100%, 50%, and 10%) of a physical guidance prompting procedure for appropriate play were evaluated. Participants were preschool-aged children with autism. A competing items assessment was used to identify toys with high levels of inappropriate play. Baseline data were collected across the three toys with the highest levels of inappropriate play; no prompting was provided for appropriate toy manipulation. The prompting procedure was then implemented at 10, 50, or 100 percent integrity for a given toy, followed by implementation at 100% integrity across all toys. Results indicate that prompting at 100% integrity was necessary to improve responding beyond baseline levels. Implications for designing interventions in applied settings are discussed.
Panel #269
CE Offered: BACB
Developing a Training and Supervision Protocol for Early Intervention Programs
Sunday, May 25, 2008
4:00 PM–5:20 PM
Continental C
Area: AUT/TBA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Mary Ellen McDonald, Ph.D.
Chair: Mary Ellen McDonald (Eden II Programs/The Genesis School)
CATHERINE E. FALLEO (Director, Personal -Touch Early Intervention Program)
CHRISTOPHER E. SMITH (Rutgers University)
EILEEN CRISTIANO (Bilinguals, Inc.)
JOANN FIESEL (Marion K Salomon & Associates)

Intervention utilizing the principles of applied behavior analysis has been shown to be the one intervention that is effective for children with autism spectrum disorders. The efficacy of behavioral intervention has been demonstrated through years of research and has specifically been shown to be effective for young learners with autism. Dr. Lovaas early research (Lovaas, 1973, 1987) demonstrated the effectiveness of such intervention with children with autism. It is also known that this intervention when begun at the earliest age will have the greatest impact on the students learning. We may know what needs to be done to provide optimal behavioral intervention in early intervention, nonetheless, it is often difficult to provide young learners with the quality of staff that are needed in early intervention programs. The purpose of the panel is to discuss the development of training and supervision protocols for agencies providing early intervention to children with autism spectrum disorders.

Symposium #270
CE Offered: BACB
Evaluating Preference for Instructional and Treatment Approaches in Individuals with Developmental Disabilities
Sunday, May 25, 2008
4:00 PM–5:20 PM
International South
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Richard B. Graff (The New England Center for Children)
CE Instructor: Richard B. Graff, M.S.

This symposium presents research on evaluating preferences for instructional practices and treatment approaches in individuals with developmental disabilities. In the first study, preference for participant-selected versus experimenter-delivered reinforcers was evaluated, using a concurrent chains procedure. All three participants preferred thparticipant-selected condition; two of three preferred the participant-selected condition even when response requirements were three times that of thexperimenter-delivered condition. In the second study, preference assessme technology was used to identify variables maintaining problem behavior. Children with autism chose between three concurrently availabl consequences (attention, tangibles, escape), and the results were compared to those obtained in a multielement functional analysis. The concurrent assessment was able to identify a reinforcer that effectively suppressed problem behavior. In the third study, preference for and reinforcer efficacy of gluten- and casein-free foods (GFCF) were evaluated. Results suggested that GFCF foods were less preferred, and were less effective reinforcers than typical foods. The final study evaluated preference for two instructional approaches for children diagnosed with autism: ABA and TEACCH. Participants did not show a clear preference for one training procedure over the other, and data on time on task, problem behaviors, and positive affect did not show any clear differences between the procedures.

