Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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34th Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2008

Program by Continuing Education Events: Monday, May 26, 2008


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Symposium #329
CE Offered: BACB
The Case for Contingent Skin Shock
Monday, May 26, 2008
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
4A
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Nathan Blenkush (Judge Rotenberg Center)
Discussant: F. J. Barrera (Private Consultant Practice)
CE Instructor: Nathan Blenkush, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Contingent Skin Shock (CSS), within a comprehensive behavior program, is a useful (often life-saving) procedure for a small group of individuals who engage in various topographies of severe problem behaviors that are refractory to typical behavioral interventions. Opponents of CSS are often unwilling to weigh the associated risks and benefits, state that all problem behaviors can be effectively treated without CSS, and opine that skin shock is not appropriate for people who are cognitively typical. Here, we present a risk benefit analysis amongst CSS, psychotropic medications, and restraint. In addition, we describe problem behaviors that, at this time, cannot be successfully treated without CSS. Finally, we describe the usefulness of CSS with cognitively typical individuals.

 
A Risk Benefit Analysis of Medication, Restraint, and Contingent Skin Shock.
NATHAN BLENKUSH (Judge Rotenberg Center)
Abstract: Every surgical, dental, or medical treatment involves discomfort, risks, or costs on the one hand and expected benefits on the other. A reasonable approach is to weigh the former against the latter in deciding whether to undergo or approve the treatment. Here, we present a risk benefit analysis of psychotropic medications, restraint, and contingent skin shock within the context of severe behavior disorders. The analysis suggests that CSS, combined with reinforcement procedures, is more effective, has less side effects, and allows the consumer to access more reinforcing stimuli when compared to the alternatives.
 
Can All Problem Behaviors Be Treated without Contingent Skin Shock?
GREGORY J TODISCO (The Judge Rotenberg Center)
Abstract: There are some who assert that all problem behaviors can be effectively treated without contingent skin shock (CSS). There is no doubt, that in general, the problem behaviors of most consumers can be effectively treated without the need for a supplementary aversive such as CSS. However, there exists a group of people whose problem behaviors cannot be treated effectively with typical behavioral interventions. These people can be found in psychiatric hospitals and highly restrictive settings around the country. Here, the notion that all problem behaviors can be effectively treated without CSS is critically evaluated.
 
The Value of Contingent Skin Shock with Cognitively Typical Students.
PATRICIA RIVERA (Judge Rotenberg Center)
Abstract: Most, if not all of the current literature on the use of contingent skin shock (CSS) focuses on the behavior problems of individuals with a diagnoses of Mental Retardation and/or Autism. There is a large population of individuals who are considered cognitively typical and have been diagnosed with Conduct Disorder, Depression, Bipolar Disorder, Intermittent Explosive Disorder, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, etc. who also exhibit very dangerous behaviors that present a constant risk to themselves or others. This presentation will focus on the benefits of using a supplemental contingent skin shock along with a positive behavior program with cognitively typical individuals. Focus will be given to particular symptoms of specific diagnoses, behaviors associated with these symptoms and how the CSS can be used to help target these specific behaviors. Case studies and behavioral charts will also be presented.
 
 
Invited Tutorial #331
CE Offered: BACB
Tutorial: Behavior Analysis in the Mainstream of Human Life: Now is the Time
Monday, May 26, 2008
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
International North
Area: PRA; Domain: Service Delivery
BACB CE Offered. CE Instructor: Patrick C. Friman, Ph.D.
Chair: F. Charles Mace (University of Southern Maine)
Presenting Authors: : PATRICK C. FRIMAN (Father Flanagan's Girls and Boys' Town)
Abstract:

Skinners vision for behavior analysis was that it would become a mainstream science pertinent to both the minor and major problems of everyday human life. Clearly his vision has not been realized. Behavioral analysis has produced extraordinary findings in its basic domain and made multiple major contributions in several applied domainsbut the best known of these contributions have been in the tails of the normal distribution of human problems (e.g., developmental disabilities). General applicability of behavior analysis to human problems is still seen as very limited by those outside the field. If behavior analysis is to become a mainstream science it will simply have to address more mainstream problems. Potential examples are virtually limitless. Behavioral methods can be or have been used to address such problems as the behavior problems of powerful despots who have yet to graduate from kindergarten, soiling and wetting--not just in children but also in the aged, other behavior problems in the elderly, sleep and sleeplessness, anxious behavior, depressed behavior, andno kidding--male fertility. This presentation will cover a range of problems that have either benefited from or could benefit from behavior analysis and that are extensive both in terms of the frequency of their occurrence and their relevance to mainstream human life.

 
PATRICK C. FRIMAN (Father Flanagan's Girls and Boys' Town)
Dr. Patrick C. Friman received his Ph.D. from the University of Kansas under the Mentorship of Drs. Montrose M. Wolf and Edward R. Christophersen. He is Director of Clinical Services Father Flanagan’s Boys Home and a Clinical Professor of Pediatrics at the University of Nebraska School of Medicine. He has held faculty positions at the University of Nevada as well as Johns Hopkins and the University of Pennsylvania Schools of Medicine. He is the outgoing Editor of The Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis and is on the editorial boards of nine other peer-reviewed scientific journals. He has published more than 150 scientific papers most of which involve behavior disorders of childhood in general, and behavioral pediatrics in particular. Generally, Dr. Friman’s research addresses the gap between outpatient well child medical care on one side, and referral-based clinical child psychologic and psychiatric care on the other. The gap includes behavior problems that bedevil parents, are outside the core curriculum used to train pediatricians, and yet are not sufficiently serious to warrant serious psychiatric diagnosis. For example, his research on solving bedtime problems was published in the Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, and presented at a large press conference in New York City, sponsored by the American Medical Association, at which the Surgeon General of the United States presented Dr. Friman to the press. His most recent book is Good Night, Sweet Dreams, I Love You: Now Get in Bed and Go to Sleep.
 
 
Symposium #332
CE Offered: BACB
Behavioral Acquisition in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Monday, May 26, 2008
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
International South
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Sung Woo Kahng (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
CE Instructor: Sung Woo Kahng, Ph.D.
Abstract:

The application of behavior analysis to treat behavioral deficits in children with autism spectrum disorder has resulted in substantial progress in improving overall functioning and quality of life. This symposium will provide a summary of research focused on acquisition of a variety of behaviors.

 
Using Virtual Reality to Teach Street Crossing Skills to Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.
TINA R. GOLDSMITH (Western Michigan University), Linda A. LeBlanc (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) often have poor safety skills due to insensitivity to subtle environmental cues and poor problem solving in the face of stressful tasks. Behavioral skills training (BST), consisting of instructions, modeling, rehearsal, and feedback, is effective for teaching safety skills and the effects improve with in situ training. However, creating realistic and safe contexts for rehearsal of skills such as street crossing may prove logistically difficult, if not impossible. Virtual reality (VR) affords a potential solution by allowing a child to interact meaningfully in an environment with optimal arrangement of the environment to promote learning and generalization. Five children with ASDs (ages 9-13) participated in a partially immersive VR enhanced BST intervention to teach safe street crossing. A nonconcurrent multiple baseline design across participants was used in the virtual environment with repeated probes in the natural environment. All participants mastered the skill set within the virtual environment and improved from pretest to post-test in the natural environment with some demonstrating treatment gains following instructions and modeling.
 
Increasing Independent Responding in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder through Delayed Prompting.
NICOLE LYNN HAUSMAN (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Sung Woo Kahng (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Einar T. Ingvarsson (Youngstown State University), Samantha Hardesty (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Terri Parsons (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: In the current study, the effects of different schedules of reinforcement on rates of compliance after the vocal prompt were compared within the context of three-step guided compliance. A nonconcurrent multiple baseline design was used to compare effects across participants, and test conditions were evaluated in a multielement design. A spelling task was selected for Participant 1 and a matching task was selected for Participant 2. In Condition A (CRF/CRF) correct responses occurring independently or after the vocal prompt were continuously reinforced. During Condition B (CRF/EXT), correct responses occurring independently were continuously reinforced, while correct responses occurring after the vocal prompt did not result in the delivery of an edible item. During Condition C (CRF/FR3), correct responses occurring independently were reinforced continuously, while correct responses occurring after the vocal prompt were reinforced on an FR3 schedule. Results indicated that for both participants, the task trained under Condition B (CRF/EXT) had the highest percentage of independent responding and took less time for each participant to master.
 
An Investigation of Treatment Integrity Failures during Discrimination Training.
ELIZABETH S. ATHENS (University of Florida), Timothy R. Vollmer (University of Florida), Jorge Rafael Reyes (University of Florida)
Abstract: Discrete trial training is a commonly used teaching method for children diagnosed with autism. Little attention has been given to methodological issues related to the general procedures. For example, discrete trial training commonly utilizes discrimination training; however, little is known about the sensitivity of this training to treatment integrity failures within discrete trial training. The purpose of Study 1 was to evaluate a method of conducting human operant research on discrimination training and to examine responding during two kinds of treatment integrity failures. A simulated program of a complex discrimination task was developed using Visual Basic computer programming. The program was first used to examine responses to arbitrary, novel tasks in a controlled laboratory setting with undergraduate college students as participants. The two kinds of errors evaluated were: (a) erro of omission (a reinforcer was not delivered when it was earned) and (b) errors of commission (a reinforcer was delivered when it was not earned). The probability of errors of omission and commission were manipulated across several conditions. Results suggest the sensitivity to errors of omission and commission is idiosyncratic and identifiable. The purpose of Study 2 was to examine the effect of integrity failures on the acquisition of academic tasks with developmentally disabled elementary school students as participants. Procedures from Study 1 were replicated using varying types of academic demands as the tasks. Results suggest children are selectively sensitive to specific errors, and these procedures quickly identified the errors most likely to interfere with response acquisition.
 
An Evaluation of Procedures for Increasing Item Engagement and Decreasing Automatically Reinforced Problem Behavior.
ERIN S. LEIF (The New England Center for Children ), Eileen M. Roscoe (The New England Center for Children ), Heather Morrison (The New England Center for Children), William H. Ahearn (The New England Center for Children)
Abstract: A number of studies have shown an inverse relationship between problem behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement and item engagement. Lindberg, Iwata, and Kahng (1999) did not observe reductions in participants’ automatically reinforced SIB as a result of increased item engagement; response blocking and protective equipment was necessary to produce positive treatment outcomes. The purpose of this study was to extend this line of research by comparing the effects of two commonly used treatment components (i.e., prompting and reinforcement) for increasing appropriate item engagement and decreasing problem behavior in the context of a duration-based preference assessment. Three individuals whexhibited problem behaviors maintained by automatic reinforcement participated in the study. Repeated duration-based preference assessments were conducted; during which eight leisure items were singally presented for 3 minutes each. Within the context of the preference assessment, two treatment procedures, prompting and prompting with reinforcement, were compared using a reversal design. Results indicated that prompting alone was effective in increasing appropriate item engagement and decreasing problem behavior; however, reinforcement was necessary to obtain clinically acceptable levels of item engagement and problem behavior (greater than 75% engagement and less than 5% problem behavior). Maintenance and generalization of treatment effects were then evaluated in the participant’s natural environment.
 
 
Symposium #334
CE Offered: BACB
Show Me: An Experimental Validation of Direct Instruction Procedures for Children with Developmental Disabilities
Monday, May 26, 2008
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Continental C
Area: AUT/EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Robert F. Littleton Jr. (Evergreen Center)
Discussant: Robert K. Ross (BEACON Services)
CE Instructor: Ann Filer, M.Ed.
Abstract:

In the 1977 evaluation of Project Follow Through, Direct Instruction (DI) students outperformed control group students and students in the other experimental programs on all academic measures: DI students moved from the 20th percentile (typical performance for children of poverty) to approximately the 50th percentile (typical performance for mainstream students). Research on the effectiveness of DI with other special needs populations has focused predominately on high-incidence disabilities (learning disabilities, communication anbehavior disorders, mild mental retardation) while investigations regarding the effectiveness of DI with low-incidence disabilities (autism, TBImoderate to severe mental retardation) appear infrequently in the literature (e.g. Journal of Direct Instruction, Vol. 5, No. 1). Although anecdotal accounts concerning the effectiveness of DI procedures with the moderate to severe population have been reported (e.g. Filer and Kozma, CCBS Autism Conference, 2006), experimental validation of DI methodology has been infrequent. The present symposium is a review of three single-subject research projects that investigate group vs. individual instruction, the promotion of math and reading fluency development, and responding to WH questions. Positive outcomes and limitations of DI methodology for individuals with moderate to severe disabilities will be discussed and implications for future research will be addressed.

 
Fluency Training: The Comparative Effects of Direct Instruction and Reinforcement Procedures on Mathematics and Reading Fluency in Children with Developmental Disabilities.
WENDY L. KOZMA (BEACON Services), Gordon A. DeFalco (Evergreen Center)
Abstract: Increasing the reading fluency (i.e., the number of words read correctly per minute) of children is an important characteristic of improved reading skill. Similarly, fluency in basic mathematics (i.e., the number of basic mathematics problems solved correctly per minute) facts positively influences correct solution of multiple-step mathematics problems. Students with learning challenges, however, are at-risk of not acquiring sufficient reading and mathematics skills if fluency is not systematically and explicitly taught. Accordingly, this study addressed the effectiveness of Direct Instruction in developing reading and mathematics fluency in students with learning challenges. Secondarily, the relative contribution of reinforcing accuracy and speed compared to Direct Instruction methods alone was evaluated. An alternating treatments design (i.e., direct instruction/direct instruction + reinforcement) across lessons was used with 3 students with a diagnosis of MRDD and/or autism to evaluate the effectiveness of Direct Instruction in developing reading and mathematics fluency. Results indicated that Direct Instruction was effective in developing fluency; however, when contingent reinforcement of accuracy and speed was added to Direct Instruction methods fluency was achieved in less teaching sessions. Discussion will focus on the efficacy of Direct Instruction and adapted strategies to facilitate Direct Instruction teaching for people with developmental disabilities.
 
Who, What, Where, and When: Direct Instruction Finds the Answer to These Questions.
WENDY L. KOZMA (BEACON Services), Gordon A. DeFalco (Evergreen Center)
Abstract: While many factors influence language fluency development, students with learning challenges are at risk for not acquiring a sufficient number of essential language skills if such skills are not systematically and explicitly taught. Language for Learning is a Direct Instruction language skills development program designed to accelerate the development of language fluency across numerous concepts, skills, and learning objectives. This study addressed the effectiveness of Direct Instruction on correct responding and generalization to answering “who”, “what”, “when”, and “where” questions as taught within the constructs of Language for Learning lesson formats. Multiple baseline probes across question types with 10 questions per probe were used to assess the effectiveness of Direct Instruction methodology for 4 participants who showed deficiencies in answering questions in at least 2 of the “Wh” question types. Generalization was assessed with 10 “who”, “what”, “when”, and “where” questions that participants were exposed to 1 time before and 1 time after Direct Instruction training. Results demonstrated the effectiveness of Direct Instruction in teaching correct answers to “Wh” type questions and facilitating generalized responding to a probe presented before and after criterion was reached for each “Wh” question type.
 
Individual or Group Instruction? The Winner is . . .
ANN FILER (BEACON Services), Katie H. Artiano (BEACON Services), Gordon A. DeFalco (Evergreen Center)
Abstract: Individual instruction is known to be an effective teaching format for instructing students with mental retardation, developmental disabilities, and/or autism, especially within private settings and early childhood settings, where funding is available to support a one-to-one teacher to student ratio. In public schools, however, group instruction is more typical, partly because of funding constraints. In the current study, the effectiveness of a structured curriculum, Direct Instruction (DI), designed for group instruction with typically developing children, was adapted for use with children with developmental disabilities. This study consisted of an alternating treatments design, where teaching was alternated between individual and group instruction. Specifically, the acquisition of DI language concepts was measured by assessing the number of trials required to reach a set criteria, when taught within an individual versus group instructional format. In addition, attending behavior, i.e., orient to peer and imitate peer responses, was evaluated during group lessons and eventually taught. Results demonstrated that group teaching was effective, utilizing a structured teaching methodology in the form of DI. In addition, attending behavior, important for group learning was taught using verbal prompting and modeling. This study explores the impact of group versus individual instruction on lesson progress. Behavior associated with joint attention was also evaluated. Other methods of promoting group learning will be discussed.
 
 
Symposium #337
CE Offered: BACB
Behavioral Interventions for Health and Fitness
Monday, May 26, 2008
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Boulevard A
Area: CBM/CSE; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Matthew P. Normand (University of the Pacific)
Discussant: Raymond G. Miltenberger (University of South Florida)
CE Instructor: Matthew P. Normand, Ph.D.
Abstract:

The papers in this symposium will describe low-cost and relatively non-invasive interventions to increase healthy behavior in typically developing adult populations.

 
Increasing Physical Activity Through Self-Monitoring, Goal-Setting and Feedback.
MATTHEW P. NORMAND (University of the Pacific)
Abstract: Excess body weight, especially obesity, is a problem of increasing social significance. Because physical activity can both decrease body weight and prevent weight gain, it is an especially suitable target for behavioral intervention. A package intervention consisting of self-monitoring, goal-setting, and feedback was used to increase the physical activity of healthy adults. A combined multiple baseline and reversal design was arranged to evaluate the effects of the intervention the number of steps taken each day by participants, as recorded by a pedometer. The intervention increased the number of steps taken across participants, but there were no changes in participant body weight during the intervention. The results suggest that a relatively simple and low-cost intervention can be used to increase the physical activity of at least some adults.
 
Increasing Calorie Expenditure through Task Clarification, Goal Setting, Self-Monitoring, and Feedback.
JEANNE M. DONALDSON (Florida Institute of Technology), Matthew P. Normand (University of the Pacific)
Abstract: Obesity has become a leading cause of health problems in the United States, creating a great need for interventions to increase physical activity. In this experiment, a package intervention consisting of task clarification, goal setting, self-monitoring, and feedback was evaluated across 4 participants in a multiple baseline design with a brief reversal for 2 of the 4 participants. Minor changes were made to the goal setting component for 2 participants in an attempt to increase calorie expenditure further. A fifth participant received task clarification, goal setting, and self-monitoring, which were evaluated in an ABAB reversal design. The level of increase was somewhat variable, but the intervention package was successful at increasing calorie expenditure in all 5 participants. Additionally, all participants reported that the research was beneficial and their physical activity level increased as a result of participating in the study.
 
Reducing Calorie and Fat Consumption Through Task Clarification and Individualized Feedback.
MATTHEW RUSSELL OSBORNE (Florida Institute of Technology), Matthew P. Normand (University of the Pacific)
Abstract: The current study attempted to decrease daily calorie and fat consumption among college undergraduates eating at multiple university dining establishments. Task clarification and feedback were administered to 4 participants daily via electronic mail communication. Calorie and fat data were generated from a participant's purchase history via itemized receipts and food checklists from each meal. A majority of the participants benefited from their individualized dietary feedback and subsequently made healthier food selections. This study contributed to the existing literature on personalized dietary feedback and its effects food selection behavior. Specifically, it investigated the effectiveness of an efficient, non-invasive, and non incentive-based approach towards preventing unhealthy food selection behavior.
 
 
Symposium #339
CE Offered: BACB
International Symposium - Parent Support Systems
Monday, May 26, 2008
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
PDR 2
Area: CSE/CBM; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Criss Wilhite (California State University, Fresno)
CE Instructor: Criss Wilhite, None
Abstract:

Three bodies of research regarding improving parent-child interactions, teaching parenting skills to parents of children with disabilities and helping parents cope with the stress of parenting children with disabilities are presented. The focus of each is to improve parent skills personally, interpersonally, and/or in terms of their interactions with their children.

 
Evidence-Based Support Systems for Parents of Children with ASD in Australia.
VICKI BITSIKA (Bond University), Christopher F. Sharpley (University of New England)
Abstract: Data collected from two surveys of parents of children with ASD across two Australian states showed elevated levels of anxiety and depression compared to the community norm and parents of children with an intellectual or physical impairment. In addition, a high percentage of parents of children with ASD stated that they were “stretched beyond their ability to cope” with their child’s behavioral difficulties several times per month. These data challenge the efficacy of skills-only parent training because of the difficulty parents reported in implementing their behavior management skills when under duress. In response to this mismatch between parents’ knowledge-base and their implementation of behavioral management skills, two group interventions were conducted with samples of these parents. The first group intervention focused upon generalized behavioral support techniques requested by parents. Results showed within-session reductions of anxiety and depression, plus an increase in confidence in applying behavior management strategies. The second group intervention taught parents a range of targeted behaviorally-based stress management procedures. Reductions in parental anxiety and depression were again found, plus increased effectiveness in managing difficult behavior and decreased dependence upon others’ advice.
 
Dancing with My Baby: Parent Training for Toddlers with ASD.
SHAHLA S. ALA'I-ROSALES (University of North Texas)
Abstract: Earlier detection means the possibility of earlier intervention for very young children with autism and their families. This presentation will provide a data-based description of The Family Connections Project (FCP). The mission of FCP is to enhance the quality of relationships between toddlers with autism and their families. Participants in FCP set goals, choose specific skills to teach their toddlers, learn a series of teaching interaction strategies (represented by the acronym DANCE) and evaluate their own and their child's progress. In addition to acquisition of specific intervention targets, a number of parent and child collateral effects have been observed. The data and the program are discussed in the context of developmental cusps, ecological and cultural validity, and the importance and responsibility of "first contact" early intervention services.
 
Parenting Programs at Fresno State.
CRISS WILHITE (California State University, Fresno), David J. Hebert (California State University, Fresno), Jason Alan Marshall (California State University, Fresno), Katharine Woods (California State University, Fresno)
Abstract: Three parent-training projects, outgrowths of the initial Positive Parenting for Parents of Children with Disabilities, will be reviewed. Parenting Children with Autism was designed to supplement previous parent training with practice in discrete trails, errorless learning, and other techniques used in the Fresno State Autism Center. Parenting Children with Autism-Spanish Language is geared toward immigrant families who have in-home programs, and Stress Management for Parents of Children with Autism is a systematic replication of the work of Bitsika and Sharpley. A review of outcome data for the projects and descriptions of how to expand and adapt basic behavior-analytic parenting classes are presented.
 
 
Symposium #341
CE Offered: BACB
Factors that Influence Occurrence of Data Collection, Observer Accuracy, and Measures of Interobserver Agreement
Monday, May 26, 2008
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Stevens 3
Area: DDA/CBM; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Nicole Heal (The May Institute)
CE Instructor: Nicole Heal, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Making data-based treatment decisions has been and continues to be a hallmark of applied behavior analytic programming. However, the integrity of data collection behavior and measures of interobserver agreement may influence the interpretation of the data thus influencing treatment decisions. The presentations in this symposium present evaluations regarding the occurrence of data collection, the accuracy of the data collected, and measures of interobserver agreement. The first study examined the effects of an antecedent intervention and an antecedent intervention with feedback and public posting on staff data collection. The second investigation assessed the effects of visual performance feedback in the form of graphed data on staff data collection. The third study evaluated the feasibility and utility of a laboratory model within the framework of Signal Detection Theory for examining observer accuracy. The final study compared five measures of interobserver agreement and evaluated the sensitivity to differences in rate of each measure.

 
Antecedent and Consequence Strategies to Increase Data Collection among School Staff.
CATHERINE COTE (The May Center for Education and Neurorehabilitation), Gary M. Pace (The May Institute), Serra R. Langone (The May Center For Education and Neurorehabilitation)
Abstract: A critical component of any applied behavior analytical program is consistent data collection (Baer, Wolf, & Risley, 1968). This study compared the effects of an antecedent strategy in isolation and in combination with public posting and feedback to increase staff data collection using a multiple baseline design (interobserver agreement was 100%) across classrooms. Baseline observations revealed that data collection was inconsistent in all classrooms. During the antecedent condition, a timer was implemented to prompt staff every 30 min to record data on students problem behaviors. The antecedent strategy was then paired with public posting and feedback. In all classrooms, the antecedent strategy improved data collection among staff. For one classroom, the antecedent strategy was effective when implemented alone; however, when data was taken once a month, a decrease was observed. Higher levels of data collection were observed in two classrooms when the antecedent strategy was combined with public posting and feedback. Results depicted a decrease in data collection for all classrooms when the schedule of public posting and feedback was thinned to once a month. The practical implications of these strategies are discussed in that they can be easily implemented in classrooms and other environments (i.e., home, residential settings, etc.).
 
Using Visual Performance Feedback without Additionally Arranged Incentives in Increasing Amount of Data Collection.
JAMES E COOK (The New England Center for Children), Amelia McGoldrick (The New England Center for Children), Sima Hansalia (The New England Center for Children), Jason C. Bourret (The New England Center for Children)
Abstract: Previous research has shown that performance feedback combined with putative reinforcement contingencies can improve staff performance and increase the frequency of staff collecting data. Recent research has also shown that performance feedback can affect behavior without additional arranged incentives. In the current study, the effects of visual performance feedback in the form of graphed data on performance were examined. Data collection in teachers of students diagnosed with autism was targeted for increase. Results showed that visual performance feedback alone was effective in increasing the amount of data collected. Data also showed that the reliability of data was high without the need for explicit intervention.
 
Applying Signal Detection Theory to the Study of Observer Accuracy and Bias in Behavioral Assessment.
ALYSON N. HOVANETZ (University of Houston, Clear Lake), Dorothea C. Lerman (University of Houston, Clear Lake), Allison Serra Tetreault (West Virginia University), Hilary J. Karp (University of Houston, Clear Lake), Angela Mahmood (University of Houston, Clear Lake), Maggie Strobel (University of Houston, Clear Lake), Shelley Kay Mullen (University of Houston, Clear Lake), Alice A. Keyl (Utah State University)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and utility of a laboratory model for examining observer accuracy within the framework of Signal Detection Theory (SDT). Thirty individuals collected data on aggression while viewing videotaped segments of simulated child-teacher interactions. The segments consisted of clear and ambiguous samples of the target behavior and ambiguous non-examples of the behavior. Consistent with previous research on SDT, response bias occurred when observers were provided with brief feedback about their performance and consequences for either hits or false alarms. Changes in scoring were more likely to involve samples designated as ambiguous rather than as clear, providing some validity for the designations made. Thus, preliminary findings support the viability of the methodology for evaluating variables that may influence observer accuracy and bias in behavioral assessment.
 
Evaluations of Interobserver Agreement.
ANDREW SAMAHA (University of Florida), Timothy R. Vollmer (University of Florida), Amanda Bosch (University of Florida)
Abstract: Interobserver agreement scores can be used to detect measurement problems when data are collected by human observers. One benefit of interobserver agreement is that low scores may reflect differences in recording likely to affect the interpretation of data. In applied behavior analysis, many interpretations are based on the rate of some target event. This study evaluated measures of interobserver agreement according to their sensitivity to differences in rate when comparing data from two observers. Five measures of interobserver agreement were compared: proportional agreement within intervals, proportional agreement within occurrence intervals, occurrence agreement, nonoccurrence agreement, and exact agreement. Measures tended to reflect one of three possible outcomes: (1) interobserver agreement changed appropriately with differences in rate, (2) interobserver agreement remained high despite relatively substantial differences in rate, or (3) interobserver agreement was low despite only minor differences in rate.
 
