Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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34th Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2008

Program by Continuing Education Events: Saturday, May 24, 2008


Manage My Personal Schedule

 

Workshop #W46
CE Offered: BACB
Activity Schedules: Beyond Independent Activities.
Saturday, May 24, 2008
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
Waldorf
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Joseph M. Vedora, M.S.
JOSEPH M. VEDORA (BEACON Services), DAVID M. CORCORAN (BEACON Services), ROBERT K. ROSS (BEACON Services)
Description: The purpose of this intermediate workshop is to train participants in the use of various forms of visual activity schedules. Activity schedules will be described and explained, and instruction on how to effectively establish stimulus control using activity schedules will be provided. Activity schedules have been employed with individuals with autism to promote independence and increase on-task behavior. In addition to addressing their use with individuals with autism, this workshop will describe their expanded use to a variety of conditions at home and school. Specifically, this workshop will focus on novel uses of activity schedules including the use of activity schedules to: increase social and play skills, food acceptance, self-help skills; incorporate choice; facilitate transitions, and address community behavior. Lastly, instruction on the use of computer schedules will be provided. This will include hands on training on how to create computerized activity schedules that incorporate sounds and video clips.
Learning Objectives: Participants will be able to: 1. Describe and set up basic activity schedules. 2. Identify settings and occasions to use them and learners to use them with. 3. Describe various forms and modalities of activity schedules and match them to individuals� learning styles. 4. Implement basic activity schedules. 5. Troubleshoot and describe modifications enhancing usefulness of activity schedules. 6. Create a computerized activity schedule.
Activities: 1. Review of Activity Schedule instructional methodology 2. Review video- taped exemplars of activity schedules 3. Small group practice in implementation of activity schedules to establish play skills, social skills, acceptance of non-preferred food, and independent toileting. 4.Demonstration of computerized activity schedule 5. Participants will create a computerized activity schedule.
Audience: Behavior analysts, teachers, parents
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
 
Workshop #W47
CE Offered: BACB
Developing Successful Programs to Meet the Needs of Adults with ASD.
Saturday, May 24, 2008
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
Joliet
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Joanne Gerenser, Ph.D.
JOANNE GERENSER (Eden II Programs), PETER F. GERHARDT (Organization for Autism Research), ERIN SPARACIO (Eden II Programs/The Genesis School), RANDY I. HOROWITZ (Eden II Programs), FRANK R. CICERO (Eden II Programs)
Description: There has been considerable research done in the past twenty years in the area of autism and related disorders. Clinical research in speech and language, social skills, education, and behavior problems have resulted in a much better understanding of the complex nature of autism. The research clearly supports the use of applied behavior analysis in the treatment and education of learners with autism. One problem, however, is that very little of this research has included adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). While many of the findings with children with autism can be relevant in our work with adults, there remain significant gaps in the literature that unfortunately leave many more questions than answers. The lack of available literature to guide service providers in their work with adults with autism is particularly problematic today. The dramatic increase in the incidence of autism began almost 15 years ago and we are just now beginning to see this impact in the field of adult services. Many of the schools that opened, in the past decade, to meet the demands of parents who wanted good behavioral education programs are now facing the real challenge of how to address the needs of these learners as they become adolescents and adults. Still other programs that have been providing adult services for years to other populations are now being asked to expand their programs and accept learners with ASD. This workshop will address key aspects of developing an effective program for adolescents and adults with autism. Specifically the workshop will review the available literature in the areas of employment, recreation and leisure skills, sexuality, speech and language, promoting independence, community integration, and quality of life. In addition, assessment and programming to address each of these areas will be presented. Video tapes of program implementation as well as other relevant visual supports will be incorporated within the workshop. The workshops primary focus will be on adolescents and adults with autism who continue to demonstrate significant challenges and limitations. The essential components needed to specifically address individuals with ASD will be highlighted. In addition, the important modifications and adaptations that are necessary to meet the needs of individuals with ASD as they grow older (and typically bigger) will be presented.
Learning Objectives: Participants will 1. Become familiar with the relevant literature relating to services and treatment of adults with ASD 2. Identify key components of an effective program to meet the needs of adults with ASD 3. Become familiar with programming to address employment, sexuality, recreation and leisure as well as other key areas in adults with autism 4. Describe strategies for promoting independence in adults with ASD
Activities: Participants will participate in lecture as well as group discussion. In addition, participants will watch videos of different aspects of service delivery for adults with ASD. Finally, participants will review different data sheets, program forms and assessment materials used within a behavioral program for adults with ASD.
Audience: Service Providers, Program Administrators, Behavior Analysts, Parents of Adolescents and Adults with ASD
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
 
Workshop #W48
CE Offered: BACB
Generalization in Treatment for Autism Spectrum Disorders.
Saturday, May 24, 2008
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
Stevens 2
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Christina Whalen, Ph.D.
CHRISTINA WHALEN (TeachTown, Inc.), MANYA C. R. VAUPEL (Spectrum Circles), SHANNON CERNICH (TeachTown, Inc.)
Description: Generalization is one of the most important measures of treatment outcome, if a child can learn a variety of skills and use them in a variety of settings, it is the best measure of whether or not an intervention was effective. However, not all treatment programs for autism adequately incorporate or measure for generalization. In this workshop, the basics of generalization will be reviewed, along with a discussion of why generalization is particularly important for children with autism. Research on generalization in autism treatment will be reviewed and various treatment approaches will be discussed in terms of how they tend to address generalization (or not). Suggestions for how to make sure generalization is accounted for and measured will be provided along with a group discussion of how the audience members include and measure generalization in their treatment approaches.
Learning Objectives: 1) Participants will be able to describe and give examples of all the different types of generalization and identify the strengths and limitations of each of type 2) Participants will be able to discuss several research studies on generalization as it relates to the treatment of autism, as well as discuss what we know and need to know from the existing literature 3) Participants will be able to identify how generalization is incorporated into at least 5 different common treatment approaches for autism spectrum disorders and what the strengths and limitations of those approaches are in terms of generalization 4) Participants will be able to share with the group the specific efforts they have made to enhance generalization in their treatment approaches and discuss what has worked well and what hasn't 5) Participants will be able to discuss how future researchers and clinicians can advance the field of autism intervention through more focused efforts on generalization outcome
Activities: Lecture, group discussion, video clips
Audience: BCABA & BCBA interventionists, speech-language pathologists, teachers, paraprofessionals, parents, and anyone interested in a focus on generalization as a major outcome measure for autism intervention
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
 
Workshop #W49
CE Offered: BACB
Using the Verbal Behavior Approach to Teach Children with Autism.
Saturday, May 24, 2008
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
Stevens 1
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Mary Lynch Barbera, M.S.
MARY LYNCH BARBERA (PA Verbal Behavior Project)
Description: Children with autism, regardless of age or severity of symptoms, need effective, individualized programming. This workshop will provide an overview of The Verbal Behavior Approach and will give participants specific ways to improve language skills for a variety of learners. In addition, this workshop will review basic principles of Applied Behavior Analysis used to reduce problem behaviors. Through lecture, video examples and small group activities, participants will leave with a good understanding of implementing the Verbal Behavior Approach when teaching children with autism.
Learning Objectives: Describe two similiarities and two differences between traditional discrete trial teaching and the Verbal Behavior Approach. Describe the importance of pairing with reinforcement and mand training when working with children with autism Give one example of a mand, tact, intraverbal and listener responding skill. Name two antecedent and two reactive strategies that may decrease problem behavior.
Activities: This workshop will include video examples, small group activities and lecture to meet listed objectives.
Audience: Professionals working with children with autism including behavior analysts, speech pathologists, educators, psychologists, and therapists. Parents of children with autism are also encouraged to attend.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Basic
 
Workshop #W50
CE Offered: BACB
Visual Stimulus and Response Modifications in Programming for Children with Autism.
Saturday, May 24, 2008
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
Boulevard A
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Jonathan J. Tarbox, Ph.D.
SCOTT BRAUD (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), JONATHAN J. TARBOX (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Description: Clinically, some children with autism have demonstrated slow progress when traditional vocal teaching strategies are used. Visually based teaching strategies are one possible program modification that can be used to accelerate a childs rate of acquisition and teach new skills. The current workshop will review visually based stimulus and response modifications that can be used to teach skills that are traditionally targeted in intensive behavioral treatment programs for children with autism. Examples from clinical cases will be provided.
Learning Objectives: 1. Attendees will become familiar with research on teaching children with autism with visually modified materials 2. Attendees will learn how to identify when a lack of progress in teaching in vocal modalities may indicate that a shift to visually-based program modifications may be useful. 3. Attendees will learn how to modify commonly used teaching procedures by switching stimulus presentation modalities from vocal to visual. 4. Attendees will learn how to modify commonly used teaching procedures by switching required response modalities from vocal to manual or stimulus selection based.
Activities: Attendees will listen to lecture, participate in group discussion, provide practical examples from their clinical experience, write visually-modified teaching programs, and discuss the strengths and limitations of visual modifications for teaching programs for individuals with autism.
Audience: Service providers who work with children with autism.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
 
Workshop #W51
CE Offered: BACB
"Why Should I?" Implementing Individualized Motivational Systems with Challenging Learners.
Saturday, May 24, 2008
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
Williford B
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Daniel E. Hursh, Ph.D.
KARRIE GRAMA (Tucci Learning Solutions, Inc.), AARON WOOD (Tucci Learning Solutions, Inc.), DANIEL E. HURSH (West Virginia University)
Description: The purpose of this workshop is to equip participants to effectively coach staff/clients on how to develop, implement and monitor effective motivational systems. Workshop participants will become proficient with using and coaching others to use various motivational systems, including a token economy, to develop and maintain learner participation across home, school, and community environments. Participants will receive instruction on assessing learners to identify potential reinforcers, conditioning potential reinforcers to have value, and determining which type of motivational system might be most compatible with a particular learner. Participants will learn to incorporate various schedules of reinforcement that are commonly used in conjunction with motivational systems to establish, strengthen, and maintain desired behavior. Step-by-step strategies for utilizing motivational systems will be discussed in detail, with a focus on functional, feasible application across settings. Each participant will be coached on how best to develop and assist others to develop these systems. They will be provided with materials to create a token economy system that can later be utilized with their own learners or clients, and will engage in practice sessions where they will be coached on effective use of the system they have created.
Learning Objectives: Upon completing the workshop participants will be able to: 1. Identify (potential) reinforcers and/or condition neutral stimuli to have value for specific learners. 2. Identify an appropriate motivational system i.e., token economy, points system, etc. 3. Develop the motivational system. 4. Effectively implement and coach others to implement the system using the appropriate schedule(s) of reinforcement for establishing, strengthening and/or weakening selected behavior. 5. Determine when and how to alter the motivational system to ensure for continued learner success.
Activities: Participants will practice creating a motivational system/token economy that is useful for both a) implementation with their learners and b) teaching staff or clients how to effectively apply the system to increase successful participation among students. The presenters will illustrate (via video examples) experiences in coaching public education staff and parents in delivery of motivational systems/token economies used to maintain and increase participation across instructional conditions. The presenters will also provide coaching for overcoming some of the obstacles and common mistakes involved in implementing a motivational system. Participants will work in small groups to actively practice utilizing a variety of motivational systems presented by the instructors.
Audience: Classroom Teachers, Instructors, Direct Service Providers, Parents, Paraprofessionals, Trainers, BCABAs, BCBAs
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Basic
 
Workshop #W52
CE Offered: BACB
Case Conceptualization in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy.
Saturday, May 24, 2008
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
Boulevard B
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Daniel J. Moran, Ph.D.
DANIEL J. MORAN (Trinity Services), PATRICIA BACH (Illinois Institute of Technology)
Description: This workshop will provide a step-by-step framework for functionally conceptualizing client behavior problems, and will discuss selection and application of specific ACT interventions. The workshop will also help attendees develop their own ACT consistent interventions, exercises, and metaphors. Process and outcome measures will be discussed. The workshop will also discuss first order and second order therapeutic approaches, and help the attendees discriminate when to use the appropriate therapeutic intervention. This workshop will be based on content from the forthcoming publication ACT in Practice: Case Conceptualization in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, (Bach & Moran, 2008, New Harbinger).
Learning Objectives: Workshop participants will become familiar with the six core ACT principles of defusion, self-as-context, acceptance, values, committed action, and contacting the present moment, which will be described from a strict behavior analytic perspective Workshop participants will be able to conceptualize clinically relevant behaviors as functional response classes, and discriminate when they are amenable to an ACT approach. Workshop participants will be able to select ACT interventions appropriate for addressing specific core principles. Workshop participants will learn how to apply specific ACT interventions based on the case formulation Workshop participants will learn to use ACT case conceptualization to facilitate creating one�s own ACT consistent metaphors, exercises, and interventions for application in the context of a client�s unique history and presenting complaints. Workshop participants will learn methods of assessing effectiveness of interventions
Activities: The workshop will use a case-based approach beginning with instructor supplied cases and later using participants� clinical cases for practice in ACT case formulation, selecting interventions, and assessing the effectiveness of interventions, and outcomes. There will be a 60 minute slide presentation, demonstrations, large group exercises and case-based practice. Participants will be provided with handouts to use with their clients for assessment and homework assignments to augment in session interventions.
Audience: This workshop is suitable to clinicians with little exposure to ACT who would like to learn how to apply ACT broadly. It is also suitable for participants who have attended ACT experiential workshops and would like to improve their skill in functional contextual case formulation and deciding when to apply specific ACT interventions.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Basic
 
Workshop #W53
CE Offered: BACB
Don't Shoot the Trainee: Functional Assessment of Non-adherence in Applied Environments.
Saturday, May 24, 2008
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
PDR 2
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Kathleen McCabe-Odri, Ed.D.
KATHLEEN MCCABE-ODRI (Advance Inc.), LAURA KENNEALLY (Advance Inc.)
Description: Using Iwata's model defining the four functions of behavior, this workshop utilizes the technology to analyze adherence challenges faced by behaviorists in applied settings of homes and schools. Detailed environmental analysis strategies based upon Allen & Warzak (2000) are presented to assess the possible contingencies that may improve or prevent adherence. Data collection and individual skills profiles are explained and demonstrated via lecture, video examples, and hands-on activities for participants. Materials include sample questionnaires to assess readiness of trainees, as well as formats to measure environmental aspects that may strengthen or weaken consistent implementation of protocols. Also included are sample individual development plans (IDPs) for staff and
Learning Objectives: 1) Participants will learn to use a functional assessment approach to address treatment non-adherence with teachers in classroom settings 2) Participants will learn to use a functional assessment approach with parents in home/community environments 3) Participants will learn intervention strategies to improve adherence per function 4) Participants will learn to measure effectiveness of adherence interventions
Activities: Lecture Demonstrations/data samples Video examples Group break-outs
Audience: Behavior consultants in school and home settings
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
 
Workshop #W54
CE Offered: BACB
Designing Effective Behavior Intervention Plans for Residential, Educational and Community Settings,
Saturday, May 24, 2008
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
Astoria
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Jose D. Rios, M.S.
JOSE D. RIOS (Private Practice), HOLLY PARK (Pacific Child and Family Associates, apc.)
Description: This workshop is aimed at professions who review, design, evaluate or implement functional assessment and behavior intervention plans in residential, school, agency or home settings. A primary characteristic of treatment protocols, based on applied behavior analysis, is a clear, specific, step-by-step description of all interventions being recommended. Treatment protocols based on applied behavior analysis require an absolutely clear and precise description of each step of the plan. All procedures must be clearly delineated for staff to follow them-otherwise, recommendations are only loosely followed or their implementation is left up to staff. Clinical accuracy begins at the assessment phase of an intervention plan. The assessment of the function of a behavior forms the basis of behavior analysis, and therefore, is the foundation of a clinically-accurate behavior plan. In this workshop, we will examine the basic foundations of a behavior intervention plan, including common problems that affect the effectiveness and accuracy of such plans. We also will review the various components that should be included in intervention plans and we will discuss and stress the indisputable direct link between assessment findings and treatment strategies that are recommended in such plans. We will discuss the layout and design of a written plan so that it follows a logical progression. A portion of this workshop also will cover ethical considerations and ethical guidelines that must be adhered to when designing and implementing behavior interventions across various settings. This presentation is an intermediate level workshop so participants should have a basic knowledge of behavior intervention strategies as well as functional assessment methodology.
Learning Objectives: The primary objectives of this workshop are for participants to learn to write and design more comprehensive, systematic and accurate behavior intervention plans and to teach participants to better evaluate intervention plans that they (or others) design with the intent of improving service provision. Participants will review and learn to: � Identify common inaccuracies and errors often encountered in the assessment, intervention and evaluation sections of written plans (with the aim of avoiding such errors). � Ensure that their assessment produces the most accurate results possible in their setting (and how to report the assessment findings in the plan). � Ensure that the recommended treatment strategies are linked to the findings of a well-done functional assessment. � Design a plan with a procedural description follows standardized protocols. � Have an understanding of ethical issues related to the development and implementation of behavior intervention plans.
Activities: Participants will be provided with a lecture and presentation of the subject matter. Handouts also will be provided in addition to several exercises in which participants will review and evaluate actual plans that we have determined to be "clinically-challenged." Other handouts on related material also will be made available.
Audience: BCBAs, BCABAs, behavior specialists and consultants, educators, school psychologists and other professionals who review, design, evaluate and/or implement functional assessment and behavior intervention plans in residential, school, agency or home settings.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
 