Measuring Preference for Participant-Selected versus Experimenter-Delivered Reinforcers.
AUDREY HARHOOD (The New England Center for Children), Richard B. Graff (The New England Center for Children), William H. Ahearn (The New England Center for Children)
Abstract: The effects of choice of reinforcer were evaluated in three participants diagnosed with developmental disabilities, using a concurrent chains procedure. Responses to the initial link resulted in access to terminal links during which work on vocational tasks resulted in either the participant selecting one of three high-preference edible items (participant-selected condition), or the experimenter delivering an edible (experimenter-selected condition), with the schedule o reinforcer delivery yoked to the participants’ selections in the previous participant-selected condition. All three participants selected the link that allowed access to participant- selected reinforcers on 100% of opportunities. Then, the response requirements for the terminal link in the participant-selected condition were increase systematically, while the response requirements for the experimenter-delivered reinforcer remained constant. Two of three participants continued to select the participant-selected link even when the response requirement to access the reinforcer was three times that of the experimenter-delivered condition. Interobserver agreement data were collected during 33% of sessions, and was 100%.
Using Children’s Choice to Identify Functional Reinforcers.
SHARI MARIE WINTERS (West Virginia University), Claire C St. Peter (West Virginia University)
Abstract: Functional analysis procedures can identify reinforcers maintaining problem behavior in individuals with developmental disabilities, but the amount of time or training required to conduct these analyses can be impractical. As an alternative to traditional preference assessments, it may be possible to identify functional reinforcers based on children’s preferences. This study used a concurrent schedule to identify preferences for reinforcers by allowing children with autism to choose between three simultaneously available consequences: attention, tangibles, and escape. The results of the concurrent assessment were compared to those obtained in a multielement functional analysis, and a treatment was developed using the reinforcers identified in the assessments. In general, the concurrent assessment was able to identify a reinforcer that effectively suppressed problem behavior during the treatment phase.
Examining Preference for and Reinforcing Efficacy of Gluten- and Casein-Free Foods.
MAUREEN KELLY (The New England Center for Children), Dominique Maribett (The New England Center for Children), Richard B. Graff (The New England Center for Children)
Abstract: Although proponents of diet therapies suggest that eliminating gluten and casein may improve behavior in individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), there is no empirical evidence to support this assertion. Two individuals with ASD participated in this study to evaluate preference for and reinforcing efficacy of gluten- and casein-free (GFCF) foods versus “typical” foods (i.e., similar foods that did contain gluten/casein). Five matched food dyads (e.g., brand name pretzels and GFCF pretzels) were used. To ensure familiarity with the edibles, paired-stimulus preference assessment trials were conducted. Then, a concurrent chains procedure was used, in which responses to the initial link resulted in access to terminal links during which work on math worksheets led to receiving access to GFCF edibles or the typical matched counterpart. For the first participant, across 5 GFCF/typical dyads, the mean percentage of responses to the initial link associated with typical foods was 76%, suggesting a preference for typical foods over GFCF foods. During the terminal links, the participant emitted a mean of 7.7 RPM for the typical foods, but only 5.2 RPM for the GFCF foods, suggesting that the GFCF foods were less effective reinforcers. Data for a second participant will also be presented.
Use of Concurrent Chains Preference Assessment Procedure to Evaluate Children’s Preference for ABA versus TEACCH.
CARRIE M. BROWER-BREITWIESER (Idaho State University), Raymond G. Miltenberger (University of South Florida), Amy Gross (Western Michigan University), Justin Breitwieser (Idaho State University), Krystyna A. Orizondo-Korotko (Western Michigan University), R. Wayne Fuqua (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: The present study used a concurrent-chains operant preference assessment to evaluate preference for two instructional approaches commonly used with children diagnosed with autism: Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) and the Treatment and Education of Autistic and Communication Handicapped Children (Project TEACCH). It was hypothesized that the participants would demonstrate a preference for ABA. It was also hypothesized that the participants engaged in the ABA training program would engage in a higher percentage of on-task behavior, and would also engage in more behaviors related to positive affect, such as smiling and laughing. Overall the results showed that the participants did not show a clear preference for one training procedure over the other, although the percentage of ABA choices was slightly higher than the percentage of TEACCH choices (53.6% vs. 46.4%). Data on time on task, problem behaviors, and positive affect did not show any clear differences between the two procedures. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Symposium #271
CE Offered: BACB
Evaluation of Parent and Caregiver Delivered Interventions for Young Children
Sunday, May 25, 2008
4:00 PM–5:20 PM
Continental A
Area: AUT/EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: David A. Wilder (Florida Institute of Technology)
Discussant: Rachel H. Thompson (The New England Center for Children)
CE Instructor: David A. Wilder, Ph.D.

Three presentations will be delivered. In the first presentation, a parent training package consisting of didactic, video, and self-management components was used to teach three parents of children with autism to conduct picture activity schedules. In the second presentation, the effectiveness of a behavioral skills training package consisting of modeling, rehearsal, and feedback was evaluated to increase proper implementation of a guidance compliance procedure by caregivers of three children exhibiting noncompliance. The third presentation consists of an evaluation of "reasoning" as an antecedent intervention to increase compliance among young children.