 
Symposium #342
CE Offered: BACB
Current Research in Applied Behavioral Economics
Monday, May 26, 2008
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Stevens 2
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Henry S. Roane (Munroe-Meyer Institute)
CE Instructor: Henry S. Roane, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Behavioral economics refers to the sub-field of behavior analysis in which responding is viewed as an interaction between price and consumption. Although economic principles are commonly utilized in the experimental analysis of behavior, such analyses have only recently been presented in the applied literature. In the current symposium, four lines of research will be presented in which principles of behavioral economics are applied to problems of applied significance. In the first study, the price of highly preferred stimulus was increased by manipulating the distance required to access the stimuli. Results demonstrated the emergence of substitutable reinforcers as response requirements increased. In the second investigation, demand elasticity was evaluated within the context of a positive reinforcement-based treatment for negatively reinforced problem behavior. In the third study, the exchange interval for a classroom-wide token economy was either immediate or delayed (24 hours). Results indicated that the immediate exchange produced higher levels of task behavior relative to baseline and the delayed exchange condition. The final study involved a token economy in which exchange schedules were manipulated in the context of ongoing program implementation to evaluate the effects of price variations on token exchange.

 
A Behavioral Economic Approach to Preference Assessments.
MARY ELLEN FANNAN (EPIC School), Patrick R. Progar (Caldwell College)
Abstract: The purpose of the current study was to determine whether preference would shift and demand would decrease as a result of increased response effort required to obtain a preferred item. Phase 2 of the current study evaluated reinforcer effects of the items identified as highly preferred by the preference assessment. A standard multiple stimulus with replacement preference assessment was conducted for each participant. When the first session was over, the item chosen most frequently during that session was moved further away from the individual at the start of the second session up to a distance of an additional 24 inches from the participant. Stimuli identified as highly preferred during the initial preference assessment sessions were no longer highly preferred when the price of the stimuli were increased. Rather, a substitutable stimulus was identified for each participant. The reinforcer assessment demonstrated that even though these items were no longer preferred they did function as reinforcers.
 
Assessing Demand Elasticity for Positive Reinforcers Against Concurrently Available Avoidance of Task Demands.
MANDY M. TRIGGS (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Iser Guillermo DeLeon (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Michelle A. Frank-Crawford Crawford (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Meagan Gregory (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Melissa J. Allman (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Abbey Carreau (Kennedy Krieger Institutue)
Abstract: A brief demand elasticity analysis was conducted with three participants with developmental disabilities in an attempt to identify edible stimuli that were preferred over task avoidance for use in subsequent treatment analyses for escape-maintained problem behavior. Each analysis consisted of 25 trials. During each trial, a concurrent chain schedule was arranged such that the participant was given a choice between two available options. Responses on one option resulted in the presentation of a work task and reinforcement for compliance with one of the tested stimuli. The schedule of reinforcement for task completion began at FR1. Following every 5 trials, the FR schedule requirement was increased to FR2, then FR5, FR10, and FR20. Responses on the second option resulted in no work requirements (i.e., a 1-minute break), but also no positive reinforcement. This analysis was repeated with each of the top four preferred edible stimuli. The stimuli chosen for later analysis were those for which demand was least elastic in relation to escape as response requirements increased. The treatment results reveal that the analysis was successful in identifying stimuli that were preferred over escape and were subsequently included in an effective treatment evaluation.
 
Temporal Discounting Predicts Student Responsiveness to Exchange Delays in a Classwide Token Economy.
DEREK D. REED (Syracuse University), Brian K. Martens (Syracuse University), Lauren Axelrod (Syracuse University), Lauren McClenney (Syracuse University)
Abstract: This study investigated the degree to which 26 sixth-grade students' discounting of hypothetical monetary rewards predicted their responsiveness to both immediate and delayed token exchanges in a classwide token system. Specifically, students were administered a hypothetical monetary choice assessment which pitted smaller, immediate rewards against larger, delayed rewards. Students were then exposed to a classwide token system (targeting on-task behavior) in a multiple baseline design across 3 classrooms. Baseline observations yielded relatively high levels of on-task behavior with no intervention. Following baseline, an immediate exchange delay was implemented in which students exchanged tokens immediately after each 30-minute observation. During this immediate condition, students' levels of on-task behavior increased substantially from baseline. Finally, a 24-hour exchange delay was implemented following stable levels of on-task behavior in the immediate condition. During this delayed condition, students' levels of on-task behavior fell between baseline and immediate condition percentages. These results suggest that students' levels of on-task behavior are indeed sensitive to even moderate exchange delays. These students' levels of on-task behavior during intervention conditions were then correlated with their obtained discounting parameters. Results indicated that each student's obtained discounting parameters were significantly related to his/her responsiveness to exchange delay.
 
Behavioral Economic Manipulations in a Closed Token Economy.
KATHRYN GUENEVERE HORTON (The New England Center for Children), Jason C. Bourret (The New England Center for Children)
Abstract: In the present study, price was manipulated by changing the exchange schedules of token economies with three participants diagnosed with autism. Participants lived at a residential school for children with developmental disabilities. Token economies were in effect twenty four hours a day, seven days a week and reinforcers arranged on the token economy were not available from other sources. Exchange schedules were manipulated in the context of ongoing implementation of the economy and data were collected by on-shift staff over periods of five hours each day. Implications of the findings for empirical identification of optimal prices for use in token economies and the generality of work and demand functions are discussed.
 
 
Symposium #344
CE Offered: BACB
Naming: A Verbal Developmental Cusp and Stage
Monday, May 26, 2008
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
4D
Area: DEV/VRB; Domain: Basic Research
Chair: R. Douglas Greer (Columbia University Teachers College)
CE Instructor: R. Douglas Greer, Ph.D.
Abstract:

We present four papers on naming as a verbal developmental cusp involving multiple experiments. Findings are reported on the relation between acquisition of naming for 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional stimuli with preschoolers, the relation between reading comprehension and naming vs. the role of phonemes, the role of the echoic as reinforcer, and the source of the reinforcement, for naming, and the effects of naming on reading comprehension with academically delayed middle school students.

 
Emergence of Naming for 2-D and 3-D Stimuli: A Comparison of Multiple and Single Exemplar Instruction.
NIRVANA PISTOLJEVIC (Columbia University Teachers College), R. Douglas Greer (Columbia University Teachers College)
Abstract: We compared Singular Exemplar Instruction (SEI) and Multiple Exemplar Instruction (MEI) with 3-dimentional stimuli and their respective effects on emergence of untaught listener and speaker responses (naming) by preschool children missing naming for both 3D and 2D contrived stimuli. We used an experimental-control group with a nested single-case multiple probe design. Naming emerged for the MEI group for both 3D and 2D contrived stimuli, but did not for the SEI group. Instructional histories that involve the rotation of speaker listener responding appear to predict the emergence of naming for both 3D and 2D stimuli. We discuss the findings in terms of the relation of the MEI experience to the notion of higher order operants.
 
An Investigation of the Source of Reinforcement for Naming.
JENNIFER LONGANO (Columbia University Teachers College), R. Douglas Greer (Columbia University Teachers College)
Abstract: Two experiments were conducted to examine potential sources of reinforcement for naming. In the first experiment, the effects of match and point instruction with an echoic component were tested on the acquisition of a full naming repertoire for three young participants diagnosed with autism. Results showed increases in correct responses on untaught listener and speaker repertoires for all participants. However, only one participant acquired a full naming repertoire. The second experiment tested the effects of an “ostensive pairing” procedure as a source of reinforcement for both incidental and instructional naming. Participants included students with and without disabilities who did not have a full naming repertoire prior to the onset of the study. Findings from both procedures suggest different but not incompatible contributions for each.
 
Reading Comprehension and Naming.
TRACY REILLY-LAWSON (Columbia University Teachers College), R. Douglas Greer (Columbia University Teachers College)
Abstract: We investigated the effects of multiple exemplar instruction of phonemes across written and vocal topographies on the extension of naming to print control. The participants mastered French words in textual form only by matching the French printed word to the English printed word. The students demonstrated comprehension by matching the French word to the picture; however, they did not tact the pictures in French or write the French word. Multiple exemplar instruction of phonemes was implemented in which the experimenter taught point to, textual response and written topographies of phonemes. Post probes demonstrated the participants’ acquisition of the naming capability extended to print control. Students used novel words learned only in textual form across vocal and written response topographies.
 
Emergence of 2D and 3D Naming in Middle School Students.
YASMIN J. HELOU-CARE (Columbia University Teachers College), R. Douglas Greer (Columbia University Teachers College)
Abstract: We tested the emergence of the untaught listener and speaker responses of naming for both 2- and 3-dimnsional stimuli across 7 male middle school participants diagnosed with emotional disabilities. Naming emerged for both 3-dimensional stimuli and 2-dimensional pictures as a function of multiple exemplar instruction (MEI) with 3-dimensional stimuli across speaker/listener responses for training sets. Instruction across one type of stimuli that involve the rotation of both the speaker and listener responses appears to be sufficient to induce naming acros other forms of stimuli for participants like those we studies.
 
 
Symposium #345
CE Offered: BACB
International Symposium - Recent Theoretical Developments and Empirical Findings from Beyond the Borders of Behavior Analysis
Monday, May 26, 2008
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Barbershop
Area: EAB/TPC; Domain: Basic Research
Chair: Jon Gretar Sigurjonsson (National University of Ireland, Galway)
Discussant: Mark Galizio (University of North Carolina, Wilmington)
CE Instructor: Denis P. O'Hora, Ph.D.
Abstract:

These three papers review theory and findings in the analysis of complex cognitive phenomena from other psychological disciplines. The first paper in this symposium reports recent findings in mainstream language research on the development of language in young children. It is hoped that this will contribute to early intervention research. The second paper reviews novel experimental manipulations in neuroscience that offer the opportunity for behavioural control beneath the skin. The third paper review work in the area of concept formation and categorization from both cognitive and behavioural traditions in order to highlight new questions for the experimental analysis of complex human behaviour.

 
Lessons from Psycholinguistics: Current Trends and Findings from Mainstream Psychologies of Language.
DENIS P. O'HORA (National University of Ireland, Galway), Richard Dale (University of Memphis)
Abstract: Sidman (1960; Tactics of scientific research: Evaluating experimental data in psychology) observed that “good data are notoriously fickle. They change their allegiance from theory to theory, and even maintain their importance in the presence of no theory at all.” In light of this, we review findings from mainstream literature on language acquisition. Many behavior analysts work in situations where they are seeking to establish language behaviors and yet are often unaware of current findings in the more mainstream psychologies of language . Previous work by Dale (2005; Cognitive and behavioral approaches to language acquisition: Conceptual and empirical intersections. Behavior Analyst Today, 5, 336-359) provides a starting point for the current paper, which will review findings on language-relevant behaviors in children from the newborn to late childhood. In so doing, we seek to contribute to the refinement of language-training curricula and the development of new avenues in experimental language research.
 
Manipulating Biological Variables: Some Noteworthy Advances in Cognitive Neuroscience.
JON GRETAR SIGURJONSSON (National University of Ireland, Galway), Denis P. O'Hora (National University of Ireland, Galway), Geraldine Leader (National University of Ireland), Ian T. Stewart (National University of Ireland, Galway)
Abstract: Traditionally, neuroscientific explanations of complex human behavior (e.g., problem solving) have depended cognitive concepts with dualistic foundations. Consequently, there were few attempts to manipulate the biological variables that were suggested to account for such behaviors.. This emphasis is rapidly changing, however, as cognitive neuroscience matures from arm chair speculation to an applied discipline in its own regard. Technologies that allow researchers to systematically manipulate and change participants’ brain activity are now available and cognitive researchers have shown increases in subjects’ performance on various cognitive tasks when such biological variables are manipulated. The current paper reviews these trends in cognitive neuroscience and recent findings in this area. We suggest that these new findings provide new avenues for behavior analytic research of complex human behavior.
 
Concept Acquisition, Categorisation and Stimulus Equivalence: A Review of Current Cognitive and Behaviour Analytical Literature, with Implications for Future Research.
BRIAN WILLIAM SLATTERY (National University of Ireland, Galway), Ian T. Stewart (National University of Ireland, Galway), Denis P. O'Hora (National University of Ireland, Galway)
Abstract: Much research has accumulated on the topics of concept formation and categorisation. Early investigations into such higher order functioning were predominantly cognitive in nature. Piaget observed the different developmental stages of increasingly complex conceptual thought. This was followed in turn by experiments into conditions of concept formation and descriptive models concerning the nature of category membership. Behaviour analytic accounts, in contrast, define categories in terms of shared stimulus functions and recent work from this tradition identifies categorisation as an example of stimulus equivalence. One approach to explaining stimulus equivalence, relational frame theory (RFT) can potentially provide the tools for a more comprehensive explanation of categorisation. In particular, the involvement of hierarchical relational frames has been suggested, but much empirical research is required to confirm such postulations. The current paper reviews the trends outlined above and proposes directions for future investigation in categorisation from an RFT perspective.
 
 
Symposium #348
CE Offered: BACB
Morningside Academy: What's New?
Monday, May 26, 2008
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Waldorf
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Joanne K. Robbins (Morningside Academy)
CE Instructor: Joanne K. Robbins, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Morningside Academy's assessment, curriculum, and instructional methods continue to evolve as best practices are developed in the research literature and through tryout and revision in our lab school. Today's symposium focuses upon four new developments at Morningside: retelling to enhance reading comprehension, math tool skills instruction, assessment of writing, and our overall system of assessment.

 
Morningside’s Four Levels of Assessment.
JULIAN GIRE (Morningside Academy), Kent Johnson (Morningside Academy)
Abstract: At Morningside Academy student progress is monitored through a multi-level system of assessment and evaluation. The initial level, or Macro level, consists of norm and/or criterion referenced tests. These tests are used to measure growth from the beginning to the end of the school year (e.g., Iowa Tests of Basic Skills). The second level, or Meta level, directly deals with progress monitoring through the use of Curriculum Based Measures/Curriculum Based Assessments (CBM/CBA). These Meta level assessments are usually administered on a weekly basis; but more or less frequent administration may be conducted depending on the academic subjects being assessed (e.g., Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills or DIBELS). The third level of assessment, or Micro level, are classroom Standard Celeration Charts that document student progress as well as guide instruction and intervention. The fourth and final level of assessment consists of curriculum placement tests that accompany the curriculum programs used in the classroom. By combining these four levels of assessment Morningside Academy can accurately place students into the correct level of instruction, efficiently monitor progress and intervention effectiveness, and ensure that students make the academic gains expected by the end of the year.
 
Towards Genre-Specific Curriculum Based Assessment: Tracking the Acquisition of Genre Writing Skills Over the School Year.
MARIANNE DELGADO (Morningside Academy)
Abstract: Morningside is moving from the standard curriculum based measurement of three-minute CBM stories to more genre specific five-minute curriculum based assessment. The purpose of CBM is to measure how well a curriculum in place is working. With our improvements in teaching higher order writing skills in recent years, we have found that our old writing CBM was no longer tracking what the teachers were teaching. We asked the teachers of the beginning, intermediate, and advanced writing text, High Performance Writing, by Terry Dodd (SRA), to develop quick five-point rubrics on the basic requirements of the first genres we were introducing: descriptive, expository, and persuasive. The students were given a short think time and three minutes of timed writing where the pieces are scored with the traditional dimensions of total words written, words spelled correctly, and correct writing sequences. The students then have a short ten-minute period to finish these quick writes according to the rubrics. The acquisition of genre writing skills are tracked with these weekly assessments and plotted on a standard celeration chart. We will compare this method of assessment with our old non-genre specific CBM and students long–term essays that are crafted, edited and rewritten over the course of a week. We will discuss the relevance of the data and ease of implementation of this new assessment method.
 
The Correlation Between Reading Comprehension and Oral Retelling.
SHILOH ISBELL (Morningside Academy), Jennifer Reilly (Morningside Academy), Joanne K. Robbins (Morningside Academy)
Abstract: Morningside Academy is exploring the correlation between reading comprehension and retelling stories orally, using decontextualized language and identifying and sequencing main events. The Power of Retelling by Vicki Benson and Carrice Cummins defines decontextualized language as “language that does not depend on the context to be understood; the meaning is entirely in the text” (or words spoken). We have noticed several returning middle school-aged students with low decontextualized language skills are not showing the same rate of success in reading comprehension as returning students with average to high decontextualized language skills. We are inquiring whether adding a daily oral retelling component to their reading comprehension class, emphasizing practice using decontextualized language and identifying and sequencing main events, will aid in their acquisition and application of reading comprehension skills.
 
Morningside Academy’s Math Facts Program: Overview and Inquiry.
GEOFFREY H. MARTIN (Morningside Academy)
Abstract: Fluent proficiency at computing basic math facts can make learning and performing more complex operations such as those involved in regrouping, long multiplication, and division more efficient and significantly less tedious. The common approach to teaching basic facts treats each fact individually. Considering that there are 400 individual basic facts, the task of learning them can be an onerous one. Morningside Academy employs a number family approach to teach basic facts. A number family is a set of three numbers that can be arranged to produce four facts. For example, the numbers 4, 6, and 10 produce two addition facts (4 + 6 = 10 and 6 + 4 = 10) and two subtraction facts (10 – 4 = 6 and 10 – 6 = 4). Using a family approach, a student memorizes only one thing instead of four things (i.e., 1 set of three numbers instead of 4 individual facts), thereby reducing memorization by ¾. With only 36 families for each set of operations, addition/subtraction and multiplication/division, this approach significantly reduces the amount of memorizing required while also emphasizing the conceptual nature of basic facts. At Morningside, students first practice number families before practicing facts. Practice involves worksheets containing families where one number of the family is missing and must be provided by the student (e.g., 4 __ 10). Morningside recently explored the effects of two configurations of these missing number worksheets that involved the location of the biggest number of a family. On one sheet the big number always had to appear in the last position (e.g., 4, 6, 10 not 10, 4, 6), on the other sheet, it could appear in the first or last position (e.g., 10, 4, 6 was acceptable).
 
 
Symposium #352
CE Offered: BACB
Behavioral Approaches in Complex Settings
Monday, May 26, 2008
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Marquette
Area: OBM; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Travis G. McNeal (Continuous Learning Group)
Discussant: Ramona Houmanfar (University of Nevada, Reno)
CE Instructor: Manuel A. Rodriguez, M.S.
Abstract:

The objective of this symposium will be to present some complex issues in business settings, the methodologies introduced to promote behavioral improvement with targeted outcomes, and the results to date.

 
Complexities in Organizations – A Case Study of Driving Behavioral Changes in a Complex Environment.
MANUEL A. RODRIGUEZ (Continuous Learning Group)
Abstract: In many instances, organizations bring in consultancies during times of major changes. In late 2006, a telecommunications enterprise brought in CLG to evaluate the 2007 priorities and conclude how behavioral science could help maximize the potential for obtaining performance targets given major changes that would take place in the same year. The existing structure was a matrix organization, with both enablers and barriers impacting progress. Multiple initiatives were in place to drive performance variables across the enterprise and CLG was asked to support a team of leaders across the enterprise to impact the major improvement efforts through behavioral change. The methodology, results, and comments from an OBM perspective will be shared.
 
Implementing Technological Improvements: Aligning the Consequences.
TRAVIS G. MCNEAL (Continuous Learning Group)
Abstract: As technology continues to improve and evolve, many organizations seek to gain a competitive advantage by utilizing sophisticated devices and complex software systems. Some organizations have spent millions to license these systems under the belief they will see an immediate return on their investment. However, the implementation of these systems often neglects one important aspect: they fail to take into account existing consequences in the organization. This failure has in some instances led to the complete abandonment of the new systems which resulted in lost money, credibility and in extreme cases, were fatal to the organization. This paper describes how two separate software initiatives were implemented within a Fortune 100 organization using the principles of applied behavior analysis.
 
Behavioral Cusps in OBM? What, Why, and How!
FRANCISCO GOMEZ (Continuous Learning Group)
Abstract: Rosales-Ruiz and Baer defined the cusp as a behavior change bringing behavior into contact with new contingencies that have far-reaching consequences. For example, an individual’s learning to read is a behavior change that will likely generate an exponential increase in their repertoire because of access gained to new contingencies, new stimulus controls, new communities of reinforcement, and new cusps. This presentation will offer a description of the cusp-centered approach as applied in the coaching of a consultant in a behaviorally-based business consulting firm. Cusps that would likely generate an exponential increase in the consulting repertoire were identified and their training was implemented. Cusp selection criterion was further defined by a set of business-focused dimensions such as company ROI, organizational system support, and talent progression through the organization. Career milestones that would be reached due to the cusps were predicted, progress to them was tracked and the data will be presented.
 
 
Symposium #354
CE Offered: BACB
Pedagogical Approaches for Teaching Behavior Analysis in Higher Education
Monday, May 26, 2008
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Astoria
Area: TBA/EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Michael J. Cameron (Simmons College)
CE Instructor: Susan Ainsleigh, Ed.D.
Abstract:

Currently, one-hundred and twenty university course sequences are approved by the Behavior Analyst Certification Board (BACB) and thirteen university programs are accredited by the Association for Behavior Analysis International to provide post-secondary training in the area of applied behavior analysis. Each of these programs seeks to teach adults about the science of behavior analysis, to prepare graduates for the acquisition of credentials in the field of behavior analysis, and, to some extent, to prepare the newly credentialed practitioner to demonstrate the principles and knowledge learned in a variety of applied settings. To this end, faculty and administrators in higher education programs must make decisions regarding instructional design. Programs providing experiential learning opportunities for students must determine how these programs can result in a transfer of acquired knowledge to a variety of applied settings. Faculty assisting students in preparing for credentialing examinations must identify effective methods for students to prepare for the rigor of an international examination. This symposium presents four papers devoted to the instruction of graduate students in a behavior analytic program. Topics include effective instructional design models, supervision of behavior analysts, study tactics, and assisting students in cross-disciplinary applications of methodological practice.

 
Instructional Design for Teaching Behavior Analysis.
MICHAEL J. CAMERON (Simmons College), Russell W. Maguire (Simmons College)
Abstract: Outcomes for graduate students from a program in applied behavior analysis include: the integration of knowledge, skills and attitudes; the management of qualitatively different constituent skills; and the transfer of what is learned to diverse educational settings. Instructional Design, a branch of knowledge concerned with research and theory about instructional strategies, offers a useful model for teaching complex task performances to graduate students. The purpose of this study was to compare an instructional format, based on the principles of Instructional Design, to a traditional (didactic) instructional method for teaching: (1) verbal skills, (2) intellectual skills, (3) psychomotor skills, and (4) cognitive strategies related to the field of applied behavior analysis. Participants were assigned to one of two groups (i.e., the Instructional Design group or the didactic group). We used multi-method assessment to evaluate learning outcomes - dependent variables included: (1) the duration of instruction, (2) accuracy of performance, and (3) the capacity of each “trainee” to effectively transfer knowledge to another person. Results showed that the graduate students taught via an Instructional Design model spent 50% less time in instruction and performed with greater accuracy than the students from the didactic instruction group. The discipline of Instructional Design logically links to the field of applied behavior analysis and application of the principles yield measurably superior instruction.
 
Supervision of Graduate Students in Applied Behavior Analysis: Program Design, Implementation, and Evaluation.
SUSAN AINSLEIGH (Simmons College)
Abstract: Students preparing for board certification in applied behavior analysis through the Behavior Analyst Certification Board (BACB®) must complete an extensive experiential learning component during their studies. In March 2006, the BACB® distributed revised requirements for supervision. Currently, applicants for board certification must have completed a defined number of hours practicing behavior analysis in an applied setting, and must have had a pre-determined percentage of those hours supervised by a board certified practitioner. This symposium describes the development of a supervision program for graduate students at a university in eastern Massachusetts, from its beginning semester to its conclusion near the end of a student’s graduate experience. The focus of the symposium will be on the content of the supervision experience; that is, the alignment of learning outcomes of each semester of a 4-semester experiential learning program with various levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy (1956). This taxonomy of learning behaviors has been described as the “goals of the educational process” (Bloom, 1956). A 4-semester, experiential learning program, including individual and group supervision, has been developed as a component for master-level study in behavior analysis so that each semester methodologically targets progressively higher levels of learning in each of the major content areas on the BACB® Task List. Development of syllabi, training of supervisors, implementation of methods, and evaluation of outcomes is reviewed. Descriptions and video-clips of sessions are presented to illustrate various components.
 
Preparing for Examinations: A Comparison of Strategies for Studying and Corresponding Test Performance.
REBECCA FONTAINE (Needham Public Schools), Susan Ainsleigh (Simmons College), Michael J. Cameron (Simmons College)
Abstract: Students preparing for examinations use a variety of strategies to review information. Flashcards are often used to document and review key concepts taught. The use of flashcards requires an intraverbal response from the student upon seeing the front of the flashcard (Skinner, 1957). Elaboration is a basic memory technique that involves expanding upon a concept or topic. Elaboration has been associated with improved memory (Craik & Lockhart, 1972). This study examined the effects of study using flashcards and study requiring elaboration on both multiple choice test performance and essay test questions. Results showed that students who studied using flashcards alone demonstrated higher accuracy scores on multiple choice tests than on essay tests, and that elaboration techniques resulted in higher test scores on both test formats.
 
Promoting Applied Stimulus Control Research: Supporting Graduate Student Research in Stimulus Class Formation.
TERRI M. BRIGHT (Simmons College), Russell W. Maguire (Simmons College), Michael J. Cameron (Simmons College)
Abstract: Graduate programs in behavioral analysis have an obligation to ensure that students are well-rounded and able to apply a variety of stimulus control protocols, across a variety of subject populations. In the present study, a graduate student was mentored to conduct a stimulus class research involving dogs as subjects. Initially, the graduate student had enrolled for and participated in coursework that resulted in a terminal Master's degree in Applied Behavior Analysis and prepared her to take the Behavior Analyst Certification exam. Two courses, Advanced Behavior Analysis and a Stimulus Equivalence research course provided the student with the baseline knowledge regarding class formation and equivalences. A final requirement was an applied research prospectus applying this knowledge. Through a systematic and formal mentoring system the graduate student was able to combine her profession (Dog Trainer) with behavior analysis. As a result, she was able to conduct an experiment investigating the formation of stimulus classes in an applied setting. The results are discussed in terms of how to support students of behavioral analysis to apply sophisticated stimulus control procedures in applied settings where they work or may have an interest.
 
 
Panel #356
CE Offered: BACB
Mentoring: It Takes a Behavioral Community to Shape a Good Behavior Analyst
Monday, May 26, 2008
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
PDR 3
Area: TPC/TBA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Karen R. Wagner, M.S.
Chair: Karen R. Wagner (Behavior Services of Brevard, Inc./University of Central Florida)
KAREN R. WAGNER (Behavior Services of Brevard, Inc./University of Central Florida)
CYDNEY JO YERUSHALMI (The Florida Agency for Persons with Disabilities)
SHARON ESTILL OLDER (Adapt Behavior Services, Inc.)
MERRILL WINSTON (Professional Crisis Management, Inc.)
Abstract:

This is an 80-minute session that presents mentoring, and how it relates to clinical supervision, professional practice and professional development. The primary format is a collection of video interviews, with several behavior analysts from across the country. Portions of the presentation were initially presented in the Primary Authors Presidential Address at the Florida Association for Behavior Analysis in September, 2007. Interviewees include Murray Sidman, Nate Azrin, Tim Vollmer, Richard Foxx, Mark Koorland, Julie Vargas, Hank Pennypacker, Jack Michael, and others, as well as the secondary authors. Interviewees were asked: Who were your mentors when you started out?, Who were your mentors/peers as you became established in behavior analysis?, and What persons or projects are you most proud of in which you had a mentoring-type role? These themes are used to emphasize the importance of having mentors and clinical peers throughout ones career, why peer review is so important to practitioners and their consumers, as well as showing the interconnectedness of all behavior analysts and how we all must support and strengthen our least-proficient practitioners to strengthen our profession.