Workshop #W55
CE Offered: BACB
Solving Ethical Dilemmas in the Practice of Applied Behavior Analysis.
Saturday, May 24, 2008
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
Williford C
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Weihe Huang, Ph.D.
WEIHE HUANG (Regional Center of the East Bay, California)
Description: This workshop is designed to increase participants ability to ethically practice applied behavior analysis (ABA) by describing the characteristics of ethical dilemmas, discussing Guidelines for Responsible Conduct, and introducing an ethical decision making model. This approach incorporates codes of ethics for behavior analysts and ethical reasoning strategies. When making ethical decisions, many behavior analysts tend to believe that these decisions are solely based on the analysis of objective data and relevant evidences. However, in reality the decision-making process is also influenced by behavior analysts values, as well as societal values including those of services recipients. Behavior analysts often encounter ethical dilemmas when these values conflict. In facing ethical dilemmas, behavior analysts need codes of professional conduct and ethically sound strategies to reach reasonable and practical resolutions. The Guidelines for Responsible Conduct for Behavior Analysts is helpful in many situations. In some cases, however, ethical dilemmas cannot be resolved by appealing to the existing guidelines or regulations. Part of this workshop is aimed at providing applied behavior analysts with ethical reasoning strategies in the event that the Guidelines for Responsible Conduct alone are insufficient. These strategies are based on the relevant experience of the presenters and the available literature in the field of behavior analysis and related areas. The emphasis of the discussion will be on the application of the model to various clinical settings, including natural homes, residential facilities, day programs, and educational programs.
Learning Objectives: At the completion of the workshop, participants will be able to: - Recognize ethical issues in the field and their importance to the general public as well as to behavior analysts. - Understand primary ethical principles that underline both societal values and the content of Guidelines for Responsible Conduct for Behavior Analysts. - Identify and analyze ethical dilemmas that are often encountered by behavior analysts and other service providers. - Assess and realize the usefulness of Guidelines for Responsible Conduct as a tool in making ethical decisions. - Use the six steps delineated in the Ethical Decision Making Model to resolve ethical dilemmas that are likely to occur in the ABA service delivery process.
Activities: This workshop will use cases both provided by the presenters and generated by participants to illustrate the implementation of Guidelines for Responsible Conduct for Behavior Analysts and the steps in the Ethical Decision Making Model. Participants of this workshop will be encouraged to (1) identify their values and to associate these values with primary ethical principles; (2) recognize the characteristics of ethical dilemmas in the field of ABA; and (3) apply codes in Guidelines for Responsible Conduct and six steps specified in the Ethical Decision Making Model to cases that involve ethical dilemmas.
Audience: Behavior analysts, Psychologists
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Advanced
 
Workshop #W56
CE Offered: BACB
How to Use Curriculum Based Measurement (CBM) with Children with Learning Disabilities.
Saturday, May 24, 2008
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
PDR 4
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Joseph D. Cautilli, Ph.D.
HALINA DZIEWOLSKA (Private Practice/Behavior Analyst Online), JOSEPH D. CAUTILLI (Children Crisis Treatment Center/St. Joseph's University), MICHAEL WEINBERG (Orlando Behavior Health Services, LLC)
Description: Response to intervention is critical to the new IDEAI for the diagnosis of children with learning disabilities. Given the background and training of most BCBAs in scientifically based reading instruction, graphical representation of data, and evaluation of performance, BCBA's have a critical role in helping school psychologist to diagnose learning disabilities. This workshop aims to refresh BCBAs in the basics of curriculum based measurement, a scientifically based method using fluency to judge children's reading, writing and math performance. Current practices in education allow for school psychologists to refer to BCBAs to measure reading performance, implement a scientifically based instructional program for reading, evaluate the child's performance and state if child is progressing under scientifically based reading instruction. This workshop will deal mainly with the evaluation and measurement of student performance using CBM, as well as interpreting the data.
Learning Objectives: 1). When given a child to assess reading performance, workshop participants will select three suitable paragraph's at the child's possible grade levels. 2). When given a child to assess reading performance, workshop participants will conduct the reading probes. 3). When given a child to assess reading performance, workshop participants will take the probe data and compare it to norms 4). When given a child to assess reading performance, workshop participants will select the appropriate grades that the child is reading independent, instructional, and frustrated. 5). Given a child's current reading performance, participants will graph data and project future performance. 6). Given a child's current reading performance, participants will be able to plot an minimum progress line and determine if the child is making progress to instructional sessions. 7). When given a child to assess for writing, participants will select proper story starters. 8). When given a child to assess for writing performance, participants will generate a 3 minute reading probe. 9). When given a child to assess for writing performance, participants will use probe data to determine the child's writing levels for writing instruction. 10). When given a child to assess for writing performance, participants will graph data and create a minimum progress line. 11). When given as child to assess for writing performance, participants will evaluate if the student is making progress to scientifically based writing instruction.
Activities: Participants will practice skills in: o Data gathering methods for CBM; o Conducting and scoring probes; o Developing performance-based measures; o Implementing a reading program using CBM; o Implementing a writing program using CBM
Audience: Educators, special educators, behavior analysts working in educational settings, and those interested in learning CBM approaches
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Basic
 
Workshop #W57
CE Offered: BACB
Applying Group Contingencies in Classrooms to Prevent and Remedy Academic and Behavior Problems.
Saturday, May 24, 2008
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
Stevens 3
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Christopher Skinner, Ph.D.
CHRISTOPHER SKINNER (The Univesity of Tennessee)
Description: This workshop focuses on the application of group-oriented contingencies designed to alter academic and social target behaviors in general and special education classrooms. Individual and independent, dependent, and interdependent group-oriented contingencies will be described, analyzed, compared, and contrasted across pragmatic characteristics and positive and negative side effects associated with the application of such contingencies in a group (e.g., classroom) contexts. Many practitioners are familiar with and apply individual and independent group-oriented contingencies with clearly established target behaviors, criteria, and/or rewards. This workshop will focus on the application of interdependent group-oriented contingencies. Research will be presented supporting the application of group-oriented contingencies for decreasing incidental antisocial and inappropriate behaviors, increasing incidental prosocial behaviors, and enhancing desired academic behaviors and academic achievement. Research supporting a) randomly-selected, resource-efficient, activity rewards, b) cumulative and/or randomly selected criterion, and c) randomly selected target behaviors will be analyzed. Basic research on maintaining behaviors will be applied as recommendations are made for enhancing maintenance by adding, adjusting and/or randomly selecting target behaviors, criteria, and/or rewards. By focusing on contingencies components, as opposed to programs, this workshop will allow attendees to develop their own contingencies to address their own concerns.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of this workshop, the participant will be able to a) differentiate between and identify strengths and weakness associated with the application of group-oriented contingencies, b) develop and adapt contingency components to enhance their effectiveness in altering and maintaining desired behaviors. c) alter contingency components to reduce the negative side effects associated with contingencies, and d) develop a large pool of rewards that are resource-efficient and effective reinforcers for groups.
Activities: Attendees will participate by helping generate a list of individual and group rewards, target behaviors, and criteria for various populations. Attendees will be asked to provide their own incites of possible pragmatic and social side effects associated with specific applied scenarios.
Audience: Those who work with or consult with those who work with groups of students or clients.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
 
Workshop #W58
CE Offered: BACB
Teaching The Whole Class To Behave: Classroom Wide Behavior Management Strategies.
Saturday, May 24, 2008
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
Marquette
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Jill E. McGrale Maher, M.S.
JILL E. MCGRALE MAHER (McGrale and Associates), CHERYL J. DAVIS (Crossroads School for Children Consultant), JOSH PLAVNICK (McGrale and Associates; Michigan State University), LINDA J. LOCKHART (McGrale and Associates; Eastern Michigan University)
Description: The increasing trend for inclusion of students with a variety of diagnoses in public school classrooms has resulted in teachers often serving a diverse group of students. Often times these teachers have little if any formal training or support in behavior management strategies. The bulk of available resources focus on reinforcement systems and token economies for individual students, response cost, and self-monitoring and management strategies, all of which may not be practical for application in a classroom of 25-30 students. Additionally, while these interventions can be very successful, the scope and comprehensiveness of the systems have been minimal and often targeted to isolated populations. Furthermore, the dissemination has frequently been in a format lacking in appropriateness for classroom teachers. This workshop is designed to teach participants to use classroom wide behavior management systems that are based on the principals of Applied Behavior Analysis to increase appropriate classroom behavior. Strategies will focus on practical, well validated, data-based approaches to solve common classroom behavior problems.
Learning Objectives: Participants will be able to: 1. Identify and define classroom behaviors that they would like to increase and decrease within their settings. 2. Create a behavior management system to increase success of learners to demonstrate appropriate classroom behaviors. 3. Create a user friendly data collection system that will enable teachers to monitor the progress of their behavior plan. 4. Determine when and how to individualize classroom plans to meet individual learners needs. 5. Promote the use of best practices and ethical standards into classroom management strategies.
Activities: Didactic instruction Development of behavior plan including definitions of behaviors, criteria to increase expectations and criteria to fade plan over time Development of data collection system Peer review of additional behavior plans
Audience: General Education Teachers, Special Education Teachers, support staff and specialists.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Basic
 
Workshop #W59
CE Offered: BACB
Improving Your Interpersonal Effectiveness as a Behavior Analyst.
Saturday, May 24, 2008
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
Stevens 4
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Raymond G. Miltenberger, Ph.D.
RAYMOND G. MILTENBERGER (University of South Florida), STACIE NEFF (University of South Florida)
Description: Because behavior analysis procedures are carried out by people in every day life, behavior analysts must develop not just technical ABA skills, but the skills needed to work effectively with people. This workshop will teach important interpersonal skills behavior analysts need to interact effectively with their clients, other professionals, and the public. Through the use of behavioral skills training (BST) procedures, participants will learn to use differential reinforcement and noncontingent reinforcement judiciously in their interactions to increase the effectiveness of their communication, conduct more effective behavioral assessment interviews, and build rapport with (set themselves up as positive reinforcers for) their clients. This workshop will also use BST to teach participants the skills needed to make effective presentations and gain acceptance for behavioral services. The goals of this workshop are to teach participants the interpersonal skills needed for promoting successful interactions with others and presenting themselves and the field of behavior analysis in a positive manner so that they can achieve the most positive outcomes.
Learning Objectives: Learn skills to make good initial impressions on others Learn skills to engage in mutually reinforcing interactions (rapport) with clients Learn to present yourself and behavior analysis in a good light to individuals outside of the field Learn the skills for making effective presentations Learn the skills needed to promote cooperation from clients
Activities: Listen to instructors' presentation View key points on Powerpoint slides Observe role plays of interpersonal skills presented by the workshop leaders Participate in role plays to practice the skills taught in the workshop
Audience: This workshop is intended for behavior analysts in practice who work with clients, consumers, and/or the public.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Basic
 
Workshop #W60
CE Offered: BACB
The ABC's of Consulting in School Districts.
Saturday, May 24, 2008
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
PDR 1
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Kristen M. Villone, Ph.D.
KRISTEN M. VILLONE (Melmark), NOELLE M. GREEN (Haddonfield School District)
Description: One of the biggest challenges behavior analysts face when consulting in school districts is balancing the role of "invited guest" with the role of "professional with expertise." Consultants working in school districts may also be challenged more by the behavior of the service providers than that of the identified student(s). The experiences of veteran consultants (with 19 and 11 years of clinical experience) who made the transition from clinical settings to school districts will offer unique perspectives on strategies and approaches they have found invaluable.
Learning Objectives: At the completion of the workshop, participants will be able to: --Describe common types of services most often requested by school districts. --Identify/address the primary "client" and/or presenting problem(s) --Understand the importance of body language, staff perceptions, documentation, and communication during classroom observations. --Have a better sense of a consultant's role (and how to establish boundaries). --Learn common mistakes made by consultants and how to avoid them. --Obtain a "blueprint" of how to set up/conduct classroom observations. --Obtain a "blueprint" of the veteran consultant's basic ABA training seminar. --Learn strategies that build teamwork and motivate staff when you're a "visitor" in their "home." --Have a better understanding of the interpersonal dynamics and contingencies in school districts. --Develop a better understanding of how to address ethical issues which may arise during consultations.
Activities: Participants will receive handouts to aid reviewing the workshop�s learning objectives during the first part of the workshop. The second part of the workshop will consist of a problem-solving discussion of different types of obstacles, scenarios and case examples the presenters have experienced. As time permits, audience members will be encouraged to present their own obstacles/issues for problem-solving.
Audience: Anyone interested in consulting in school districts, especially relatively new consultants who have ABA experience teaching children with developmental disabilities and training staff in clinical settings
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Basic
 
Workshop #W61
CE Offered: BACB
Overcoming Severe Deficits in Vocal Behavior with The Association Method.
Saturday, May 24, 2008
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
PDR 3
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Teresa A. Grimes, M.S.
JUDY POLLARD- LICKLIDDER (Pollard Licklidder Clinic), TERESA A. GRIMES (Whole Child Consulting LLC)
Description: The Association Method has proven to be an effective paradigm for establishing vocal repertoires after other approaches have failed. Brief case studies of 5 such learners will be presented in this workshop. This workshop will also describe the etiology of disorders affecting vocal behavior. Lecture, video, and data will be utilized to familiarize attendees with the techniques of The Association Method. The instructors will describe how The Association Method can be integrated with the rest of a learner's programming.
Learning Objectives: 1. Be able to define The Association Method and describe how it is different from other approaches. 2. Be able to list multi-dimensional aspects. 3. Create fundamental materials. 4. Apply the method at basic/entry level.
Activities: 1. Break out groups to practice new terminology with flash cards. 2. Use of guided notes to facilitate acquisition. 3. Break out into groups to create introductory materials. 4. Break out into groups to practice entry level applications.
Audience: Parents and advanced professionals who work with learners demonstrating little or no vocal behavior.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Advanced
 
Symposium #14
CE Offered: BACB
Application of Behavioral Principles to Improve Performance of Staff in a Human Services Agency
Saturday, May 24, 2008
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
International South
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Rita M. Gardner (Melmark New England)
Discussant: Dennis H. Reid (Carolina Behavior Analysis and Support Center, Ltd)
CE Instructor: Rita M. Gardner, M.S.
Abstract:

The assessment of efficient and effective procedures to train employees is a priority for agencies that provide services to individuals with disabilities. Providing training that helps to ensure that employees fulfill their many job responsibilities has a number of benefits including, but not limited to: (1) possible amelioration of burnout often experienced by direct care staff, (2) responsible allocation of needed resources (e.g., costs associated with training), and most importantly, (3) the promotion of excellent service delivery. The purpose of the present symposium is to share findings from three studies that examined ways to improve staff performance through different models of training. The behavioral training procedures employed were varied, yet all produced beneficial outcomes for staff and students.