Teaching Parents to Conduct Picture Activity Schedules.
SUSAN N. LANGER (The New England Center for Children), Linsey M. Sabielny (The New England Center for Children), Cammarie Johnson (The New England Center for Children), Daniel Gould (The New England Center for Children)
Abstract: A parent training package consisting of didactic, video, and self-management components was used to teach three parents of children with autism to conduct picture activity schedules. The didactic component utilized a 30 minute PowerPoint presentation in paper format, outlining a graduated guidance procedure and picture activity schedules. The 30 minute video component served as visual examples of the correct and incorrect use of graduated guidance in the context of picture activity schedules. The final component consisted of the completion of a behavior checklist in which the trainer taught the parent to evaluate the implementation of a video example of the teaching procedure. This training component lasted between 20 and 40 minutes. A multiple probe design across participants, which included baseline, training, and maintenance phases, evaluated the effect of this training package on both parent and child behavior. The results indicated that the training package was effective in increasing the accuracy with which the parent participants accurately implemented picture activity schedules, and was also effective in increasing on-task/on-schedule behavior for the child participants.
The Effects of Behavioral Skills Training on Caregiver Implementation of a Guided Compliance Procedure.
NICHOLAS I. MILES (Florida Institute of Technology), David A. Wilder (Florida Institute of Technology), Kimberley L. M. Zonneveld (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: The effectiveness of a behavioral skills training package consisting of modeling, rehearsal, and feedback was evaluated to increase proper implementation of a guidance compliance procedure by caregivers of three children exhibiting noncompliance. A multiple baseline design across participants was used to evaluate the effects of the training package. Results show that the training package improved performance of the procedure, with mean percent-correct performance increasing from 29 to 37% during baseline to 95 to 99% during the post-training phase for all participants. Generalization probes indicated that the skills learned were exhibited in different settings three to six weeks after training ended.
An Evaluation of "Reasoning" as an Antecedent Intervention to Increase Compliance among Preschool Children.
ONEINA E. ABELLON (Florida Institute of Technology), David A. Wilder (Florida Institute of Technology), Renee Saulnier (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: "Reasoning" refers to statements regarding why a child should comply with an instruction delivered by a caregiver and is a frequently used strategy to increase compliance among young children. In this study, the effectiveness of reasoning as an antecedent intervention to increase compliance among three preschool children was evaluated. Results suggest that the intervention was only marginally effective.
Symposium #273
CE Offered: BACB
Contingency Management in the Treatment of Drug Abuse
Sunday, May 25, 2008
4:00 PM–5:20 PM
Boulevard B
Area: CBM/BPH; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Jeffrey J. Everly (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
Discussant: James S. MacDonall (Fordham University)
CE Instructor: Mary Louise E. Kerwin, Ph.D.

Contingency management (CM) is the differential reinforcement of clinically relevant behaviors. This symposium will include several data-based presentations of how CM is successfully used in the treatment of substance abuse. Among the issues addressed will be how varying reinforcement contingencies affects multiple target behaviors in an employment-based treatment setting, the use of group CM to reinforce behaviors necessary for cocaine abstinence and methadone treatment, and the use of individual CM to reduce cigarette smoking in pregnant and recently post-partum women.

Reinforcing Attendance and Skills Training in Employment-Based Substance Abuse Treatment.
JEFFREY J. EVERLY (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Kenneth Silverman (Johns Hopkins University)
Abstract: Research in our laboratory has focused on using a therapeutic workplace to treat substance abuse. Access to the therapeutic workplace is used as a reinforcer for clinically relevant behaviors. While in the workplace, participants work on typing training programs. Participants are paid a combination of base pay for attending the workplace, and productivity pay for work on the training programs. Although a flat hourly wage may be sufficient to maintain all relevant workplace behaviors, it may be necessary to selectively reinforce each target behavior to ensure regular attendance and efficient completion of the training programs. This issue is addressed in the present study by paying participants in one of two ways that will be alternated across experimental conditions. In one condition, participants will be paid the standard combination of base and productivity pay. In the other condition, participants will be paid a flat wage based on the average hourly base and productivity pay from previous conditions. Next, participants’ preference for the two payment methods will be assessed. The presented results will focus on how various measures of training performance and attendance are affected by the two payment methods, and which method, if any, the participants prefer.
Group Contingency Management for Cocaine Abstinence with Methadone Maintenance Clients.
MARY LOUISE E. KERWIN (Rowan University), Kimberly C. Kirby (Treatment Research Institute), Carolyn M. Carpenedo (Treatment Research Institute), Beth J. Rossenwasser (Treatment Research Institute), Molly Coyle (Temple University)
Abstract: Individual contingency management (CM) is among the most effective methods for initiating and maintaining drug abstinence; however, it is inconsistent with group therapy, the most common mode of treatment delivery in community drug treatment settings. Group CM, which has been used effectively in other settings with natural groups (e.g., classrooms, workplaces, hospital wards), has both a positive effect on target behaviors and is associated with corollary or “nontargeted” cooperative and supportive behaviors among group members. This paper describes the development and application of group CM interventions for drug abstinence and other behaviors among clients in methadone maintenance. The intervention consisted of a dependent subgroup CM contingency in which the behavior of a single, randomly selected, anonymous individual would determine reinforcement delivery for the entire group. Using a prize bowl method to determine the schedule of reinforcement; the group contingency was placed on a single behavior (cocaine abstinence) or one of four therapeutic behaviors (abstinence, outpatient attendance, group CM attendance, and medication compliance) selected randomly. Results indicate that a dependent subgroup CM intervention increased targeted behaviors. A preliminary analysis of direct observation of positive and negative behaviors of group members during group CM meetings is also provided.
Voucher-Based Reinforcement Therapy for Cigarette Smoking Cessation in Pregnant and Recently Postpartum Women.
RANDALL E. ROGERS (University of Vermont), Sarah H. Heil (University of Vermont), Stephen T. Higgins (University of Vermont), Ira M. Bernstein (University of Vermont), Laura J. Solomon (University of Vermont), Colleen S. Thomas (University of Vermont)
Abstract: Smoking during pregnancy is a leading preventable cause of poor pregnancy outcomes in the U. S. Effective interventions exist for promoting smoking abstinence during pregnancy, but cessation rates are often low (< 20%). The following results are from a study of voucher-based reinforcement therapy (VBRT) for smoking cessation during pregnancy and postpartum. Fifty-eight female smokers entering prenatal care were recruited to participate and assigned to either contingent or non-contingent voucher conditions. In the contingent condition, vouchers were earned for biochemically-verified smoking abstinence; in the non-contingent condition, vouchers were earned independent of smoking status. Vouchers were available during pregnancy and for 12 weeks postpartum. Contingent vouchers significantly increased 7-day point-prevalence abstinence at the end-of-pregnancy (37% vs. 9%), 12-week postpartum (33% vs. 0%), and 24-week postpartum (27% vs. 0%) assessments. The magnitude of the treatment effects exceeded levels usually observed with this population. Furthermore, the effects were sustained 12 weeks after discontinuation of the vouchers. These results provide evidence that VBRT has a contribution to make to efforts to decrease smoking. Additional controlled studies should be conducted to determine how to optimize this treatment with this population and to examine treatment effects on fetal health.
Symposium #279
CE Offered: BACB
International Symposium - Derive that!: New Procedures and Approaches to the Study of Derived Relational Responding
Sunday, May 25, 2008
4:00 PM–5:20 PM
Area: EAB/VRB; Domain: Basic Research
Chair: Simon Dymond (Swansea University)
CE Instructor: Simon Dymond, Ph.D.