 
 
B. F. Skinner Lecture Series Paper Session #360
CE Offered: BACB

Blaming the Brain

Monday, May 26, 2008
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
Grand Ballroom
Area: CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Elliot Valenstein, Ph.D.
Chair: Jonathan W. Kanter (University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee)
ELLIOT VALENSTEIN (University of Michigan)
Dr. Elliot Valenstein is a professor emeritus of psychology and neuroscience at the University of Michigan. His theories challenge the conventional assumption that mental illness is biochemical, rejecting the simpleminded 'chemical imbalance' theories used by drug companies in marketing their products, contending people should be suspicious of such claims while suggesting the targets of the marketing are usually medicating themselves unnecessarily. In his 1998 book, Blaming the Brain: The Truth about Drugs and Mental Health, Valenstein argues that while psychotropic drugs sometimes do work, they do not even begin to address the real cause of mental disorders, since in his view biochemical theories are an entirely "unproven hypothesis" used to excuse what he sees as often unconscionable marketing practices of the drug industry. Valenstein acknowledges a combination of medications and psychotherapy often offers the best chance of success at treating common disorders, but stresses no one knows exactly why. Valenstein examines the various special interests behind the ascent in the latter half of the 20th century of purely biopsychiatric hypotheses, which appeal strongly to pharmaceutical companies. Their commercial motives are driven by the enormous, multi-billion dollar stakes involved in the intensely competitive marketing for such drugs as Prozac, Zyprexa, and Zoloft. Aggressive marketing, Valenstein contends, has dramatically changed practices in the mental health profession. He explores other aspects of the growing influence of drug companies, which sponsor research, lobby government officials, market directly to both consumers and primary care physicians (the primary prescribers of psychiatric drugs), and pressure psychiatric journals to downplay studies casting doubt on drug safety and efficacy. In 2000, Valenstein presented "A Critique of Current Biochemical Theories of Mental Illness" as the keynote speaker at the Behavior Analysis Association of Michigan (BAAM) convention. In his 1986 book Great and Desperate Cures: The Rise and Decline of Psychosurgery and Other Radical Treatments for Mental Illness, Valenstein explores the history of lobotomy’s heyday, in the 1940s and 1950s, while questioning the legitimacy of widespread use of such unproven medical treatments. The truth, says Valenstein, is that we are only at the dawn of an understanding of mental illness. "The factors that fostered (the operations’) development and made them flourish," explains Valenstein, "are still active today."
Abstract:

It has been said that explaining the mental illness has changed from blaming the mother to blaming the brain. The latter refers to the wide acceptance of the theory that abnormal brain chemistry can explain mental illness. The talk will include a look at the biochemical theories of mental illness by reviewing some of the historical roots, examine the logic and empirical evidence used to support these theories, and discuss why these theories are so popular.

 
 
Invited Tutorial #362
CE Offered: BACB
Tutorial: Funding Behavioral Research
Monday, May 26, 2008
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
International North
Area: OBM/CSE; Domain: Applied Research
BACB CE Offered. CE Instructor: W. Kent Anger, Ph.D.
Chair: Alicia M. Alvero (Queens College and The Graduate Center, City University of New York)
Presenting Authors: : W. KENT ANGER (Oregon Health & Science University), Oliver Wirth (CDC/NIOSH)
Abstract:

This invited tutorial will present useful information regarding funding for behavioral research. Dr. Oliver Wirth, a Researcher at National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), will discuss the current atmosphere at NIOSH regarding funding behavioral safety research. He will provide strategies and tactics for increasing successfully funded grant applications. Dr. Kent Anger, a Senior Scientist and Associate Director from Oregon Health and Science University, will share his successful experiences with obtaining federal extramural funding. He will demystify the process of submitting a successfully funded grant from the identification of a fundable line of research to interpretation of the application review. This will be a unique experience to hear perspectives from both sides of the grant application process.

 
W. KENT ANGER (Oregon Health & Science University), Oliver Wirth (CDC/NIOSH)
Dr. W. Kent Anger is an experimental psychologist who worked at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in Cincinnati and joined the Center for Research on Occupational and Environmental Toxicology (CROET) at Oregon Health & Science University in 1989 where he is a Senior Scientist and Associate Director and has been continuously funded by federal grants for the last 16 years. He is responsible for CROET’s outreach program while maintaining an active, funded research program. Dr. Anger specializes in identifying nervous system effects of chemical exposure and computer-based training to prevent accidents and hazards leading to disease or dysfunction in the workplace. He has authored over 75 publications and served in an advisory role for the World Health Organization, National Research Council, and National Institutes of Health, among other organizations. Present grant support from NIOSH and NIEHS is focused on effectiveness of computer-based training in managers and blue collar workers and assessing effects of pesticide exposures on the nervous system in agricultural workers.
 
 
Symposium #363
CE Offered: BACB
International Symposium - Implicit Relational Testing: Developing Functional Behavioral Tools for the Implicit Identification of Verbal and Social History
Monday, May 26, 2008
10:00 AM–11:20 AM
Metra
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
Chair: Steven Robert Gannon (National University of Ireland, Maynooth)
CE Instructor: Maria R. Ruiz, Ph.D.
Abstract:

The current series of papers outline a functional-analytic research program into the development of a method of behavioral implicit testing that can rival the ubiquitous Implicit Association Test. The first paper in the series outlines the Implicit Association Test and suggests avenues of research for understanding the core processes of the test in behavioral terms. The second paper describes a laboratory experiment designed to examine the utility of a behavioral Implicit Relations Test in identifying a laboratory-created history of arbitrary stimulus associations. The third paper reports on an application of the Implicit Relations Test to identify differences in the verbal categorization of adult, child, sexual and nonsexual stimuli across a sample of normal adult men and women. Finally, the fourth paper analyzes the stability of verbal categorization responses across multiple exposures to an Implicit Association Test and an Implicit Relations Test using a common stimulus set.

 
Implicit Relational Tests: Deconstruction and Reconstruction of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) Based on Derived Relational Responding.
MARIA R. RUIZ (Rollins College), Bryan T. Roche (National University of Ireland, Maynooth), Amanda Gavin (University of Tesside)
Abstract: The social-cognitive literature has generated an expanding catalog of implicit tests to measure unconscious attitudes, bias, preference and other mental states assumed to predispose an individual to generate specific response patterns under testing conditions. The Implicit Association Test (IAT) is one widely used tool which we have deconstructed and reconstructed using a derived stimulus relations model to reveal a) underlying behavioral processes and b) a behavioral history that is sufficient to reproduce these response patterns using nonsense symbols. In so doing, we have replaced the IAT’s complex and obscure measurement strategy using statistically derived latency measures with transparent accuracy scores. We suggest that the IAT is better understood as an Implicit Relational Test that measures a subject’s fluency with relevant verbal categories. We demonstrate this experimentally using a variant Yes/No evaluation procedure that measures the relative strength of verbal relations that may be experimentally created or culturally driven.
 
Building an Implicit Relational Test: A Rule-Based Matching Test for the Identification of Socially-Established Verbal Relations.
AMANDA GAVIN (University of Tesside), Bryan T. Roche (National University of Ireland, Maynooth), Maria R. Ruiz (Rollins College)
Abstract: Using a respondent conditioning procedure, sexual and aversive photographic images were associated with abstract blue and red shapes, respectively. Subjects were then exposed to a yes/no matching test procedure under each of two rule conditions. A congruous rule instructed subjects to match blue comparison stimuli to sexual sample stimuli and to match red comparison stimuli to aversive sample stimuli. An incongruous rule instructed matching based on the reverse of these relations. Each rule applied for an entire block of testing, which in turn consisted of repeated presentations of pairs of photographic images and colored shapes. Subjects responded by pressing a “Yes” or “No” button on-screen in response to the stimulus pairs under the relevant rule. Subjects produced significantly more correct responses under the congruous rule than under the incongruous rule. These findings provide the basis for the development of a powerful implicit behavioral test for socially-established verbal relations.
 
An Improved Implicit Relational Test for Measuring Socially Sensitive Verbal Relations Regarding Children and Sexuality.
AMANDA GAVIN (University of Tesside), Bryan T. Roche (National University of Ireland, Maynooth), Maria R. Ruiz (Rollins College)
Abstract: Subjects were exposed to a yes/no matching test procedure under each of two rule conditions. A congruous rule instructed subjects to match sexual verbal stimuli to adult-related verbal stimuli and nonsexual verbal stimuli to child-related verbal stimuli. An incongruous rule instructed matching based on the reverse of these relations. Each rule applied for an entire block of testing, which in turn consisted of repeated presentations of pairs of sexual or nonsexual verbal stimuli and child or adult-related verbal stimuli. Subjects responded to the on-screen stimulus pairs by pressing one of two colored keys on a computer keyboard that functioned as “Yes” and “No” response keys. Male and female subjects differed considerably in their performances under the two rules. The results suggest that the current test procedure is capable of identifying and assessing verbal relations established in the social histories of individuals.
 
How Reliable are Implicit Tests? Analyzing the Stability of Verbal Categorization Responses across Multiple Exposures to an Implicit Association Test and an Implicit Relations Test.
MELISSA BERNARDO (Rollins College), Maria R. Ruiz (Rollins College), Jordan Rice (Rollins College), Bryan T. Roche (National University of Ireland, Maynooth), Amanda Gavin (University of Tesside)
Abstract: The Implicit Association Test is a promising new tool for the assessment of the strength of verbal repertoire and verbal categorization responses in a whole host of experimental and applied contexts. However, the Implicit association test employs a complex scoring procedure and utilizes stimulus presentation and feedback techniques that both obscure the behavioral processes of interest and which also likely have measurable effects on the stability of response patterns across test trials and across test exposures. In contrast the stimulus control employed in a behavioral Implicit Relations Test is transparent at the level of stimulus presentations and data analysis. The current study was designed to examine differences in performances across an IAT and an IRT and to assess the reliability of both tests across multiple exposures to each test using a common set of stimuli.
 
 
Symposium #365
CE Offered: BACB
Assessment and Treatment of Stereotypic Behavior in Individuals with Autism
Monday, May 26, 2008
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
International South
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Bridget A. Taylor (Alpine Learning Group)
Discussant: Craig H. Kennedy (Vanderbilt University)
CE Instructor: Hannah Hoch, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Stereotypic behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement displayed by individuals with autism continues to present challenges to clinicians. Assessment procedures have focused on identifying conditions under which the behavior is more and less likely to occur, as well as stimuli that compete with the occurrence of the behavior. Treatment options have focused on the fixed time delivery of competing reinforcers (i.e., NCR), differential reinforcement of competing responses, response interruption, redirection of the target behavior, and the use of negative punishment (e.g., timeout or response cost). In this symposium, 3 studies will be presented describing treatment strategies used in the treatment of stereotypic behavior in individuals with autism. Treatment procedures will include the use of noncontingent access to matched sensory stimuli, differential reinforcement of alternate competing responses, response interruption and redirection, response cost, or some combination thereof. Findings will be discussed in terms of the applications of interventions for individuals with autism.

 
Antecedent Assessment and Treatment of Stereotypic Motor Movements Correlated with Visual Stimuli in a Young Boy with Autism.
HANNAH HOCH (Alpine Learning Group), Bridget A. Taylor (Alpine Learning Group), Grace Cheon (Alpine Learning Group)
Abstract: This study examined procedures for the assessment and treatment of stereotypic motor movements of a four-year-old boy with autism. Stereotypic motor movements included hyperextension of arms, and tensing and clenching of muscles in his arms, hands, and face. Anecdotal observations indicated that the behavior occurred more often in the presence of specific visual stimuli (e.g., toys and activities with animation, computer graphics, and digital displays). An antecedent analysis using a multielement design was conducted to identify activities that were correlated with higher rates of stereotypic motor movements, and activities which were not. Results of the antecedent analyses confirmed that specific activities evoked higher levels of stereotypic motor movements. A reversal design was used to examine the effects of a response cost procedure to reduce stereotypic motor movements in the presence of the identified stimuli. Results are discussed in terms of assessment and treatment of stereotypic motor movements correlated with specific stimuli.
 
The Effects of Tact Training and Response Interruption/Redirection on Appropriate and Undesirable Vocalizations.
CANDICE COLON (The New England Center for Children), William H. Ahearn (The New England Center for Children), Kathleen M. Clark (The New England Center for Children), Jessica Masalsky (The New England Center for Children)
Abstract: Though several studies have identified effective verbal operant training procedures, few have studied the effects of verbal operant training on vocal stereotypy (VS). The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of tact training on VS and appropriate speech in children with ASDs in the context of an incidental learning environment. A functional analysis was conducted and the results ruled out socially-mediated consequences for VS. An ABCBC design was used to evaluate the effects of tact training and a response interruption and redirection procedure (RIRD; Ahearn et al., 2007). Following assessment, tact training sessions were conducted using two preferred stimuli and two contextually relevant stimuli. Tact training increased tacting in the incidental learning environment and novel tacts emerged. VS was also lower for some participants following tact training. The implementation of the RIRD procedure was conducted in an effort to further decrease levels of VS. Results indicated that the introduction of the RIRD procedure further decreased levels of VS while levels of appropriate language acquired through tact training were maintained for both participants. Manding also emerged consistently with some participants. Interobserver agreement data were collected for both VS and appropriate language and mean agreement exceeded 90%.
 
Using an NCR Schedule and Response Interruption to Decrease Stereotypic Behavior in an Adult with Autism.
FRANK R. CICERO (Eden II Programs)
Abstract: Automatically reinforced, stereotypic behaviors are frequently observed in individuals with a diagnosis of autism. Because they are self reinforcing, these behaviors are often difficult to treat. The current study investigated the effects of noncontingent reinforcement using matched sensory stimuli on a fixed-time schedule and response interruption of stereotypic behavior, both in isolation and in combination, on the rates of stereotypic behavior. An adult individual with a diagnosis of autism served as the participant. The study was conducted in the participant’s day treatment program within 10-minute treatment sessions. A single subject reversal design, consisting of eight phases; was used. Rate of appropriate object engagement was collected as well as rate of stereotypic behavior. Functional analysis data were initially collected in order to confirm that the behavior was maintained by automatic reinforcement. Results showed a decrease in stereotypic behavior from baseline within the response interruption and combined treatment phases, however, decreased responding was not achieved when NCR was implemented in isolation. Substantial increases in appropriate object engagement were not obtained in any treatment phase. Results will be discussed in terms of their implications for the individual and the field at large.
 
 
Symposium #366
CE Offered: BACB
Social Communication and Social Cognition in the Developing Child with Autism: Observations and Interventions
Monday, May 26, 2008
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
Continental A
Area: AUT/EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Christopher Jones (University of Puget Sound)
Discussant: Ilene S. Schwartz (University of Washington)
CE Instructor: Christopher Jones, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Social communication and social cognition consists of a multitude of skills and behaviors that are radically affected by the triad of deficits characteristically seen in children with autism. Although early, pervasive deficits in social communication and cognition skills are considered hallmark features of autism, less is known about how these deficits manifest themselves in children who have participated in and benefited from effective intervention. This data-based symposium will take an empirical look at social communication and social cognition in children with autism. In Dr. Jones presentation, he discusses how his systematic observations of naturally occurring family interactions revealed joint attention deficits not previously measured in 20 high functioning children with autism who received previous intensive intervention. Dr. Leon-Guerrero will follow with her examination of the effectiveness of a Skillstreaming Early Childhood curriculum in friendship groups on facilitating the development of developmentally appropriate social skills in four preschool children with autism. Penny Williams completes the presentations with her examination of teaching a middle school student with autism to self monitor appropriate on task behavior and appropriate behavior during work tasks. Taken together, these presentations form a compelling example of how much we have yet to discover about the social communication and social cognitive deficits of children with autism and how to remediate them.

 
Why "Look at that!” Does Not Always Work as a Measure of Joint Attention for Children with Autism.
CHRISTOPHER JONES (University of Puget Sound), Ilene S. Schwartz (University of Washington)
Abstract: Social communication in children consists of a diverse set of behaviors and skills that are radically affected by the triad of deficits characteristically seen in autism. Although early, pervasive deficits in social communication skills are considered hallmark features, less is known about how these deficits manifest themselves in children with autism who have participated in and benefited from effective early intervention. In this systematic observation, we examined the social communicative interactions between 20 children with autism and their families. We found that children with autism initiated fewer bids for interactions, commented less often, continued ongoing interactions through fewer conversational turns, and responded less often to family member bids for communication. Results are interpreted with respect to how these communication patterns may be indicative of joint attention deficits not previously examined in older, high functioning children with autism. Strategies for social communication interventions within the family and other natural contexts are discussed and implications for future research are provided.
 
“Friendship Group”: A Classroom Approach to Teaching Social Skills to Young Children with Autism.
RINAMARIE S. LEON-GUERRERO (University of Washington)
Abstract: Social skills are critical skills for young children with autism to develop as they enter school, form friendships and function in the social world. These critical skills are also very difficult skills to learn. Specifically, the complexity of seemingly simple skills and the rules of social interactions present many challenges for young children with autism. In order to target social skills for instruction, this study explored the use of the commercially available Skillstreaming Early Childhood curriculum for teaching social skills. In this study, four preschoolers with autism received explicit instruction on the social skills of greeting and sharing. Each preschooler received instruction in the context of small groups called “friendship groups.” Friendship groups took place in the preschool classroom and included two typically developing peers. The steps of instruction were presentation of the skill using a visual, teacher model with puppets, and the student role play with teacher feedback. Data were collected on demonstration of the skill in friendship group and choice time. Findings of this study strongly suggest that children with autism could acquire critical social skills in the context of their classrooms when explicit instruction and visuals were utilized.
 
ASD and Self Management of Executive Function Skills.
PENNY LYNN WILLIAMS (University of Washington)
Abstract: Executive function deficits are reported in many children with ASD. Such deficits contribute to difficulties in maintaining attention, shifting attention, and increasing a variety of independent skills. Many students with ASD, from preschool through high school, are supported by para-educators. These para-educators often function as the executive manager for the student, thereby increasing prompt dependency and overlooking the need to target pivotal self management skills. In this study a middle school student with ASD was taught to self manage appropriate behaviors during work tasks (e.g. safe hands, calm body, etc.) as well as self manage work engagement. Inappropriate behaviors decreased from an average of 85 incidents during a typical 6-hour school day to less than one per week. Independent work engagement increased from a baseline of 40 minutes and 20+ adult prompts to complete 2 pages of simple maintenance tasks (e.g. simple addition, subtraction, etc.) to less than 7 minutes and 1 or fewer adult prompts to complete the same amount of work. Strategies for teaching and maintaining self-management skills are discussed.
 
 
Symposium #367
CE Offered: BACB
Fighting to Survive in a School for Children with Autism: A Data Presentation of Effective Tactics to Teach Students with Autism
Monday, May 26, 2008
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
Continental B
Area: AUT/VRB; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Jennifer G. Camblin (The Faison School for Autism)
CE Instructor: Jennifer G. Camblin, M.Ed.
Abstract:

The Faison School is a publicly funded private school located in Richmond, Virginia and affiliated with Virginia Commonwealth University. The school provides educational services to students ranging in age from 2 to 22 years. The school employs CABAS components including the learn unit, TPRA, data decision protocol, and tactics to increase verbal behavior levels, academic literacy, and expanded communities of reinforcers. In the total school program, behavior analytic strategies are applied to all aspects of the school including student curriculum, teacher training, and assessments. The following presentations show data resulting from the implementation of tactics to: (1) develop curriculum to increase language; (2) to increase academic, social, and play skills;(3) to increase self-management and independence within the community; and (4) to develop and implement interventions to increase the habilitation of all students.

 
Call in the Reinforcements! Effective Tactics to Increase the Verbal Behavior in Students.
KATHERINE M. MATTHEWS (The Faison School for Autism)
Abstract: Data will be presented on the implementation of several CABAS components including speaker immersion, echoic to tact/mand, and basic listener literacy for students attending The Faison School.
 
In the Trenches: Effective Tactics to Teach Academic, Social, Play, and Daily Living Skills.
ADAM S. WARMAN (The Faison School for Autism), Beth Braddock (Virginia Commonwealth University)
Abstract: Data on tactics to teach academic literacy, social skill imitation, conditioning reinforcement to increase appropriate skills, and daily living skills to increase independence will be presented.
 
Winning the Hearts and Minds: Effective Adaptations for Community Based Instruction.
DANIEL J. IRWIN (Virginia Commonwealth University Autism Center), Adam S. Warman (The Faison School for Autism)
Abstract: As students with autism transition into young adulthood, there is an increased effort to teach skills that address recreational, social, continued education, and supported employment goals in the community setting
 
Fire in the Hole! Effective Assessment and Behavior Intervention Planning.
ANNA M. YOUNG ZALESKA (The Faison School for Autism), Jennifer G. Camblin (The Faison School for Autism)
Abstract: Quality programs spend most of their time trying to increase the skills of their students, but many students exhibit at least a few behaviors that are targeted for decrease. Having a variety of tactics that can teach appropriate skills while also decreasing the targeted interfering behaviors are demonstrated in this presentation.
 
 
Symposium #368
CE Offered: BACB
Innovative Approaches that Address Challenging Behavior in Individuals with Disabilities
Monday, May 26, 2008
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
Stevens 3
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: James T. Ellis (Melmark New England)
Discussant: Frank L. Bird (Melmark New England)
CE Instructor: Frank L. Bird, M.Ed.
Abstract:

The field of applied behavior analysis has long prided itself in its generation of effective treatment approaches which are conceptually systematic and socially valid. This symposium highlights several interventions designed to promote the least restrictive educational setting while addressing serious, challenging behaviors exhibited by individuals with disabilities. The findings will be discussed with regards to balancing the dignity of the individual with the safety of students and staff.

 
Systematic Fading of Protective Equipment for Self-Injurious Behavior.
SILVA ORCHANIAN (Melmark New England), John Demanche (Melmark New England), Frank L. Bird (Melmark New England), Florence D. DiGennaro Reed (Melmark New England)
Abstract: Behavior analysts are often faced with serving students who exhibit severe and dangerous self-injurious and aggressive behavior in educational settings. Although not ideal, the use of protective equipment worn by students is sometimes warranted in order to ensure safety. The difficulty lies in balancing the safety of the individual while promoting a least restrictive quality of life. As such, a systematic fading process for the use of protective equipment is an approach to achieving this balance. This presentation will focus on the fading of full protective headgear with a teenager whose self-injury resulted in major tissue damage. Data over the course of one year will be presented and the importance of collaboration with disciplines outside of behavior analysis will be highlighted.
 
Utilizing a Self-Management Treatment Package to Decrease Stereotypic Behavior in a Student with PDD.
TIFFANEY M. ESPOSITO (Melmark New England), Stephanie Falcone (Melmark New England), Jessica Rocco (Melmark New England), Sarah Gowen (Melmark New England)
Abstract: The present study is a replication of previous research (Koegel & Koegel, 1990) that investigated the utility of a self-management package to decrease stereotypic behavior in students with autism. Self-management packages may be a useful tool in an applied setting to ensure behavioral interventions are maintained in the absence of a treatment provider. The accuracy of self-monitoring skills and the effects of a self-management package on the stereotypic hand-flapping behavior displayed by an 18-year-old girl diagnosed with Pervasive Developmental Disorder were investigated. The results were assessed utilizing a multiple baseline design across three settings; vocational work, residential home, and community. The results showed high accuracy with self-monitoring and a decrease in hand-flapping behavior during self-monitoring sessions across all three settings. The results will be discussed in regards to the potential advantages of self-management packages that target the reduction of maladaptive behaviors in an applied setting.
 
Systematic Fading of Protective Equipment Worn by Staff.
SILVA ORCHANIAN (Melmark New England), Frank L. Bird (Melmark New England), Helena L. Maguire (Melmark New England), Florence D. DiGennaro Reed (Melmark New England)
Abstract: In clinical settings where services are provided to individuals with challenging aggressive behaviors, ensuring the safety of others is a high priority. Serving individuals who present with such severe behaviors may result in the use of protective equipment worn by staff. While protective equipment may, at times, be necessary, facilitating a systematic fading process for this equipment is the goal. The purpose of this presentation is to share findings from two clinical case examples in which fading of protective equipment was achieved. The first participant was a 17-year-old female who engaged in serious aggression which consisted of biting others to such a degree that scarring resulted. Staff members were required to wear protective arm pads, which were systematically faded over 19 months. In addition, the frequency of aggressive biting reduced to near zero levels in the absence of any protective equipment. A second case example involves a 17-year-old man who engaged in aggressive biting and hair pulling. Staff members were required to wear protective equipment (e.g., hats) in order to address hair pulling. Over the course of one year, protective equipment was successfully faded and aggressive behavior decreased.
 
 
Symposium #369
CE Offered: BACB
Empirical Investigations of Precision Teaching with Students and Adults with Autism
Monday, May 26, 2008
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
Continental C
Area: AUT/EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Donna L. Sloan (Rutgers University, Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center)
Discussant: Richard M. Kubina Jr. (Pennsylvania State University)
CE Instructor: Marlene Cohen, Ed.D.
Abstract:

In the field of applied behavior analysis, much focus is placed on the intense training needs of young children with autism. Many educators believe that adolescents and adults with autism are less likely to make significant strides than their younger counterparts. Precision Teaching with frequency building procedures is one method that holds promise as an efficient and effective means of instruction for younger and older learners. These papers represent pilot research that examines the effects of frequency building. This research also compares the effects of various procedural aspects of frequency-building procedures as well as begins to investigate the comparative effectiveness to other ABA techniques.

 
The Effects of Precision Teaching with Frequency Building of Fine Motor Skills on the Performance of Functional Life Skills in Adolescents and Adults with Autism.
MARLENE COHEN (Rutgers University), Donna L. Sloan (Rutgers University, Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center), Lara M. Delmolino Gatley (Rutgers University)
Abstract: This paper will evaluate the effects of Precision Teaching with frequency building procedures on the functional use of fine motor skills in adolescents and adults with autism during activities of daily living. Further, this research explores whether instruction of component motor skills should end when minimum frequency aims are initially achieved, or if continuing instruction of component skills to higher frequencies of performance will yield greater, positive effects on performance of functional composite skills. Preliminary data will examine the impact of reaching higher frequencies on the stability of composite skill performance.
 
The Effects of Precision Teaching with Frequency Building of Language Component Skills on the Performance of Language Composite Skills in Adolescents and Adults with Autism.
MARY SENS-AZARA AZARA (Rutgers University, Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center), Marlene Cohen (Rutgers University), Donna L. Sloan (Rutgers University, Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center)
Abstract: Precision Teaching with frequency building procedures is one method that holds promise as an efficient and effective means of instruction for older learners. The current research is proposed as an attempt to extend previous clinical demonstrations of the profound impact of Precision Teaching with frequency building procedures on the functional use of fine motor skills into the realm of language skill acquisition. Pilot research in this area has indicated results similar to those of previous fine motor skill studies when implementing frequency building of verbal language components. Preliminary results indicate the application to new, untaught skills and a cumulative effect of more rapid acquisition of related language skills. Using a multiple baseline design, this research continues to explore whether instruction of component motor skills should end when minimum frequency aims are initially achieved, or if continuing instruction of component skills to higher frequencies of performance will yield increased, positive effects on performance of language composite skills. The proposed research will examine the cumulative effect of frequency building of three component skills on performance of a single composite skill.
 
Evaluating Maintenance in Skills Trained with and without Rate Building.
MARY JANE WEISS (Rutgers University), Meredith Bamond (Rutgers University)
Abstract: Retention is a frequently cited result of training skills to fluency. There is some evidence that skills taught with rate-building maintain well. In this paper, we will present additional data from retention checks on skills trained to fluency, through six month retention checks. The set of data includes skills taught to a variety of learners and across a variety of learning channels, and measures include rate, duration, and latency. However, it is not clear whether this maintenance results from rate-building or from practice itself. In other words, it may be the case that maintenance of skills trained to fluency is similar to the maintenance of skills taught via other intensive behavior analytic teaching strategies. We will also present some preliminary data on the maintenance of skills taught without rate-building.
 