 
Using Video to Train Teaching Procedures: Examination of an Effective Training Practice.
CYNTHIA N. CATANIA (Melmark New England), Daniel Almeida (Newton Public Schools), Brian C. Liu-Constant (Melmark New England), Florence D. DiGennaro Reed (Melmark New England)
Abstract: In the field of applied behavior analysis, the development of effective and less resource-intensive training methods for staff is of critical importance. In this study, three new direct-service staff participated in a program that used a video model to train target skills when conducting a discrete trial session. Percent accuracy in completing a discrete trial teaching session during a role play with the researcher was evaluated during baseline, intervention, and maintenance and generalization probes using a multiple baseline across participants design. Single session student probes were also evaluated during each condition. During baseline, performance ranged from 12-67% accuracy. Upon introduction of video training, an immediate change in level of accuracy was observed for all participants (percentage of nonoverlapping data points averaged 100%). Performance during maintenance and generalization probes remained at high levels. In addition, the participants’ performance during sessions with students was consistent with analog sessions conducted with the experimenter. Results suggest that using video modeling to train staff can be effective in teaching them to conduct accurate discrete trial sessions.
 
Using Video Clips and a Training Package to Increase the Accuracy of A-B-C Completion with Staff.
KIMBERLY L. MAYER (Melmark New England)
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to replicate and extend findings by Mayer (2007) that demonstrated the effectiveness of a training package on completion of A-B-C Descriptive Analysis Tools. A multiple baseline across participants design was used to train residential staff members’ on thorough and accurate A-B-C data recording of one-minute video clips of students. During training, participants were provided a verbal review of an outline detailing all components to be included when completing A-B-C data recording followed by a question and answer session. Participants then watched a variety of video clips and completed A-B-C recording for each clip. During observation of the video clips, participants had access to the written training outline. Performance feedback was provided to participants if they obtained less than 90% accuracy in the consecutive completion of three tools. Findings support the effectiveness of this training package in teaching accurate A-B-C data recording.
 
Increasing Supervisor Feedback and Performance during Crisis Management.
HELENA L. MAGUIRE (Melmark New England)
Abstract: Training supervisors to provide effective feedback that enhances and maintains employees’ skills when teaching consumers is an integral component to an effective organization. Consumers benefit from staff members who utilize effective teaching skills and are consistent with the delivery of effective teaching strategies. A supervisor's ability to provide feedback to staff when behavioral difficulties are presented by consumers is especially critical. At times, simply monitoring staff performance during the incident and providing feedback after the crisis will not be sufficient to affect staff performance change. In this study, specific procedures to train three supervisors to provide feedback and change staff performance during crisis management conditions were used. A packaged intervention (consisting of classroom-based instruction, in vivo observation, modeling, and contingent feedback) was utilized to improve the type and quality of supervisory feedback delivered to employees in a private school that provided services to individuals with severe challenging behavior. Baseline data reveal low levels of appropriate feedback. Additional data to be collected.
 
 
Symposium #15
CE Offered: BACB
Evaluation of Teaching Parameters During Discrete Trial Instruction
Saturday, May 24, 2008
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
Continental B
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: M. Alice Shillingsburg (The Marcus Institute)
Discussant: Mary Jane Weiss (Rutgers University)
CE Instructor: M. Alice Shillingsburg, Ph.D.
Abstract:

This symposium presents three empirical papers on specific teaching variables used during discrete trial instruction. The first two papers offer an examination of specific therapist variables related to social effect and physical orientation during teaching. The Kisamore paper examines the results of high and low quality social attention on problem behavior. The Rivera paper extend this analysis to include therapist effect and teaching position (i.e., in front, behind, beside) on rates of maladaptive behavior, percent of time on task and skill acquisition. Finally, the Valentino paper examines the effect of pace of instruction on problem behavior.

 
Effects of Varying the Quality of Therapist-Provided Social Interaction during Instruction.
APRIL N. KISAMORE (Western Michigan University), M. Alice Shillingsburg (The Marcus Institute), Andrew A. Fulton (The Marcus Institute), Michael E. Kelley (The Marcus Institute and Emory University)
Abstract: When teaching children with developmental delays we often employ the use of higher quality social reinforcement in the form of enthusiastic praise and physical attention. However, there is little empirical evidence for the value of this form of reinforcement. Several studies have investigated the effects of the quality of tangible reinforcers, the effects of delaying the reinforcer, and the effects of the rate of reinforcer presentation on choice responding (Mace et al., 1996, Neef et al., 1993, & Neef et al., 1992). Specifically, studies have examined the effects of high and low preference items on response rate (Graff et al., 2006) and the effects of the quality of reinforcement on problem behavior (Piazza et al., 1999; Richman & Hagopian, 1999). The current study examined the effects of varying the quality of social reinforcement during teaching with two children with language delays. The quality of therapist-provided social reinforcement varied in terms of voice intonation, physical attention, and facial expression. The effects of the varied social reinforcement on correct responding and problem behavior were examined in an instructional setting.
 
An Evaluation of the Effects of Instructor Behavior on Skill Acquisition and Inappropriate Behavior in Learners with Autism.
TINA ZORRILLA RIVERA (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center), May Chriseline Beaubrun (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center), Ryan Madigan (Rutgers University), David Kieval (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center), Mary Jane Weiss (Rutgers University), Robert LaRue (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center)
Abstract: During intervention with learners with autism, practitioners generally monitor the behavior of the students they are working with. Dependent variables commonly recorded include time on task, percent of trials correct, rate of correct responding, and rate of maladaptive behavior. However, teaching staff rarely evaluate the effects of their own behavior on the rate of acquisition for the learners they work with. For instance, a therapist’s position or disposition (i.e., affect) may greatly affect the attending behavior of learners with autism. In addition, the effects on the attending behavior of these learners may vary considerably across students. In the current investigation, rates of skill acquisition and inappropriate behavior are compared when therapist behavior is manipulated. Therapist variables evaluated include therapist affect (high and low intensity) and therapist position (in front, to the side, and from behind). The effects of these variables on rates of maladaptive behavior, percent of time on task and skill acquisition are evaluated. Results are discussed in terms of individualizing instruction to the needs of different learners with autism. Implications for staff training will be discussed as well.
 
Some Effects of Pace of Instruction on Problem Behavior.
AMBER L. VALENTINO (The Marcus Institute), Crystal N. Bowen (The Marcus Institute), M. Alice Shillingsburg (The Marcus Institute), Nathan Call (The Marcus Institute), Michael E. Kelley (The Marcus Institute and Emory University)
Abstract: Discrete-trial training (DTT) is commonly used to treat language and pre-academic skill deficits in children diagnosed with autism. Although DTT is often an effective teaching method, previous research has not produced a comprehensive analysis of the training parameters that are most likely to produce acquisition and maintain low levels of competing behavior. Previous research has suggested that length of intertrial interval (pace of instruction) is a variable that can influence the number of trials to criterion, final performance, and stability during teaching situations (Holt & Schafer, 1973). Carnine (1976) investigated the effects of pace of instruction during reading instruction and found that a fast pace was accompanied by a lower percent occurrence of off task behavior for two participants. Additionally, research has shown that faster-paced instruction may produce more rapid skill acquisition than slower-paced instruction (Koegel, Dunlap, & Dyer, 1980). In the current study, we assessed the effects of the pace of instruction on the occurrence of problem behavior for individuals exposed to DTT using a reversal design. As suggested by Koegel et al., utilizing this information can be important in selecting the optimal interval for teaching children with autism.
 
 
Symposium #16
CE Offered: BACB
No Need to Reinvent the Wheel: A Closer Look at Replicating Successful Autism Intervention Programs
Saturday, May 24, 2008
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
Continental C
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Rebecca J. Morgan (DFW Center for Autism)
Discussant: Gail G. McGee (Emory University School of Medicine)
CE Instructor: Rebecca J. Morgan, M.S.
Abstract:

With the rise in demand for autism services utilizing approaches in applied behavior analysis, traditionalABA providers have been called to become organizational administrators, designing systems and programs that can meet the needs of a broad population. Some administrators have found replicating other empirically validated intervention programs an option that brings efficiency, efficacy, and credibility to the table right from the start. Two such programs are discussed in this symposium. The first authors evaluate the process of replicating the Walden Program that was originally established by Gail G. McGee in 1985. Data both pre- and post-replication of each program component will be reviewed. The second talk introduces the Walden Programs own within-group data on the increases in language and social skills in children with autism. Between group data is also explored across replication sites. The final presentation will review successful dissemination of Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) with children with autism in Nova Scotia, Canada. Further and ongoing plans for replication of both of the programs mentioned above will be discussed.

 
The Anatomy of a Replication: Implementing and Evaluating the Components.
CARRIE GREER (DFW Center for Autism), Rebecca Morgan (DFW Center for Autism), Rebecka Kandice Honardar (DFW Center for Autism)
Abstract: The DFW Center for Autism began a replication of the Walden Preschool program upon its inception in 2000. Attempts to replicate components of the Walden model such as incidental teaching, environmental arrangement and systematic training were made and results of those attempts are discussed. Formal training with the Emory Autism Center was initiated in 2003 and the official process of replication began in 2004. Analysis of the components that were implemented over the last 3 years is displayed along with effects of following an established model for Incidental Teaching in a preschool program. Additional systems for organizational behavior management, teacher training, family support, and child progress were added by the DFW Center for Autism and data from those systems support the efficacy of the replication model.
 
A Between Groups Analysis of Engagement, Language, and Social Skills for Young Children with Autism.
MICHAEL J. MORRIER (Emory University), Sharon T. Hynes (Emory University), Carrie Greer (DFW Center for Autism), Rebecca Morgan (DFW Center for Autism), Daniel Adam Openden Ph.D., BCBA-D (Southwest Autism Research & Resouce Center)
Abstract: Since its inception in 1985 at the University of Massachusetts-Amherst, the Walden Early Childhood Center has undergone both external and internal replications. The incidental teaching model has been extended upward to prepare pre-kindergarteners for the social demands of kindergarten, as well as downwards to include toddlers with autism. Data will be provided on the social and language gains of this model, as well as a discussion of the issues encountered with extending the model to toddlers. Similar data from the subsequent replication sites using the Walden model are evaluated and will be compared both within and between sites.
 
Large Scale Dissemination and Community Implementation of Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT).
DANIEL ADAM OPENDEN PH.D., BCBA-D (Southwest Autism Research & Resouce Center), Susan E. Bryson (Dalhousie University), Isabel Smith (Dalhousie University), Robert L. Koegel (University of California, Santa Barbara), Lynn Kern Koegel (University of California, Santa Barbara)
Abstract: This paper describes a collaborative effort aimed at province-wide dissemination and implementation of Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) for young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in Nova Scotia, Canada. Three critical components of the associated training model are described: (1) direct training of treatment teams, (parents, one-to-one interventionists, and clinical supervisors/leaders); (2) training of trainers; and (3) follow up and monitoring of treatment fidelity and child progress. A major goal of the Dalhousie University/IWK Health Centre-University of California, Santa Barbara partnership was to optimize effectiveness when translating PRT from the “lab” for dissemination in large geographical areas with community service providers. Preliminary six-month child and family outcome data and data on stakeholder satisfaction with the training workshops will be provided. Finally, features that may have contributed to success in dissemination will be identified.
 
 
Symposium #19
CE Offered: BACB
History and Current Developments in Behavior Analytic Forensic Psychology.
Saturday, May 24, 2008
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
Boulevard A
Area: CBM/CSE; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Kirk A.B. Newring (Lincoln Correctional Center)
CE Instructor: Michael Weinberg, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Behavior analysis and modification was hailed in the late 1960s as a way of rehabilitating prisoners. By the mid 1970s, California reported that behavior modification could no longer receive crime prevention funds. At this period APA launched an investigation as to standards for behavior modification in prisons. What went wrong? The first presenter will review the history and discuss the errors with an eye to behavior analytic policy for the future. The second presenter will offer approaches to treat adolescent offenders who would typically be placed into juvenile detention based upon recent advances in applied behavior analysis to address problem behaviors exhibited by these youth. The third presentation will familiarize the participant with Mode Deactivation Therapy (MDT) as an enhanced Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) for treating adolescent males who have problems with opposition, conduct, personality, including physical and sexual aggression. The data concerning MDT, as an evidenced based psychotherapy, will be discussed as well. Lastly, Sex offenders! Those two words can evoke fear and apprehension in the community. Thankfully, a skillful integration of the best practices sex offender assessment and 3rd wave behavior therapies couples what works (evidence-based practice) with what matters (empirically-derived risk factors).

 
The History of Behavior Analysis and Behavioral Intervention with Criminals: Where We Went Wrong.
JOSEPH D. CAUTILLI (Children Crisis Treatment Center/St. Joseph's University)
Abstract: Behavior analysis and modification was hailed in the late 1960s as a way of rehabilating prisoners. By the mid 1970s, California reported that behavior modification could no longer receive crime prevention funds. At this period APA launched an investigation as to standards for behavior modification in prisons.What went wrong? In this presentation, I will review the history and discuss the errors with an eye to behavior analytic policy for the future.
 
A Behavior Analytic Methodology for the Assessment and Treatment of Adolescents in the Criminal Justice System: Alternatives to Juvenile Detention.
MICHAEL WEINBERG (Orlando Behavior Health Services, LLC)
Abstract: Traditionally, adolescents who commit offenses, such as rape and molestation, weapons charges, assault, illegal drug use, drug sales, theft, and others, have gone into the legal system and are placed in juvenile detention centers. These centers provide minimal treatment and rehabilitation, often resulting in increased incidence of criminal involvement after release, with high recidivism rates (50% or higher). It is time we use applied behavior analysis research and practice to provide treatment for these youth, and continue research on effective behavior analytic approaches. This presentation will offer some suggestions and guidelines as published in the 2006 Handbook of Juvenile Justice.
 
Mode Deactivation Therapy (MDT) as an Evidence-Based Enhanced Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) for Treating Adolescent Males.
JACK A. APSCHE (Apsche Center)
Abstract: This presentation will familiarize the participant with Mode Deactivation Therapy (MDT) as an enhanced Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) for treating adolescent males who have problems with opposition, conduct, personality, including physical and sexual aggression. The data suggests MDT as an evidenced based psychotherapy; will be discussed as well.
 
Using What Works on What Matters: 3rd Wave Behavior Therapies and Dynamic Risk Assessment with Sexual Offenders.
KIRK A.B. NEWRING (Lincoln Correctional Center)
Abstract: The current zeitgeist of sex offender treatment is rooted in the assessment static and dynamic predictors of risk for recidivism. Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP), Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) map on to these known risk factors and provide sex offender treatment providers with evidence-based treatments on empirically-derived risk factors. The integration an applications of these approaches are discussed.
 
 
Symposium #22
CE Offered: BACB
Measuring Social Validity during Behavioral Research and Consultation
Saturday, May 24, 2008
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
PDR 2
Area: CSE/EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Claire C St. Peter (West Virginia University)
CE Instructor: Claire C St. Peter, Ph.D.
Abstract:

In applied behavior analysis, social validity refers to society's judgment about the appropriateness and importance of behavior analytic goals and practices. Although social validity has been touted as a critical dimenson of applied behavior analysis since the 1970's, it remains an under-researched area. The presenters attempt to address this void by discussing the use of social validity measures in the existing literature, as well as reviewing three new research studies that assess the social validity of behavioral procedures for classroom use.

 
Social Validity Assessments of Behavior-Change Procedures Used with Young Children: A Review.
NICOLE HEAL (May Center for Education & Neurorehabilitation), Gregory P. Hanley (Western New England University)
Abstract: Social validity refers to the significance of the goals, the appropriateness of the procedures, and the importance of the effects of a behavior-change program to members of society. This review will describe the different features of social validity assessments conducted for the ultimate benefit of young children, note trends, and critically analyze the current state of affairs in this area, and offer directions for future social validity research. Studies were included in the analysis if (a) there was an evaluation of social validity, (b) the behavior-change procedures being assessed were applied to observable (externalized) problem behavior or issues related to learning, and (c) the behavior-change procedures being assessed were applied with young children (aged birth through 8 years). Studies that met the inclusion criteria were categorized and analyzed on the following dimensions (a) type of behavior-change procedures, (b) dimensions of social validity (i.e., goals, procedures, and/or outcomes), (c) social validity consumers, (d) types of social validity assessments (i.e., absolute vs. relative), and (e) methods for assessing social validity (i.e., indirect vs. direct assessments). Interrater agreement was assessed on 20% of the articles, and agreement above 80%.
 