New procedures and approaches to the study of derived relational responding are presented. Multiple stimulus relations of same, opposite, more-than, and less-than, as well as equivalence (coordination) relations were studied using novel procedures with a range of human participants, ranging from young children to adults. The effectiveness of the different procedures will be assessed in terms of (i) overall yields on tests for derived relations, (ii) facilitative effects on other domains (e.g., IQ), and (iii) suitability for use in neuroscience-based research.

The Relational Completion Procedure: A New Way of Training and Testing Same and Opposite Relational Frames.
SIMON DYMOND (Swansea University), Robert Whelan (University College Dublin)
Abstract: Match-to-sample (MTS) is the preferred procedure for training and testing for derived relations. There are, however, several limitations to MTS procedures, which are particularly pertinent to researchers studying multiple stimulus relations. In the present paper, a new type of experimental procedure is described, called the Relational Completion Procedure (RCP). The RCP employs drag-and-drop responding, the stimuli are displayed from left to right, and five comparisons are presented, among other features. In order to test the efficacy of the RCP for training and testing same and opposite relational frames, a direct comparison with MTS was undertaken. Across two experiments with a total of 48 participants, number of trials to criterion was lower, and probability of successful emergence of combinatorially entailed same and opposite relations was far greater, for participants who were exposed to the RCP.
Training and Assessment of Relational Precursors and Abilities (TARPA): An RFT Protocol for Training and Assessment of Language Skills.
IAN T. STEWART (National University of Ireland, Galway), John D. McElwee (HASD), Dermot Barnes-Holmes (National University of Ireland, Maynooth), Yvonne Barnes-Holmes (National University of Ireland, Maynooth)
Abstract: This paper describes the TARPA (Training & Assessment of Relational Precursors and Abilities). This is a computer-based protocol, based on the theoretical and empirical insights of Relational Frame Theory (RFT), which has been designed to enable the systematic assessment and training of the key skills involved in flexible relational framing, which RFT sees as the critical ability underlying language and cognition. This paper will provide a detailed description of each of the stages of the TARPA and will then briefly discuss issues relevant to the use of and future development of this protocol.
Rapid Acquisition and Generalization of Relational Skills among School Children Using an Innovative Combination of the REP and Yes/No Procedures.
SARAH N. O'CONNOR (National University of Ireland, Maynooth), Bryan T. Roche (National University of Ireland, Maynooth)
Abstract: The current paper will outline the findings of an experiment designed to test the utility of a combined REP and Yes/No procedure for delivering multiple exemplar relational training to school children. Five experimental subjects were exposed to intensive multiple exemplar training for Same/Opposite and More/Less responding using a series of novel stimulus sets and a combination of the REP and a Yes/No procedure. All subjects showed improvements in Same/Opposite responding across novel stimulus sets. Subsequently, subjects rapidly met a pre-determined response accuracy criterion for More/Less responding using novel stimuli. A control group required more blocks to reach the mastery criterion on novel stimulus sets for both Same/Opposite and More/Less tasks. These findings suggest that relational skills can be established and generalized across novel stimulus sets using this novel relational training procedure.
A One-comparison: Same/different Procedure with a Difference.
DAVID W. DICKINS (University of Liverpool)
Abstract: This behavioral camel was designed by a committee of behavior analysts and cognitive neuropsychologists as part of an fMRI study of stimulus equivalence. In the first of twelve study phases 3 groups of 8 subjects simply watched 12 pairs of stimuli presented successively. In the following response phase a SAME or a DIFFERENT response was required to each of the pairs, with half the pairs remaining correct (=same as the study phase) and the other half randomly reassorted amongst themselves. There was no feedback after individual trials. If one or more responses had been incorrect subjects were returned to a reiteration of the preceding study phase. After a response phase without error they went to the next study phase with twelve new pairs of stimuli. Then the whole cycle was repeated twice, starting with response phases each time, enabling subjects to bypass some study phases. The groups were then given slightly different instructions before receiving repeated cycles of equivalence test trials with no feedback or programmed consequences. Consistent behaviour under demonstrably strong control emerged, the ‘yield’ of subjects showing choices consistent with equivalence increasing with increasing degrees of explicitness in the instructions.
Invited Symposium #281
CE Offered: BACB
International Invited Symposium - Total Contingency Integration: Behavioral Systems in OBM
Sunday, May 25, 2008
4:00 PM–5:20 PM
International North
Area: OBM/TPC; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Timothy D. Ludwig (Appalachian State University)
Discussant: Dale M. Brethower (Instituto Tecnológico de Sonora)
CE Instructor: Timothy D. Ludwig, Ph.D.