 
Symposium #370
CE Offered: BACB
Literacy, Anxiety, and Video Modeling: Innovations in Behavior Analysis for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Monday, May 26, 2008
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
Stevens 4
Area: AUT/EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Jeannie A. Golden (East Carolina University)
Discussant: Scott C. Cross (Lovaas Institute)
CE Instructor: Jeannie A. Golden, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Traditionally, behavior analysts treat children with autism in more individualized, home-based settings using discrete trial methods. Only when these children with autism have learned all the prerequisite skills will traditional behavior analysts treat them in more group, school-based settings and then, usually with shadowing or structured adult-led interventions. The presenters in this symposium are treating children with autism in group, school-based settings using behavioral interventions. They are using techniques that are more innovative, such as video modeling and writing activities. Additionally, they are dealing with a variety of task domains: adaptive, such as self-help skills; academic, such as literacy; and emotional, such as dealing with anxiety. Each of the presenters in this symposium works with children with autism in real-life less-than-ideal conditions and indirectly by working with teachers and aids who are not specifically trained in behavioral methodology, yet have demonstrated positive outcomes for the children with autism who are being served.

 
A Comparison of Self, Other, and Subjective Video Models for Teaching Individuals with Autism.
TONI R. VAN LAARHOVEN (Northern Illinois University), Jesse W. Johnson (Northern Illinois University), Leslie Zurita (Drauden Point Middle School, Plainfield Consolidated School District), Kristin Grider (Northern Illinois University), Katie Grider (Northern Illinois University )
Abstract: Video technology is rapidly emerging as an effective medium for teaching various skills to individuals with developmental disabilities. One of the variables associated with video modeling that is in need of further study involves the type of model that is depicted in the video sequences. Some researchers have used self models (Buggey, 2005), peer models (Haring, et al., 1987), adult models (Alcantara, 1994), first person or “subjective viewpoint” (Schreibman, Whalen, & Stahmer, 2000), or a combination of models (Van Laarhoven & Van Laarhoven-Myers, 2005). The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of self, other, and subjective video models for teaching daily living skills to three individuals with autism or developmental disabilities. Participants were taught three different skills; each with a different type of video model and the effects of the instructional conditions were evaluated and compared using an adapted alternating treatments design. Results indicated very little difference among the types of models in terms of their effects on independent correct responding, but did result in significant differences in relation to time needed to create the stimulus materials, with creation of self-modeling materials requiring almost twice as much time as the other- and subjective-modeling materials. Instructional implications will be discussed.
 
Increasing Academic Participation, Reducing Classroom Anxiety: Applying ABA with Students with Asperger’s Syndrome in Public Schools.
ROBERT K. ROSS (BEACON Services), Molly Griffin (BEACON Services)
Abstract: Many children with a diagnosis of Asperger’s syndrome demonstrate behavioral and emotional responses to academic challenges and non-preferred social conditions at school. The academic content areas where abstraction and conceptual complexity are greatest may result in students with Asperger’s demonstrating behavior that is often described as evidence of an anxiety or emotional reactions to these tasks. The current study describes the use of behavior analytic descriptions of the problem and behavioral interventions to address identified skill deficits. These descriptions and objective baseline data were used to establish teaching procedures designed to develop adaptive responses to academic and social challenges. The interventions were implemented by public school personnel with periodic consultation support from a Board Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA). The data demonstrate a rapid reduction in “emotional” behavior, and dramatic increases in academic participation and acquisition of targeted academic and social content. The results are discussed both in terms of procedures implemented and effect on target behaviors as well as the process the team used to ensure effective staff training and reliable implementation across classroom teachers and school settings. Finally, parent satisfaction and home generalization issues will be reviewed.
 
Literacy in Children with Autism: Strategies That Facilitate Rather Than Sabotage Comprehension.
LORI STUART (Behavioral Consultation & Psychological Services)
Abstract: Many children with autism have been taught to read and write using traditional methods that are used with typical children. Although these children with autism do learn to read and write, they do so without comprehension. Children diagnosed with autism lack the inter-verbal communication skills of typical children. In the early stages of teaching typical children to read, strategies such as looking at pictures, copying words and sentences, and reading out loud facilitate comprehension. However, this teaches children with autism form without function, similar to echolalia. Therefore, unfortunately, when children diagnosed with autism are taught in this way, they fail to comprehend what they are reading and writing. This presenter will demonstrate strategies, such as receptive instruction reading, word association, filling-in blanks, writing mands, writing notes, and translating sentences, that increase comprehension and decrease obstacles to learning that have sabotaged the ability to comprehend in many children with autism.
 
 
Symposium #371
CE Offered: BACB
Optimizing Applied Behavior Analysis Services
Monday, May 26, 2008
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
Boulevard A
Area: CBM/CSE; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Ralph L. Olson (Pathways Community Mental Health)
CE Instructor: Ralph L. Olson, Ph.D.
Abstract:

This symposium describes a rural, four-county, community mental health authoritys efforts to expand and upgrade its applied behavior analysis services in the context of clinical, administrative, financial, and geographic challenges. The agencys baseline situation is discussed with respect to each of these issues. Key data-based indicators related to clinical practice, staff training costs, and general and consumer-specific levels of physical intervention use are presented. The goals, structure, and various benefits of a significant reorganization resulting in a team-based agency solution are presented. Several major challenges and their unique solutions at the system and clinical practice level are discussed in detail. The objective achievements of the new model are compared to baseline indicators, several additional practical lessons and continuing challenges are highlighted, and future directions are discussed. The overall agency experience offers a model for organizing and delivering more efficient and effective applied behavior analysis services that is supported by some outcome data, while also identifying persistent issues and the need for continued development.

 
There’s Got to Be a Better Way: One Agency’s Self-Assessment of Applied Behavior Analysis Services.
RALPH L. OLSON (Pathways Community Mental Health), Louis A. Bersine (Pathways Community Mental Health), Jeffrey C. Brittain (Pathways Community Mental Health), Denise Clark (Pathways Community Mental Health), Laurel R. Kniskern (Pathways Community Mental Health)
Abstract: In the authors’ experience, many public mental health agencies are organized to include to varying extents, but not fully realize the benefits of applied behavior analysis services. Rural settings create unique challenges posed by geography and limited staffing, compounding typical public-sector problems related to finances and administrative complexities. Pathways Community Mental Health’s baseline situation relative to clinical and administrative indicators is outlined. The agency’s uncommonly large service area and traditional community mental health center approach to applied behavioral services created multiple challenges which are discussed in detail. Particular attention is devoted to key administrative and clinical practice data which is referenced in subsequent presentations. This presentation, in our experience and opinion, summarizes common dilemmas associated with providing applied behavior analysis services within rural public mental health agencies.
 
Pathways’ Behavioral Psychology Services: Conceptual Foundations and Practical Implementation.
LOUIS A. BERSINE (Pathways Community Mental Health), Ralph L. Olson (Pathways Community Mental Health), Jeffrey C. Brittain (Pathways Community Mental Health), Denise Clark (Pathways Community Mental Health), Laurel R. Kniskern (Pathways Community Mental Health)
Abstract: Based on an evaluation of the agency situation depicted in the opening presentation, Pathways created a Behavioral Psychology Services (BSP) program, an effort that required comprehensive clinical and administrative reorganization. The clinical core of this program involves a team which includes behavior analysts, psychologists (working toward board certification), paraprofessional staff, and clinical case managers assigned to the team. The BPS team provides applied behavioral services agency-wide under centralized and significantly streamlined administrative leadership. The BSP’s major conceptual goals aimed at clinical, financial, and risk management are discussed in connection with specific problems identified during the agency’s self-evaluation. The range of typical team activities and the practice-level implementation of these goals are presented in detail. This presentation describes a practical agency approach to significantly increasing the efficiency and potency of applied behavior analysis services.
 
Collaborative Problem Solving at the Practice and Systems Levels – Building a Training Wheel.
DENISE CLARK (Pathways Community Mental Health), Ralph L. Olson (Pathways Community Mental Health), Louis A. Bersine (Pathways Community Mental Health), Jeffrey C. Brittain (Pathways Community Mental Health), Laurel R. Kniskern (Pathways Community Mental Health)
Abstract: Early on in the implementation of the Behavioral Psychology Services (BPS) program, several key problems were encountered which required creativity and collaboration. At a systems level, Pathways recognized the need to ensure consistency, quality, and cost savings for its contract agency employees receiving Professional Crisis Management (PCM) training. PCM training provides direct care staff with detailed, competency-based instruction related to understanding, preventing, and responding to serious aggression and self-injury. PCM training, selected for its applied behavior analysis conceptual base and many additional features, represented an important direct care staff training segment. This training, however, was practically and financially ponderous for small contractor agencies to provide independently. A collaborative training model and its clinical and economical benefits were developed to address this. At the practice level, implementing the BPS program involved several shifts in communication, team work, and service delivery, particularly related to direct care staff training. The collaborative training model and specific practice strategies offer readily generalizable examples of service delivery problem solving.
 
Several Years Into the Adventure: Progress, Perspective and Prognosis.
JEFFREY C. BRITTAIN (Pathways Community Mental Health), Ralph L. Olson (Pathways Community Mental Health), Louis A. Bersine (Pathways Community Mental Health), Denise Clark (Pathways Community Mental Health), Laurel R. Kniskern (Pathways Community Mental Health)
Abstract: In the final presentation of this symposium, the authors present current Behavioral Psychology Service (BPS) program data in comparison to baseline data detailed in the initial presentation. These data describe BPS clinician caseloads, on-site clinician presence, serious behavior episodes, costs and numbers of placements in state facilities, and comparisons of organizational structure. As a result of implementing the BPS program, caseloads and geographic challenges are more manageable and clinician contacts in direct care settings have become more regular and frequent. Serious behavior episode data are encouraging and state facility placements/costs dramatically reduced. Beyond the encouraging data-based picture, a number of more subjective, but equally important, observations and insights have been accumulated. Thoughts on the BPS implementation process, strategies for providing the most effective services home-by-home, staffing and management variables that impact effectiveness, additional direct care staff training needs, pursuing behavior analyst board certification while on the job are discussed. Considered from empirical and qualitative perspectives, the BPS program has produced compelling conceptual and practical benefits and represents an important example of improving applied behavior analysis service delivery.
 
 
Symposium #374
CE Offered: BACB
Behavioral Approaches to Improving the Quality of Life for Teens in Foster Care
Monday, May 26, 2008
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
PDR 2
Area: CSE/TBA; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Michelle Sereno (University of South Florida)
Discussant: Hewitt B. Clark (University of South Florida)
CE Instructor: Kimberly Crosland, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Floridas Behavior Analysis Services Program is a statewide program for dependent children and caregivers. Board certified behavior analysts from the University of South Florida and the University of Florida work with parents, staff, and children. More recently, these behavior analysts have been requested to work specifically with high risk teens. Prior research has shown that youth who exit the foster care system at 18 (i.e., those who age out of the system) have insufficient skills to obtain employment, housing, and social relationships that are necessary for successful independent living outcomes (Iglehart, 1994). Running away from placements has also been and remains another significant problem with teenage youth in foster care. Three presentations within the current symposium will discuss outcome results with at-risk youth. The first two presentations will discuss a modified version of the Parenting Tools curriculum for young adults. Both studies reported success in teaching teens specific tools or social skills to improve interactions. The final presentation will describe the results of a study to evaluate the effects of using a Youth Interaction Tool (YIT) to decrease youth runaway behavior. The YIT was used to determine the function of running, resulting in effective treatment strategies to decrease running.

 
I Don’t Mean No Disrespect…Interaction Tools for Young Adults Class: A Pilot Study Investigating Effects of a Modified Positive Behavioral Parenting Curriculum on Acquisition of Conflict Resolution...
MICHELLE SERENO (University of South Florida), Laraine Winston (University of South Florida), Camille V. Pedone (University of South Florida), Shannon Shea (University of South Florida)
Abstract: This pilot study investigated the effects of training teens/young adults in the use of negotiation/conflict resolution skills, applying and extending previous research that demonstrates the effects of positive behavioral parent training on acquisition of similar skills sets in adult caregivers. Participants were foster children 14-21 years of age in various stages of transitioning from traditional foster care to independent living. The Behavior Analysis Services Program (BASP) ‘Essential Tools for Positive Behavior Change’ curriculum consists of research-based strategies organized into specific “tools” which can be applied to difficult situations. This standard parent-training curriculum was modified in content and presentation style to address issues and challenges specific to the young adult population. Class topics were presented through discussion and activities with opportunities for participants to practice tool usage. Participant skill acquisition was measured through pre- and post-class-role play assessments. Participant scores were compared to the scores of adult caregivers who had attended the standard course and had completed the same pre- and post-course role-play assessments. Results indicate that, while teens/young adults typically scored lower than adult caregivers on pre-assessment role-plays, this population demonstrated higher post-assessment skill acquisition scores than those attained by adult caregivers.
 
Social Skills Training with Typically Developing Adolescents: Measurement of Skill Acquisition.
JESSICA THOMPSON (University of South Florida), Kimberly Crosland (University of South Florida), Stacie Neff (University of South Florida), Kimberly V. Weiss (University of South Florida), Betsy M. Zamora (University of South Florida)
Abstract: The term social skills has been specifically defined as learned behaviors that allow an individual to engage in socially acceptable interactions with other individuals such that the interactions lead to positive responses from others and aid in the avoidance of negative responses (Elliott & Gresham, 1993). This study investigated the ability of three adolescent females ages 13-17 to acquire a set of social skills through training. The skills taught were modified for teens from the parenting tools taught to foster parents within the Behavior Analysis Services Program. Participant’s acquisition of the skills before and after training was assessed through role-play assessments and experimentally demonstrated using a multiple baseline design. Secondary survey information (e.g. Child Behavior Checklist) was collected from participants and their parents to attempt to measure the effects of training on other behaviors of interest. All three participants demonstrated significant improvements of the three skills taught. The baseline pre-training average across participants was approximately 50% which increased to approximately 88% at post-training. The secondary information showed minor improvements in parent reported child behavior.
 
Use of the Youth Interaction Tool with Habitual Runaway Youth: Successes and Failures.
DAVID GELLER (University of South Florida), Terresa A. Kenney (University of South Florida), Michael Cripe (University of South Florida), Jessica L. Colon (University of South Florida), Hewitt B. Clark (University of South Florida), Kimberly Crosland (University of South Florida)
Abstract: A significant problem in the field of child protection is that of teenagers running from their foster placements. In this presentation, it is argued that a functional and behavior analytic approach could be effective in reducing the problem of runaways. A functional approach involves conducting assessments regarding the motivations for running, involving the teens themselves in the assessment process, and implementing subsequent interventions designed to make the placements more appealing to the youth, thereby reducing the probability of running. In order to conduct a more accurate assessment of running, the Youth Interaction Tool (YIT) was developed and evaluated with 14 adolescents with histories of running. Data on percent of days on the run and placement changes showed significant pre-post differences for these habitual runners in contrast to no statistical change in a comparison group’s outcomes. The total percent of days on the run for the group decreased from 40% of days in baseline to 11% of days post-intervention. Individual data using a pre-post design will also be presented to illustrate the process of intervention with both youth in which the approach was successful and youth who did not appear to change their running behavior.
 
 
Symposium #376
CE Offered: BACB
Examination of Data Analysis Methods
Monday, May 26, 2008
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
Stevens 2
Area: DDA/AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Jason C. Bourret (The New England Center for Children)
Discussant: William H. Ahearn (The New England Center for Children)
CE Instructor: Jason C. Bourret, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Analysis and interpretation of data in order to identify functional relations is a hallmark of behavior analysis. The talks included in this symposium focus on the evaluation of differing methods of analyzing data and, in particular, the degree to which differing data analysis methods facilitate the detection of extinction bursts, treatment effects, and changes in the reliability of data collection.

 
Within- versus Between-Session Examination of Responding during Extinction.
JENNIFER N. FRITZ (University of Florida), Brian A. Iwata (University of Florida), Griffin Rooker (University of Florida)
Abstract: Although extinction (EXT) is the most direct method for reducing the frequency of problem behavior, its use has been associated with several side effects, the most common being the EXT burst. EXT bursting typically is defined as a temporary increase in response rate above that observed during baseline. Reports of EXT bursting are relatively rare; however, their occurrence may be masked when data are presented as overall session rates. In other words, it is possible that a burst or responding may occur at the beginning of initial EXT sessions, but overall session rates might not detect this phenomenon. We first compared local rates of problem behavior during contingent-reinforcement and extinction-only conditions by conducting within-session analyses of behavioral patterns to determine whether the occurrence of EXT bursts can be masked by the use of average session rates. Second, we examined the effectiveness of other treatment procedures (in conjunction with EXT) for reducing the magnitude or occurrence of EXT bursts.
 
Within-Session Response Patterns as Predictors of Treatment Outcome.
GRIFFIN ROOKER (University of Florida), Brian A. Iwata (University of Florida), Jennifer N. Fritz (University of Florida)
Abstract: Analysis of within-session response patterns has been used in several studies to examine data from functional analyses of problem behavior but generally has not been used to evaluate treatment effects. Rapid detection of changes in responding may be especially helpful when comparing the effects of two or more treatments. We conducted an analysis of within-session response patterns during treatment comparisons to determine whether any initial differences could be detected and, if so, whether they were predictive of treatment outcome.
 
Comparison of Proportional and Exact Agreement in Measuring Improvement in Data Collection.
STACIE BANCROFT (The New England Center for Children), Jason C. Bourret (The New England Center for Children)
Abstract: Interobserver agreement (IOA) is often calculated to enhance the believability of data. Proportional and exact-agreement are two common calculations used to determine the percentage of agreement between two independent observers. Participants included four teachers working in a research group as data collectors in partial fulfillment of graduate program requirements or in preparation for a graduate program. Participants served as secondary data collectors to experienced primary data collectors across several different studies. Both proportional and exact agreement scores were calculated for each of their first several sessions of data collection. The first data analysis for each participant showed the progression of agreement scores over time for both proportional and exact agreement calculations. While little progress was shown with the proportional agreement scores, steady increases in agreement were shown with the exact agreement scores. A second data analysis plotted exact agreement scores against proportional agreement scores showing the calculations to produce similar scores at higher agreements. However, sessions with lower levels of agreement showed significantly lower scores for exact agreement. These data suggest that exact agreement calculations may be a more sensitive measure of changes in agreement, and may be more useful in measuring progress in training new data collectors.
 
 
Symposium #379
CE Offered: BACB
Responding Under Ratio Schedules of Reinforcement: What Causes the Pause?
Monday, May 26, 2008
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
Barbershop
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
Chair: Henry D. Schlinger (California State University, Los Angeles)
CE Instructor: Henry D. Schlinger, Ph.D.
Abstract:

This symposium will 1) discuss the historical roots of research into the variables responsible for pausing on ratio schedules of reinforcement, including the use of multiple and mixed schedules to assess the relative influence of events that precede and follow the pause; 2) present recent research further clarifying the roles of conditioned inhibitory effects of reinforcement and of varying ratio size and reinforcer magnitude in multiple fixed-ratio schedules; and 3) discuss the implications of what we know about the causes of the ratio pause for behavioral interruptions in humans, such as procrastination and neglect

 
Post-reinforcement or Pre-ratio Pause: What’s in a Name?
HENRY D. SCHLINGER (California State University, Los Angeles)
Abstract: In The Behavior of Organisms and, most notably, in Schedules of Reinforcement, Skinner maintained that the zero rate of responding after reinforcement on fixed-ratio (FR) schedules was controlled by the S-delta effects of the reinforcer — hence the term “post-reinforcement pause.” Subsequently, researchers demonstrated the influence of such variables as ratio size, reinforcement magnitude, and response effort on post-reinforcement pausing. Much of what is known about pausing under ratio schedules, however, has come from performances on simple schedules, which hold fixed characteristics such as the ratio size and reinforcer magnitude. The problem posed by using simple schedules is that pausing could just as easily be attributed to the upcoming rather than the preceding ratio. The solution is to use multiple or mixed schedules. Many studies using multiple and mixed FR schedules have in fact shown that pausing is also influenced by stimuli correlated with the upcoming ratio, which has led some researchers to use the term “pre-ratio pause.” This talk will briefly trace the development of research on pausing from Skinner’s first experiments to contemporary studies, emphasizing how changing from simple to multiple schedules has led to a better understanding of the ratio pause.
 
Fixed-Ratio Schedules of Reinforcement: The Role of Conditioned Inhibition in Pausing.
ADAM DERENNE (University of North Dakota), Kathryn A. Flannery (University of North Dakota)
Abstract: A well-known feature of performances under fixed-ratio schedules of reinforcement is the appearance of a pause in responding that occurs following the delivery of each reinforcer. This pause is often of such a duration that it cannot be readily attributed to the time required for subjects to consume the reinforcer or any other obvious need of the subject. One popular explanation for why pausing occurs is that the beginning of each ratio is correlated with the immediate unavailability of additional reinforcement and the resulting conditioned inhibition temporarily suppresses responding. In several experiments with rats and mice we examined how conditioned inhibition is affected by the use of explicit stimuli correlated with reinforcer unavailability and by the delivery of noncontingent reinforcers early in the ratio. The results suggest that conditioned inhibition alone cannot explain the origins of fixed-ratio pausing.
 
Interactive Effects of Response Requirements and Reinforcer Magnitude on Fixed-Ratio Pausing.
JESSICA B. LONG (West Virginia University), Harold E. Lobo (West Virginia University), Michael Perone (West Virginia University)
Abstract: Pigeons responded on multiple schedules with components differing in both the size of the fixed ratio required for food reinforcement (access to grain) and the magnitude of the reinforcement (duration of the access). The ratio requirement and reinforcer magnitude were manipulated across conditions to effect “rich” and “lean” components. In some cases the lean component was made increasingly leaner (by raising the ratio requirement or lowering the reinforcer magnitude) across conditions. In other cases the rich component was enriched (by lowering the ratio requirement or increasing reinforcer magnitude) across conditions. Pausing was analyzed in each of the four possible transitions from one component to the next: rich-to-rich, rich-to-lean, lean-to-rich, and lean-to-lean. Pausing was extended in the rich-to-lean transition when the there was a sufficient difference between the two components. This effect was intensified when the difference between components was created by leaning the lean component rather than enriching the rich component. The worsening of local conditions may not be sufficient to generate pausing; the context in which this worsening occurs must also be considered.
 
Why Pausing Matters.
MICHAEL PERONE (West Virginia University)
Abstract: Pausing, as measured in operant conditioning experiments, represents an interruption in the behavioral stream of interest. The study of pausing may shed light on basic behavioral processes – for example, why a schedule of reinforcement may temporarily lose control over behavior – and provide insights into the cause and cure of human problems that involve behavioral interruptions, such as procrastination, neglect, and other forms of irresponsibility. In this talk I will summarize some of the causes of pausing and some of the possible applications of this knowledge.
 
 
Symposium #382
CE Offered: BACB
Instructional Design: What's New?
Monday, May 26, 2008
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
Waldorf
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Kent Johnson (Morningside Academy)
CE Instructor: Kent Johnson, Ph.D.
Abstract:

A fast-paced series of 13 speakers will present their latest efforts in instructional design, including academic instruction in reading, math and grammar for children and youth; effective school practices; college teaching; generic professional development; training for university trustees; training for parents and teachers of children with disabilities; and programming and software development issues.

 
Instructional Design in Educating Children and Youth.
BRADLEY G. FRIESWYK (BGF Performance Systems, LLC.), John E. Humphrey (Cedar Rapids Schools), Philip N. Chase (West Virginia University), Kent Johnson (Morningside Academy), Guy S. Bruce (Appealing Solutions, LLC)
Abstract: Topics include teaching grammar to middle and high school students, teaching beginning reading on the Internet, teaching math to elementary and middle school students, and a top ten list of effective school practices.
 
Instructional Design Issues in Programming and Software Development.
WILLIAM D. NEWSOME (University of Nevada, Reno), Leslie S. Burkett (University of North Texas)
Abstract: Topics include evaluating web-based learning technologies, and upgrading software to meet the needs of changing technology.
 
Instructional Design in Higher Education.
STEPHEN E. EVERSOLE (Behavior Development Solutions), Emily Michelle Leeming (University of Nevada, Reno), Marilyn B. Gilbert (Performance Engineering Group), Matthew L. Porritt (Aubrey Daniels International)
Abstract: Topics include delivering professional development online, evaluating the effects of peer coaching on exam performance in a university course, designing new methods for teaching remedial English to college freshmen, and computer-based job training for university boards of trustees.
 
Instructional Design for Parents and Teachers of Children with Autism and Developmental Disabilities.
RICHARD KEVIN FLEMING (Shriver Center/University of Massachusetts Medical School), Vicci Tucci (Tucci Learning Solutions, Inc.)
Abstract: Topics include a six-course, online curriculum on behavioral interventions for parents of children with autism; and a job aid for teaching instructors how to select contingencies for devloping a repertoire.
 
 
Symposium #383
CE Offered: BACB
Practices of Effective Schools
Monday, May 26, 2008
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
Williford C
Area: EDC/AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Guy S. Bruce (Appealing Solutions, LLC)
Discussant: Henry S. Pennypacker (University of Florida)
CE Instructor: Guy S. Bruce, Ed.D.
Abstract:

Because many public schools are failing to produce students with the knowledge and skills they need for successful lives, there is a growing demand by parents, employers, and other taxpayers for more effective schools. This symposium will describe the educational practices implemented by three effective schools and examine the evidence that these practices are responsible for their superior learning outcomes.

 
Using Objective Outcome Measures to Promote Student Achievement in the Pennsylvania Verbal Behavior Project.
WILLIAM A. GALBRAITH (PA Training and Technical Assistance Network)
Abstract: This presentation will focus on how clearly defined teacher competencies and classroom implementation outcomes are used to establish training priorities and to guide on-site consultation to promote student acquisition of communication and social skills in ninety autism support classrooms throughout Pennsylvania. Student achievement is measured by pre/post scores on the Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills (ABLLS). Teacher competencies are assessed by a checklist measuring skills in classroom management, instructional design and delivery, and managing problem behaviors. Pre/post site review outcomes measure changes in implementation of critical interventions based on applied behavior analysis (ABA) and the analysis of verbal behavior (AVB). The site review is also used as a formative assessment to guide the consultation process and to assess implementation progress of classrooms. Outcome data reflecting these measures will be presented from the last 3 years of the PA Verbal Behavior Project.
 
Data-driven Management for the 21st Century: Watch the Children - All of Them, All of the Time.
BAKER A. MITCHELL (The Roger Bacon Academy), Mark T. Cramer (The Roger Bacon Academy), Jesse Smith (The Roger Bacon Academy)
Abstract: In elementary schools, each young student should be continually assessed to ensure mastery of each successive skill as the curricula build toward their final, composite goals. Teachers can be held accountable for proper execution of this process only when they are given efficient data collection and analysis tools and are trained in their use. Likewise, principals can be held accountable for proper support and training of teachers only when they, in turn, have efficient access to the same student assessment data and analysis tools. Simple, easily acquired measurements – words per minute read or basic math facts answered per minute – have been shown to be sensitive indicators of more comprehensive skills and can serve as proxies for more complex, time-consuming assessments. However for a 750-student school, a minimal set of, say, four items per day per student produces 15,000 data points per week. The challenge is to devise a system to manage the acquisition, display, and analysis of these data in a manner that does not disrupt the teaching mission but rather is supportive and complementary to this mission at the student, classroom, and school levels. This presentation describes such a data system and discusses the experiences of three years’ use.
 