An Evaluation of the Efficacy of and Preference for Strategies for Reducing Problem Behavior in Play Groups.
STACY A. LAYER (University of Kansas), Gregory P. Hanley (Western New England University)
Abstract: Three common behavior management strategies for reducing the problem behavior of preschool children include the use of a rule reminder alone, a rule reminder plus talk and practice, or a rule reminder followed by a brief time out and then talk and practice. Results of a questionnaire assessing community preschool teachers’ opinions about the acceptability and relative efficacy of these 3 strategies showed that rule reminders were the most common consequence for problem behavior; teachers also reported that it was important to empirically evaluate the effectiveness of each of the strategies described. We then compared the effectiveness of and children’s preferences for each of the three behavior management strategies (all agreement measures exceeded 80%). The results indicated that for children with the highest levels of problem behavior, a comprehensive package including rule reminders, time out, and talk and practice was the most effective strategy for reducing problem behavior. Child preference varied among the strategies with some children preferring the strategy involving time out and others preferring only rule reminders; no child preferred the talk and practice component without the time out component. Implications for the design of preschool environments will be discussed.
 
Considerations of Treatment Acceptability in Examining Intervention Effectiveness.
FLORENCE D. DIGENNARO REED (Melmark New England), Brian K. Martens (Syracuse University)
Abstract: An investigation of social validity may include considerations of the acceptability, appropriateness, and ease of implementation of intervention procedures. The Intervention Rating Profile-15 (IRP-15; Martens, Witt, Elliott, & Darveaux, 1985) is a 15-item scale that provides a measure of general intervention acceptability as it pertains to these three areas. The purpose of this presentation is to present data from two studies that used the IRP-15 with teachers to investigate their judgments about the interventions used with their students, as well as their judgments about the feedback they received regarding the accuracy of their treatment plan implementation. Findings will be presented in light of the effectiveness of the intervention procedures and their relation to treatment acceptability.
 
Acceptability of Preference Assessments for Classroom Use.
ALLISON SERRA TETREAULT (West Virginia University), Claire C St. Peter (West Virginia University), Elizabeth S. Athens (University of Florida)
Abstract: Applied behavior analysts frequently develop interventions for school environments. Preference assessments may be a useful tool in the identification of potential reinforcers for use in school-based interventions. However, research has not determined the acceptability of preference assessment procedures and formats for classroom use. Given that teachers and classroom aides are the ultimate behavior change agents in school-based interventions, the use of more acceptable procedures may increase teacher compliance with an intervention plan. In the current study, we used surveys to assess the acceptability of various preference assessment methods (including single-stimulus, paired-choice, and multiple-stimulus-without-replacement), the frequency of assessment (ranging from daily to less than once per week), and the modality of items used during the assessment (including actual items, pictures of items, written names of items, or vocal names of items). Teacher preference for method, frequency, and modality of assessment did not coincide with what has been established as best-practice in the behavioral literature. Implications of these findings for school-based collaboration and intervention development will be discussed.
 
 
Symposium #27
CE Offered: BACB
Basic and Applied Research on Token Schedules
Saturday, May 24, 2008
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
Metra
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
Chair: Jason C. Bourret (The New England Center for Children)
CE Instructor: Jason C. Bourret, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Token schedules have been extensively examined by both "basic" and "applied" researchers. However, these two research traditions have developed largely independently of one another. This symposium is an attempt to foster contact and highlight research on tokens that tells us something new about the schedules and also has important implications for their application.

 
Saving and Spending in a Token-Accumulation Procedure with Pigeons.
RACHELLE L. YANKELEVITZ (University of Florida), Timothy D. Hackenberg (University of Florida)
Abstract: The present research concerns reinforcer accumulation by pigeons in a token-reinforcement context. In a standard token-accumulation procedure, three keys are arranged: token-production, on which responses illuminate lights (tokens); exchange-production, on which responses produce access to the exchange key; and exchange, on which responses produce one unit of food per earned token. At any point after producing one token, pigeons choose to continue producing tokens or to produce exchange. Previous research has shown that reinforcer accumulation is inversely related to the cost of producing reinforcers and directly related to the cost of producing exchange, but the relationship between accumulation and the exchange schedule itself remains uninvestigated. In the current procedure, the costs of producing tokens and producing exchange were held constant while the cost of exchanging each token was varied from 1 to 150. The extent to which accumulation frequency (percent of cycles with accumulation) and magnitude (mean number of tokens accumulated per cycle) were systematically related to exchange ratio was investigated. Results are interpreted with respect to unit price, a composite measure of the costs (ratio size) and benefits (reinforcer amount) associated with different courses of action.
 
Comparison of Responding Under Token and Tandem Schedules in a Clinical Setting.
JONATHAN SEAVER (The New England Center for Children), Jason C. Bourret (The New England Center for Children)
Abstract: Relatively little work has been done evaluating the effects of second-order token schedules on response rates and patterns in clinical settings. In the current study, patterns of responding on second-order token and tandem schedules of reinforcement were examined with two participants. All participants were students at a residential school for individuals with developmental disorders. Token schedule values were similar to those used typically in clinical application. Response requirements on the tandem schedule were yoked to the number of responses required for token exchange on the second-order token schedule. Results showed longer mean durations to complete the initial components relative to successive components on both tandem and token schedules. Response rates maintained on both schedules were equivalent. Implications in terms of expected response patterns on token schedules used with humans in a clinical setting and overall clinical benefits of the use of token schedules are discussed.
 
Conditioned Reinforcement: Schedule Thinning Pilot Study.
CHERYL LYNN CAMASSA (The New England Center for Children), Daniel Gould (The New England Center for Children)
Abstract: Token reinforcement can be thought of as a second-order schedule in which responses produce tokens according to one schedule (production schedule) and then the opportunity to exchange tokens for other reinforcement occurs after a specified number of tokens has been earned (exchange schedule). This pilot study explored thinning of schedules of conditioned reinforcement by examining production and exchange schedules. Two participants with autism were exposed to reinforcer assessments using various combinations of production and exchange schedules. For example, in the FR1?FR4 schedule [FR4(FR1) second-order schedule], the participant received a token after each hand-raising response, and after 4 tokens were earned they were exchanged for a backup edible reinforcer. This schedule was compared in an alternating treatments design to FR4?FR1 [FR1(FR4) second-order schedule], in which the participant received a token after 4 hand-raising responses, and after 1 token was earned it was immediately exchanged for a backup edible reinforcer. Schedule comparisons included FR1(FR2) vs. FR2(FR1); FR1(FR4) vs. FR4(FR1); FR1(FR8) vs. FR8(FR1); and FR1(FR16) vs. FR16(FR1). Results showed little systematic difference at lower schedule values. At higher schedule values [FR1(FR8) vs. FR8(FR1) and FR1(FR16) vs. FR16(FR1)] there was a higher rate of responding when the production schedule was FR1 as compared to FR8 or FR16.
 
Punishment in Token-Based Procedures for Treating Addiction.
JOHN M. ROLL (Washington State University)
Abstract: Token-based (i.e., contingency management) interventions are quite effective at initiating and maintaining abstinence. These procedures are generally believed to rely solely on positive reinforcement. However, most do include a punishment contingency for failures to abstain. In this presentation data from several studies will be presented demonstrating that this punishment enhances the efficacy of the procedures. Additional data will be presented showing that punishment contingencies may not be appropriate unless they are combined with strong reinforcement procedures as individuals in treatment will “escape the punisher”. An exception to this may occur when treatment is provided in a criminal justice context in which “escape” is not an option. This will be illustrated with clinical data from several recent trials.
 
 
Symposium #31
CE Offered: BACB
BATSS to the Rescue Part II: Super Science Saves Students
Saturday, May 24, 2008
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
Williford B
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Janet Ellis (University of North Texas)
CE Instructor: Janet Ellis, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Public schools are fertile grounds for behavior analysis interventions ranging from restructuring environments to teaching staff about scientific principles of human behavior. Oftentimes the focus of behavior analytic interventions is the reduction of severe problem behavior encountered across a variety of school settings. In contrast, the focus of the current presentation is on building appropriate behavior and teaching teachers to teach reading. This symposium includes 4 presentations on varied interventions for 3-5 year olds at risk for failure in kindergarten. Interventions will be presented demonstrating BATSS procedures for teaching literacy skills at various points on the learning continuum. Assessing and training component skills in programs designed for children with special needs also improves teaching efficiency and learner performance. A comparison between current reading scores for this particular group of children and data collected during the prior academic school year will reflect BATSS innovative changes to this technology. Data and video will be shown exhibiting training procedures for teaching reading for this special needs, specific age group of students.

 
Function Following Form: Forestalling Student Failure.
KRISTIN R. OSLEY (University of North Texas), Anna Whaley Carr (University of North Texas)
Abstract: Oftentimes public schools provide less-than-optimal learning environments for children in special education settings. This presentation focuses on the environmental assessment and re-structuring of an Adaptive Life Skills class with 8 students, 1 teacher, and 2 paraprofessionals. Problem issues included: students not engaged for long periods during transition, very lean schedules of reinforcement for appropriate student behavior, frequent attention following inappropriate behavior, high rates of repetitive instruction delivery with near zero rate of compliance, little time spent teaching adaptive life skills, disorganized classroom with confusing schedule of activities, unnecessary physical prompts with no systematic plan for implementing fading. The intervention includes 2 main components: restructuring of the physical environment to include a 1:1 teaching area, constructing then displaying a cohesive class schedule for students and staff; organizing the classroom into functional activity units. Another component focused on staff training to establish a more effective social environment that supports & maintains appropriate staff and student behavior. Data are being collected and will be reported. Before and after conditions will be shown via video clip.
 
When It Works, Improve It: Teaching Three to Five Year Olds with PPCD to Read.
RACHEL LEE KOELKER (University of North Texas)
Abstract: School districts need to provide services to children with disabilities before they enter kindergarten. These three to five year old PPCD students need academic help before they reach kindergarten. The BATSS reading program has had tremendous success working with these students to teach them to read. Like any other system the BATSS reading program needs continual adaptation to improve the success of the program. Following last year’s success changes have been made that include more consistency across consultants, increasing feedback to consultants, introducing the concept of blending into the program sooner, and providing more variety in activities to keep student motivation amongst other changes. These changes and others will be discussed as well as presenting this year’s data in comparison to last year’s data. The importance and effect of the changes made will be demonstrated in the improvement in student performance illustrated by the difference in data from year to year.
 
1,000 words? No, 1,000,000!
LARISA MAXWELL (University of North Texas)
Abstract: Many times, it is difficult to visualize procedures discussed in presentations, and thus also difficult to apply the procedures in our respective work environments. This presentation will provide attendees the opportunity to view a short film demonstrating reading program procedures to further illustrate the use of the reading program technology used by consultants with Behavioral Assessment and Technology Support Systems (BATSS). The film will include teaching at-risk preschool students, ages 3-5, to read at various points in the learning continuum. Video demonstrations may range from teaching sounds to blends to sight words. Several different teaching methods, including see/say and hear/touch will be included along with an error correction procedure. BATSS’ reading program uses and develops a variety of materials to increase and maintain student engagement, along with program for generalization across stimuli, and these will be available for viewing also. If a picture says 1,000 words, this video must say 1,000,000!
 
Pre-reading Skills: Component Skills that Provide a Foundation for Competent Reading Repertoires.
JASON C. COHEN (University of North Texas)
Abstract: Programs designed to teach new skills are often inefficient or ineffective due to a failure to address component skills. Lack of component skill proficiency frequently results in little or no progress toward meeting goals and leaves teachers and learners frustrated. Depending on the goals and the current repertoire of a learner, several component skills may be trained simultaneously in the context of relatively difficult academic skills or even during unstructured recreational activities. To meet mastery criteria on other goals, however, it may be necessary to break the skills down and train certain components in isolation. This discussion will include descriptions of components across several skill sets, the importance of training component skills in the context of acquisition and remediation, and possible benefits of component skill assessments. By and large, assessing and training component skills in programs designed for children with special needs can improve efficiency of teacher and learner performance by facilitating acquisition of new skills and remediation of disfluent skills.
 
 
Panel #35
CE Offered: BACB
Have a Burning Question You Feel Like You Can Never Ask? Ask!
Saturday, May 24, 2008
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
Marquette
Area: OBM; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Manuel A. Rodriguez, M.S.
Chair: Manuel A. Rodriguez (Continuous Learning Group)
TRACY A. THURKOW (CLG)
ALLAN QUIAT (Chevron Corporation)
BILL L. HOPKINS (Auburn Emeritus)
JUDY L. AGNEW (Aubrey Daniels International)
Abstract:

There are many times we go to bed at night wishing we would have asked a question or posed a comment. These burning questions may be the very questions that, upon answering, would help Organizational Behavior Management grow. You may ask these questions to one or a few of your colleagues during coffee, drinks, or whatever "water coolers" you feel comfortable with. By limiting the conversations to few, OBM as a field may lose sight and touch of the key questions that can drive our field forward. The panel consists Judy Agnew (ADI), Bill Hopkins (Auburn Emeritus), Allan Quiat (Chevron Corporation), and Tracy Thurkow (CLG). This panel will address your burning questions. Come with your questions and thoughts that are burning to come outand be prepared to have fun while doing it.

 
 
Symposium #38
CE Offered: BACB
Stimulus Equivalence and Naming
Saturday, May 24, 2008
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
Stevens 4
Area: VRB/EAB; Domain: Basic Research
Chair: Brian J. Feeney (Western Michigan University)
CE Instructor: Linda A. LeBlanc, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Formation of equivalence classes and naming are basic language processes frequently studied by behavior analysts. The experimenters will present four studies examining various aspects of equivalence relations and naming.

 
The Effects of Common Names and FR Responses on the Emergence of Stimulus Equivalence Classes.
YORS A. GARCIA (Southern Illinois University), Anna Neises (Southern Illinois University), Adam D. Hahs (Southern Illinois University), Ruth Anne Rehfeldt (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract: The objective of the present study was to compare two procedures for facilitating the emergence of equivalence classes in college students. In one group, participants were first taught to give class-consistent names to the stimuli which would subsequently be conditionally related. In the second group, participants were first taught to emit common, fixed-ratio responses in the presence of stimuli which would subsequently be conditionally related. After this training, participants completed conditional discrimination training, followed by equivalence testing. In the control group, participants were taught conditional discriminations, followed by equivalence testing. A “think aloud” procedure was implemented throughout the three groups in the conditional discrimination and equivalence testing. Results suggest that both approaches were equally effective in facilitating the emergence of stimulus classes. Similarly, the transcriptions from the protocol analysis showed that majority of participants in group one and two used names to relate stimuli. However, the majority of participants in the control group only used names to relate stimuli in the mix training and equivalence testing. The findings suggest the importance of names in the acquisition of equivalence classes.
 

Formation of Equivalence Classes by Older Adults.

BRIAN J. FEENEY (Western Michigan University), Linda A. LeBlanc (Western Michigan University), Tracy L. Lepper (Western Michigan University)
Abstract:

Equivalence classes consist of arbitrary stimuli that come to share functional and symbolic relations partially through contingencies and partially as a product of emergent processes. Three studies have begun to document the differences between older and younger adults in the formation of equivalence classes. The purpose of this study is to clarify methodological factors that may account for, or contribute to, the differences reported in the literature. Twenty-eight adults ages 65 and older were exposed to two matching-to-sample training procedures and subsequent testing using a personal computer with a touch screen and a 0-s delay. Half of the participants experienced a many-to-one (MTO) training procedure followed by a one-to-many (OTM) procedure and the other half experienced the reverse order. Differences in trials to criterion, errors during training, emergent relations were minimal between the two conditions, replicating the effects of Saunders, et al. findings with 0-s delay. The majority of elders demonstrated the expected emergent relations with clear differences in training performance patterns for those who subsequently performed well on tests and those who performed more poorly.

 
Multiple Exemplar Training to Facilitate Bidirectional Symmetry in Second Language Speaking Children.
ROCIO ROSALES (Southern Illinois University), Ruth Anne Rehfeldt (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract: The purpose of the present investigation was to determine the effectiveness of multiple exemplar training in the facilitation of bidirectional symmetry for typically developing children (ages 2-4) whose first language is Spanish. A multiple probe design was implemented to introduce exemplar training across all participants. Children were first trained in object-name relations in English for items that were familiar to them in their first language. This was followed by tests for derived name-object relations (i.e., bidirectional symmetry). If participants failed the symmetry tests, multiple exemplar training was implemented. Exemplar training consisted of explicitly training the symmetry relations with novel stimulus sets. After multiple exemplar training, bidirectional symmetry tests were conducted once more with stimuli that had not been directly trained. Finally, a naming test was conducted for each stimulus used during test probes only. Preliminary results indicate the emergence of symmetry relations only after exemplar training was introduced.
 