OBM could be criticized for being dominated by micro-level analyses focused on employee behaviors and local interventions such as goals and feedback. While this approach may demonstrate the effectiveness of ABC's to impact important behavioral indicators of performance, OBM often does not take into account the fact that these behaviors occur in the context of greater organizational systems. Indeed, OBM interventions end up being demonstrations that are not often integrated into the overall system. Thus, many die out as soon as the researchers or consultants leave. We miss the bigger picture. Deming and Skinner were speaking the same language. Deming said that 80% of employee performance is due to the system. Its time for OBM to better integrate the entire organizational system into its performance solutions. This invited symposium features three distinguished systems thinkers within behavior analysis who will address how OBM and other specialties of ABA can benefit from a systems approach.

Survival Contingencies for Organizational Behavior Management
Abstract: Where are we, OBM practitioners in large-scale, sustainable change in the corporate world? Even though several behavior analysts have been successful at large scale interventions, why as a group, haven’t we been noticed or haven’t had a significant impact in the business community? Why does the demand for OBM practitioners remain low or almost non-existent in the market? Why hasn’t the accelerated growth in the treatment of autism driven the demand for OBM practitioners? We are too few and progressing too slowly to be noticed and to make a difference. Although, the OBM network membership has grown 2.6 times since 2000, it remains with about 250 members. The OBM submissions to the ABA annual convention have averaged 51 in the last 14 years, remaining comparatively lower to other areas. Specialized degree programs in OBM are a hand full at the most. I believe these issues are not due to lack of marketing but rather to substance and systems design. Although we are very good at behavior change, altering the behavior of a relatively small number of individuals typically does not have an impact in the larger system where the target behaviors take place. Although we know about behavioral maintenance, designing systems that focus on the long-term adaptation of our interventions to the evolution of the greater systems has not been our primary interest. We need more than a tool kit of behavioral contingencies; we ought to understand and manage metacontingencies of the larger systems to distinguish ourselves. Furthermore, the application of behavioral systems can help OBM survive, grow and compete in the business world as an area of application of our discipline.
Dr. Maria E. Malott earned a Ph.D. in Applied Behavior Analysis from Western Michigan University in 1987. Since 1993 to the present, she has served as Executive Director and Secretary Treasurer of the Association of Behavior Analysis International (ABA International), as well as Secretary Treasurer of the Society for the Advancement for Behavior Analysis. She is a fellow of ABA International and received the 2003 Award for International Dissemination of Behavior Analysis and the 2004 Award for Outstanding Achievement in Organizational Behavior Management. She is an adjunct faculty member at five universities and has collaborated with 33 universities around the world. She has authored and coauthored numerous articles and two books, including Paradox of Organizational Change (2003) and presented nearly 200 papers and workshops in 17 countries throughout North America, Latin America, Asia, Australia, and Europe. Past experiences include her role as Vice President of Manufacturing for a plastic production company in the Midwest and managing her consulting company dedicated to process improvement and organizational management for nearly two decades in a variety of industries, including service, manufacturing, retail, education, and government. She has done organizational management work in public administration, the private sector and for educational systems.
The Vulnerability and Robustness of Systems Properties
INGUNN SANDAKER (Akershus University College)
Abstract: Individual behaviour may have great impact on the organizational level of performance. This is however not necessarily so, since one common feature of what we may refer to as systems, is that its properties will be maintained over time, even though individuals may be replaced by new members of the system. The interdependencies both within and between systems calls for analysis of both the functional relations and the structures (within and between systems) that maintain behaviours described as distinct properties of a system. The process of selection within and between systems may be described in terms of vulnerability and robustness of systems properties. This calls for another level of analysis. Even though we may say that systems are “made up of” behaviour, the complex relations of contingencies maintaining systems behaviour may not be captured within the framework of individual behaviour alone. Organizations may be viewed as complex adaptive systems. The unit of analysis is an observed functional entity - interacting with the ”bigger system” of which it is a part. The unit is defined both by its function and its structure, which calls for an analysis both with respect to its functional match with the complexity of the “bigger system” and to the character of the relations between the interacting agents. Measuring the impact of the structure in systems in terms as density, connectivity and centrality may help us understand the vulnerability (extinction) as opposed to robustness (maintenance) of systems, independent of its changing members and taking the systems level into account.