Practices of Effective Schools.
GUY S. BRUCE (Appealing Solutions, LLC), Libby M. Street (Central Washington University)
Abstract: Some schools produce better learning outcomes than others. What could account for their success? This presentation will describe the educational practices implemented by effective schools and examine the evidence that one or more of the practices they implement is responsible for their superior learning outcomes.
 
 
Symposium #386
CE Offered: BACB
Behavior-Based Security and Safety: Improving Homeland Security with Behavior Analysis
Monday, May 26, 2008
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
Marquette
Area: OBM/CSE; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Joseph R. Sasson (MedAxiom)
Discussant: John Austin (Western Michigan University)
CE Instructor: Marco D. Tomasi, Ph.D.
Abstract:

A founding dimension of applied behavior analysis is the focus on socially significant problems (Baer, Wolf, & Risely, 1968). In a post-9/11 world the improvement of safety, security, and vigilance behaviors has been viewed as such a problem. Recent examples have shown how basic and applied behavior analysis research can improve Homeland Security. The current session seeks to provide an update to this emerging research and broaden the scope of analysis and interventions discussed.

 
Behaviorally Impoverished Work Environments: The Implications of Extinction and Monotony for Safety and Security.
RYAN B. OLSON (Oregon Health & Science University), Matthew C. Bell (Santa Clara University)
Abstract: Behaviorally impoverished work environments, with low levels of reinforcement and task variation, have negative implications for both public safety and worker health. Extinction conditions result in decreased vigilance in simulated luggage screening. Qualitative analyses suggest that extinction is also aversive, as evidenced by participant extinction bursts, verbal complaints, and quit rates. Chronic stress, especially in environments where workers have low levels of control, is associated with negative health outcomes. Research in visual screening and driving safety suggests that environmental monotony is a related source of fatigue and performance errors. Moreover, certain individuals appear to be highly susceptible to monotony and other exogenous causes of fatigue, which may set the stage for safety or security catastrophes in behaviorally impoverished environments. Behavioral enrichment of important safety and security work environments is likely to maintain performance and protect public health.
 
Behavior Analysis and Airport Security: Effects of the Random Anti-Terrorism Measure System on Vigilance.
MARCO D. TOMASI (Florida State University), Jon S. Bailey (FSU, BMC, FABA)
Abstract: The current research was carried out within the operations division of a regional airport. The operations division is responsible for the airport’s communication center, safety, security, oversight of general aviation, ground transportation, compliance with FAA and TSA regulations, and coordination of police and fire services. Vigilance behaviors in the communications center were identified and defined. The Random Anti-Terrorism Measure System, or RAMS, was developed to systematically increase vigilance behaviors, provide frequent, performance-based feedback, and place minimal financial and time demands on management for maintenance. RAMS produced a 272% increase in vigilance performance.
 
Intelligence, Security, and the Application of Behavior Analysis.
GARY M. JACKSON (SAIC)
Abstract: Dr. Jackson has spent over two decades incorporating principles of applied behavior analysis into advanced artificial intelligence applications. These automated behavior analysis applications have been validated to accurately identify antecedents and consequences of threatening behavior and to predict specific threat on problems of national concern. From detecting malicious behavior of hackers in real-time to identifying terrorist threat, all applications have a strong applied behavior analysis foundation. This technology has been used in areas such as terrorism, computer security, corporate espionage, and chemical/biological threat. Dr. Jackson will describe how automated behavior analysis works.
 
 
Panel #387
CE Offered: BACB
Bridging the Gap: Using Distance Technologies For Technology Transfer
Monday, May 26, 2008
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
Astoria
Area: TBA/EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Siri Morris Ming, M.A.
Chair: Judith E. Favell (AdvoServ)
SIRI MORRIS MING (Humboldt County Office of Education)
VICCI TUCCI (Tucci Learning Solutions, Inc.)
KRISTEN COPELAND (Private Consultant)
KIRSTEN K. YURICH (The Vista School)
Abstract:

With a growing interest in behavior analysis around the world, particularly for children with autism, many behavior analysts are called upon to provide services and supervision in far-flung regions with few services and supports. Distance technologies such as Web-based video conferencing, electronic video review, and simple phone calls can provide an efficient means of providing consultative services, and can also provide a means of establishing behavior analytic services in communities where none were formerly present. Distance-based supervision can mean the difference between a community with a growing number of certified behavior analysts, associate behavior analysts, and an ABA affiliate chapter, or a community with loosely tied practitioners "doing the best they can". Remote coaching can efficiently reach teachers and instructional assistants in classrooms that otherwise would rarely have supervision opportunities. However, the use of distance technologies also presents unique practical and ethical issues with regards to ensuring the effectiveness of this type of consultation, and exacerbates the difficulties inherent in any non-employee supervision arrangement. In this presentation, panel members will discuss the joys and tribulations of providing and receiving "virtual" supervision and coaching.

 
 
Symposium #389
CE Offered: BACB
International Symposium - Procedures to Increase Expressive Language
Monday, May 26, 2008
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
Stevens 5
Area: VRB/AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: John W. Esch (ESCH Behavior Consultants, Inc.)
CE Instructor: John W. Esch, Ph.D.
Abstract:

This symposium presents a review and 3 empirical papers on the acquisition of expressive language. The first two papers offer procedures to increase vocalizations with children who vocalize little. The Esch et al. paper used a lag schedule to increase vocal variability to train an echoic with children who had a diagnosis of autism. The Shillingsburg et al. paper used an extinction procedure to teach vocal mands with children who signed. To determine the efficacy of a common language instruction practice, the Petursdottir and Carr paper reviewed the literature on teaching receptive before expressive repertoires. The Williams et al. paper presented a procedure to teach children with a diagnosis of autism to label abstract figures as previously trained numerals.

 
Increasing Vocal Variability with a Lag Schedule.
JOHN W. ESCH (ESCH Behavior Consultants, Inc.), Barbara E. Esch (ESCH Behavior Consultants, Inc.), Jessa R. Love (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Many children with autism have vocal repertoires that are too limited to allow successful shaping of more complex vocal responses. Vocal variability would provide a greater number of phonemes available for reinforcement, thus increasing the overall complexity of the speech repertoire. Previous research (e.g., Page & Neuringer, 1985) shows that variability is a reinforceable dimension of behavior, much like frequency or intensity. In applied settings, it has been demonstrated that Lag schedules (differentially reinforcing behaviors that differ from the previous behavior) can alter behavioral variability. This study used a Lag 1 schedule to increase vocal variability in a child with a diagnosis of autism. Once variability was established, a frequently emitted sound was selected and established as an echoic.
 
Effects of Extinction on the Rate and Variability of Vocalizations.
M. ALICE SHILLINGSBURG (Marcus Autism Center/Emory University School of Me), Amber L. Valentino (Marcus Autism Center), Diana Garcia (Marcus Autism Center), Crystal N. Bowen (Marcus Autism Center)
Abstract: Children with autism often have significant communication delays. Although some children develop vocalizations, others rarely exhibit speech sounds and alternative communication methods, such as sign language, are targeted in intervention. However, vocal language often remains a goal for caregivers and clinicians. Thus, strategies to increase the frequency and variability in speech sounds are needed. An increase in response variability has been demonstrated using extinction. Duker and van Lent (1991) showed that an increase in previously low-rate gestures occurred following extinction of high-rate gestures in individuals with mental retardation. The present study examined the effect of similar procedures on the rate of vocalizations in two children diagnosed with autism. Both participants were observed to emit low rates of vocalizations and exhibited functional use of several mands using sign language. During baseline, correct signs were reinforced with access to the preferred item. During intervention, reinforcement was withheld following emission of signs and vocalizations were followed by access to the preferred item. A multiple baseline design across preferred items was used. An increase in the rate of vocalizations occurred following application of extinction of each signed mand. Extinction conditions were then applied to the highest frequency vocalizations to examine effects on vocal variability.
 
Is Receptive Language a Prerequisite for Teaching Expressive Language? A Review of Experimental Findings.
ANNA I. PETURSDOTTIR (Texas Christian University), James E. Carr (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Treatment manuals for children with autism often recommend completing the training of “receptive” language skills before implementing training of the corresponding “expressive” skills, even for children who already have a strong echoic repertoire. However, this is not an empirically based recommendation. From the perspective of Skinner’s (1957) analysis of verbal behavior, different expressive programs target different verbal operants, such as the mand, the tact, and the intraverbal. Experimental research on the relative benefits of teaching receptive vs. expressive skills has typically focused on the tact as an instance of expressive language. A review of this research indicates that although results have varied across individuals, substantial evidence exists that tact training is more likely to generate receptive skills than receptive training is to generate tacts, in addition to having potential additional benefits. We discuss why this may be the case and point out areas for future research on the tact and other verbal operants.
 
Can we Teach Abstract Thinking to Children with Autism?
GLADYS WILLIAMS (Centro de Investigacion y Ensenanza del Lenguaje), Anna Beatriz Müller Queiroz (Applied Behavioral Consultant Services), Daniel Carvalho de Matos (Applied Behavioral Consultant Services), Monica Rodriguez Mori (Centro de Investigacion y Ensenanza del Lenguaje), Kimberly Vogt (David Gregory School), Manuela Fernandez Vuelta (Centro de Investigacion y Ensenanza del Lenguaje)
Abstract: Normally developing children demonstrate the ability to generate novel behavior by associating objects they encounter daily (e.g., “Look, it is number eight. It looks like a snowman.”) Children with autism generally cannot see this kind of abstraction. The purpose of the study was to teach three children with autism to observe similarities among a variety of shapes and numbers (e.g., “It is number one”, when seeing a string.). The procedure consisted of probing the responses presenting a string and a wooden measure in the shape of numbers from 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 8. The antecedent was, “What does this look like?”. Then, the children learned a series of conditional discriminations, following several phases, using multiple exemplars with shapes and drawings similar to numbers. When they completed all the phases, we probed the emergence of the behavior with the string and the wooden measure. The results indicated that the children were able to name correct numbers using the untrained material.
 
 
B. F. Skinner Lecture Series Paper Session #390
CE Offered: BACB

The Choice to Take a Drug of Abuse: Contributions of Research with Non-Humans

Monday, May 26, 2008
11:00 AM–11:50 AM
International North
Area: BPH; Domain: Basic Research
CE Instructor: William L. Woolverton, Ph.D.
Chair: John M. Roll (Washington State University)
WILLIAM L. WOOLVERTON (University of Mississippi Medical Center)
Dr. William L. Woolverton is a Professor in the Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior at the University of Mississippi Medical Center. Trained as a behavioral pharmacologist, he has maintained a multi-disciplinary research effort that has included both pharmacological and behavioral analysis of factors that influence drug self-administration and drug discrimination by non-human subjects. He has published over 160 scientific papers and approximately 30 book chapters. He is well known for his work on the relationship between monoamine neurotransmitters and stimulant abuse, and for his study of the behavioral determinants of the choice to self-administer a drug. He received several awards acknowledging his research contributions. His service and teaching activities include membership on the Board of Directors of the College on Problems of Drug Dependence, several NIH Study Sections, and mentorship of numerous pre- and post-doctoral fellows in behavioral pharmacology and addiction research.
Abstract:

Much of behavior, including self-administration of abused drugs, may be conceptualized as involving a choice among available alternatives. Laboratory research involving non-humans has substantially contributed to our understanding of the behavioral determinants of drug choice. It has been demonstrated that the relative magnitude of drug and non-drug reinforcers, as well as relative cost, frequency and probability of reinforcement can all influence the choice to take a drug. Recent research has suggested that the choice to self-administer a drug may be strongly influenced by the rate at which the value of delayed reinforcers is discounted. Research with non-humans has much to contribute to our understanding of this conceptualization. In addition to helping us understand environmental determinants of drug abuse, basic research with non-humans can help suggest behavioral treatment strategies that may be useful alone or in conjunction with pharmacological treatment.

 
 
Invited Tutorial #392
CE Offered: BACB
Tutorial: Creating and Managing Distance Learning Courses for Behavior Analysis
Monday, May 26, 2008
11:00 AM–11:50 AM
Grand Ballroom
Area: TBA; Domain: Service Delivery
BACB CE Offered. CE Instructor: Leslie S. Burkett, Ph.D.
Chair: Pamela G. Osnes (Behavior Analysts, Inc.)
Presenting Authors: : LESLIE S. BURKETT (University of North Texas)
Abstract:

Distance learning is here to stay and growing fast. To "grow" our field and compete in today's educational world, "we happy few" need to embrace this opportunity to disseminate our knowledge into remote areas and provide courses for degrees and certification requirements. This tutorial will provide an overview of what it takes to set up and manage distance learning courses. Topics of the tutorial include: the Instruction, Delivery methods, Technology, Costs, and Ongoing course administration with the focus on student learning. Based on our own extensive experience at the University of North Texas as well as research on how others handle their online courses, the tutorial addresses these questions: Where do I start? What's involved? What's different about "distance" learning? Can I do it myself, or what kind of help do I need? What kinds of instruction work best? How much will it cost? Will students be successful learners? How will I know?

 
LESLIE S. BURKETT (University of North Texas)
Dr. Leslie S. Burkett is Project Coordinator for the graduate certificate distance learning courses at the Department of Behavior Analysis, University of North Texas. She earned her masters in Behavior Analysis and doctorate in Information Science, both at the University of North Texas. Inspired 20 years ago by Sigrid Glenn’s visionary plan to use the computer to implement B. F. Skinner’s teaching machine, Dr. Burkett has collaborated with Dr. Glenn to develop a highly successful program of courses designed to build complex behavior analytic repertoires using highly interactive, multichannel, multimedia online instruction. As a result, Dr. Burkett has experience in most aspects of distance learning, participating as instructional designer and developer, computer programmer, web site developer, and course administrator for 25 semesters. She has shared research data as well as instructional and technological techniques related to online distance learning through many ABA presentations over the past 15 years.
 
 
Invited Tutorial #402
CE Offered: BACB
Tutorial: Evo-Devo
Monday, May 26, 2008
1:30 PM–2:20 PM
International North
Area: DEV/TPC; Domain: Theory
BACB CE Offered. CE Instructor: Peter Killeen, Ph.D.
Chair: Hayne W. Reese (West Virginia University)
Presenting Authors: : PETER KILLEEN (Arizona State University)
Abstract:

This SIG emphasizes environmental-unit behavior-unit interactions; recent progress in evolutionary developmental biology--evo-devoprovides potentially useful templates for refining the definition of such units, and broadening possibilities of the modes in which they interact. Among these concepts are heterochrony, variation by changes in temporal sequence, such as neoteny; the role of modularity in evolution; how modifications of developmental processes lead to the production of novel features; the role of developmental plasticity in evolution; how ecology impacts development and evolutionary change; and the developmental basis of homoplasy and homology. As a familiar example, a homology in biology is any similarity between characters that is due their shared ancestry; in functional analysis, great efforts are taken to identify the variables of which behavior is a function. Is it useful to treat those that are under the control of the same reinforcer as homologs, and those that merely share a similar topography as analogs? Is the ability of the homeobox to activate correlated sets of genes enlightening for the analysis of establishing stimuli? Do the various forms of paedomorphisis and peramorphosisthe juvenilezation/senescization of morphologyhave analogs in behavior? Does the efficiency of evolution, crafting endless forms most beautiful from a meager number of genes, suggest mechanisms for the blossoming of creative behavior in homo Sapiens? In this collaborative presentation, the evo-devo concepts will be explained and serve as stimuli; groups of the audience will be encouraged to respond with behavioral analogs of the biological processes, and evaluate their potential utility.

 
PETER KILLEEN (Arizona State University)
Prof. Peter Killeen was born to a mailman and housewife on the day the Alaska Highway was completed, his mother swearing hers was the greater labor. He took a Bachelor’s degree from Michigan State University, which is not located in Ann Arbor, and left for Harvard. Distracted from the study of psychophysics and cognition by the bad behavior of the operant graduate students, he conjured data showing that the harmonic mean rate of reinforcement, not the arithmetic rate, controls choice. This was not understood by foraging theorists, but it was enough to get him from Fort Skinner to Fort Skinner in the Desert—called that because the other behaviorists deserted it soon after Killeen arrived. Arizona State University, where he behaved for subsequent decades, is not located in Tucson. At ASU Killeen met John Falk, causing him to study adjunctive behavior, Art Bachrach, causing him to study superstition, and Greg Fetterman, causing him to study time. An important influence was Bill Uttal, who, against all Killeen’s arguments, converted to behaviorism. Martha wanted Killeen to say something, and Jack thought Evo-Devo sounded better than Nugatory Null. Those are the variables of which this function is a function.
 
 
Invited Paper Session #403
CE Offered: BACB

The Unit of Analysis in Evidence Based Practices

Monday, May 26, 2008
1:30 PM–2:20 PM
Grand Ballroom
Area: EDC; Domain: Theory
CE Instructor: Susan Wilczynski, Ph.D.
Chair: Cathy L. Watkins (California State University, Stanislaus)
TIMOTHY A. SLOCUM (Utah State University), SUSAN WILCZYNSKI (National Autism Center)
Dr. Susan Wilczynski is the Executive Director of the National Autism Center. In her role as the Executive Director, she oversees the National Standards Project, updates public policy-makers about evidence-based practice related to educational and behavioral interventions, develops assessment clinics specializing in the evaluation of children and adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders, and establishes the parent education and professional training agenda of the National Autism Center. Dr. Wilczynski has authored numerous articles on the treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders. Prior to her position at the National Autism Center, she developed and directed an intensive early intervention program for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders at the Munroe-Meyer Institute. She has held academic appointments at the University of Southern Mississippi and the University of Nebraska Medical Center. Dr. Wilczynski holds a joint appointment with May Institute, where she serves as Vice President of Autism Services. She is an adjunct professor at the University of Nebraska Medical Center. Dr. Wilczynski is a licensed psychologist and a board certified behavior analyst.
Abstract:

The movement for evidence based practices (EBP) in education, psychology, and other human services presents a tremendous opportunity for behavior analysts. This movement is attempting to do what behavior analysts have tried to do for so long to promote practices that are supported by specific evidence demonstrating effectiveness. However, substantial challenges must be overcome if EBP are to succeed in increasing the effectiveness of human services. Among these challenges is that of identifying units of practice that might be validated as evidence-based. Potential units of practice might be relatively micro (e.g., reinforcing correct responses) or relatively macro (e.g., Direct Instruction combined with Positive Behavioral Supports). In addition, units of practice might be separately validated for each context and population, or they might be validated across such variables. Thus, the EBP movement faces classic questions of generalizability of research findings. This paper will explore several approaches to these questions including (1) Skinners discussion of basic behavioral units, (2) experimental methodologists discussions of generality of research findings, and (3) systems of EBP in other fields. Suggestions for continuing the development of EBP will be derived from this discussion.

 
 
Symposium #405
CE Offered: BACB
Research in Language Development, Verbal Behavior, and the ABLLS-R: Data and Challenges
Monday, May 26, 2008
1:30 PM–2:50 PM
Continental A
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Sara L. Kuperstein (Behavior Analysts, Inc.)
Discussant: Caio F. Miguel (California State University, Sacramento)
CE Instructor: Pamela G. Osnes, Ph.D.
Abstract:

This symposium will present research efforts at Behavior Analysts, Inc., an agency that specializes in consultation and training in applied behavior analysis and verbal behavior. Data from the latest research on imitation, the ABLLS-R, and interventions at the STARS School will be presented.

 
What Do We Really Know About the Development of an Imitative Repertoire in Individuals with a Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder?
JAMES W. PARTINGTON (Behavior Analysts, Inc.), Scott W. Partington (Behavior Analysts, Inc.)
Abstract: Regardless of the conceptual analysis of human development, all theoreticians recognize the importance of children learning skills by observing the actions of others. Imitation skills are typically included in intervention programs for children with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Recent research has found that a child with ASD is more likely to attain higher levels of development if he/she has some imitative skills prior to the implementation of intervention services. A review of the literature regarding the training of imitation skills reveals that there are many unanswered questions about the teaching of imitation skills that need to be addressed in order to provide the most effective intervention services for children. Data regarding imitative skills of typically developing children and children with ASD will be presented.
 
ABLLS-R Research Outcomes ABLLS-R: The Evidence and the Implications.
PAMELA G. OSNES (Behavior Analysts, Inc.), Joel Vidovic (Behavior Analysts, Inc.), Koji Takeshima (Behavior Analysts, Inc.), James W. Partington (Behavior Analysts, Inc.)
Abstract: The language-based repertoires of the ABLLS-R were subjected to reliability investigations using a comparison design that utilized the ABLLS-R and a revision of the administration procedures and instructions of the current assessment tool. This presentation will disseminate the outcomes of this research, including reliability information about the repertoires.
 
Research at the STARS School: Pitfalls, Challenges, and Rewards of Research Implementation in the "Real World".
JOEL VIDOVIC (Behavior Analysts, Inc.), Pamela G. Osnes (Behavior Analysts, Inc.), Kanako Yamamoto (Behavior Analysts.com)
Abstract: While it is important to have a robust evidence base to support behavior analytic interventions, much experimentally-controlled research in our field is completed by university-based professionals in analogue settings. This presentation will provide information about intervention studies both attempted and completed at a non-public school by its personnel. In addition to the data to be presented, the challenges associated with conducting research in applied settings will be discussed.
 
 
Symposium #406
CE Offered: BACB
Teaching Higher Level Skills using Visual Prompts that are First Embedded, Then Used for Reference, Then Eliminated
Monday, May 26, 2008
1:30 PM–2:50 PM
Continental C
Area: AUT/EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Elizabeth Martineau (Nashoba Learning Group)
CE Instructor: Elizabeth Martineau, Other
Abstract:

Students with autism often learn behaviors more readily when presented with visual stimuli vs. auditory stimuli. However, visual prompts paired with auditory stimuli can be difficult to fade because the student attends more strongly to the visual stimuli and stimulus control is not transferred. At Nashoba Learning Group, we have successfully used, and faded, visual response prompts that must be manipulated by the student in order to produce a response to the auditory stimuli. In this case, the student must attend to the auditory stimuli in order to properly manipulate the visual stimu These visual prompts are first manipulated by the student, then are used as a reference by the student, and then are faded. We hypothesize that this technique is successful because the student must attend to the auditory stimuli and then associate it with a proper manipulation of the visual stimuli. The visual stimuli is systematically faded as the student learns to use his or her memory of the stimuli to perform the manipulation needed to produce a response. This technique has worked across a variety of learners and for a variety of skills.

 
Teaching Addition, Subtraction, Skip Counting, and Multiplication using Visual Prompts that are First Manipulated, then Faded.
ELIZABETH MARTINEAU (Nashoba Learning Group), Crystal Seagle (Nashoba Learning Group), Jessica St. Pierre (Nashoba Learning Group), Allison Smith (Nashoba Learning Group)
Abstract: Many students with autism struggle to learn computation skills even after mastering number object correspondence and counting quantities. Teaching techniques that rely on memorization of math fact answers that are visually prompted and then faded are very difficult to generalize to larger numbers even when they are successful. Similarly, systems such as Touch Math, which pair dots to numerals are successful for some students but not for others. At Nashoba Learning Group (NLG), students who have failed to learn computation using these methods have proven able to learn when the visual prompt is a number line with direction cues for plus and minus. The student must find the first number of the equation on the number line and count forward or backward on the line in the appropriate direction. Once this is mastered, the directional support can be faded and then the student is trained to perform the same operation on a 100 chart. The 100 chart is then systematically faded. NLG has been able to fade all supports for 6 students and the students have been able to generalize the skill to higher numbers and a variety of presentations of stimuli. Skip counting and multiplication are then taught using a 100 chart with color and shape cues for each number.
 
Use of a Reference Model to Teach Receptive and Expressive Prepositions.
JESSICA SLATON (Nashoba Learning Group), Elizabeth Martineau (Nashoba Learning Group), Tara L. Montoure (Nashoba Learning Group), Karen M. Potts (Nashoba Learning Group)
Abstract: Many students with autism have great difficulty learning to use prepositions functionally because they must attend to position changes of a stimuli relative to another stimuli across a wide variety of potential stimuli. For some students, use of multiple photographic exemplars for each position has been successful as a teaching tool because the photographic exemplars are more "permanent" than manipulations of 3D objects. For some students, generalizing to novel objects is still quite difficult. For these students, we have successfully used a "permanent model" with textual (or PECs) symbols for all the basic positions permanently attached so that the student can view each position relative to the others. Once the student can successfully match stimuli to the position on the model, the model is used as a reference for the student as he learns to manipulate other stimuli. Finally, the model is faded all together.
 
Using and Fading Color Coding and Text Sorting to Teach Students to Answer Textually and Orally Presented Who/What/Where/When Questions.
TARA L. MONTOURE (Nashoba Learning Group), Elizabeth Martineau (Nashoba Learning Group), Crystal Seagle (Nashoba Learning Group), Laura Brennan (Nashoba Learning Group)
Abstract: Students with autism often have great difficulty responding appropriately to Who/What/Where/When questions for a variety of reasons including: difficulty wit remembering the statement for which the question is presented, difficulty in manipulating the statement, and lack of understanding of what answers are associated with each Wh question. We have successfully taught students to discriminate between Wh questions through first training the student to recognize what types of words are associated with each Wh question. Students sort and identify color coded exemplars to each Wh word. Sentences are then constructed from the exemplars and students answer questions by referring to thcategories. Over time, color coding is systematically faded and the presence of the categories is systematically faded. Finally, oral vs. textual representation is systematically introduced.
 
Beyond the Mand for Items. Use and Fading of Sentence Frames to Teach Mands for Actions and Commenting Using Augmentative Communication Systems.
MAUREEN LACERTE (Nashoba Learning Group), Elizabeth Martineau (Nashoba Learning Group), Tara L. Montoure (Nashoba Learning Group)
Abstract: Many students with autism have difficulty commenting in full sentences and in multiple sentences even after they have gained a large repertoire of nouns, verbs and adjectives. In order to teach generalized sentence frames for commenting, we have utilized "fill in the blank" text supports. Once the student gains experience inserting nouns, verbs and adjectives into the blanks and using the sentence, supports are systematically faded until the student can utilize a generalized repertoire of appropriate sentence frames to comment.
 
 
Symposium #407
CE Offered: BACB
Applications of the VB-MAPP Barriers Assessment in Applied Settings for Children with Autism
Monday, May 26, 2008
1:30 PM–2:50 PM
Stevens 4
Area: AUT/VRB; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Jamie Hughes (Autism Consulting Services)
Discussant: Gwen Dwiggins (The Ohio State University)
CE Instructor: Jamie Hughes, M.A.
Abstract:

The VB-MAPP Barriers Assessment (Sundberg, in press) provides an analysis and assessment of 21 common language and learning barriers faced by children with autism. Research utilizing this assessment in applied settings for children with autism spectrum disorders will be presented. Three case studies will be discussed, addressing the assessment, treatment, and outcomes for learners with defective skill repertoires.

 
Identifying and Treating Defective Listener Repertoires Using the VB-MAPP Barriers Assessment.
JESSICA HETLINGER FRANCO (University of Texas, Austin)
Abstract: The VB-MAPP Barriers Assessment (Sundberg, in press) describes receptive language skills as "listener" behaviors. A listener behavior requires a child to both (a) attend to the speech of another person and (b) demonstrate understanding of the speech, thus serving as a listener to that speaker. Listener repertoires include basic receptive object identification or discrimination and expand to understanding of complex verbal behavior. In this study, the defective listening repertoire of a child with autism spectrum disorder was found to be a "severe problem" on the VB-MAPP Barriers Assessment. Treatment was based on an analysis of the common problems associated with defective listener repertoires and recommended strategies.
 