Categorization of Stimuli by Motor Responses in Preschool Children.
AMANDA MAHONEY (The New England Center for Children), Caio F. Miguel (California State University, Sacramento), William H. Ahearn (The New England Center for Children)
Abstract: Naming is said to occur from the "bi-directionality between a class of objects and events, and the speaker listener behavior they occasion"(Horne & Lowe, 1996). The purpose of this study was to assess the role of common motor responses as the "speaker" behavior on stimulus class formation as well as to assess the emergence of functional classes. In Experiment 1, three typically developing preschool children were taught common tacts (motor responses) to two sets of line-drawings. Following this training, stimulus-selection tests and categorization tests were conducted. One of three passed stimulus-selection tests and a different one of the three passed the categorization tests. In Experiment 2, all participants were exposed to vocal tact training to one stimulus in each set. Testing was conducted for the emergence of these tacts to the remaining members of each class. None of the participants passed these tests. Tacts were then trained directly to the remaining four class members and a second series of stimulus-selection tests and categorization tests were conducted. Both participants who did not pass categorization tests in Experiment 1 passed these tests following vocal tact training in Experiment 2.
 
 
B. F. Skinner Lecture Series Paper Session #40
CE Offered: BACB

Quantifying the Qualitative: Empirical Measures of Social Information Processing in Autism

Saturday, May 24, 2008
2:00 PM–2:50 PM
International North
Area: AUT; Domain: Theory
CE Instructor: James Charles McPartland, Ph.D.
Chair: William H. Ahearn (The New England Center for Children)
JAMES CHARLES MCPARTLAND (Yale Child Study Center)
Dr. James C. McPartland is a Psychologist and Associate Research Scientist at the Yale Child Study Center. He obtained his doctoral degree in Child Clinical Psychology from the University of Washington, where he studied autism spectrum disorders under the guidance of Dr. Geraldine Dawson. After completing autism-focused pre- and post-doctoral fellowships at the Child Study Center under the mentorship of Drs. Ami Klin, Robert Schultz, Fred Volkmar, and Kasia Chawarska, Dr. McPartland joined the faculty in 2006. He currently supervises trainees and evaluates children through the Yale Autism Resource Program. He also directs a research program using electrophysiological methods to investigate brain function in individuals with autism, with particular focus on visual perception of social information. Dr. McPartland is co-author of the book, A Parent's Guide to Asperger Syndrome and High-Functioning Autism: How to Meet the Challenges and Help Your Child Thrive, published by Guilford Press.
Abstract:

Autism spectrum disorders are characterized by core impairments in social and communicative behavior. Though behavior in these domains can be subjective and difficult to measure, diagnostic assessments and outcome measures rely on accurate estimation of these skills. This lecture will review current research utilizing eye-tracking technology and recordings of brain electrophysiology to discretely measure aspects of visual attention and brain function related to social perception. The objective of this research is to develop indices of brain function and behavior that will enable assessment of social perception in infancy and will offer sensitive and discrete measures of progress during intervention.

 
 
Invited Tutorial #42
CE Offered: BACB
Tutorial: Behavioral Economics
Saturday, May 24, 2008
2:00 PM–2:50 PM
Grand Ballroom
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
BACB CE Offered. CE Instructor: Gregory J. Madden, Ph.D.
Chair: Chad M. Galuska (College of Charleston)
Presenting Authors: : GREGORY J. MADDEN (University of Kansas)
Abstract:

Economists and behavioral scientists share an interest in behavior maintained by goods/reinforcers. What have economists discovered that behavioral scientists have yet to study (and vice-versa)? A broad overview will be provided with emphasis placed on the applied utility of behavioral-economic findings.

 
GREGORY J. MADDEN (University of Kansas)
Prof. Gregory J. Madden received his M.S. degree from the University of North Texas in 1992 and his Ph.D. degree from West Virginia University in 1995. He began his study of behavioral economics during his post-doctoral years at the University of Vermont. Dr. Madden is currently an Associate Professor in the Department of Applied Behavioral Science at the University of Kansas where his research is largely focused on the behavioral economics of addiction. Much of Dr. Madden’s research in this line has examined economic methods of quantifying reinforcer efficacy; the utility of which lies in the potential for measuring the abuse liability of therapeutic and illicit drugs. A second major focus of his research is the study of impulsive decision making. His early research conducted with Warren Bickel, Nancy Petry, and Amy Odum documented extreme impulsivity in individuals addicted to drugs. More recently his research conducted with colleagues at the University of Minnesota has revealed that impulsive decision making is predictive of cocaine self-administration in rats. His current work on the relation between impulsivity and nonhuman gambling-like behaviors is supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse. Dr. Madden is an associate editor of the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, has served on the editorial board of JEAB, TBA, and Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, and is co-editor (with Warren Bickel and Thomas Critchfield) of the forthcoming Impulsivity: Theory, Science, and Neuroscience of Discounting (APA Books).
 
 
Panel #44
CE Offered: BACB
Touch Therapy: Why Does it Work?
Saturday, May 24, 2008
2:00 PM–3:20 PM
4D
Area: DEV/CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Martha Pelaez, Ph.D.
Chair: Jacob L. Gewirtz (Florida International University)
JACOB L. GEWIRTZ (Florida International University)
PATRICE MARIE MILLER (Salem State College)
GARY D. NOVAK (California State University Stanislaus)
TIFFANY FIELD (Touch Research Institute/University of Miami, Medical School)
Abstract:

Massage Therapy is increasingly being used as a complementary/alternative therapy not only because many people with psychological and physical problems are touch-deprived but also because of its therapeutic effects. Recent research reported by Dr. Tiffany Field and others suggests that massage therapy: (1) facilitates growth and developmen (2) reduces depressive behavior and anxiety patterns and related stress hormones, (3) enhances sleep, ( 4) reduces pa, (5) reduces autoimmune disorders, and (6) enhances immune function. For example, these effects have been noted in samples of preterm neonates, depressed children and adults, chronic pain conditions such as fibromyalgia and migraine headaches, autoimmune problems including asthma and diabetes, and immune disorders including HIV and cancer. Some potential underlying mechanisms are enhanced parasympathetic activity (increased vagal tone) following massage therapy, decreased stress hormones (cortisol), and increased serotonin (the bodys natural pain killer and antidepressant), which in turn lead to increased natural killer cell activity (front line of the immune system) that wards off viral and cancer cells. In addition, cognitive performance is enhanced by massage therapy which may relate to changes noted in EEG patterns that are indicative of heightened alertness. The data will be reviewed by the panelists highlighting the role of environmental contingencies in these findings. The therapeutic effects and the potential underlying behavioral mechanisms will be discussed.

 
 
Symposium #48
CE Offered: BACB
Functional Behavior Analysis in the Clinic and School Setting
Saturday, May 24, 2008
2:30 PM–3:50 PM
Boulevard A
Area: CBM/TPC; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Halina Dziewolska (Private Practice/Behavior Analyst Online)
Discussant: Peter Sturmey (Queens College, City University of New York)
CE Instructor: Halina Dziewolska, M.Ed.
Abstract:

Functional Analysis has much to offer in clinical settings. This symposium looks at several applications of behavioral principles to those with mental health conditions.

 
Functional Analysis in Clinical Treatment: Progress, Problems and Prospects for Solutions in Psychopathology.
PETER STURMEY (Queens College, City University of New York)
Abstract: Behavior analysis has been interested in psychopathological behavior since the 1940’s. Dollard and Miller, Keller and Schoenfeld and Skinner among others translated psychoanalytic ideas into behavioral concepts and suggested that skills-building approaches and self-regulation were preferred interventions. Early empirical work focused on a variety of forms of psychopathological behavior including psychotic behavior, stuttering, behavioral issues related to developmental disabilities and gerontology. Since the 1960’s behavior analysis has developed a conceptual framework and technology of functional and descriptive analyses which is most advanced in developmental disabilities. Behavior therapy and cognitive behavior therapy have overshadowed these developments in depressed and fearful behavior. Behavior analysts are now applying this technology to a wider array of forms of psychopathological behavior, for example people with traumatic brain damage, people who gamble problematically and children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. ABA continues to have relatively little influence in the treatment of depressed and anxious behavior and behavioral interventions for some forms of psychopathology remains incomplete. Teaching clients self-regulation skills and new technologies to measure telemetrically may be ways in which ABA can begin to address some of these areas.
 
Functional Analysis of Depression in a Clinical Outpatient Setting.
CRISTAL E. WEEKS (University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee), Jonathan W. Kanter (University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee)
Abstract: This presentation will entail a conceptual evaluation of the theory and techniques of functional and descriptive analyses as implemented in a clinical outpatient setting. Specifically, the discussion will focus on assessment of clients presenting with depressive behaviors. The presentation will include a review of the difficulties inherent in utilizing client self-report to determine functional hypotheses, essential techniques for individuals who have developed a complex repertoire of verbal behavior, and the subtleties necessary for a more sophisticated population. Implications for treatment will also be discussed.
 
A Function Based Behavior Diagnostic System.
KEVEN M. SCHOCK (R Plus/Pennhurst)
Abstract: This presentation will provide an overview of a function-based diagnostic system for target behaviors and replacement behaviors. This presentation will describe the utility of this system both for new behavior analysts, in developing effective interventions and for experienced behavior analysts in dealing with difficult cases such as those frequently encountered when assisting people with problems of mental illness.
 
 
Symposium #52
CE Offered: BACB
Interval Methods for Detecting Changes in Frequency and Duration Events: What You Should Know from the Standpoint of Functional Control
Saturday, May 24, 2008
2:30 PM–3:50 PM
Stevens 1
Area: DDA/AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: John T. Rapp (St. Cloud State University)
CE Instructor: John T. Rapp, Ph.D.
Abstract:

The utility of partial-interval recording (PIR) and momentary time-sampling (MTS) for detecting changes in simulated events was evaluated using single-subject experimental designs. Colby-Dirksen et al. evaluated the extent to which various interval sizes of PIR and MTS detected the same functional control that was demonstrated with continous duration recording (CDR). Michalski et al. evaluated whether various interval sizes of PIR and MTS detected changes in various event-rates. In this sense, both Colby-Dirksen et al. and Michalski et al. evaluated the probability that interval methods produce false negatives (i.e., failed to detect effects that were evident with CDR) when evaluating the effects of independent variables. To this end, Carroll et al. evaluated the possibility that interval methods depict false positives (i.e., depict functional control that is not evident with CDR). Finally, Devine et al. evaluated the extent to which the length of observation periods influenced the sensitivity of interval methods for detecting various changes in duration events.

 
An Extensive Evaluation of Functional Control with Interval Methods I: Duration Events.
AMANDA M. COLBY (St. Cloud State University), John T. Rapp (St. Cloud State University), Ally Lindenberg (St. Cloud State University)
Abstract: The sensitivity of partial interval recording (PIR) and momentary time sampling (MTS) methods for detecting functional control was evaluated for events that occurred for 25%, 33%, 40%, 50%, 66%, and 75% of the time during 10-min sessions. Simulated data derived from continuous duration recording (CDR) were re-calculated using 10-s, 20-s, 30-s, 1-min, and 2-min intervals for PIR and MTS. Each data set was evaluated with reversal designs to determine the extent to which changes in varying durations of events were detected with each interval method. For MTS, the results showed that (a) interval sizes up to 30 s detected the small effects and (b) interval sizes up to 1 min typically detected the large effects. Conversely, for PIR only 10-s intervals detected changes in duration events and such changes that were detected only for the large effects. As a whole, the results show that the sensitivity of interval methods was influenced by both the ratio of the interresponse time to event-run within each session and the percentage of the change from A-phase to B-phase that was evaluated.
 
An Extensive Evaluation of Functional Control with Interval Methods II: Frequency Events.
DARA N. MICHALSKI (Redwood Learning Center), John T. Rapp (St. Cloud State University), Amanda M. Colby (St. Cloud State University)
Abstract: This study evaluated the accuracy of partial-interval recording (PIR) and momentary time sampling (MTS) for measuring frequency events. Sessions with simulated data for continuous frequency recording (CFR) were generated for seven event-rates and were subsequently rescored using 10 s, 20 s, 30 s, 1 min, and 2 min PIR and MTS measures. The data that were produced with each interval method were depicted in line graphs and evaluated using ABAB reversal designs. Each line graph was compared to the respective CFR line graph to determine if the interval method produced the same conclusions about functional control. The results show that PIR with interval sizes up to 1 min detected the large effects; however, only 10 s PIR reliably detected the small, the moderate, and the large effects. Conversely, each interval size of MTS was insensitive to small effects, but 10 s MTS detected over two thirds of the moderate and the large effects. The results support prior conclusions regarding the utility of 10 s PIR for evaluating the effects of independent variables on frequency events.
 
An Extensive Evaluation of Functional Control with Interval Methods III: False Positives for Duration Events.
REGINA CARROLL (St. Cloud State University), John T. Rapp (St. Cloud State University), Amanda M. Colby (St. Cloud State University), Ally Lindenberg (St. Cloud State University)
Abstract: The extent to which partial interval recording (PIR) and momentary time-sampling (MTS) methods generate false positives was evaluated for events that occurred for 25%, 33%, 40%, 50%, 66%, and 75% of the time during 10-min sessions. Simulated data that were produced in the Colby et al. (2007) study were re-evaluated in this experiment. For each targeted percentage, low, moderate, and high inter-response time to event-run ratios were compared with reversal designs to determine whether interval methods depicted functional control that was not evident with continuous duration recording. The results show that PIR with 10-s intervals generated a high percentage of false positives whereas MTS did not generated false positives with any interval size. Specifically, 10-s PIR generated false positives for each of the low to moderate, low to high, and moderate to high comparisons for events that occurred for 25%, 33%, and 40% of a session. Potential problems with using 10-s PIR to evaluate the effects of independent variables on duration events are briefly discussed.
 
Evaluating the Accuracy of Interval Recording Methods in Estimating Duration Events: Assessing the Effect of Session Length.
SHERISE LORRAINE DEVINE (St. Cloud State University/St. Amant), John T. Rapp (St. Cloud State University)
Abstract: This study extends the body of research that exists in assessing the accuracy of partial-interval recording (PIR) and momentary time sampling (MTS) in estimating duration events. Simulated data were generated to produce various absolute durations of behavior (25%, 33%, 40%, 50%, 66% and 75%) for various session lengths (10 min, 30 min, and 60 min) using an ABAB reversal designs. The average inter-response time to event-run ration was simulated to be low, medium, or high for each percentage. The generated data were scored using continuous duration recording (CDR) and then rescored using PIR MTS with intervals sizes of 10 s, 20 s, 30 s, 1 min, and 2 min. The resulting data paths for PIR and MTS were visually inspected for similarity with CDR regarding functional control. In addition, within-session patterns of events produced by PIR and MTS methods were compared to the within-session patterns of behavior produced by the CDR measure for each data set. The results provide further support for the conclusion that a number of variables influence the sensitivity of intervals methods.
 
 
Symposium #57
CE Offered: BACB
Functional Behavior Assessment in Schools: Research to Practice
Saturday, May 24, 2008
2:30 PM–3:50 PM
Williford A
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Lisa Kemmerer (University of Louisville)
CE Instructor: Cynthia M. Anderson, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Functional assessment methods have clear utility for developing efficacious interventions for problem behavior. Although most research on functional assessment has been conducted in clinical settings by researchers, a growing body of research documents (a) methods of functional assessment applicable for non-clinical settings and (b) the link between functional assessment and positive outcomes in diverse settings such as schools and the community. In this symposium we present results of recent studies focused on delineating effective strategies for conducting functional assessments in schools.

 
A Comparison of Two Methods for Collecting Descriptive Analysis Data on Problem Behavior.
MARGARET J. STROBEL (Texana), Dorothea C. Lerman (University of Houston, Clear Lake), Alyson N. Hovanetz (University of Houston, Clear Lake), Allison Serra Tetreault (West Virginia University)
Abstract: Behavioral consultants often rely on parents and teachers to collect data in classrooms, homes, and other community settings. Little research has been conducted on the accuracy of data collected by caregivers or the best way to train people to collect these data. Recording the antecedents and consequences of problem behavior (called “A-B-C recording”) can be particularly challenging, given the multiple variables that are commonly present in the natural environment. Two methods for collecting A-B-C data are commonly used by teachers. For one method, called narrative recording, the teacher writes down any potentially relevant events that occurred prior to and following the problem behavior. Although this method is useful for gathering a lot of information, it can be difficult for teachers to determine which events to record (Cooper, Heward, & Heron, 2007). To circumvent this problem, some teachers use structured A-B-C recording forms that list pre-specified antecedents and consequences in a checklist format. When a problem behavior occurs, the teacher places a checkmark next to all events that occurred prior to and following the behavior. The accuracy of data collected using either of these formats has not yet been evaluated in a systematic manner. In this study, 25 educators and educators-in-training used narrative and structured A-B-C data forms to collect data while watching videos. Participants collected data more accurately when using the structured form compared to narrative recording and indicated a preference for this method of assessment.
 