Dr. Ingunn Sandaker is professor and director of the research programme “Learning in Complex Systems” at Akershus University College, Norway. She received her Ph.D in 1997 at the University of Oslo with a grant from The Foundation for Research in Business and Society (SNF) at The Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration (NHH). The thesis was a study on the systemic approach to major changes in two large companies; one pharmaceutical company and one petroleum company. During The Norwegian Olympic Committee’s preparations for the games in Sydney and Nagano, she was head of evaluation of a programme aiming at extending female participation in management and coaching. Serving as a consultant on top level management programmes in Norwegian energy companies, her interest has been focused on management performance within a systems framework. Trying to combine the approaches from micro-level behaviour analysis with the perspective of learning in complex systems, she is managing a post-graduate masters program in behaviour analysis.
OBM Redux: The Need for a Systems Perspective
WILLIAM B. ABERNATHY (Aubrey Daniels International)
Abstract: The traditional OBM intervention model was derived from experimental research and early clinical applications. The experimenter-subject and later the therapist-patient interaction translated into the supervisor-subordinate interaction in organizational applications. The underlying assumption has been that improving this interaction is the ultimate goal of OBM. This model, if successfully applied, creates a paternalistic management group that overlooks and often underutilizes the individual employee’s creative capacity or ability to respond effectively to contingencies without close supervisor guidance. Putting aside this issue, most practitioners would agree that improving and sustaining critical employee behaviors is, or should be, the test of the effectiveness of an OBM intervention. For this objective, the dyadic ‘ABC’ model isn’t so much technically incorrect as it is woefully incomplete and insufficient. The presenter will describe a systems view of OBM that addresses a results focused process for selecting which behaviors to manage and when; a balanced measurement tool; an expanded view of improvement strategies that includes Industrial/Organizational Psychology and Industrial Engineering; an integration of OBM with conventional human resource functions including job definition, selection, training, evaluation, promotion, and compensation; and a transition strategy designed to replace traditional bureaucratic management with a free operant, open system workplace.
Dr. William B. Abernathy taught psychology at Ohio University and received his doctorate in I/O Psychology from the Ohio State University. He then joined Edward J. Feeney and Associates as a consultant where he worked in performance improvement with Victoria Stations Restaurants, Sovran Bank, and the Franklin Mint. In 1981 Bill founded Abernathy & Associates, which specialized in assisting client organizations with performance measurement and feedback, performance pay, and performance improvement. Over its twenty-five year history, Abernathy & Associates consulted with over 160 organizations of all types and sizes. In 2005 Bill sold his company to Aubrey Daniels International where he is the Vice President of Performance Systems. Bill also joined the psychology faculty at Southeastern Louisiana University where he will coordinate a new masters degree in I/O Psychology with an emphasis on performance systems. He is the author of two books - The Sin of Wages and Managing Without Supervising.
B. F. Skinner Lecture Series Paper Session #283
CE Offered: BACB

Neurobiology of Cocaine Self-administration: Some Findings in Monkeys and Rats

Sunday, May 25, 2008
4:30 PM–5:20 PM
Grand Ballroom
Area: BPH; Domain: Basic Research
CE Instructor: Drake Morgan, Ph.D.
Chair: Jesse Dallery (University of Florida)
DRAKE MORGAN (University of Florida)
Dr. Drake Morgan obtained a Ph.D. degree in Experimental and Biological Psychology from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in 1998 under the direction of Mitchell Picker, where he was trained as a behavioral pharmacologist studying the effects of opioids. He spent several years in a post-doctoral position in the laboratory of Michael Nader at Wake Forest University in the Department of Physiology and Pharmacology. Most studies here explored the role of social influences on cocaine self-administration in group-housed monkeys. Following this experience, he remained at Wake Forest University to study drug self-administration in rats, with a major focus on the influences of various self-administration histories on subsequent self-administration. Two years ago, he joined the Department of Psychiatry (Division of Addiction Medicine) at the University of Florida where he’s had the pleasure to interact with the behavior analysts in the Department of Psychology. Current lines of research include studying of effects of potential pharmacotherapies for cocaine use and the long-term effects of chronic opioid administration in rats of varying ages.