Identifying and Treating Defective Echoic Repertoires Using the VB-MAPP Barriers Assessment.
JAMIE HUGHES (Autism Consulting Services)
Abstract: A child's ability to echo sounds and words on command is an important measure of his/her potential for language development. Transfer of control of a spoken word from echoic control to mand, tact, or intraverbal sources of control (Sundberg, in press) is often used as an effective prompting strategy. However, the inability to echo words may present a critical barrier to future language development, and thus it is often a key component of most early language intervention programs. This case study used the VB-MAPP Barriers Assessment to identify various causes of an absent, weak, and defective echoic repertoire for a young child with autism. Direct and automatic reinforcement teaching procedures were used to increase vocal production and help establish vocal stimulus control.
 
Identifying and Treating Defective Intraverbal Repertoires Using the VB-MAPP Barriers Assessment.
LUPE CASTANEDA (Behavior Analytic Solutions, LLC), Jamie Hughes (Autism Consulting Services)
Abstract: Many children with autism fail to acquire a functional intraverbal repertoire. It is often assumed that intraverbal skills will develop from training on receptive and expressive skills alone. Intraverbal relations, by nature are continually changing, including both the stimulus and response. This case study used the VB-MAPP Barriers Assessment (Sundberg, in press) to identify potential causes of a weak and defective intraverbal repertoire for a young boy with autism. Data will be presented discussing the child's baseline measures, defective repertoire, treatment and outcomes.
 
 
Symposium #408
CE Offered: BACB
Building Social Repertoires and Ensuring Their Generalization in Children and Adolescents with Autism
Monday, May 26, 2008
1:30 PM–2:50 PM
International South
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Dawn B. Townsend (Institute for Educational Achievement)
Discussant: Gregory S. MacDuff (Princeton Child Development Institute)
CE Instructor: Dawn B. Townsend, Ph.D.
Abstract:

It is often difficult for individuals with autism to effectively interact with others because of their deficits in social skill development, difficulties in reading social cues, and the often too common failure of skill generalization and maintenance. Yet, social interaction with others is critically important in all aspects of life. In this symposium, researchers will share data from three studies targeting the development and generalization of social skills. The presenters will highlight the importance of behavior analytic teaching strategies, such as modeling, script and script-fading procedures, prompting, and reinforcement, when targeting social skills. Specifically, data collected through the conduct of single-subject experimental investigations will be presented in reference to the development of greeting skills, sharing, and empathetic responding. In addition, the researchers will describe the extent to which such skills were acquired during training conditions, as well as the extent to which skills generalized from training to non-training situations. Finally, the presenters will discuss the importance of programming for the development of important social and language responses when educating individuals with autism.

 
Teaching Adolescents with Autism to Initiate Greetings with Script-Fading.
KEVIN J. BROTHERS (Somerset Hills Learning Institute), Yolanta Kornak (Somerset Hills Learning Institute)
Abstract: Impairments in social interactions are a core deficit for learners with autism. Delays and disturbances in language development add to the difficulties of interacting with others that many learners with autism display. Recent research on the use of scripts and script fading procedures has been effective for increasing language skills of people with autism in social situations (e.g., Krantz & McClannahan, 1993,1998 ) This paper will describe the use of a multiple baseline design across learners to assess the effects of scripts and script-fading procedures to teach three adolescent learners with autism to initiate appropriate greetings. Learners were taught to read written scripts or activate audio scripts when a visitor approached the learner in his classroom. Upon meeting criterion for imitating the scripts, learners’ scripts were faded one word at a time from the last word to the first. Throughout the study, generalization to untrained visitors was assessed and interobserver agreement measures were obtained. Results showed that all three learners acquired greeting skills and generalized their skills to the presence of unfamiliar visitors without scripts.
 
Teaching Children with Autism a Generalized Repertoire of Offering to Share.
DENISE MARZULLO (Bancroft NeuroHealth), Sharon A. Reeve (Caldwell College), Dawn B. Townsend (Institute for Educational Achievement), Kenneth F. Reeve (Caldwell College)
Abstract: The development of prosocial behavior in general, and of sharing specifically, in early childhood is important, but often difficult in children with autism because of an impairment in prerequisite social skills, difficulty in learning through observation, and the failure of prosocial skills generalizing or remaining durable over time. The present study extended the procedure and design used by Reeve, Reeve, Townsend and Poulson (2007) to teach a generalized repertoire of offering to share in four children with autism, ages 7 and 8. A multiple probe baseline design was used across participants to assess the effectiveness of a treatment package consisting of multiple exemplars from four stimulus categories, video modeling, prompting and reinforcement on offers to share. Offers to share increased across all three children following the introduction of the treatment package, and sharing generalized to a novel setting, novel stimuli and novel adults and peers. Within-stimulus-category generalization was also demonstrated by all participants. Results demonstrate that a compact version of the teaching package used by Reeve et al. (2007) can be extended to other areas of prosocial behavior in children with autism.
 
Empathetic Responding to Affective Stimuli: Video and In Vivo Modeling Along with Prompting and Reinforcement.
PAUL ARGOTT (Queens College and The Graduate Center, City University of New York), Dawn B. Townsend (Institute for Educational Achievement), Claire L. Poulson (Queens College, City University of New York)
Abstract: Previous studies have suggested that children with autism have deficits in differential empathic responding to affective stimuli, but that these skills can be taught through behavior analytic techniques. The current study analyzed the effectiveness of a treatment package consisting of video modeling, in-vivo modeling, prompting, and reinforcement to increase empathic responding by children with autism to affective stimuli. Responses taught included statements of empathy, gestures, facial expressions, and correct vocal intonation, all four of which had to be present for a complete empathic response to be scored. A multiple baseline across empathic response categories design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment package with four students with autism. In the treatment phase, correct responding produced tokens exchangeable for preferred snacks and toys, while incorrect responding produced a correction procedure. Generalization was measured from reinforced training trials to nonreinforced probe trials every session. Furthermore, generalization from the instructor to a non-training adult was measured once a week. The number of complete empathic responses increased systematically with the successive introduction of the treatment package. The data illustrate that differential responding with complete empathic responses to affective stimuli can be taught to students with autism using modeling, prompting, and reinforcement.
 
 
Symposium #409
CE Offered: BACB
EIBI: Treatment Modifications Under a Waiver and Follow-Up of Treated Children as Teens
Monday, May 26, 2008
1:30 PM–2:50 PM
Stevens 2
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Glen O. Sallows (Wisconsin Early Autism Project)
CE Instructor: Glen O. Sallows, Ph.D.
Abstract:

When first described by Lovaas, EIBI involved high intensity, about 40 hours per week. Due to shortages in funding, this is not always possible. Studies of lower hours have been quite low. What is the result of 25 hours per week? For families on a waiting list for funding, what is the effect of parent training plus 10-15 hours of 1:1? There have been many studies of the immediate effects of EIBI, but what are the children like as teens? Finally, we present an observation of the effect of no treatment for approximately 1 year.

 
The Effectiveness of an EIBI Intervention Based on 25 Hours per Week.
CHRISTINE WILKINS (Wisconsin Early Autism Project)
Abstract: When a waiver replaced the previous funding system in WI, the number of allowable 1:1 hours was decreased to a maximum of 25. We continued to collect data including annual assesment of IQ, language, and Vineland scores. In the current paper, we compare these results with those of children in treatment prior to the waiver, when hours of treatment were between 30 and 35.
 
The Effect of Parent Training Plus 10-15 Hours per Week of EIBI While on a Waiting List for Services.
MICHELLE SHERMAN (Wisconsin Early Autism Project)
Abstract: Parents who were on a waiting list for funding participated in a parent training program including demonstration and rehearsal of behavioral intervention practices. In addition, therapists provided 10-15 hours of 1:1 intervention. Measures included IQ, language, and Vineland.
 
Changes in Test Scores Over a One-Year Period without Treatment.
TAMLYNN SALLOWS (Wisconsin Early Autism Project)
Abstract: The presence of a waiver in WI created a waiting list that gradually grew longer than one year. We began to retest children just prior to the start of treatment when they finally were approved for funding, creating an opportuniy to examine changes in scores over a long period of time without treatment. Tests included IQ, language and Vineland.
 
Follow up of Children who Received EIBI at Age 10-13.
GLEN O. SALLOWS (Wisconsin Early Autism Project)
Abstract: Thirty-five children received EIBI between ages 3 and 7. Almost half showed large gains and were able to enter regular classes. The present study reports on the progress of these children at age 10-13 as well that of the other half of the children who showed more modest gains. Measures include IQ, language, Vineland, and tests of social skills at home and school.
 
 
Symposium #410
CE Offered: BACB
Expanding Support for Children with Autism through Specialized Training
Monday, May 26, 2008
1:30 PM–2:50 PM
Continental B
Area: AUT/EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Jennifer B.G. Symon (California State University, Los Angeles)
CE Instructor: Jennifer B.G. Symon, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) present with specific challenges in their social communication skills and behaviors. Many educational team members lack specialized training in autism while they have many students with ASD on their caseloads. This symposium will describe a federally funded, multidisciplinary training program for a variety of professionals working with children with ASD. Early childhood special education teachers, school counselors, school psychologists, agency ABA therapists, speech pathologists and other professionals have received training through this program. Outcome data from graduate research projects will also be presented demonstrating improved skills for children in educational settings.

 
Training Professionals to Support Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders.
JENNIFER B.G. SYMON (California State University, Los Angeles)
Abstract: This presentation will describe the grant funded program which provides specialized training to professionals who support students with ASD. The training model will be presented along with participant and evaluation data.
 
Improving Social Skills for Children with Autism through Applied Behavioral Analysis and Visual Support.
ELIKA SHAHRESTANI (California State University, Los Angeles), Jennifer B.G. Symon (California State University, Los Angeles)
Abstract: More research is needed to determine the effects of Social Stories as visual support for children with autism. The present study expanded on the work of Delano and Snell (2006) by utilizing an Individualized Social Story intervention to promote three target social skills in children with autism. These three target skills include: initiating comments, initiating requests, and making contingent responses (Thiemann & Goldstein, 2001; Delano & Snell, 2006). Young children with autism spectrum disorders participated in a multiple baseline across behaviors research design. The participants were taught to initiate and respond to their peers in structured play sessions through the use of Individualized Social Story interventions combined with techniques of applied behavior analysis. Results suggest that participants learned to independently make spontaneous initiations and responses to peers following intervention. Generalization of skills to novel stimuli are also presented.
 
Effects of Providing Choice between Assignments to Increase On-Task Behavior for Independent Work Assignments.
SEBOUH J. SERABIAN (Behavior Building Blocks), Jennifer B.G. Symon (California State University, Los Angeles), Michele D. Wallace (California State University, Los Angeles)
Abstract: Providing opportunities to make choices has received increasing support as an antecedent intervention to improve the performance of students with disabilities. Additional research in this area is needed to determine under what circumstances the application of choice making as a curricular intervention is appropriate and produces meaningful outcomes. The present study extended this line of research and investigated whether providing choice opportunities to three children in a general education classroom would impact their performance during teacher-assigned work activities. An ABAB reversal design was used to evaluate the effects of offering a choice between the order of independent work assignments on task completion, latency of responding, and disruptive behaviors made by the participants during two independent academic tasks (journal writing and spelling).
 
Functional Assessment and Self-Management to Reduce Disruptive Behavior in Educational Settings.
ANTHONY JENKINS (Long Beach Unified/California State University, Los Angeles), Jennifer B.G. Symon (California State University, Los Angeles)
Abstract: Many children with autism engage in challenging behaviors that interfere with effective educational instruction in classroom settings. Self-management strategies have been well documented to reduce disruptive behaviors in clinical settings and more research is needed to demonstrate the effects of this approach in school settings. A functional assessment was conducted to determine the function of the behavior for each participant and then a self-management program was designed to teach replacement behaviors to meet the student’s needs. Through a multiple baseline design, this study examined the effects of self-management to reduce the occurrence of disruptive target behaviors (e.g., aggression, non-compliance) of three students with autism. Results show that following the self-management intervention participants decreased intervals of disruptive behavior and increased desired replacement behaviors in classroom and school settings.
 
 
Symposium #412
CE Offered: BACB
Treatment of Persons with Acquired Brain Injuries: Skill Acquisition and Behavior Change
Monday, May 26, 2008
1:30 PM–2:50 PM
Boulevard A
Area: CBM/CSE; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Maria N. Myers (Oregon Institute of Technology)
Discussant: Michael P. Mozzoni (Learning Services Corporation)
CE Instructor: Michael P. Mozzoni, Ph.D.
Abstract:

This symposium will highlight behavioral interventions with children and adults with acquired brain injuries (ABI) and neglect. Treatment methodologies including fluency training to decrease aphasia, reinforcement to decrease response latency and DRH to decrease problematic mealtime behaviors will be discussed.

 
Decreasing Out-of-Seat and Noncompliant Behavior in a Brain Injured Child through Verbal Praise Reinforcement.
MARIA N. MYERS (Oregon Institute of Technology)
Abstract: This study investigated the effects of positive verbal praise to increase the in-seat behaviors and decrease noncompliant behaviors of a 5 year old male with environmental neglect. A multiple baseline design across behaviors was used. In-seat behavior was measured by the subject remaining seated throughout the meal. Noncompliant behavior was considered aggressive and non-aggressive behaviors that were not allowed in a mealtime setting. Three stages of treatment were used to implement the verbal praise starting with a 20 second interval and fading to a 3 minute interval. Physical assistance was also faded during these stages to verbal redirection in the final phase. The results showed that the verbal praise system was successful in increasing the in-seat behavior and reducing the noncompliant behaviors.
 
Speaking Their Language: Fluency Training for People Diagnosed with Aphasia Secondary to Brain Injury.
BRITNI E. LIPSMEYER (Timber Ridge Ranch)
Abstract: The current study involved utilizing the methods of precision teaching for the purpose of fluency training among persons suffering from aphasia or language of confusion secondary to brain injuries. Five individuals diagnosed with aphasia or language of confusion secondary to brain injury took part in the study. As with all people who present with these communication disorders, the participants’ ability to correctly tact items in their environment was inaccurate and inconsistent. The goal of this project was to increase participant’s accuracy and rate of response of the identification of ADL (Activities of Daily Living) items.
 
Decreasing Latency Through Reinforcement in a Child with an Acquired Brain Injury.
MEGAN RAE HEINICKE (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: This study replicates and extends the work of Fjellstedt and Sulzer-Azároff (1973) in which the application of a token system decreased the latency of direction-following in an 8-year-old boy enrolled in special education. The present study investigated the effects of a token system to decrease the latency to respond to instructions by a 16-year-old female with an acquired brain injury. A multiple baseline design across 7 different behaviors was used. Latency was measured by timing the interval between a given verbal instruction and the completion of the associated behavior. The results showed that the addition of a token system was successful in reducing the latency to respond to instructions across all behaviors.
 
 
Symposium #415
CE Offered: BACB
Observing Responses as Related to the Sequential Application of Pre-Listener and Listener Verbal Developmental Protocols
Monday, May 26, 2008
1:30 PM–2:50 PM
4D
Area: DEV/EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Dolleen-Day Keohane (Columbia University Teachers College)
CE Instructor: Dolleen-Day Keohane, Ph.D.
Abstract:

These studies tested the effects of a sequential application of a selected series of pre-listener and listener verbal developmental protocols, and changes in the participants observing responses and related levels of verbal developmental capabilities. Pre- and post-probes tested for increases in observing responses, rate of acquisition of new learning, and changes in verbal developmental levels for each participant. The results demonstrated the effectiveness of implementing the protocols according to a verbal developmental sequence as related to the induction of pre-listener and listener verbal capabilities or developmental cusps.

 
Increasing Observing Responses through the Sequential Application of Pre-Listener and Listener Verbal Developmental Protocols.
NICOLE LUKE (Columbia University Teachers College), Dolleen-Day Keohane (Columbia University Teachers College), Petra Wiehe (Columbia University Teachers College), Victoria L. Sterkin (Columbia University Teachers College), Jacqueline Maffei-Lewis (Columbia University Teachers College), Kristen Leigh Pelick (Columbia University Teachers College), R. Douglas Greer (Columbia University Teachers College)
Abstract: This study investigated the effects of the application of a series of pre-listener and listener verbal developmental protocols, and changes in the levels of verbal developmental capabilities for eight children diagnosed with autism and developmental delays. The children were between the ages of five and seven. A time-lagged, multiple probe design across participants and settings was used. Pre- and post-probes tested for increases in observing responses, rate of acquisition of new learning, and changes in verbal developmental levels for each child. The results demonstrated the effectiveness of implementing the protocols according to a verbal developmental sequence and the induction of pre-listener and listener verbal capabilities or developmental cusps.
 
Increasing Observing Responses through a Verbal Developmental Protocol Using Conjugate Reinforcement to Condition Faces.
DOLLEEN-DAY KEOHANE (Columbia University Teachers College), Jacqueline Maffei-Lewis (Columbia University Teachers College)
Abstract: Increasing observing responses through a verbal developmental protocol using conjugate reinforcement to condition faces.
 
The Effects of Teaching Imitative Responses Using a Mirror and the Induction of Generalized Imitation and Observing Responses in Children with Autism.
VICTORIA L. STERKEN (Columbia University Teachers College), Dolleen-Day Keohane (Columbia University Teachers College)
Abstract: Gross motor imitative responses were taught using a mirror to increase correct auditory and visual observation responses. Four students diagnosed with autism between the ages of five and six were participants in the study. Prior to the study, the learn unit was used to teach imitative responses; however, the students had not acquired generalized imitation as a result of the teaching procedures. As a replication of Pereira Delgado, Greer, and Speckman-Collins, (2006), it was hypothesized that the delivery of imitation learn units while looking in the mirror would increase the number of correct responses for generalized imitation, and body padiscrimination, as well as increase the student’s observation of events and social interactions in the environment. Emission of vocal behavior was also measured. Following the implementation of the mirror protocol in a delayed multiple probes across behaviors design, criterion was achieved for generalized imitation, and body part discrimination. An increase in the duration of observation of events and social interactions in the environment was also demonstrated.
 
Rate of Learning and the Emergence of Developmental Capabilities in Preschool Aged Children with and without Autism.
DR. SHIRA A. ACKERMAN (Columbia University Teachers College)
Abstract: A study was conducted to investigate the rate of learning and the emergence of developmental capabilities with typically developing preschoolers and children with autism using researched based protocols. Four children with autism and two typically developing peers ages 3 and 4 participated. A multiple probe design was used across all participants. Baseline measures included pre probes for the verbal developmental milestones identified by Greer and Ross, 2008. Learn units to criteria were utilized as the measure of rate of learning. The interventions consisted of conditioning visual stimuli, teaching the capacity for sameness, and listener literacy. The data showed that the rate of acquisition across both groups of students increased significantly, as well as, the assessed developmental capabilities for both typically developing preschoolers and for preschoolers diagnosed with autism.
 
 
Panel #421
CE Offered: BACB
Applied Behavior Analysis in Public Schools: Applications, Challenges and Solutions
Monday, May 26, 2008
1:30 PM–2:50 PM
Stevens 3
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Nicole Ciotti Gardenier, M.S.
Chair: Nicole Ciotti Gardenier (The New England Center for Children)
FRANCIS J. CICCONE (The New England Center for Children)
ELISE COOKE (Holliston Public Schools)
LAURA L. DUDLEY (Westwood Public Schools)
JOHN D. MOLTENI (The Center for Children with Special Needs)
Abstract:

An important goal for behavior analysts is the dissemination of the principles of behavior analysis to the community. Part of this process is the incorporation of behavior analytic practices in public school settings. Common challenges to this process include planning and delivering staff training, the incorporation of effective and appropriate data collection systems, balancing student schedules and conducting functional assessments. Additionally, the delivery of services in the public school environment often means working as part of a multi-disciplinary team. The variables presented by a public school environment are such that effective communication is often as important as the intervention itself. The goal of this panel discussion is to bring together a number of individuals in the field of applied behavior analysis who are delivering services in public schools in a variety of roles. The panel will answer questions related to effective applications of ABA in public school settings, challenges they have encountered, and solutions they have developed. The panel will also take questions from the audience.

 
 
Symposium #423
CE Offered: BACB
School-Wide Positive Behavior Support Programs Across the K-12 Continuum
Monday, May 26, 2008
1:30 PM–2:50 PM
Williford A
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Kathleen L. Lane (Vanderbilt University)
Discussant: James J. Fox (East Tennessee State University)
CE Instructor: Kathleen L. Lane, Ph.D.
Abstract:

To date most school-wide positive behavior support (SW-PBS) have been implemented in elementary schools, with limited attention to implementation in middle and high schools. Furthermore, too often SW-PBS programs do not include the use of systematic screening procedures to identify students for targeted supports. This symposium includes three papers. The first paper reports baseline, 1st, and 2nd year implementation data on a successful application of SW-PBS in a rural high school of 1,200 students. Outcome data revealed a reduction in office daily referrals, a reduction in expulsions, and an increase in attendance. The second paper reports findings of two studies, one conducted with middle school students (n = 500) in a rural setting and a second conducted with middle school students (n = 528) in an urban setting, of the reliability and validity of the Student Risk Screening Scale (SRSS; Drummond, 1994). Results revealed high internal consistency, testretest stability, and convergent validity with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (Goodman, 1997). The third paper reports findings of PBS implemented in two rural elementary schools, with an emphasis on the role of systematic screenings. We conclude with a discussion of the importance of systematic screenings as core component of SW-PBS programs.

 
The Application of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support at a Rural High School to Decrease Disruptive Behavior for Both Typical Students and Students Identified with Special Needs.
LEIA D. BLEVINS (East Tennessee State University), James J. Fox (East Tennessee State University), Kim Allison (East Tennessee State University)
Abstract: This presentation will report baseline, 1st, and 2nd year implementation data on a successful application of SWPBS in a rural high school of 1,200 students. The school leadership team identified four classes of positive behavior (cooperation, responsibility, pride in school appearance, and respect). These target behaviors were then defined, taught, and reviewed with students. A token reward system, Mo-Bucks, was developed and implemented. Data collected included office daily referrals, suspensions, expulsions, attendance, and the number of Mo-Bucks distributed by each faculty member and the behavior class for which the ticket was awarded. Outcome data indicated that compared to the year prior to the SWPBS program’s implementation, there was a reduction in office daily referrals, a reduction in expulsions, and an increase in attendance. The present study appears to confirm the positive effects of school-wide indices on challenging behaviors (office referrals & expulsions) and attendance for both typical students and students identified with disabilities. The presentation will outline a SWPBS program in a rural high school; discuss SWPBS team processes, and results of baseline and two years of implementation data. The data provides further support for SWPBS as a best practice in addressing the school-wide need for effective discipline practices and development of systems for the positive socialization of students. This presentation will also report the challenges of obtaining data, converting data, and treatment fidelity.
 
School-wide PBS at the Middle School Level: The Importance of Systematic Screening.
KATHLEEN L. LANE (Vanderbilt University)
Abstract: This article presents findings of two studies, one conducted with middle school students (n = 500) in a rural setting and a second conducted with middle school students (n = 528) in an urban setting, of the reliability and validity of the Student Risk Screening Scale (SRSS; Drummond, 1994). Results revealed high internal consistency, test–retest stability, and convergent validity with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (Goodman, 1997). In addition, short-term predictive validity was established; namely, students with risk statuses of low (n = 422), moderate (n = 51), and high (n = 12) according to the SRSS could best be differentiated by behavioral variables (e.g., ODR, in-school suspensions). Although academic variables could differentiate between students with moderate or high risks and students without (low) risk, these variables did not differentiate between students in the moderate-risk group and students in the high-risk group as did the behavioral variables. Limitations and future research directions are discussed.
 
Primary Prevention Programs at the Elementary Level: How Do Students Respond?
KATHLEEN L. LANE (Vanderbilt University)
Abstract: One task facing the research and teaching communities is to determine how different types of students respond to school-wide positive behavior support (SW-PBS) efforts given that it is likely that not all students react uniformly. However, only a few studies have been conducted at the elementary level to determine how different types of students respond to the SW-PBS plan (Cheney et al., 2004; Lane & Menzies et al., 2005; Walker et al., 2004). Our goal in this study was to extend this line of inquiry by examining how different types of students attending four rural elementary schools responded to SW-PBS. This paper examines (a) the level of treatment fidelity and access to reinforcement for the different student groups and (b) the degree to which students with internalizing, externalizing, and typical behavior patterns as identified by the Systematic Screening for Behavior Disorders (SSBD; Walker & Severson, 1992) responded to a SW-PBS intervention program. Results will be analyzed using multivariate procedures. Limitations and directions for future research are offered.
 
 
Symposium #424
CE Offered: BACB
Recent Curriculum Developments in Mathematics
Monday, May 26, 2008
1:30 PM–2:50 PM
Waldorf
Area: EDC/OBM; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Harold E. Lobo (West Virginia University)
CE Instructor: Philip N. Chase, Ph.D.
Abstract:

The current crisis in mathematics education recognized by a variety of reports, studies, and commentators could have serious long-term effects on children world wide. In response to this crisis a number of behavior analysts have targeted mathematics as a curriculum area for developing evidence-based practices. In particular, with recent advances in computer technology, there has been a strong interest in developing and evaluating internet and other forms of electronic curricula. Two examples are iPASS a middle school mathematics curriculum from iLearn,Inc., and Morningside Mathematics Foundations, a program from Morningside Academy. This symposium will present the current data used to evaluate these programs, methodological developments used to gather data, and systems issues related to school adoption and teacher use. Emphasis will be given to descriptions of the how these programs have integrated single-subject methods with program evaluation methods, methods for evaluating teacher and other professional implementation, and more traditional random controlled studies to create a thorough method of empirical validation.

 
Methods of Inquiry for Computer-based Mathematics Curricula.
PHILIP N. CHASE (West Virginia University), Chata A. Dickson (West Virginia University), Vennessa L. Walker (West Virginia University), Harold E. Lobo (West Virginia University), Andrew Lightner (West Virginia University)
Abstract: While there may be little disagreement on whether intervention in mathematics education is needed, it is critical that decisions regarding interventions be based on systematic and thorough evaluations. Markle (1967) described key components of an evaluation strategy in a chapter that influenced much of the work in the empirical testing of programs of instruction. This description is still useful in the current context of evaluating computer-based mathematics curricula, but a few details might be helpful for developing an evaluation technology. Markle’s three levels of evaluation will be described and a synthesis of single-subject, small n, and large n random controlled methodologies will be discussed. Procedures from recent evaluations of curriculum from iLearn.com will be used to illustrate these methods with an emphasis on pragmatic methods to achieve both internal and external validity. Additional emphasis will be given to methods for evaluating student preference.
 
Developmental Evaluation of iPASS.
CHATA A. DICKSON (West Virginia University), Philip N. Chase (West Virginia University), Harold E. Lobo (West Virginia University), Vennessa L. Walker (West Virginia University)
Abstract: Single-subject studies were conducted to evaluate a middle-school mathematics curriculum, IPASS. Accuracy data were used to analyze individual student progress within the curriculum. Accuracy and rate-correct data on achievement tests constructed from retired items of the California Standards Tests also were examined. Student and parent surveys were administered to assess satisfaction with the curriculum. In Study 1, all seven students made rapid and successful progress through the curriculum. A multiple-baseline-achievement-test design suggested that five of seven students showed improvement in these achievement tests following instruction, but problems with the design of the tests prohibited firm conclusions concerning standardized achievement. In Study 2, three of four students successfully progressed through the curriculum. Rate correct on the post-test for these three students was 9 to 42% higher than on the pre-test. Percent correct accuracy for these students increased between 7 and 13% from pretest to posttest. For each student, improvement on achievement tests was positively related to the number of iPASS units completed. Students and parents reported overall satisfaction with the curriculum. Together the studies demonstrated the efficacy of the curriculum, led to suggestions for improving the curriculum and strategies to be used in future curriculum evaluations.
 