Using a Routines Analysis to Guide Descriptive Analyses.
AARON BARNES (University of Oregon), Cynthia M. Anderson (University of Oregon), Cristy Coughlin (University of Oregon), Shelley Kay Mullen (University of Oregon)
Abstract: Indirect methods of functional assessment often are conducted prior to descriptive observations. Unfortunately, results of the two assessment frequently produce conflicting results. One reason for this might be that direct observations are not conducted when relevent antecedent stimuli are present. The purpose of the present study was to evalute the contributions of a pre-observation routines analysis--as part of the indirect assessment--for identifying specific stimulus conditions underwhich descriptive analyses might produce useful information.
 
A Comparison of Functional Behavior Assessment Methodologies with Young Children: Descriptive Methods and Functional Analysis.
PETER ALTER (University of Louisville), Maureen Conroy (Virginia Commonwealth University), Rich Mancil (Virginia Commonwealth University), Todd F. Haydon (University of Florida)
Abstract: The use of functional behavior assessment (FBA) to guide the development of behavior intervention plans continues to increase since they were first mandated in IDEA 1997. A variety of indirect and direct instruments have been developed to facilitate this process. Although many researchers believe that a full functional analysis is necessary to identify behavior function, more rapid and efficient FBA procedures are used much more often. This investigation examined the validity of indirect and direct FBA procedures. Specifically, the results of three descriptive assessments and a functional analysis for four young children at risk for emotional and behavioral disorders were compared. Separation of all descriptive and experimental results was maintained and the assessment order was counterbalanced. The results of the descriptive assessments (i.e., the primary behavior function identified) had low consistency with each other, and the results of two indirect FBA assessments, (the Functional Assessment Interview and Motivation Assessment Scale) had low agreement with the results of functional analyses. On the other hand, the direct assessment procedure (ABC assessment) agreed with the results of functional analyses for all participants. These results support the use of direct observations and indicate that indirect measures should be used with caution as stand-alone assessments of the function of challenging behaviors.
 
A School-wide Intervention to Decrease Bullying.
SCOTT WARREN ROSS (University of Oregon), Robert H. Horner (University of Oregon), Bruce Stiller (N/a)
Abstract: N/a
 
 
Symposium #58
CE Offered: BACB
An Historical Analysis of Generalization, Its Impact on Skill Development Approaches and Implications for Intervention
Saturday, May 24, 2008
2:30 PM–3:50 PM
Williford B
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Kimberly P. Weber (Gonzaga University)
CE Instructor: Kim Killu, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Since the publication of the seminal article by Baer, Wolf, and Risley (1968) Some current dimensions of applied behavior analysis, issues of and strategies for generalization and maintenance have grown in importance but have yet to become standard practice. This symposium will address the status of generalized programming with in the field of ABA, the status of generalization and maintenance within instructional programming for student with disabilities, and implications of omitting generalized outcomes for effective programming.

 
Reviewing Generalization Practices In JABA: Have We Listened To Baer, Wolf & Risley?
KIMBERLY P. WEBER (Gonzaga University), Kim Killu (University of Michigan, Dearborn)
Abstract: With a field that has the technology to promote the generalization and maintenance of behavior change, it is imperative that behavior analysts utilize the resources available to preserve the very skills that they strive to teach and train. However, it appears as if most empirical investigations fail to fully address generalization and maintenance strategies. An examination of published articles in JABA from the past decade were used to evaluate data and procedures for determining whether generalization strategies were addressed.
 
Programming for Generalized Skill Development for Individuals with Disabilities: An Examination of the Literature.
KIM KILLU (University of Michigan, Dearborn), Kimberly P. Weber (Gonzaga University)
Abstract: Generalization is a key component for the development of practical skills for individuals with disabilities. This evaluation examined published articles that addressed skill development in individuals with disabilities to 1) determine if articles that focused on skill acquisition addressed generalization and maintenance, 2) determine the extent to which these articles focused on generalization and maintenance strategies as compared to the strategies and tactics available for such training, and 3) determine whether the article measured the effects of strategies in regards to generalization and maintenance. Results are discussed along with implications for the effectiveness of intervention and the viability of the field.
 
Generalization Of Purchasing Skills To Teenagers With Developmental Disabilities.
SHANNON HAYTER (Gonzaga University), Kimberly P. Weber (Gonzaga University), Carol M. Antcliff (Gonzaga University), Thomas Ford McLaughlin (Gonzaga University)
Abstract: Xin, Grasso, Dipipi-Hoy, and Jitendra (2005), found that purchasing skills require high demands of basic academic skills. Teaching the skills effectively arranges training in a comprehensive format, facilitating acquisition, retention, and generalization of new learning efficiently (Stein, Silbert, & Carnine, 1997). Throughout teaching, Stokes and Baer (1977) recommended that experimenters should act as if generalization never ‘naturally’ happens, but always requires programming. In reaction to these findings, this study evaluated teaching teenagers with developmental disabilities the dollar-up strategy after teaching two pre-skills: rote and rational counting. Further, generalization of the dollar-up strategy was assessed throughout all phases of the study to find when the skill would transition to occur naturally. The proposed framework suggests that the ability to purchase items in the community will occur naturally when planning for generalization is implemented with fidelity. The implications of this study will be discussed including the findings of non-overlapping data.
 
The Implications Of Our Failure To Address Generalization From Standard Practice.
KIM KILLU (University of Michigan, Dearborn), Kimberly P. Weber (Gonzaga University)
Abstract: Despite a technology of teaching and training for generalization, a lack of policy exists to promote generalized outcomes for instructional and behavioral programming. This paper examined the states adherence to effective components in program development in regards to behavior intervention plans including the assessment process and implications for effective intervention. Reasons for the omission of generalized programming and interventions planning will be discussed along with the implications for effectiveness of treatment and the utility of ABA in practice.
 
 
Invited Tutorial #63
CE Offered: BACB
Tutorial: Drugs as Behavior-Analysis Tools
Saturday, May 24, 2008
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
Grand Ballroom
Area: BPH/EAB; Domain: Basic Research
BACB CE Offered. CE Instructor: Marc N. Branch, Ph.D.
Chair: Jesse Dallery (University of Florida)
Presenting Authors: : MARC N. BRANCH (University of Florida)
Abstract:

It is sometimes not appreciated that research in behavioral pharmacology can have, and has had, implications for the experimental analysis of behavior, especially its conceptualizations and theory. In this presentation, I outline three general strategies in behavioral pharmacology research that have been employed to increase understanding of behavioral processes. Examples are provided of the general characteristics of the strategies and of implications of previous research for behavior theory. Behavior analysis will advance as its theories are challenged, and behavioral pharmacology is one source of such challenges.

 
MARC N. BRANCH (University of Florida)
Prof. Marc N. Branch, after growing up in a small Western town, obtained an undergraduate degree in Psychology from Stanford University, where interactions with Walter Mischel, Albert Bandura, and Gordon Bower influenced him to pursue graduate study. He began at Arizona State University, then known as “Fort Skinner in the Desert,” and his interests quickly veered toward the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, with important mentors like Fred Hegge, Peter Killeen, John Falk, and then-senior-graduate-student, Richard Shull. With that fortunate background, he next moved to the University of Maryland, where he studied with Lewis Gollub, Skinner’s last official Ph.D. student. There, under Gollub’s guidance, he expanded his interests to Behavioral Pharmacology. After receiving his Ph.D. degree, Branch spent a useful post-doctoral year at the Worcester Foundation for Experimental Biology, where he was mentored by James McKearney. After that year, he joined the faculty at the University of Florida, where he has remained since, rising to the rank of Professor, and having served a term as Chairman of the Department. At Florida his being mentored has continued to this day, with colleagues like Ed Malagodi, Brian Iwata, Hank Pennypacker, Jim Johnston, Tim Hackenberg, Tim Vollmer, Jesse Dallery, and Clive Wynne enriching his academic and research life. Branch’s academic life history shows he is a lucky guy.
 
 
Special Event #64
CE Offered: BACB
SQAB Tutorial: Facts and Theories in Decision Making: Sturnus vulgaris Vs. Benjamin Franklin
Saturday, May 24, 2008
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
Stevens 5
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
BACB CE Offered. CE Instructor: Alex Kacelnik, Ph.D.
Chair: John E. R. Staddon (Duke University)
Presenting Authors: : ALEX KACELNIK (Oxford University)
Abstract:

Understanding decision-making involves many disciplines, including Evolutionary Biology, Economics, Psychology and Quantitative Behavioural Analysis. In this tutorial I review recent experiments on choice between different combinations of amount and delay to food that used starlings as experimental animals. The results are contrasted with predictions from theoretical models originating in these disciplines (including those advocated by B. Franklin). I show that while ome models are better at data fitting they can be weaker in other respects. My overall message is that the worth of theoretical models is not identical to their predictive performance (how well they fit the data): Theories and models are validated by the accuracy of their predictions but should be judged by many additional criteria, including their value to guide research, and to place observations within broader fields of knowledge.

 
ALEX KACELNIK (Oxford University)
Dr. Alex Kacelnik was born and grew up in Buenos Aires, Argentina. After graduating in Biological Sciences he moved to Oxford where he completed his doctorate studying optimality models of decision-making in birds. As is often the case, topics addressed during his doctorate continued to interest him to this day. In particular, his early research dealt with the trade-off between maximising immediate gains and acquiring information that could lead to greater longer-term benefits (the conflict between exploration and exploitation). In later work he addressed other decision systems, such as the conflict faced by parent birds between feeding their offspring or themselves, the preference for certainty versus risk, or preference between larger, more delayed rewards against smaller, more immediate ones. Alex also works on animal cognition, including research on interval timing, on the notion of rationality, on state-dependent learning, and on tool use by New Caledonian crows. He has published over 130 scientific papers, was co-editor of Volume VI (Foraging) of the Quantitative Analyses of Behavior series, and has supervised over 30 PhD dissertations and 15 postdoctoral researchers. Alex’s work typically treats biologically inspired problems combining behavioural analysis with evolutionary and economic theory, and blending theoretical with experimental research.
 
 
Invited Paper Session #65
CE Offered: BACB

Meaningful Change at the Cultural Level: Behavioral Systems Revisited

Saturday, May 24, 2008
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
International North
Area: OBM; Domain: Theory
CE Instructor: William K. Redmon, Ph.D.
Chair: Timothy D. Ludwig (Appalachian State University)
WILLIAM K. REDMON (Bechtel Group, Inc.)
Dr. William K. Redmon joined Bechtel in 2001 as Manager of Leadership and Development. In this role, he creates and manages processes and programs for finding, developing and managing talent. He also manages executive coaching and development programs and oversees the corporate learning and training department, including Bechtel’s internal university. Bill also manages Bechtel’s performance management programs which center on goal-based performance plans linked to short-term and long-term compensation plans. Prior to joining Bechtel, Bill consulted with numerous organizations in the private and public sectors to help refine their strategy and business plans and to develop supporting performance systems. He has consulted with manufacturing, retail, and service businesses to design and implement innovative methods in change leadership, quality control, performance management, and talent management. Early in his career, Bill was a professor of industrial/organizational psychology and designed and taught graduate courses in behavioral systems analysis, organizational change, metrics, and strategic planning. He is the author of numerous published papers on performance management and organizational change and co-editor of a recent graduate training text entitled Handbook of Organizational Performance: Behavior Analysis and Management. He has served as a regular presenter in the Harvard University John F. Kennedy School series on Innovation and Creativity. He is a member of the editorial board of the Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, a licensed psychologist, and a Fellow of the American Psychological Association (Division 25). Bill graduated from Western Michigan University with Ph.D. in Applied Behavior Analysis (Behavioral Psychology) in 1981.
Abstract:

During the past 40 years, behavioral systems analysts (e.g., Tom Gilbert, Dale Brethower, Geary Rummler) developed models of organizations that help us understand behavior in context and suggested that behavioral interventions are far more powerful when the total system is considered as a backdrop for individual performance. Unfortunately, most applications at the systems level are described in terms of metaphors or principles, rather than practical, replicable approaches. Few lasting, large-scale applications of behavioral technology in working organizations have been implemented under realistic circumstances. Most published accounts of behavior change in organizations focus on a limited environment (e.g., one department or unit) and are driven by researchers or consultants who implement contrived circumstances to incubate and sustain the changes. This is no sin: many of these approaches have led to powerful changes and improved bottomline results. However, they often fall short of documenting reliable ways of changing the behaviors of hundreds or thousands of people--behavior analysis and change on a scope and scale that has the potential to move entire organizational cultures. This presentation will provide an example of large-scale, long-term behavioral intervention in a Fortune 100 business at the cultural level and describe how behavior analytic methods were used to functionally embed new practices that have been sustained over a period of 8 years with the promise of continuing indefinitely (i.e., becoming a way of life for leaders throughout the company). The approach and results will be discussed in terms of a whole-system application with reference to early work of behavioral systems analysts. The intervention involved teaching leaders (including the CEO and 20 top level executives) applied behavior analysis and supporting their use of the skills with extensive coaching and feedback. The model was subsequently extended to the 200 most senior leaders (Phase II) and then to another 700 general managers (Phase III). Plans call for training and coaching more than 2,000 managers and supervisors over the coming year to complete skill development (phase IV). To embed these practices in the ongoing culture, each leader receives a leadership scorecard (ratings and comments) from his/her direct reports every 6 months and completes an upward feedback dialogue session where the direct reports describe what they see as more effective practices (to be...

 
 
Symposium #67
CE Offered: BACB
Translational Research on Economic, Choice and Cost Variables Across Multiple Applied Contexts
Saturday, May 24, 2008
3:00 PM–4:20 PM
Chicago & Alton
Area: EAB/CBM; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Iser Guillermo DeLeon (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
CE Instructor: Iser Guillermo DeLeon, Ph.D.
Abstract:

The studies collected in this symposium examine a variety of quantitative variables, based on principles of behavioral economics and the matching equation, as they apply to the behavior of individuals in applied contexts. The general emphasis is on how choice responding is influenced by basic process through manipulations of unit price, opportunity costs, schedule-correlated stimuli, and the like. The impact of these variables is examined across an array of applied contexts that includes educational settings, clinical settings for individuals with developmental disabilities, and in the treatment of substance abuse. Collectively, the studies exemplify how findings imported from basic behavioral science can be brought to bear on clinically relevant behavior in these contexts.

 
Assessing Sensitivity to Changes in Unit Price.
FRANCES A. PERRIN (Bancroft NeuroHealth), Patrick R. Progar (Caldwell College), Ralph Spiga (Temple University)
Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to compare the effect of changes in the unit price of edible items as a function of both magnitude and distance from the participant. Unit price refers to the cost or the price of an item based on the unit of issue. Unit prices are ubiquitous in grocery stores and function as an important source of information to consumers. For example, while a larger amount of something (e.g., coffee) is more expensive in absolute terms than a smaller amount of the same item, the larger value may cost less per ounce and hence it’s unit price would be less, thereby representing a better value. The participants were 4 adolescents diagnosed with developmental disabilities residing in a neurobehavioral unit. Highly preferred edible items were identified through a series of multiple stimulus with replacement preference assessments. The item identified as most preferred was used in the present study. Sensitivity to unit price was manipulated by providing two choices concurrently that differed in the distance from the participant and the magnitude of the reinforcer (e.g., 2 Fritos @ 18 in vs 1 @ 3 in). The results indicated that some of the participants appeared sensitive to changes in unit price. However, one participant appeared insensitive to unit price, but rather seemed to make choices based on minimizing response effort. Future research should examine whether one dimension consistently overshadows the other dimension. For example, magnitude of reinforcement may overshadow proximity of reinforcement for some individuals, even when the more proximate item is a better value.
 