Advances in neurobiological techniques are occurring at an astonishing rate. In many respects, study of drug self-administration happens in a similar manner to the initial studies nearly 40 years ago. If the sophisticated techniques available to neuroscience are to be used to help understand drug self-administration (and potentially drug use in humans), help explain some of the interesting findings, or find biological correlates of behavioral changes, then the behavioral models used need to be equally as sophisticated, interesting and dynamic. Data from two series of experiments will be presented and discussed with reference to neurobiological correlates of the behavioral differences. In monkeys, social housing and the establishment of dominance hierarchies was used to induce neurobiological changes that were then associated with differences in cocaine self-administration. In rats, various histories of self-administration result in animals that, for example, respond to considerably higher breakpoints maintained by cocaine on a progressive ratio schedule, relative to control animals. Neurobiological investigation of these groups of rats can help find biological correlates related to changes in the reinforcing efficacy of cocaine (which might be related to the development of addiction in humans). The overall focus of the presentation will be to strengthen the idea the behavioral scientists need to continue developing interesting behavioral models if we are going to try to use some of the neurobiological and molecular biological techniques that are being developed in other fields of science.

Panel #284
CE Offered: BACB
Issues and Suggestions for Establishing a Quality ABA Community-Based Residence
Sunday, May 25, 2008
4:30 PM–5:20 PM
Stevens 1
Area: DDA/AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Frank R. Cicero, Ph.D.
Chair: Frank R. Cicero (Eden II Programs)
FRANK R. CICERO (Eden II Programs)

As a large number of individuals who had been receiving ABA services since early childhood grow into adulthood, the need for quality ABA services extends to the residential area. Unfortunately, there are many obstacles in establishing and maintaining a solid ABA residential program that school and day programs might not encounter. The following panel discussion will introduce the audience to potential issues in opening and running a community- based ABA group home. The presenters will provide the audience with helpful suggestions for overcoming some of these issues. All four presenters are administrative-level employees with an agency that has over 30 years experience in providing ABA services to individuals with autism and over 15 years experience maintaining a quality ABA residential program. Some issues discussed will include staff training, philosophical differences between educational and residential programs, accuracy of behavioral data collection, maintaining treatment integrity, securing staffing ratios, accessing funding streams, acculturating parents, developing instructional goals, and conducting functional assessments. Audience participation and open discussion will be encouraged throughout the presentation. Objective data will be presented to the audience where applicable.

Panel #286
CE Offered: BACB
Increasing the Acceptance of Behavioral Interventions in Applied Settings: Lessons from the Field
Sunday, May 25, 2008
4:30 PM–5:20 PM
Williford C
Area: EDC/OBM; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Deirdre Lee Fitzgerald, Ph.D.
Chair: Deirdre Lee Fitzgerald (Eastern Connecticut State University)
SHAWN DAVID BRYANT (The Spectrum Center)
TIMOTHY PISKURA (The New England Center for Children)

A primary challenge that behavior analysts face is facilitating the implementation of effective programming in applied settings. Direct care staff, teachers, paraprofessionals, parents and professionals from parallel fields are the primary change agents in many intervention contexts. Thus, the importance of providing effective instructional materials, staff training, and ongoing supervision is paramount to ensuring treatment fidelity and learner success. Strategies and tactics that increase the acceptance and utilization of behavioral interventions will be discussed. Differing approaches for internal and external consultants will also be identified.

Special Event #290
CE Offered: BACB
Celebrating and Expanding our Scientific Foundations: State of the Science Addresses
Sunday, May 25, 2008
4:30 PM–7:30 PM
Stevens 5
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Timothy D. Hackenberg (University of Florida)
CE Instructor: Timothy D. Hackenberg, Ph.D.

From its inception and through to the present day, progress in all areas of behavior analysis has been fueled by advances in basic science. With the successful application of behavioral principles to an ever-widening array of practical problems, however, the science behind the application is sometimes overlooked. To underscore the vital importance of science to our discipline, this years convention will highlight and amplify the good science that has and continues to infuse the various branches of behavior analysis. The theme of this years convention, Celebrating and Expanding our Scientific Foundations, weaves together a broad array of topics that speak to our scientific roots and to extensions to new areas of science and application. The keynote event in this track is a session that brings together luminaries in the field to give State of the Science lecturespresentations that trace the development of key ideas and concepts in a specific area of research and theory. The speakers have each made pioneering and enduring contributions to our science; at the same time, each remains active and well-positioned to comment on key developments for the future. The event promises to provide fascinating perspectives on the historical roots as well as the future directions of important scientific problems.