Field Evaluations of iPASS: Adoption and External Validity.
ROBERT L. COLLINS (iLearn, Inc.), Kristin Mayfield (iLearn, Inc.)
Abstract: In the most recent statewide mathematics textbook adoption cycle, California became the first state to formally recognize the need for courses to address the needs of students performing below grade level. They included textbooks for an Intervention Course for students in grades 4-7, and an Algebra Readiness Course for students in grade 8 not enrolled in Algebra. The iLearn software, called iPASS, was submitted for adoption as a textbook for these courses and was approved. This adoption is unique in that it is the first statewide adoption of a totally-automated curriculum with no printed materials, and the first known adoption of a program specifically developed from behavior-analytic principles. This presentation will describe some of the key features of the design of iPASS and discuss the relevance of these features to the evaluation criteria for the adoption process.
 
Morningside Mathematics Foundations: A Description and Some Data.
KENT JOHNSON (Morningside Academy)
Abstract: “Morningside Mathematics Foundations” is a program for teaching mathematics in elementary and middle schools. It returns arithmetic to its proper, front and center position in mathematics instruction. The program has five components: (1) tool skills, including number reading & writing and math facts, (2) arithmetic computation with whole numbers, fractions, decimals and percents, (3) the vocabulary and conversation of mathematics; how to talk about the math you are doing or need to do, (4) solving standard word problems with algebraic equations & arithmetic computation, and (5) a generalized problem solving method for more complex problems involving quantities. I will describe and illustrate each of these components, and show preliminary, pre/post data on the effectiveness of program, as measured by learner performance on two national, standardized tests, the Iowa Test of Basic Skills, and the Woodcock/Johnson Tests of Achievement III.
 
 
Symposium #430
CE Offered: BACB
We're Ready to Learn Now! Protocols and Tactics for Establishing Pre-reader Verbal Capabilities
Monday, May 26, 2008
1:30 PM–2:50 PM
Stevens 5
Area: VRB/EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Jeanne Marie Speckman (Fred S. Keller School, Columbia University Teachers College)
CE Instructor: Jeanne Marie Speckman, Ph.D.
Abstract:

We report on five protocols and tactics that have been shown to be effective in (1) altering the reinforcement value of teacher consequences, (2) inducing pre-reader verbal capabilities, and (3) exapanding existing pre-reader verbal repertoires. All participants were students with disabilities between the ages of 2 and 7. The verbal capabilities presented include generalized imitation, pure tacts, and naming.

 
The Effects of Playful Physical Contact as an Establishing Operation on Preschoolers’ Correct Academic Responses.
HYE-SUK LEE PARK (The Fred S. Keller School), JoAnn Pereira Delgado (The Fred S. Keller School), Jinhyeok Choi (Columbia University Teachers College)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to test the effects of physical contact as an establishing operation (EO) on the correct academic responses of 3 four-year-old preschoolers with developmental delays. The participants functioned at pre-speaker and pre-listener levels of verbal behavior and were selected to participate due to low percentages of correct responses to teacher instruction. Analyses of teacher-student observations showed that the instructional problems were likely due to motivational factors. A multielement design followed by an AB design was used to test the effects of an establishing operation. The dependent variables were participants’ responses to 7 acquisition programs and 1 performance program. The independent variable in this study was the delivery of physical contact prior to delivery of instruction. The data showed a functional relation between the delivery of physical contact and the number of correct academic responses emitted by participants.
 
The Effects of a Mirror Procedure on the Emergence of Generalized Imitation.
JEANNE MARIE SPECKMAN (Fred S. Keller School, Columbia University Teachers College), JoAnn Pereira Delgado (The Fred S. Keller School), R. Douglas Greer (Columbia University Teachers College)
Abstract: We report on two experiments that tested the effects of teaching children to imitate adults’ actions in a mirror on the emergence of generalized imitation. The participants were 6 children between the ages of two and five who were receiving preschool special education or Early Intervention services. The current study was conducted across two campuses of a publicly funded special education preschool and Early Intervention program outside a major metropolitan city. The dependent variable was the number of untaught or emergent imitation responses emitted by participants following treatment phases. The independent variable was teaching the participants to imitate sets of adults’ motor actions while looking at adults in a mirror. The participants were also able to view themselves throughout the procedure. The results showed that for all participants, teaching imitation of sets of motor actions in a mirror was functionally related to the emergence of generalized imitation.
 
The Effects of Reciprocal Peer Tutoring on the Emission of Verbal Operants by Children in Generalized Settings.
KIMBERLY VOGT (Columbia University Teachers College)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to test the effects of reciprocal peer tutoring, during which tacts were the teaching stimuli, on participants’ vocal verbal behavior in a play setting. In the first study, four participants with autism were grouped into two dyads. All of the participants emitted vocal verbal behavior, specifically mands and tacts with autoclitic frames. However, they emitted low numbers of sequelics and conversational units. After the participants were taught to tact a set of five objects or pictures, the independent variable, reciprocal peer tutoring, was implemented. The dependent variables in this study were the numbers of echoics, mands, tacts, intraverbals, sequelics, and conversational units emitted with a peer or with one’s self (self talk) in a free play setting. A multiple probe design was used. The results of the first experiment showed that reciprocal peer tutoring increased peer verbal operants for all participants during subsequent probes.
 
The Effects of Intensive Tact Instruction and Multiple Exemplar Instruction on the Emergence of Naming.
NIRVANA PISTOLJEVIC (Columbia University Teachers College), Mindy Bunya Rothstein (Columbia University Teachers College), R. Douglas Greer (Columbia University Teachers College)
Abstract: We tested the effects of an intensive tact instruction procedure on numbers of pure mands, pure tacts, sequilics and “Wh” questions emitted in non-instructional settings (NIS) using a multiple probe design across three 4-year-old participants diagnosed with autism. Also, as a collateral effect, we tested for the emergence of a full naming repertoire following the Intensive Tact Procedure. The first dependent variable was vocal verbal operants (pure tacts, pure mands, sequilics and “Wh” questions) emitted in NIS before/after the mastery of sets of 5 different stimuli. The second dependent variable was the acquisition of a full naming repertoire for 2-dimensional stimuli. The independent variable was Intensive Tact Instruction, which involved increasing the tact instructions to 100-tact learn units above the daily learn units students were receiving. The intervention increased independent vocal verbal operants emitted by the target students in NIS and all the participants acquired a full naming repertoire. The effects of multiple exemplar instruction across match to sample, selection, and production responses on the acquisition of naming will also be presented.
 
 
Invited Paper Session #435
CE Offered: BACB

Assessment and Treatment of Idiosyncratic Response Relations in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Monday, May 26, 2008
2:30 PM–3:20 PM
International North
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Henry S. Roane, Ph.D.
Chair: Joel Eric Ringdahl (University of Iowa)
HENRY S. ROANE (University of Nebraska Medical Center, Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Dr. Henry S. Roane received his Ph.D. in 2000 from Louisiana State University in School Psychology with an emphasis on the assessment and treatment of behavior disorders in individuals with developmental disabilities under the supervision of Timothy Vollmer and Dorothea Lerman. He completed a pre-doctoral internship in pediatrics and psychology at the Kennedy Krieger Institute and the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in 1999 with Cathleen Piazza and Wayne Fisher. From there he served in various positions at the Marcus Institute. At present Dr. Roane is an Associate Professor at the University of Nebraska Medical Center and is the Director of the Severe Behavior Disorders program at the Center for Autism Spectrum Disorders at the Munroe-Meyer Institute in Omaha, Nebraska. He is a licensed psychologist in the State of Nebraska and is a Board-certified Behavior Analyst. He is an Associate Editor for the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, is on the Editorial Boards of the Journal of School Psychology, Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, and Behavior Analysis in Practice, and is on the Board of Directors for the Behavior Analysis Certification Board and the Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. His clinical and research interests focus on the treatment of severe destructive behavior problems in children and adolescents and the evaluation of reinforcement schedules in applied settings.
Abstract:

Autism is a neurological disorder characterized by several core symptoms (e.g., social withdrawal, repetitive behavior). Many individuals with autism also display associated destructive behavior (e.g., self-injury, aggression). Functional analysis has emerged as the primary method of assessing those variables that maintain destructive behavior (e.g., positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement). However, among some individuals with autism, functional analysis outcomes are sometimes ambiguous. This presentation will describe several cases in which initial functional analyses did not identify the maintaining reinforcement contingency for destructive behavior. For all cases, descriptive observations yielded information that led to the identification of an idiosyncratic maintaining reinforcement contingency. Specifically, destructive behavior was maintained by contingent access to repetitive behavior. Following these assessments, treatments were developed in which the participants were taught an alternative method of accessing repetitive behavior. Finally, we developed alternate, more socially appropriate forms of repetitive behavior for each participant. The results of these cases will be discussed in relation to examining interactions between core symptoms of autism and the occurrence of destructive behavior.

 
 
Invited Panel #436
CE Offered: BACB
Licensing of Behavior Analysts
Monday, May 26, 2008
2:30 PM–3:50 PM
Grand Ballroom
Area: CSE/DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Henry S. Pennypacker (University of Florida)
CE Instructor: Michael Weinberg, Ph.D.
Panelists: T. V. JOE LAYNG (Headsprout), JAMES A. MULICK (The Ohio State University), MICHAEL F. DORSEY (The Vinfen Corporation and Gordon College), JOSEPH D. CAUTILLI (Children Crisis Treatment Center/St. Joseph's University)
Abstract:

In recent years, the need for qualified behavior analysts meeting has been growing nationally. A particular need area for services for children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders, and Aspergers syndrome is on the rise. There appear to be many more individuals, providers, and schools in need of services by qualified behavior analysts, which is exemplified by the data indicating alarmingly high rates of autism in the United States. Thus, there has been a strain on systems that are unable to provide needed services, in part due to fewer available BACB certificants than need may dictate. Additionally, behavior analysts typically are not eligible for third party payment by Medicaid or managed care, and there is a need to ensure consumer protection and adherence to ethical standards. One approach that has been proposed to address these concerns is pursuing licensure for behavior analysts. Proponents of licensure believe it would permit service delivery by qualified behavior analysts, will allow for greater assurance of meeting ethical standards and enhanced consumer protection, and increase likelihood of third party payment. The panel will present both pro and con views, and permit the audience to form its own opinions on this important issue.

T. V. JOE LAYNG (Headsprout)
Dr. T. V. Joe Layng co-founded Headsprout and serves as the company's Senior Scientist where he led the scientific team that developed Headsprout’s patented Generative Learning Technology. This technology forms the basis of the company’s Headsprout Early Reading program, for which Joe was the chief architect. From 1991 to 1996, Joe was the Director of the Academic Support Center, and then Dean of Public Agency and Special Training Programs and member of the President's Executive Committee at Malcolm X College in Chicago. At Malcolm X College, Joe founded the Personalized Curriculum Institute (PCI), based on the Morningside Model of Generative Instruction, for those students with high school diplomas who had skills below the eighth-grade level. He served as CEO for a computer software development and publishing firm in the 1980's. Joe has extensive experience in instructional design, both animal and human learning sciences research, and clinical behavior analysis. His clinical practice has focused primarily on adult therapy, though not exclusively. Joe, along with others at the Behavior Analysis Research Laboratory at the University of Chicago, collaborated with Israel Goldiamond in the development and application of Systemic versus Topical functional analysis and treatment. He has provided training and served as a learning science and clinical behavior analysis consultant to corporations, universities, public agencies, and mental health facilities for over thirty years. With Dr. Paul T. Andronis and Dr. Israel Goldiamond, Joe helped perform and publish the basic experimental work and lay the conceptual foundation for contingency adduction. Contingency adduction provides an account of how behavior shaped in one set of circumstances can be recruited for an entirely different function in another set of circumstances. He also performed and published basic experimental research on some of the variables leading to the relapse of clinically significant behavior, as well as on constructional approaches to clinical intervention. Joe holds a Ph.D. in Behavioral Science (Biopsychology) from The University of Chicago.
JAMES A. MULICK (The Ohio State University)
Prof. James A. Mulick received his B.A. degree in psychology from Rutgers College in New Brunswick, NJ, and then completed graduate studies at the University of Vermont, where he received his M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in general psychology, specializing in learning and behavioral development. He completed a postdoctoral fellowship in clinical child psychology at the Child Development Institute, Division for Disorders of Development and Learning, at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. He has held clinical supervisory positions at Murdoch Center, Butner, NC, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver Center for Mental Retardation in Waltham, MA, and the Child Development Center of Rhode Island Hospital in Providence. Dr. Mulick has taught and held graduate faculty appointments at Northeastern University, the University of Rhode Island, and the Brown University Program in Medicine, and presently has a joint appointment as Professor in the departments of Pediatrics and Psychology at The Ohio State University, Columbus. Professor Mulick has published over 100 articles, chapters and books in the areas of learning, developmental psychobiology, behavior analysis, mental retardation and developmental disabilities, policy analysis, and curriculum development for advanced and postdoctoral professional education. He is co-editor of the award winning Handbook of Mental Retardation, as well as the books Parent-Professional Partnerships in Developmental Disability Services, Manual of Diagnosis and Professional Practice in Mental Retardation, and Prevention of Developmental Disabilities, Controversial Therapies for Developmental Disabilities, Handbook of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities. He was the Series Editor of the four-volume Transitions in Mental Retardation monograph publication sponsored by Northeast Region X of the American Association on Mental Retardation. He is a member of the editorial review boards of Disability and Health Journal and Behavioral Interventions and reviews for many scientific journals. Dr. Mulick has served in elected and appointed leadership roles in several scientific and professional societies, is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association (APA), the American Association for Applied and Preventive Psychology, and the American Psychological Society, and a Clinical Fellow of the Behavior Therapy and Research Society. He has been elected to the APA Council of Representatives representing the Division of MRDD. He served as a founding board member of the Association for Science in Autism Treatment until 2002 and continues in an advisory role, and he serves on the advisory board of the Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies. He received the Karl F. Heiser Presidential Award for Advocacy on Behalf of Professional Psychology from APA in 1998. Research interests include basic and applied behavior analysis, ecological methods in behavior analysis, early childhood and developmental psychopathology, mental retardation, psychopharmacology, and policy analysis relating to children and the handicapped.
MICHAEL F. DORSEY (The Vinfen Corporation and Gordon College)
Dr. Michael F. Dorsey is a Board Certified Behavior Analyst® and a licensed Psychologist. He is the Director of Clinical Services in the Mental Retardation Division of the Vinfen Corporation, Cambridge, Massachusetts, and the Director of Graduate Instruction for the Summit Academy Institute at Gordon College. Additionally, Dr. Dorsey is the Founding President of the Greater Boston Association for Behavior Analysis. Dr. Dorsey earned his Ph.D. in Psychology, with a specialization in applied behavior analysis, from Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan in 1979, where he was one of Dr. Brian Iwata’s first doctoral students. During his career, Dr. Dorsey has had the unique privilege to serve on the faculty of several prestigious Universities and Colleges, including The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. He is an author/co-author of many professional publications, including participating with Dr. Iwata in the seminal article in the development of the Functional Analysis/Assessment methodology. Currently Dr. Dorsey spends much of his professional time conducting Independent Educational Evaluations for parents and school districts. He has testified as an Expert Witness in numerous Bureau of Special Education Appeals (BSEA) cases, as well as an Expert Witness in various Probate, Superior, and Federal Court cases involving the education and treatment of individuals diagnosed with developmental disabilities. Dr. Dorsey is an authority in the area of functional analysis, the education of children diagnosed with Pervasive Developmental Disorder and the treatment of severe challenging behavior.
JOSEPH D. CAUTILLI (Children Crisis Treatment Center/St. Joseph's University)
Dr. Joseph D. Cautilli received his first masters from Temple University in Counseling Psychology and his second through Temple University’s Applied Behavior Analysis program in Special Education. He completed his Ph.D. in 2005 in school psychology from Temple University. He is licensed in Pennsylvania as a counselor and is board-certified in behavior analysis. Dr. Cautilli has served as adjunct professor at two major universities. At Temple, he taught over a dozen courses in regular education, special education, and applied behavior analysis including courses on Behavioral Consultation over the course of seven years. Currently, he serves as faculty in the Applied Behavior Analysis Masters sub-track within the Criminal Justice Program at St. Joseph’s University, a program he designed. Dr. Cautilli has extensive editorial experience and severed as the Lead and founding editor for 6 journals to date. Dr. Cautilli has extensive experience in both the clinical and managerial aspects of behavioral health rehabilitation programs for children. He has written numerous articles on the subject. Dr. Cautilli also serves as an appellate due process officer in the state of Pennsylvania. He has decided on more than 100 opinions and has written more than 30. He is an active member of the behavioral community and has founded over 10 list serves on behavior analysis. In addition, he has been an active ABAI member founding three Special Interest Groups and serving as the chair of an additional special interest group.
 
 
Symposium #439
CE Offered: BACB
International Symposium - Addressing Problem Behavior: Ethical and Clinical Issues
Monday, May 26, 2008
3:00 PM–4:20 PM
Stevens 4
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Monika M. Suchowierska (Warsaw School of Social Psychology)
Discussant: J. Helen Yoo (New York State Institute for Basic Research)
CE Instructor: Monika M. Suchowierska, Ph.D.
Abstract:

The symposium will consist of a presentation discussing ethical and clinical issues that guide work on problem behavior and data-based presentations showing applications of treatment plans to reduce problem behaviors in two children with autism. In the first presentation, the least restrictive treatment model will be debated and an intervention triad to address problem behavior will be presented. In the second and third presentation, results of using non-aversive and aversive procedures will be shown.

 
Addressing Problem Behavior: Ethical and Clinical Issues.
MONIKA M. SUCHOWIERSKA (Warsaw School of Social Psychology)
Abstract: In the presentation, the author will discuss ethical and clinical issues that guide work on problem behavior. The least restrictive treatment model will be debated. An intervention triad to address problem behavior will be presented.
 
Reduction of Vocalizations and Hyperactivity of a Girl with Autism.
MONIKA M. SUCHOWIERSKA (Warsaw School of Social Psychology), Agnieszka Aksamit-Ramotowska (Center for Early Intervention Step by Step)
Abstract: In the experiment, the authors present data that stands contrary to the evaluation of the participant’s problem behavior done by non-behavioral providers. Study presents results of a treatment plan that consisted of stimulus control procedures, differential reinforcement, and punishment Type I. Vocalizations and hyperactivity were addressed in a sequential manner. Rates of problem behaviors were reduced to acceptable levels. Study presents an example of a decision-making process with respect to the least restrictive therapy model.
 
Reduction of Self-aggression and Temper Tantrums of a Boy with Autism.
AGNIESZKA AKSAMIT-RAMOTOWSKA (Center for Early Intervention Step by Step, Polish)
Abstract: In the experiment, the authors present an example of a decision-making process with respect to the least restrictive therapy model. Two behaviors of a young child with autism were addressed: hitting in the head and other parts of the body, and temper tantrums when being undressed. In the case of both behaviors, differential reinforcement procedures did not bring changes that were satisfactory. Punishment Type I procedure was introduced. The results show a marked reduction in problem behavior. Results of the intervention did not generalize to the home environment, thus the intervention package was turned over to the parents.
 
 
Symposium #440
CE Offered: BACB
Current Topics in Autism Intervention
Monday, May 26, 2008
3:00 PM–4:20 PM
Stevens 2
Area: AUT/EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Michael Fabrizio (Organization for Research and Learning)
CE Instructor: Kelly J. Ferris, M.Ed.
Abstract:

This symposium will cover topics in autism intervention in both center-based and home-based programming for a range of skills. Papers will include designing instruction for advanced pragmatic skills, programming for teens, generalization tracking across home and school instruction, and a case study on student outcomes after years of Precision Teaching based instruction.

 
Precision Teaching Intervention Related to Theory of Mind and Perspective Taking Skills.
HEIDI CALVERLEY (Organization for Research and Learning), Krista Zambolin (Organization for Research and Learning), Michael Fabrizio (Organization for Research and Learning)
Abstract: The complex component skills that encompass perspective taking are ones that are often deficient in individuals with autism. These deficiencies can play a significant role in the proper development of Theory of Mind in individuals with autism. Being able to understand the relationship between beliefs and behavior, to interpret and predict the perspectives of other people, and to “put yourself in someone else’s shoes” are all important skills in developing Theory of Mind, and consequently more complex social relationships. This symposium will show the steps taken to successfully teach perspective taking skills to a 4-year-old boy with high functioning autism. It will also show how improvement was seen on Theory of Mind tasks involving “false-beliefs”. Data were collected daily using Precision Teaching methods and all data were graphed on Standard Celeration Charts.
 
Transition Programming for Adolescents with Autism.
ANDREW M. SYVERTSEN (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology and FEAT of Washington), Michael Fabrizio (Organization for Research and Learning), Sara J. Pahl (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting), Shane D. Isley (FEAT of Washington)
Abstract: Families for Effective Autism Treatment (FEAT) of Washington provides clinical services to adolescents with autism through their Transitions for Teens program. Transitions for Teens utilizes three instructional arrangements (Community Based Instruction, Group Instruction and Component Skill Instruction) to address performance objectives for adolescents across ten critical repertoire areas (self-advocacy, self-management, communication, academics, production, navigation, safety, leisure, social, and hygiene). This presentation will focus on providing (1) example objectives from each repertoire area across a range of abilities, (2) student data from the different repertoire areas, and (3) examples of how data from the three different instructional arrangements are used to make data-based decisions within the repertoire areas.
 
Coordinating Home-School Consultation across Behavior Analytic Programs.
KATHLEEN S. LAINO (Organization for Research and Learning), Rebecca E. Phillips (FEAT of Washington), Kelly J. Ferris (Organization for Research and Learning)
Abstract: When building skills in learners with autism and related disabilities, obtaining certain outcomes can predict if skills are likely to be useful to the learner outside of the instructional setting. For example, it is well recognized that measuring retention, endurance, stability, and application of skills is not only important, but results in empirically validating skill fluency. However, such outcome measurement often occurs following a long period of instruction on a given skill, not necessarily throughout the many phases of instruction. The ongoing usability of target skills requires measurement outside of the teaching environment on a regular and frequent basis and may require careful collaboration and planning between multiple existing programs. The current paper will document ongoing efforts of collaboration between a school and home-based behavior analytic program for a young child with autism. Data will be presented on Standard Celeration Charts showing daily frequency-building at home and generalization of skills across environments, instructional arrangements, and teachers. Data will be presented across multiple skills. Discussion on data-based changes to the definitions and procedures to achieve the desired outcomes will be shared.
 
Student Learning Outcomes from Precision Teaching Based Instrucitonal Programs: Four Data-based Case Studies.
KELLY J. FERRIS (Organization for Research and Learning), Holly Almon (Organization for Research and Learning), Michael Fabrizio (Organization for Research and Learning)
Abstract: The field of Precision Teaching has been sharing data on student learning outcomes for years. Data on empirically validating student outcomes for learners with autism have been presented. This paper will take a close look at four case studies of children with autism receiving Precision Teaching based instruction. Meta level and Macro level data will be presented on student intervention profiles and norm referenced assessment data throughout the course of intervention.
 
 
Symposium #442
CE Offered: BACB
Simulation-Based Training to Improve Communication and Teamwork and Reduce Medical Errors
Monday, May 26, 2008
3:00 PM–4:20 PM
Boulevard A
Area: CBM/OBM; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: R. Wayne Fuqua (Western Michigan University)
Discussant: Terry E. McSween (Quality Safety Edge)
CE Instructor: R. Wayne Fuqua, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Errors in the delivery of health care services are estimated to account for 90,000 deaths per year in the United States. Many of these deaths are traceable to failures in team coordination and communication among health care workers. Other high risk industries, such as aviation, have greatly reduced error rates through comprehensive simulation-based skill assessment and training programs. We suggest that many of the simulation-based training and quality control strategies developed in aviation can be extrapolated to health care, if, and only if, a number of modifications are made to reflect unique aspects of health care (non-standardized work environments, rotating team composition, poorly delineated roles and chains of command, absence of systematic training in key skills). We describe the preliminary stages of the development of a simulation-based assessment and training system for heath care workers, known as in-situ simulation. The features of this model include the development of scenarios composed of a number of event sets designed to challenge critical health care skills (e.g., problem solving, team coordination, error detection and correction). Simulations are orchestrated in the health care setting in an effort to increase the fidelity of the surrounding environment and to sample the real-world interface between health care workers and support services (e.g., lab and blood services). We describe the development and validation of a taxonomy of health care skills that can be used to evaluate the performance of health care teams. We also describe a facilitated debriefing strategy that is used to promote self- evaluation of critical communication, problem solving and error detection skills by health care workers who have completed an in-situ simulation.

 
Reducing Medical Errors: In Situ Simulation to Assess and Train Team Management Skills in Health Care Settings.
R. WAYNE FUQUA (Western Michigan University), William Hamman (Western Michigan University), Jeff Beaubien (Aptima, Inc.), Amy M. Gullickson (Western Michigan University), Rick Lammers (Michigan State University/Kalamazoo Center for Medical Studies ), Beth Seiler (Western Michigan University )
Abstract: Errors in the delivery of health care services are estimated to account for 90,000 deaths per year in the United States. Many of these deaths are traceable to failures in team coordination and communication among health care workers. Other high-risk industries, such as aviation, have greatly reduced error rates through comprehensive simulation-based skill assessment and training programs. We suggest that many of the simulation-based training and quality control strategies developed in aviation can be extrapolated to health care, if, and only if, a number of modifications are made to reflect unique aspects of health care (non-standardized work environments, rotating team composition, poorly delineated roles and chains of command, absence of systematic training in key skills). We describe the preliminary stages of the development of a simulation-based assessment and training system for heath care workers, known as “in-situ simulation.” Thefeatures of this model include the development of scenarios composed of a number of event sets designed to challenge critical health care skills (e.g., problem solving, team coordination, error detection and correction). Simulations are orchestrated in the health care setting in an effort to increase the fidelity of the surrounding environment and to sample the real-world interface between health care workers and support services (e.g., lab and blood services). We describe the development and validation of a taxonomy of health care skills that can be used to evaluate the performance of health care teams. We also describe a facilitated debriefing strategy that is used to promote self-evaluation of critical communication, problem solving and error detection skills by health care workers who have completed an in-situ simulation.
 
Designing Simulation-Based Assessment and Training: Behavioral Principles and Applications.
AMY GROSS (Western Michigan University), R. Wayne Fuqua (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Behavior analysis researchers have used a range of simulations including those with low fidelity to those with very high fidelity. In this context, “fidelity” refers to the correspondence between the critical stimulus features of the “real world” situation in which a target behavior occurs and the corresponding features of the simulation. Examples at the lower end of the fidelity continuum include, actor-based role plays used to assess and train social skills, to polymer breast models that approximate the density of human breast tissue and the size and location of embedded lumps used to train breast self-exam skills. Simulations have long been used in behavior analysis research to (a) assess behavior, (b) to train behavior and (c) to identify causal variables for a problem behavior. We then discussed the application of behavior analysis principles to the design of high-fidelity simulations for research, assessment and training purposes. We suggest that the design of high-fidelity simulations can be guided by consideration of contextual, physiological and historical variables that have been identified by learning theory and behavior analysis researchers as important determinants of behavior. We identified and gave examples of a range of variables that should be considered in designing high-fidelity simulations including the stimulus events that define a response opportunity, more distal setting events, historical events, emotional and physiological variables, distracting events that control competing behavior, and the naturalistic and programmed consequences (e.g., reinforcers and punishers) for behavior being sampled in the simulation. We also discussed the range of response dimensions that might be considered in efforts to obtain an accurate assessment of a behavior, including response topography, magnitude, frequency, latency, sequence and duration. We then reviewed factors that influence generalization and maintenance for simulation-based training. Finally, we discussed strategies to assess social validity, or consumer satisfaction with simulation-based assessment and training.
 