Demand Curves for Common Reinforcers Vary with the Functional Similarity of Concurrently Available Alternatives.
MELISSA J. ALLMAN (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Iser Guillermo DeLeon (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Michelle A. Frank-Crawford Crawford (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Meagan Gregory (University of Florida), Mandy M. Triggs (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Abbey Carreau (Kennedy Krieger Institutue)
Abstract: Demand and work functions for concurrently available stimuli were examined in 5 individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities under two conditions: when the two stimuli were functionally similar (e.g., two food items) and when they were functionally dissimilar (e.g., food and a toy). Choices between stimuli were first assessed under concurrent FR 1 FR 1 schedules and then under schedule arrangements in which the response requirements were held constant for one stimulus but increased across phases for the other stimulus (e.g., Conc FR1 FR2, Conc FR1 FR5, etc.). Results suggested that when a similar reinforcer was concurrently available, consumption of the reinforcer associated with the increasing cost declined more rapidly than it did when a dissimilar reinforcer was concurrently available. These results concur with behavioral economic research suggesting that demand for a commodity is more elastic when available alternatives provide a similar form of stimulation (i.e., are more substitutable). The results are discussed in terms of their implications for the selective use of reinforcers in training or treatment procedures for individuals with developmental disabilities.
 
Evaluating Pharmacological and Behavioral Interventions: A Behavioral Economic Approach.
RALPH SPIGA (Temple University), Amy Wells (Temple University), Deborah Anne Haas (Headsprout)
Abstract: This presentation describes research applying behavioral economic principles, exponential demand analysis, to assessing efficacy of psychosocial interventions. Nicotine dependent smokers were assigned randomly to groups reimbursed with differing monetary amounts for CO < 15 ppm. The monetary values were treated as opportunity costs. An opportunity cost is the value of the next best alternative, e.g. smoking vs monetary payment for abstinence. In one study pregnant nicotine dependent smokers were assigned randomly to contingency management and a psychosocial interventions or contingency management alone. In another, nicotine dependent smokers were assigned to nicotine gum, nicotine gum and psychosocial interventions and a psychosocial intervention. Exponential demand curves demonstrated that psychosocial treatments interacted at the highest opportunity costs. Discussion extends these principle and procedures to other applied settings and illustrates their application by reference to case studies. The PA Department of Health supported this research.
 
Schedule vs. Stimulus Control over Biased Responding to Difficult Academic Tasks.
BRIAN K. MARTENS (Syracuse University), Derek D. Reed (Syracuse University)
Abstract: A constant preference for one alternative over another not accounted for by reinforcement is generally referred to as “biased” responding. We produced biased responding in three children’s problem completion rates by increasing the difficulty of math problems required to earn reinforcement at one of two workstations. At both workstations, points exchangeable for rewards were delivered for correct problem completion according to signaled variable-interval schedules. Because reinforcer delivery at each workstation was signaled, we were able to evaluate degree of schedule versus stimulus control over responding by computing discrimination indices. When problem difficulty was equal, relative rates of problem completion appeared to be schedule controlled with discrimination indices near .50 or below. When problem difficulty was unequal, all three participants showed a bias away from the more difficult workstation. This bias was associated with discrimination indices approaching 1.0 at the more difficult workstation as responding came under control of the schedule-correlated discriminative stimulus (i.e., participants completed problems at this workstation only when reinforcement was signaled). These results lend further evidence that response effort contributes to deviations from matching in applied settings, and suggest that increases in response effort may lead to discriminated responding at the more effortful alternative.
 
 
Panel #69
CE Offered: BACB
Vulnerability and Bias in BCBA's and Parents' Choices of Autism Treatments
Saturday, May 24, 2008
3:30 PM–4:50 PM
International South
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Kimberly A. Schreck, Ph.D.
Chair: Kimberly A. Schreck (Pennsylvania State University, Harrisburg)
RICHARD M. FOXX (Pennsylvania State University)
JAMES A. MULICK (The Ohio State University)
ERIC BUTTER (Columbus Children's Hospital & The Ohio State University)
KIMBERLY A. SCHRECK (Pennsylvania State University, Harrisburg)
Abstract:

With the increasing number of children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder, parents have been struggling to find treatments to help their children. In response to this need, a proliferation of professionals (e.g., Occupational Therapists, Speech Therapists, Educators, Board Certified Behavior Analysts, etc.) with a wide variety of experiences has hastened to provide treatments for this population. However, not all have been reportedly recommending and providing scientifically supported ABA services and many have been providing fad treatment Of special concern is when BCBAs knowingly or unknowingly endorse or recommend fad treatments. This panel discusses parental responses to treatment recommendations, Board Certified Behavior Analysts uses ABA and fad treatments, the ethical responsibilities of behavior analysts, and ways of ensuring that fad treatments are not recommended or endorsed.

 
 
Symposium #70
CE Offered: BACB
Analyses of Verbal Operants: From Assessing Behavior to Producing Novel Repertoires
Saturday, May 24, 2008
3:30 PM–4:50 PM
Continental C
Area: AUT/VRB; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Caio F. Miguel (California State University, Sacramento)
CE Instructor: Caio F. Miguel, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Skinners (1957) functional analysis of verbal behavior has garnered more attention in recent years than it did when it was first published. One variable responsible for this has been the success of behavior analysis in teaching children with verbal deficits. There has been much interest in identifying critical variables for teaching communicative responding and validating teaching techniques. Skinners analysis of verbal behavior has been useful to clinicians for functionally categorizing verbal operants but there has not been enough systematic research of verbal behavior in applied and natural settings. This symposium will discuss several studies of verbal behavior conducted in educational environments. The first paper compares the effects of textual and echoic prompting for teaching intraverbal responses. The second paper examines the role of problem solving in complex intraverbal repertoires. The third paper presents a procedure for functionally assessing established vocal-verbal behavior. The final paper examines prompted and pure mands following mand training.

 
A Comparison of Echoic and Textual Prompts for Teaching Intraverbal Behavior.
LYNN KEENAN (The New England Center for Children), William H. Ahearn (The New England Center for Children), Caio F. Miguel (California State University, Sacramento)
Abstract: A comparison of echoic and textual prompts on the acquisition of intraverbal behavior was assessed for three children with autism. Each child was taught to answer 12 social questions using either a textual or echoic prompt procedure. Using a multiple probe design for all participants, the study measured (a) the number of trials to criterion during acquisition, (b) the number of correct full sentence answers to target questions during probe sessions, and (c) the number of correct partial answers to target questions during test probe sessions. The effects of the prompting procedures were assessed across acquisition; post- training, generalization and a 3-week follow up phase. IOA was collected across 43.6% of probe sessions and 33.4% of training sessions and was above 83% for all sessions (83.3-100%). Across all participants, echoic prompts were found to be more effective than textual prompts to teach intraverbal behavior. For two of the participants, acquisition of the target response was faster when the response was prompted with an echoic prompt. For the third participant, no difference was found for acquisition of the response, but the response occurred more reliably during probes following acquisition for questions taught with echoic prompts.
 
The Role of Problem-Solving in Complex Intraverbal Repertoires.
RACHAEL A. SAUTTER (Western Michigan University), Linda A. LeBlanc (Western Michigan University), Allison A. Jay (Western Michigan University), Tina R. Goldsmith (Western Michigan University), James E. Carr (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Skinner described intraverbal behavior as verbal behavior with no point-to-point correspondence. This operant encompasses a wide range of response topographies ranging from answering simple questions to complex conversational exchanges. Previous interventions for teaching responding to questions about category membership have focused on transfer of stimulus control procedures to teach specific responses. These procedures have proven effective at establishing basic responses but have consistently produced small and restricted repertoires. Theoreticians have hypothesized that effective use of problem-solving strategies rather than simple stimulus control may account for the performance of individuals with advanced intraverbal repertoires. The current study examined the use of a mediating strategy involving rule statements and self-prompting in the context of intraverbal categorization with four typically developing preschool children. Results showed that training alone did not produce significant increases in target responses for any participant with any category. Results also showed all participants mastered complex rule statements for self-prompting and applied these rules to the relevant category. None of the participants applied the strategy until they observed a model and were prompted to “use the rules.” Following the model and prompts, all participants showed immediate and significant increases in target responding and all prompts were quickly decreased to zero.
 
Assessing the Functions of Vocalizations in Children with Limited Vocal-Verbal Repertoires.
DANIELLE LISE LAFRANCE (Florida Institute of Technology), James L. Squires (Florida Institute of Technology), David A. Wilder (Florida Institute of Technology), Matthew P. Normand (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: The current study examined the effectiveness of a newly developed methodology for assessing the functions of emergent vocal-verbal behavior in children with developmental disabilities (Lerman et al., 2005). The purpose of the assessment was to determine the function(s) of specific verbal topographies according to Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior. Results indicated that for most participants, targeted vocal utterances functioned as either mands, tacts, or both. The reliability of this assessment was first verified through replication (Experiment 1). Participants consisted of two children with developmental disabilities, between the ages of 2 and 10, with very limited vocal-verbal repertoires, exhibiting at least two clearly emitted vocalizations. However, attempts at replication were only moderately successful as additional manipulations became necessary to occasion responding with two of three participants. Experiment 2 aimed to address some of the limitations of Experiment 1. Results obtained in Experiment 2 suggested that participants’ targeted vocalizations served as tacts, echoics, or both. Results are discussed in terms of the utility of this methodology for the selection and development of effective language interventions as well as implications for our current knowledge of verbal behavior and teaching technology.
 
Effects of Chain Schedules of Reinforcement and Fluency Training on Frequency of Pure Mands.
FERNANDO GUERRERO (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Jonathan J. Tarbox (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Abstract: Modern behavior analytic interventions (e.g., incidental teaching, pivotal response training, natural environment language training, behavior chain interruption strategy) have demonstrated higher levels of generalization and spontaneity than interventions exclusively based on discrete trial training. Nevertheless, opportunities to respond and the consequences for responding are frequently presented by the therapist, possibly preventing spontaneity and reducing the possibility of generalizing to natural settings. Chain schedules of reinforcement and fluency training have been effective in teaching unprompted sequences of behaviors and might promote spontaneous use communicative initiations. A preference assessment was conducted with three children diagnosed with autism displaying low rates of pure manding. Frequency of no-verbally prompted mands and pure mands for the preferred items and activities (e.g., pointing, emitting particular sounds words or phrases) were obtained during play activities with parents, peers, therapists, and during regular therapy. Mands were initially trained using traditional behavior analytic procedures (e.g., manipulation of motivational operations, enticement). If these procedures were not effective chain schedules of reinforcement and precision teaching were included. Effects of the intervention on the frequency of pure mands across different settings are discussed
 
 
Symposium #72
CE Offered: BACB
International Symposium - Intensive Early Intervention: Organizational Design, Evaluation and Management of Comprehensive Systems in Diverse International Locations
Saturday, May 24, 2008
3:30 PM–4:50 PM
Continental B
Area: AUT/OBM; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Eric V. Larsson (Lovaas Institute Midwest)
CE Instructor: Eric V. Larsson, Ph.D.
Abstract:

The applied behavior analysis of Intensive Early Intervention for children with autism is conducted at many different levels of resolution. All levels of ABA are necessary to effectively manage the best possible outcomes for the greatest number of children. In order to build a sustainable program, numerous issues in accountability and management must be addressed. This symposium will present the results of four different organized systems for delivering and managing treatment efficacy. The management procedures of the organizations will include the molecular levels of ABA (single-subject analyses of all facets of treatment; component and package analyses of all facets of treatment; analysis of maintenance of treatment effects; analysis of the limits of generality of the treatment); the intermediate analysis of staff training, parent training, consumer responsiveness, and the organizational management necessary to sustain the treatment; and long-term traditional epidemiological analyses of consumer validity, cost-effectiveness and social validity to provide overall guidance to organizational design. Cultural and language issues will also be addressed. Current results of these organized systems will be presented.

 
St. Amant Applied Behavior Analysis Program: Publicly-Funded Centralized Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention.
DANIELA FAZZIO (University of Manitoba & St. Amant Research Centre), Angela Cornick (St. Amant Research Centre)
Abstract: The St. Amant ABA Program Preschool Services has operated since September 2002, serving 58 children in a home-based model (36 weekly hours, one-to-one, 3 years) funded by the Province of Manitoba to eligible children (diagnosis of Autism, Autism Spectrum Disorder, Asperger’s Syndrome, and PDD-NOS, under 5-years-old at intake, resident of Manitoba). Transition to group settings with program staff is planned based on client characteristics and school entry approach. The Program adopted the ABLLS® as a curriculum guide and evaluates group outcomes yearly (normative and criterion assessments of development, language, cognitive, adaptive skills and challenging behaviors, discrimination abilities, autism characteristics, and ABLLS skill acquisition.) Treatment is based on ABA principles and procedures with emphasis on discrete- trials teaching, is designed and supervised by ABA consultants (caseloads of 8) with graduate training in behavior analysis. Procedures are individualized, based on a standard package for skill acquisition and functional assessment and communication training for behavior problem reduction. Senior yutors (caseload of 4 clients) assist in training and supervision of tutors (caseloads of 2 clients) and parents, data collection (trial-by-trial) and summary. Overall supervision is provided by BCBA and licensed psychologist.
 
Meeting the Challenge of Organizational Development in Diverse Language and Cultural Contexts in Spain.
VICTOR RODRIGUEZ GARCIA (Fundacion Planeta Imaginario), Melissa J. Gard (Lovaas Institute Midwest)
Abstract: One of the challenges in replicating Lovaas’ 1987 outcome study is to translate the methods and evaluation procedures into other languages. This presentation will describe the organization and results of a privately-funded clinical intervention program in Catalonia, Spain, where there are actually two very different languages in predominance. This organization has been in the process of development for 14 years, and has met several challenges required to translate social and language norms, methods, and measurements into these other languages and cultures. In addition, the need for developing a comprehensive organization, in the face of little to no formal funding have also been addressed. Critical demands for treatment integrity will be reviewed, as well as systems that are being developed to meet these demands. The overall organizational design will be presented, as well as direct clinical data on short-term gains made by children in the program. The presentation will conclude with a focus on the directions of further development.
 
From Zero to 300: Development of a Comprehensive Preschool Intervention Program from “Scratch” in the Province of New Brunswick.
PAUL M. MCDONNELL (University of New Brunswick), Barbara D’Entremont (University of New Brunswick), Amanda Morgan (University of New Brunswick)
Abstract: This presentation describes the establishment of a preschool intervention in a largely rural Canadian province. When the initiative first began, there were virtually no services and no trained therapists or Clinical Supervisors anywhere within the province. After four years, there are now more than 300 trained therapists working throughout the province. The process of how supervisors and therapists were trained and how services were delivered on a province-wide basis is discussed. Special challenges included delivery of services in New Brunswick’s two official languages (French and English), delivery of services to First Nations children, and delivery of services to rural settings. Furthermore, a sample of outcomes from our first year of the province wide intervention is described. These data allow for the comparison of children in day care settings receiving eclectic programs with children in intensive behavior intervention. Finally, current initiatives to extend intervention services to school-aged children are examined.
 
Organization and Evaluation of a Responsive, Quality-Focused System for the Delivery of Intensive Early Intervention.
ERIC V. LARSSON (Lovaas Institute Midwest), Kara L. Riedesel (Lovaas Institute Midwest)
Abstract: The need for responsible accountability to consumer and stakeholder interests is paramount in the design of a sustainable intensive early intervention effort. This presentation will report the results of 13 years of effort in designing a comprehensive clinical management system for intensive early intervention. Given the authors’ direct participation in long-term early intervention research over a period of 25 years, the presentation will review the major challenges to treatment integrity and the management and evaluation systems put in place to address these challenges. The critical needs for organizational management and the methods and results of the organizational system across 238 children will be presented. The presentation will summarize the integration of single-subject analyses of the treatment of individual children, with the clinical system, which is designed to ensure the highest rate of best outcomes. The comprehensive clinical management system will be presented as it is designed to assure both consumers and stakeholders that the optimum services are being delivered to each child, and that the organizational capacity is being developed to increase the number of children who are effectively served. The current results will be described as will recommendations for standard accountability procedures for early intervention.
 