Choice and Conditioned Reinforcement.
EDMUND J. FANTINO (California State University, San Diego)
Abstract: Psychologists have always been intrigued with the rationales underlying our decisions. Similarly, the concept of conditioned reinforcement has a venerable history, particularly in explaining behavior not tied to obvious primary reinforcers. The studies of choice and conditioned reinforcement have often developed in lockstep. Over the past decades their study has become increasingly quantitative (even complex). Yet many contemporary approaches to these fundamental topics share an emphasis on context and relative value. We trace the evolution of thinking about the potency of conditioned reinforcers from stimuli that acquire their value by pairing with more fundamental reinforcers to stimuli that acquire their value by being differentially correlated with these more fundamental reinforcers. We discuss some seminal experiments that have propelled us to the conclusion that the strength of conditioned reinforcers, as measured in choice settings, is determined by their signaling a relative improvement in the organism’s relation to reinforcement.
Stimuli, Reinforcers, and Private Events.
JOHN A. NEVIN (University of New Hampshire)
Abstract: Radical behaviorism asserts that private events are like public behavior in that they enter into similar lawful relations with similar variables. Therefore, private stimuli can enter into the control of overt behavior, and private activities can be affected by external reinforcers. Recent models of conditional discrimination propose that the private activities involved in attending to stimuli depend on reinforcement in the same way as overt responses, and that remembering involves attending to private stimuli derived from conditional cues. The same approach can be applied to the private events involved in expecting future reinforcers. In some cases, public behavior corresponding to attending, remembering, and expecting can be identified, measured, and invoked to explain aspects of discriminative performance. When public concomitants of private events cannot be identified, however, explanation can be achieved through quantitative models which assume that reinforcement affects private activities in the same way as public behavior.
Reflections on Stimulus Control.
Abstract: The topic of stimulus control is too broad and complex to be traceable within the time allowed here -- less than an hour. It would probably take a two-semester course to cover just the highlights of that field’s evolution. The more restricted topic of equivalence relations has itself become so broad that even an introductory summary requires more time than we have available. An examination of relations between equivalence and the more general topic of stimulus control, however, may reveal characteristics of both the larger and the more limited field that have not been generally discussed. Consideration of these features may in turn foster future developments within each area. I speak, of course, about features of stimulus control that my own experiences have made salient to me; others would surely emphasize other characteristics of the field and it is my hope that cooperative interactions among researchers and theorists who approach stimulus control from different directions will become more usual than is currently the case.
Behavioral and Brain Mechanisms in Self-Awareness.
TRAVIS THOMPSON (Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota School of Medicine)
Abstract: Self-awareness refers to intraverbal responses based on the speaker’s previous verbal behavior and discriminative responding based on the state of strength of one’s own dispositions, i.e. autoclitic responding. According to cognitive and developmental theorists, a central feature of autism is lack of the ability to attribute mental states—beliefs, intents, desires, pretending, knowledge, etc.—to oneself and others, and to understand that others have beliefs, desires and intentions that are different from one's own. This has been called theory of mind. The lack of such ability has been called “mind blindness” by Utta Frith and Simon Baron Cohen. While a colorful metaphor, it does not lend itself to amelioration of the hypothesized deficit. Intensive early behavior therapy ameliorates this deficit to a significant degree in at least half of children with autism spectrum disorders (Lovaas, 1987; Sallows and Graupner, 2005). Children with ASDs who have shown the greatest social gains are those who exhibited motor and/or vocal imitation at baseline. Imitation requires that specific structures in the Mirror Neuron System are at least partially functional. Wise (2001) has shown Wernicke’s speech area is divided into several distinct functional components. The posterior superior temporal cortex is necessary for mimicry of sounds, including being able to transiently represent phonetic sequences, whether heard or internally generated and rehearsed. Iacoboni (2005) studied brain activation of typical volunteers in response to brief video vignettes of an action without a context (reaching to pick up a cup), an action with an intended consequence (drinking tea from the cup) and a context without an intended consequence (cleaning up after having tea). Activation of the superior temporal sulcus occurs to seeing a cup grasped with or without a context, much as if the person had actually been grasping a cup, i.e. it is a brain area involved in responding to biological motion. In other words, the STS plays a role in both verbal and non-verbal imitation. Observing another person engaging in a movement produces sensations in the child doing the observing, that resemble those that occur had the child made the same movement her/himself (i.e. proprioceptive feedback). Teaching the child with an ASD to verbally tact those events, become components of self-awareness and other-awareness. These data, together with the foregoing IEBT findings suggest children...



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