 
Symposium #73
CE Offered: BACB
The Educational Gap: One Bridge Built
Saturday, May 24, 2008
3:30 PM–4:50 PM
4D
Area: DEV/EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: R. Douglas Greer (Columbia University Teachers College)
CE Instructor: R. Douglas Greer, Ph.D.
Abstract:

We present four papers describing publicly-funded regular education classes based entirely on teaching as applied behavior analysis for grades 1, 2 and 3 (CABAS Accelerated Independent Learner Model for regular education). We identify the components of the model and the outcomes according to standardized tests and direct measures of achievement of educational standards. Paper 1 describes the outcomes for children in the class that has received the model for 2 years (mean grade equivalent 4.43, 84th percentile nationally). The outcomes for this class are presented by percentage of students in the class according to demographics: 23% English as second language (performed 3 years above grade level), 23% autism diagnoses (grade level to 2 years above grade level), 35% minorities (4 years above grade level), free lunch 42% (4 years above grade level), and 23% middle and upper middle class with none of the other demographic classifications (6 years above grade level). The second and third papers catalogue the tactics and curricula, verbal developmental interventions for different grade levels. The fourth paper catalogues components that resulted in academically successful inclusion for children with autism.

 
Post Second Grade Outcomes of the CABAS® Accelerated Independent Learner Model.
R. DOUGLAS GREER (Columbia University Teachers College), Denise O'Sullivan (Columbia University Teachers College)
Abstract: We present the grade equivalences and national percentiles of the Terra Nova Achievement Test scores for 2nd grade students in a regular education Accelerated Independent Learner class. The class as a whole performed at the 4th grade level. Inclusion students with autism performed at the third grade level, English as second language students performed at the 5th grade, low SES students and ethnic students performed at the 6th grade level, and upper middle class students performed at the 8th grade level. We also present the students’ mastery of educational standards, acquisition of naming as a developmental cusp, observational learning capabilities, and the numbers of learn units.
 
Tactics, Developmental Protocols and Curricula Used in the First and Second Grade Class.
KARLA WEIGAND (Columbia University Teachers College), Darcy M. Walsh (Columbia University Teachers College), Joan A. Broto (Columbia University Teachers College), Mika Fas (Columbia University Teachers College), Elisabeth L. Kracher (Columbia University Teachers College)
Abstract: We describe the research-based tactics used in the first and second grades according to the most common tactics and the tactics used for learning problems by various children. We also describe the functional curricular components and the structural components built around international educational standards. Finally we describe the developmental protocols used to induce new learning and verbal capabilities that allowed the children to learn what they could not before and how to learn in ways they could not before.
 
Continuing to Accelerate Independent Learning in the Third Grade.
KIMBERLY M. LAKE (Columbia University Teachers College), Marisa Savard (Columbia University Teachers College), Anusha Subramanyam (Columbia University Teachers College)
Abstract: We describe the tactics, verbal development protocols, and curricula that were used as we continued the children in the third grade. In this year we emphasize writing and learning by exposure building on the students' naming capabilities.
 
The Identification of Components of Successful Inclusion for Children with Autism.
JANET C. SOLORZANO-CORREIA (Columbia University Teachers College), Karla A. Mondello (Columbia University Teachers College)
Abstract: We shall describe the verbal developmental capabilities, observational learning capabilities, and academic prerequisites that were associated with the successful inclusion of the students with autism in the Accelerated Independent Learner classroom. The children were prepared for the inclusion class by receiving instruction in a CABAS self-contained class for one or more years (i.e., preschool and kindergarten). Some developmental capabilities were induced prior to inclusion while some were done during inclusion. All of the children had strong reading, math, or reading and math that they were taught prior to their inclusion. The effectiveness of scientific protocols to induce certain verbal developmental capabilities appears to predict some aspects of effective inclusion.
 
 
Symposium #75
CE Offered: BACB
Assessing and Teaching Verbal Behavior in Children with Developmental Disabilities
Saturday, May 24, 2008
3:30 PM–4:50 PM
Stevens 4
Area: VRB/DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Gracie Allen Beavers (Florida Institute of Technology)
Discussant: Ernest A. Vargas (B. F. Skinner Foundation)
CE Instructor: Matthew P. Normand, Ph.D.
Abstract:

The papers in this symposium will describe methods of assessing and teaching verbal operants to children with developmental disabilities.

 
A Functional Analysis of Non-Vocal Verbal Behavior of a Young Child with Autism.
GRACIE ALLEN BEAVERS (Florida Institute of Technology), Matthew P. Normand (University of the Pacific), Erica Severtson (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: The functions of an American Sign Language response were experimentally evaluated with a young boy diagnosed with autism. A functional analysis procedure based on that reported by Lerman et al. (2005) was used to evaluate whether the target sign response would occur under mand, tact, mimetic, or control conditions. The target sign was observed most often in the mand and mimetic test conditions, very seldom in the tact test condition, and never in the control condition. These results support those reported by Lerman et al. and extend previous research by evaluating a non-vocal verbal response using a brief multielement arrangement with a single control condition. The implications for language assessment and suggestions for future research are discussed.
 
A Functional Analysis of Verbal Behavior in Children with Developmental Disabilities.
ERICA SEVERTSON (Florida Institute of Technology), Matthew P. Normand (University of the Pacific), Gracie Allen Beavers (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: Two verbal operants (a mand and a tact) were taught to two young children with a developmental disability. The operants were taught systematically by providing a reinforcer contingent on correct responding. These operants were then assessed using a functional analysis similar to that of Lerman et al. (2005). Data yielded results affirming the validity of this assessment tool for identifying the function of language.
 
A Comparison of Tact and Echoic Prompts on the Acquisition of Intraverbal Behavior in Children Diagnosed with Autism.
CRYSTAL N. BOWEN (The Marcus Institute), Alice Shillingsburg (The Marcus Institute and Emory University School of Medicine)
Abstract: Children with autism often have significant communication delays. In fact, functional language does not develop for close to 50% of children with autism (Graziano, 2002). Although numerous studies have investigated acquisition of mand and tact repertoires, relatively little research has investigated intraverbal behavior (Sautter & LeBlanc, 2006). Intraverbal behavior may include answering “Wh” questions, filling in items in a list, or having a reciprocal conversation. Past studies have shown that tact (i.e., visual) prompts (Luciano, 1986; Miguel, Petursdottir, & Carr, 2005), textual prompts (Braam & Poling, 1983), and echoic prompts (Sundberg et al., 1990; Watkins et al., 1989) result in acquisition of intraverbal behavior. One study has directly compared teaching strategies to determine which is most effective for acquisition of intraverbal behavior (Finkel & Williams, 2001). The purpose of the present study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of tact prompts, echoic prompts, and a combination of the two for teaching intraverbal behavior to three children diagnosed with autism. A multiple baseline design across targets was used to demonstrate experimental control. A trials-to-criterion design was used to compare acquisition across prompt methods. Results were idiosyncratic and suggest the need to investigate effective prompt methods during intraverbal programming on an individual basis.
 
 
Panel #80
CE Offered: BACB
Living with the BACB Guidelines for Responsible Professional Conduct: How to Handle Everyday Ethical Challenges
Saturday, May 24, 2008
4:00 PM–4:50 PM
Stevens 1
Area: DDA/AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: James M. Johnston, Ph.D.
Chair: James M. Johnston (Auburn University)
JON S. BAILEY (Florida State University, BMC, FABA)
GINA GREEN (San Diego State University)
JOSE A. MARTINEZ-DIAZ (Florida Institute of Technology and ABA Tech.)
BRIDGET A. TAYLOR (Alpine Learning Group)
Abstract:

The BACB Guidelines for Responsible Professional Conduct by Behavior Analysts represent a comprehensive and high set of ethical standards for practitioners. Many professionals encounter ethical conflicts in their efforts to abide by these guidelines or are at least familiar with such conflicts in the actions of others. Panel members will discuss challenging ethical situations they have dealt with and discuss situations posed by members of the audience.

 
 
Special Event #81
CE Offered: BACB
SQAB Tutorial: Mining Wolframs A New Kind of Science
Saturday, May 24, 2008
4:00 PM–4:50 PM
Stevens 5
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
BACB CE Offered. CE Instructor: Jack J. McDowell, Ph.D.
Chair: M. Jackson Marr (Georgia Tech)
Presenting Authors: : JACK J. MCDOWELL (Emory University)
Abstract:

Stephen Wolframs massive self-published tome, A new kind of science, has been criticized by various reviewers as overwrought, repetitive, egocentric, insufficiently documented, megalomaniacal, too Mathematica-focused, nothing new, self-indulgent, the raving of a crackpot, and false. Whether or not one wishes to believe Wolframs occasional extravagant claims, such as that continuity and motion in the physical world are illusions, or that the universe is a simple computer program, his manic but endlessly fascinating 6 lb behemoth of a book is a treasure trove of mathematical and computational ideas and techniques that is well worth mining for its possible relevance to problems in quantitative behavior analysis. Wolframs point of departure is that complex behavior can be produced by the repeated application of simple rules (nothing new); the rest of the book is a rococo elaboration of this theme. From cellular automata and Turing machines to iterated function systems and prime number sequences, there is enough raw material in this volume to keep a scientific miner digging and happy for a long time. In this tutorial I will discuss some of the raw material I have mined from Wolframs book that might be of interest to quantitative behavior analysts, with a special focus on cellular automata.

 
JACK J. MCDOWELL (Emory University)
Dr. Jack J. McDowell earned an A.B. in Psychology from Yale University in 1972 and a Ph.D. from the State University of New York at Stony Brook in 1979 under the mentorship of Dr. Howard Rachlin. He joined the faculty of Emory University in 1979 where he is currently Professor of Psychology. Dr. McDowell’s research has focused on mathematical and computational theories of behavior, including formal mathematical work, experimental work with rats, pigeons and humans, and computer experiments with virtual organisms. Much of Dr. McDowell’s experimental work has involved tests of matching theory, the results of which recently led him to argue that the traditional version of matching theory is false, and should be replaced by a revamped, modern, version. Most recently Dr. McDowell proposed a computational model of selection by consequences that instantiates the idea that behavior evolves in response to selection pressure from the environment in the form of reinforcement. Computer experiments show that this evolutionary dynamics produces steady-state behavior consistent with the modern version of matching theory. Dr. McDowell’s experience with and expertise in mathematical and computational techniques makes him uniquely qualified to evaluate Wolfram’s work.
 
 
Panel #87
CE Offered: BACB
Application of OBM Strategies in Service Settings for Individuals with Autism: Promoting Quality Outcomes
Saturday, May 24, 2008
4:00 PM–4:50 PM
Marquette
Area: OBM/AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Daphna El-Roy, Ph.D.
Chair: Joanne Gerenser (Eden II Programs)
EILEEN HOPKINS (Eden II Programs)
RANDY I. HOROWITZ (Eden II Programs)
DAPHNA EL-ROY (Eden II Programs)
Abstract:

The incidence of autism has increased considerably. With it, a corresponding development of programs serving individuals with autism has occurred. These programs are essential to meet the needs of the autism community, but attracting, training and retaining a qualified workforce is very difficult. In addition to the competition among programs serving individuals with autism, these agencies also compete with employment opportunities that are less stressful and less demanding than working with individuals with autism. Although empirically-based teaching techniques are used in the field of special education, few providers apply these same principles to address staff behavior change. Organizational Behavior Management (OBM), also referred to as Performance Management (PM), is the application of Applied Behavior Analysis to organizational improvement. The purpose of this panel is to address common challenges within the field of human services, and more specifically, to programs serving individuals with autism. Topics to be addressed include issues of staff retention and turnover, staff development,and quality assurance and improvement.

 
 
Invited Paper Session #89
CE Offered: BACB

Good-bye, Teacher. . . . Forty Years Later

Saturday, May 24, 2008
4:00 PM–4:50 PM
International North
Area: TBA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: William F. Buskist, Ph.D.
Chair: Pamela G. Osnes (Behavior Analysts, Inc.)
WILLIAM F. BUSKIST (Auburn University)
Dr. William Buskist is the Distinguished Professor in the Teaching of Psychology at Auburn University and a Faculty Fellow at Auburn’s Biggio Center for the Enhancement of Teaching and Learning. In his 25 years at Auburn, he has taught over 32,000 undergraduates, mostly in large sections of introductory psychology. He serves as the Section Editor for The Generalist’s Corner section of Teaching of Psychology and as a member of the National Institute on the Teaching of Psychology (NITOP) planning committee. Together with Steve Davis, he has edited two volumes on the teaching of psychology: The Teaching of Psychology: Essays in Honor of Wilbert J. McKeachie and Charles L. Brewer (Erlbaum, 2003) and The Handbook of the Teaching of Psychology (Blackwell, 2005) and together with Barry Perlman and Lee McCann, he has edited Voices of Experience: Memorable Talks from the National Institute on the Teaching of Psychology (American Psychological Society, 2005). He has also co-edited several electronic books for the Society of the Teaching of Psychology (http://teachpsych.org/resources/e-books/e-books.php). He has published over 30 books and articles on the teaching of psychology. In 2005, he was a co-recipient (with Leanne Lamke) of Auburn University’s highest teaching honor, The Gerald and Emily Leischuck Presidential Award for Excellence in Teaching. In addition, he was the American Psychological Association’s (APA) 2005 Harry Kirke Wolfe lecturer. He also is a recipient of the 2000 Robert S. Daniel Teaching Excellence Award from the Society of the Teaching of Psychology (STP). He is a Fellow of APA Divisions 1 (General Psychology) and 2 (Society for the Teaching of Psychology). He is currently serving as President of the Society. His proudest career achievement is having five of his graduate students honored with national teaching awards.
Abstract:

Forty years ago Fred Keller published his now classic paper that introduced the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI) to the teaching world. PSI, or the Keller Plan, as it is sometimes called, gained immediate widespread popularity. Indeed, college and university professors from many disciplines adopted the technique for use in their classes. Researchers published numerous articles showing PSI to be superior over traditional teaching methods in terms of student learning outcomes (i.e., final grades). Interestingly, now, in 2008, few college and university professors have ever heard of PSI, or for that matter, other forms of behavioral instruction. In this presentation, I will discuss the current state of college and university teaching against the backdrop of Keller's and others' work with behavioral approaches to college and university teaching. I will provide an overview and theoretical analysis of prevailing teaching techniques and the key elements of "master teaching" in an attempt to suggest effective practices for improving one's teaching.

 
 
Invited Paper Session #90
CE Offered: BACB

What's Voluntary about the Voluntary Operant?

Saturday, May 24, 2008
4:00 PM–4:50 PM
Grand Ballroom
Area: TPC; Domain: Basic Research
CE Instructor: Allen Neuringer, Ph.D.
Chair: Sam Leigland (Gonzaga University)
ALLEN NEURINGER (Reed College)
Dr. Allen Neuringer obtained a B.A. from Columbia University in 1962 and Ph.D. from Harvard University in 1967. He has been teaching at Reed College in Portland, Oregon since 1970 where he is currently MacArthur Professor of Psychology. He has served on numerous NSF graduate fellowship panels and NSF and NIH research study sections. Much of Dr. Neuringer's research has been in collaboration with Reed College undergraduates. His current research is directed at operant variability (for a review, see Neuringer, A. [2004]. Reinforced variability in animals and people. American Psychologist, 59, 891-906). His most recent work describes a theory of volition based upon operant variability (see Neuringer, A., Jensen, G. & Piff, P. [2007]. Stochastic matching and the voluntary nature of choice. JEAB, 88, 1-28). He has also published on self-experimentation, self-control, the "Protestant ethic effect," music discrimination in pigeons, choice under concurrent reinforcement schedules, and percentage reinforcement. His research has been supported by NSF and NIH.
Abstract:

I have long been confused by attempts to distinguish emitted operant responses from elicited Pavlovian reflexes and will describe a new theory based on control by reinforcement over levels of response variability. The theory states that a voluntary response has two defining attributes: functionality and potential unpredictability. A voluntary response is functional in the sense that it can be explained, it happens for a reason, it is goal oriented or, in behavior analytic terms, it is an operant, controlled by reinforcement. A voluntary response must also be at least potentially unpredictable (or free, self-generated, not determined). In other words, voluntary responses can be functionally unpredictable. There are two sources of that functional unpredictability: natural variability and learned variability. Natural variability is seen in baseline operant responding, during exploration of novel spaces, and under concurrent reinforcement schedules. Learned variability is seen in Karen Pryors reinforcement of novel responses in porpoises, Don Bloughs reinforcement of random interresponse times in pigeons, and reinforcement of more-or-less variable sequences that has been studied in my lab and others. I will describe psychophysical evidence in support of an operant variability theory of voluntary behavior and discuss implications for self control.

 

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