Training and Assessing Team Skills: A Review and Synopsis of the Empirical Literature.
KRYSTYNA A. ORIZONDO-KOROTKO (Western Michigan University), Amy M. Gullickson (Western Michigan University), R. Wayne Fuqua (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: This presentation identified a range of team skills and discussed strategies for the assessment and training of skills that are related to health care safety issues. There are different ways that teams are formed, and in order to determine which team skills are necessary, it is first essential to identify the various models of team organization and functioning. Among the variables that merit consideration are whether teams are intact and stable or fluid, whether teams are organized around a flat vs. hierarchical structure, and finally the extent to which team members have common skills or unique, not overlapping skill sets. Observationof team performance in health care settings reveals that most hospital-based health care teams have a fluid structure (the membership of the team varies across time), with some hierarchical elements (one or more designated or implicit leaders) and specialized skill sets for each team member. Knowing the most common team structure in health care, we were then able to determine what skill sets (called domains) were most relevant to effective team performance. An important prerequisite to implementing any team skill training intervention is developing an adequate assessment procedure, collecting baseline performance data and identifying the team skills that characterize exemplary team performance (and presumably improve the health care outcomes produced by a given team). We then described the manner in which a matrix of team skills was developed, refined and validated for this particular project. Finally, we previewed the three different methods of training team skills that will be tested in this project: (1) information-based, including role clarification; (2) demonstration-based; and (3) practice- and feedback-based. Different tools will also be used during training: classroom instruction, the use of simulations, and the postsimulation debrief.
 
 
Symposium #445
CE Offered: BACB
The Treatment of Refractory Severe Problem Behaviors
Monday, May 26, 2008
3:00 PM–4:20 PM
Stevens 3
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Nathan Blenkush (Judge Rotenberg Center)
CE Instructor: Nathan Blenkush, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Individuals who exhibit chronic, high frequency and/or high intensity problem behaviors are often treated with combinations of pharmaceutical, antecedent, reinforcement, and other interventions based on behavior function. The repeated failure of these interventions often results in high doses of psychotropic medications and a highly restrictive environment. Here, we describe the effectiveness of contingent skin-shock, administered via the Graduated Electronic Decelerator, combined with a dense schedule of reinforcement in treating refractory problem behaviors. In addition, common myths and omissions associated with contingent shock are discussed. Finally, the behavioral treatment of non-mentally retarded/autistic persons will be discussed.

 
Systems of Reinforcement at the Judge Rotenberg Center.
RACHEL NICOLLE MATTHEWS (Judge Rotenberg Center)
Abstract: Primary and conditioned reinforcers are an essential component of any behavioral program or intervention. The Judge Rotenberg Center has a comprehensive system of rewards that are used to reinforce appropriate behaviors. The system includes three components: an immediate rewards, token reinforcement, and point reinforcement. Each component is described and discussed in the context of the treatment of severe behavior disorders with particular attention to implementation.
 
Myths and Omission Regarding Contingent Skin-Shock.
NATHAN BLENKUSH (Judge Rotenberg Center)
Abstract: Contingent skin-shock, combined with reinforcement procedures, is an extremely effective in reducing and/or eliminating refractory severe problem behaviors. However, some have argued that contingent-skin shock in particular and punishment procedures in general, should not be used because of reasons such as undesirable side-effects and lack of long-term effectiveness. Here, a variety of myths and omissions regarding contingent skin-shock are explored and discussed in the context of severe behavior disorders.
 
The Effectiveness of Contingent Skin Shock in Reducing Refractory Aggressive Behaviors.
ROBERT VON HEYN (Judge Rotenberg Center)
Abstract: We evaluated the effectiveness of contingent skin shock (CSS) in reducing the frequency of aggressive behaviors of 53 participants who had not improved with the use of pharmaceutical, antecedent, reinforcement or behavioral treatments based on behavior function. The results suggest that CSS reduced the frequency of aggressive behaviors by 95% or more for 96% of the participants (100% for 78% of participants).
 
Treating Severe Behaviors Emitted by Non-MR/Autistic Individuals.
PATRICIA RIVERA (Judge Rotenberg Center)
Abstract: Individuals diagnosed with autism and mental retardation are often treated with behavioral interventions. This is not surprising considering that these individuals often exhibit problem behaviors. However, there are many other groups of people who exhibit severe problem behaviors that can be successfully treated using the principals of behavior. This presentation will focus on the treatment of people with IQ’s in the normal range who lack a diagnosis of mental retardation or autism. Rule governed behavior, counter control and other factors commonly found in this population will be discussed.
 
 
Panel #447
CE Offered: BACB
Evolutionary Developmental Biology
Monday, May 26, 2008
3:00 PM–4:20 PM
4D
Area: DEV/TPC; Domain: Theory
CE Instructor: Peter Killeen, Ph.D.
Chair: Jacob L. Gewirtz (Florida International University)
SUSAN M. SCHNEIDER (Florida International University)
CLIVE D. L. WYNNE (University of Florida)
JACOB L. GEWIRTZ (Florida International University)
PETER KILLEEN (Arizona State University)
Abstract:

This panel discussion will emphasize environmental-unit behavior-unit interactions. According to Peter Killeen, recent progress in evolutionary developmental biologyevo-devoprovides potentially useful templates for refining the definition of such units, and broadening possibilities of the modes in which they interact. Among these concepts are heterochrony, variation by changes in temporal sequence, such as neoteny; the role of modularity in evolution; how modifications of developmental processes lead to the production of novel features; the role of developmental plasticity in evolution; how ecology impacts development and evolutionary change; and the developmental basis of homoplasy and homology. As a familiar example, a homology in biology is any similarity between characters that is due their shared ancestry; in functional analysis, great efforts are taken to identify the variables of which behavior is a function. Is it useful to treat those that are under the control of the same reinforcer as homologs, and those that merely share a similar topography as analogs? Is the ability of the homeobox to activate correlated sets of genes enlightening for the analysis of establishing stimuli? Do the various forms of paedomorphisis and peramorphosisthe juvenilezation/senescization of morphologyhave analogs in behavior? Does the efficiency of evolution, crafting endless forms most beautiful from a meager number of genes, suggest mechanisms for the blossoming of creative behavior in Homo sapiens? The members of this panel discussion will address these evo-devo concepts. The audience will be encouraged to participate with behavioral analogs of the biological processes, and evaluate their potential utility.

 
 
Symposium #449
CE Offered: BACB
The Role of Reinforcement in Classroom Settings
Monday, May 26, 2008
3:00 PM–4:20 PM
Waldorf
Area: EDC/TPC; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Phillip J. Belfiore (Mercyhurst College)
Discussant: Christopher Skinner (The Univesity of Tennessee)
CE Instructor: David L. Lee, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Reinforcement is certainly one of the most pervasive principles of behavior analysis. Unfortunately, in classroom settings many practitioners (a) fail to effectively apply this principle, (b) do not account for extraneous sources of reinforcement (thus rendering programs ineffective), and (c) do not understand the link between environments rich in reinforcement and persistence of behavior. Three papers will be presented in this symposium. In the first presentation, pilot data will be presented on an instructional program designed to teach pre-service teachers how to effectively use positive reinforcement in the classroom. In the second, a study that examined the effects of interspersing brief academic tasks within long academic tasks will be presented. In the final presentation, we present data for a model of resilience based on Nevins theory of behavioral momentum. The basis of this theory is that behaviors emitted in environments rich in reinforcement are more resistant to change than behaviors emitted in environments associated with relatively low levels of reinforcement. Descriptive and analog experimental data are presented in support of this behavioral model of resilience. The common link among these three presentations is the importance of accounting for, and taking advantage of all sources of reinforcement in the classroom.

 
Teacher preparation: Teaching the Principles and Application of Positive Reinforcement.
JUDITH SYLVA (California State University, San Bernardino), Doreen J. Ferko (California State University, Fullerton)
Abstract: The principles of positive reinforcement are a key aspect of Applied Behavior Analysis in classroom settings. These principles are frequently not considered in the application and use of positive reinforcement in the classroom resulting in overuse of ineffective reinforcement. This address will provide a rationale for explicit instruction in the principles governing the effective use of positive reinforcement in special education teacher preparation programs. A method for implementing such instruction as well as evaluating its effectiveness will be discussed. Pilot data will be presented and discussed in light of effective practices for teaching ABA principles in teacher pre-service preparation.
 
Time-Based versus Task-Based Contingencies: Which are More Effective for Independent Academic Assignments?
YOUJIA HUA (Pennsylvania State University), Samuel Stansbery (Pennsylvania State University), David L. Lee (Pennsylvania State University)
Abstract: Task interspersal is an academic material modification procedure designed to make task completion more reinforcing. It is implemented by adding a sequence of brief tasks prior to more difficult or nonpreferred target academic tasks. This procedure results in an increase in the number of conditioned reinforcers available for completing a given task. However, one limitation of the studies examining these effects is that researchers exclusively use time-based contingencies to study academic choice behavior. This procedure may (a) inadvertently limit student opportunities to respond to the target problems and (b) not accurately reflect the real contingencies in applied settings. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of time- and task-based contingencies on student choice of academic materials. In this study a concurrent-schedule design with a reversal was used to compare the students’ choice of worksheets when working under different task contingencies. Student choice of contingency and task performance data will be presented.
 
The Role of Classroom Environment in Persistence.
DAVID L. LEE (Pennsylvania State University), Phillip J. Belfiore (Mercyhurst College), Douglas Dexter (Pennsylvania State University)
Abstract: Research in the area of resilience seeks to determine factors that are related to success under difficult circumstances. However, much of the literature on resilience is correlational in nature. That is, we know that there are risk factors (e.g., poverty, dysfunctional home), but we are unsure why many of these risk factors cause poor outcomes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of the theory of behavioral momentum as a model to explain resilience. The theory of behavioral momentum, much like its counterpart in physics, suggests that behavior with a high level of momentum is likely to persist during changes in the environment. Behavior with a high-level of momentum is often associated with conditions rich in positive reinforcement, whereas behaviors that do not persist are often associated with low levels of reinforcement. In Phase One of this study we observed and documented positive and negative teacher behavior. In Phase Two students completed math problems when the teacher was both in (baseline) and out (resilience test) of the classroom. Results show that student persistence was greater when teachers left the room, for those teachers who delivered fewer negative consequences compared with teachers who delivered more positive consequences.
 
 
Symposium #450
CE Offered: BACB
School-Wide Positive Behavior Supports at the Classroom Level
Monday, May 26, 2008
3:00 PM–4:20 PM
Williford A
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Rachel L. White (University of Kansas)
CE Instructor: Linda S. Heitzman-Powell, Ph.D.
Abstract:

School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (SW-PBS) represents a hierarchical system of proactive interventions to increase positive behaviors in the school setting. At the school-wide level, supports address promoting positive behaviors for all students. Supports at the classroom level increase student engagement and decrease disruptive behaviors. Individual supports are designed for students whose behavior has not responded to school-wide and classroom interventions. In this symposium, 4 papers will be presented on various aspects of classroom level interventions. Natural rates of praise and reprimands found in elementary classrooms and the effects of teacher attention on student engagement will be discussed. A measurement tool for classroom level interventions will be presented and classroom level interventions will be described. Finally, methods for changing the classroom environment will be discussed.

 
Natural Rates of Teacher Praise and Reprimand in Elementary Schools.
HOWARD P. WILLS (Juniper Gardens Children's Project), Rachel L. White (University of Kansas)
Abstract: Numerous studies have looked at the occurrence of teacher approval and disapproval in the classroom. These studies report ratios of approval to disapproval between 19:1 to 1:17, with the average ratio falling at 1:1 approvals to disapprovals. Reviews of studies on the natural rates of approval and disapproval in the classroom suggest that approval rates are higher for academic behaviors than social behaviors. Also, while teachers may maintain a positive ratio of approval to disapproval for academic behaviors, social behaviors often receive more disapproval than approval. This presentation will present natural rates and ratios of teacher praise and reprimands over three years in six Midwestern urban and suburban elementary schools.
 
Student Engagement as a Consequence of Teacher Attention to Positive and Negative Behaviors.
RACHEL L. WHITE (University of Kansas), Howard P. Wills (Juniper Gardens Children's Project), Linda S. Heitzman-Powell (University of Kansas)
Abstract: Researchers have attempted to decrease problem behavior and increase engagement by changing the rate of teacher approval in the classroom. Studies have increased appropriate behaviors by increasing positive teacher attention towards those behaviors and have found that in general, as rates of teacher praise increased, so did attending behavior of elementary school students. This study manipulated teacher attention to positive and negative behaviors to determine the effects teacher attention had on student engagement at the classroom level. Group on-task/off-task data will be reviewed and the effects of teacher attention on student engagement will be discussed.
 
The Use of a Classroom Atmosphere Scale (CLAS) to Measure Classroom Level Positive Behavior Supports.
LINDA S. HEITZMAN-POWELL (University of Kansas), Rachel L. White (University of Kansas), Howard P. Wills (Juniper Gardens Children's Project)
Abstract: Classroom level interventions are designed to increase student engagement and decrease disruptive behavior. However, in order for interventions to be successful, there are several classroom strategies that can be implemented to create a more effective learning environment. This presentation will outline several strategies reported in the literature that have been demonstrated to be effective at increasing student engagement and decreasing disruptive behaviors. In addition, this presentation will describe a hand-held observation system for measuring their use in elementary school classrooms. Finally, this presentation will describe the use of the data obtained from these observations on predicting which classrooms have higher rates of engagement and lower rates of student disruptive behavior based on the characteristics of the classroom and class-wide strategies employed.
 
Changing the Classroom Environment.
KIMBERLY K. BESSETTE (University of Kansas), Howard P. Wills (Juniper Gardens Children's Project), Rachel L. White (University of Kansas)
Abstract: Research has shown that student behaviors can be changed by environmental arrangements and changes in teacher behaviors. Additionally, many strategies are recommended to improve student behavior in the classroom. However, observations still indicate that the typical elementary school classroom does not regularly employ these strategies. This presentation will discuss methods for systematically modifying the elementary classroom environment and the subsequent effect on student engagement and levels of disruptive behaviors. Methods for changing and maintaining teacher behavior will also be discussed.
 
 
Symposium #453
CE Offered: BACB
Applications of OBM and BBS Techniques in Privately-Owned Businesses
Monday, May 26, 2008
3:00 PM–4:20 PM
Marquette
Area: OBM/CSE; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Marisa Snow (Florida State University)
Discussant: Marco D. Tomasi (Florida State University)
CE Instructor: Marco D. Tomasi, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Applied behavior analysis can offer small business owners solutions to challenges they face on a daily basis. Employee performance can be improved by working with owners and managers to implement techniques based on the fundamental principles of behavior through proven scientific methodologies. The current session shares three investigations of behavioral technology in privately owned small business settings. Two studies focused on customer service behaviors of employees at privately-owned businesses. The third study targeted safety behaviors at privately-owned business.

 
The Effects of Performance Management on Customer Service Behaviors at a Private Airport.
ALLISON C. BLAKE (Florida State University), Sarah E. Casella (Florida Institute of Technology), Jon S. Bailey (FSU, BMC, FABA)
Abstract: The purpose of this project was to increase customer service behaviors at a general aviation airport. Target behaviors for customer service included customer greeting upon entry and exit, smiling, naming and up selling of fuel. Interventions included task clarification and employee contract, followed by the use of visual prompts for up selling and smiling, graphic feedback and performance matrix. Results demonstrated increases in customer service behaviors as a result of the interventions. Smiling, naming and up selling remained variable, while introduction and exit greetings showed the greatest improvement after task clarification.
 
Have a Safe Flight: Using Behavior-Based Safety Interventions at a General Aviation Facility.
SARAH E. CASELLA (Florida Institute of Technology), Allison C. Blake (Florida State University), Jon S. Bailey (FSU, BMC, FABA)
Abstract: The airfield of a general aviation facility can be a dangerous place. Propellers, turbines, fuel, and a high number of civilian and military pilots in a wide range of small aircraft all within close proximity to each other can increase the potential for injury. The purpose of this project was to increase safety behaviors at a general aviation airport. The target behavior for linemen was speeding. A hand-held device utilizing Doppler radar was used to assess speed both around and away from aircraft on the airfield. The intervention package for speeding included the posting of speed limit signage, manager speed demonstration and graphic feedback. Overall, speeding percentage and average speed decreased.
 
Order Up! An Investigation of Task Clarification and Feedback on the Efficiency of Beverage Order Completion.
MELISSA A. WILSON (Furman University), Jeanine P. Stratton (Furman University)
Abstract: This study investigated the effects of task clarification and manager-delivered verbal feedback on bartender order completion efficiency at a privately-owned restaurant. The dependent variables included the time to serve a multiple-drink order, time to serve a single-mixed drink order, and time to serve a single bottled drink order. Results reflect a modest increase in efficiency across all three DVs during intervention. Further research is suggested with attention to employee-customer interaction, and individual responses to feedback.
 
 
Symposium #456
CE Offered: BACB
Assessment and Treatment of Problem Behavior Maintained by Automatic Reinforcement
Monday, May 26, 2008
3:30 PM–4:50 PM
International South
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Eileen M. Roscoe (The New England Center for Children)
CE Instructor: Eileen M. Roscoe, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Problem behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement can be difficult to treat because the reinforcer is directly produced by the response. Reinforcement based interventions, such as noncontingent and contingent reinforcement for an appropriate response, have been found effective for reducing automatically-reinforced behavior. However, often more direct interventions, such as response blocking and overcorrection, are required for obtaining successful outcomes. This symposium will include four presentations discussing research on the assessment and treatment of automatically-reinforced behavior. A variety of response topographies will be reviewed, including rumination, vomiting, echolalia, motor stereotypy, and self-restraint.

 
Functional Analysis and Treatment of Chronic Rumination and Vomiting.
SARAH E. BLOOM (University of Florida), Brian A. Iwata (University of Florida)
Abstract: This study describes the assessment and treatment of four individuals who engaged in chronic rumination and/or vomiting. Results of functional analyses indicated that rumination (3 participants) was maintained by automatic reinforcement but that vomiting exhibited by the fourth participant was maintained by social-positive reinforcement (access to attention). Reinforcement-based interventions for the 3 participants who exhibited rumination were developed based on their assessment results but were ineffective. Response cost (2 participants) and overcorrection (1 participant) subsequently were effective in eliminating or greatly reducing rumination. The fourth participant’s vomiting was treated successfully with a differential reinforcement procedure. Results are discussed in terms of the progression from assessment to treatment and practical implications for the use of reinforcement and punishment.
 
Functional Analysis of Echolalia and its Treatment Using Script Fading.
AMANDA KARSTEN (Munroe-Meyer Institute), Wayne W. Fisher (Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Abstract: Many individuals with autism display echolalia, the parrot-like repetition of words or phrases spoken by another individual either in the preceding moments (i.e., immediate echolalia) or after a substantial period of time has elapsed (i.e., delayed echolalia). Although a number of hypotheses have been proposed regarding causes and correlates of immediate and delayed echolalia, a limited number of investigations have used controlled functional analysis methods (a) to systematically evaluate the function(s) of these aberrant responses or (b) to develop effective treatments. In this investigation, a functional analysis was conducted with a 15-year-old male with autism, which confirmed that his delayed echolalia (e.g., repeating scripts from TV shows) persisted independent of social contingencies and was presumably maintained by automatic reinforcement. Next, appropriate social conversation was prompted using textual scripts and reinforced with descriptive praise. This intervention resulted in marked increases in appropriate communication and concomitant decreases in delayed echolalia and other vocal stereotypy's, and functional control of the treatment effects was established using a reversal design. Scripts were subsequently faded while maintaining high levels of appropriate vocalizations and low levels of echolalia and other vocal stereotypy's. These results are discussed relative to the function(s) of echolalia and its treatment via the promotion of appropriate social communication.
 
A Comparison of Redirection with and without Response Interruption for Reducing Stereotypy Maintained by Automatic Reinforcement.
AIMEE GILES (The New England Center for Children), Eileen M. Roscoe (The New England Center for Children), Sacha T. Pence (The New England Center for Children), William H. Ahearn (The New England Center for Children)
Abstract: Previous research has shown that response interruption and redirection can effectively reduce stereotypy maintained by automatic reinforcement. The current study evaluated the effects of a response redirection procedure implemented in isolation and in conjunction with response interruption on the stereotypic responding of two participants. Results of a functional analysis for both participants showed that their stereotypy was not maintained by social consequences. During the treatment assessment, response redirection alone and response redirection with interruption were evaluated using an alternating treatment and reversal design. Response redirection consisted of instructions to engage in motor tasks contingent on motor stereotypy, whereas the response redirection and interruption procedure also consisted of the therapist physically blocking the participant from engaging in the stereotypic response prior to implementing the redirection procedure. Results for one participant showed that both redirection and redirection plus interruption resulted in comparably low levels of motor stereotypy when compared to baseline, and results for the second participant showed lower levels of stereotypy only when response redirection was implemented in conjunction with interruption. The implications of these findings for treating behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement will be discussed.
 
Analysis of a Self-Restraint Response Hierarchy.
DARREL MORELAND (Munroe-Meyer Institute), Henry S. Roane (Munroe-Meyer Institute), Kelly J. Bouxsein (Munroe-Meyer Institute), Robert-Ryan S. Pabico (The Marcus Institute), Michael E. Kelley (The Marcus Institute and Emory University)
Abstract: A response hierarchy is a class of behaviors that occurs within a predictable order. Within the hierarchy, certain responses are more probable than others, and when these high-probability behaviors are prevented, other less-probable responses are likely to occur. Previous studies have demonstrated response class hierarchies with topographies of destructive behavior (e.g., screaming, aggression, self-injury). In the current study we examined the occurrence of two individuals’ self-restraint which occurred in a hierarchical manner. For both participants, self-restraint was maintained by automatic reinforcement and occurred in a predictable order. Multiple baseline and reversal designs were conducted to show that the use of response blocking to prevent highly-probable self-restraint responses led to an emergence of other, less frequent topographies of self-restraint. This study also examined the efficacy of providing non-contingent access to preferred items for reducing overall levels of self-restraint. Reliability data were collected for a minimum of 25% of sessions and averaged at least 80% for all dependent measures of self-restraint and object-interaction. These results will be discussed in terms of identifying the variables that influence the formation of response classes.
 
 
Symposium #457
CE Offered: BACB
Empirical Investigations and Conceptual Analyses of Verbal Behavior Training for Children with Autism
Monday, May 26, 2008
3:30 PM–4:50 PM
Continental A
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Michele D. Wallace (California State University, Los Angeles)
Discussant: Thomas S. Higbee (Utah State University)
CE Instructor: Michele D. Wallace, Ph.D.
Abstract:

This symposium contains presentations on verbal behavior training for children with autism. The first paper will review approaches to mand training. The second paper will present data on a chaining procedure for increasing the complexity of echoics. The third paper will compare picture exchange to manual sign in the acquisition of mands. The symposium will be concluded by a discussion.

 
Using a Chaining Procedure to Increase Complexity of Echoics in Children with Autism.
SARAH M. NIEHOFF (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Jonathan J. Tarbox (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Barbara C. Aguilar (University of Nevada, Reno), Wendy Sanchez (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Wendy Jacobo (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Abstract: Vocal imitation is classified as echoic behavior in Skinner’s taxonomy of verbal operants (1957). A well-established echoic repertoire can be useful for vocal language training in children with autism because it allows for frequent, low-effort use of modeling prompts. Several behavioral procedures have been empirically demonstrated to increase echoic behavior in children with autism but little research has been done on procedures for increasing complexity of existing echoic behavior. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of a chaining procedure for increasing the complexity of echoics in four children with autism. The procedure was effective and gains maintained after treatment was terminated in most cases.
 
Comparing Picture Exchange and Manual Signs for the Acquisition of Mands in Young Children with Autism.
MEGAN D. NOLLET (University of Nevada, Reno), Michele D. Wallace (California State University, Los Angeles), Maria T. Stevenson (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: Language and communication skills are a vital part of an individual’s way of life. However, children with autism often display a delayed ability to acquire communication skills, if any are acquired at all. Skinner (1957) presented an analysis of verbal behavior and suggested that teaching each verbal operant (e.g., mands, tacts, and echoics) independently from each other is the ideal way to train language skills. Furthermore, because a mand specifies the desired reinforcer, it may be the ideal operant to focus on first during communication training. The current investigation taught participants to mand (i.e., request) for highly preferred items, using both picture icons and sign language, in an effort to determine which communication modality resulted in the quickest acquisition. Moreover, we also evaluated the modality each participant preferred to use in a natural setting when both modalities were available concurrently.
 
A Comprehensive Analysis of Mand Training.
MICHELE D. WALLACE (California State University, Los Angeles), Robert Haupt (California State University, Los Angeles)
Abstract: Given the high prevalence of speech and language disorders in children, a comprehensive analysis of how one can predict and control verbal behavior related to such delays is warranted. Thus, the intent of this article is to expand upon Skinner’s analysis of one specific form of verbal behavior, the mand, by synthesizing the current research and providing a detailed analysis (i.e., elucidating the variables) regarding the functional relations related to teaching individuals to mand. Several mand training approaches are reviewed including: single operant approaches (e.g., incidental teaching, choice making, and interrupted behavior chains) as well as facilitative operant approaches. Moreover, suggestions for effective mand training are provided along with avenues for future research.
 
 
Symposium #458
CE Offered: BACB
Further Examination of the Use of Motivating Operations when Working with Persons with Autism and Developmental Disabilities
Monday, May 26, 2008
3:30 PM–4:50 PM
Continental B
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Mark O'Reilly (University of Texas, Austin)
CE Instructor: Mark O'Reilly, Ph.D.
Abstract:

In this symposium we present recent research regarding use of motivating operations when working with persons with autism and developmental disabilities. The first presentation summarizes the effects of motivating operations on the leisure activity of playing games with peers. Results show that prior access to reinforcers for challenging behavior reduced that challenging behavior during the leisure activity for three participants. The second presentation examines the effects of pre-session access to reinforcers for challenging behavior on such behavior during regular classroom activities. The third presentation summarizes the effects of prior access to reinforcers on the acquisition and generalization of mands across a variety of classroom settings. The final presentation explores methods for determining indicators of satiation with tangible items.

 
An Examination of the Behavior-altering Effect of the Motivating Operation during Leisure Activities.
JEFFREY MICHAEL CHAN (University of Texas, Austin), Mark O'Reilly (University of Texas, Austin), Mandy J. Rispoli (University of Texas, Austin), Russell Lang (University of Texas, Austin), Wendy A. Machalicek (University of Texas, Austin)
Abstract: We examined the behavior-altering effect of the motivating operation on challenging behavior during leisure activities for three individuals with severe disabilities. Functional analyses indicated that challenging behavior was maintained by positive reinforcement in the form of attention or tangible items for all participants. During leisure sessions, each participant played preferred games with two individuals without disabilities. The discriminative stimuli for challenging behavior were present during leisure sessions but challenging behavior was never reinforced. Immediately prior to leisure sessions, the participants received either access to the reinforcers that maintained challenging behavior or no access. Access versus no access to reinforcers for challenging behavior prior to leisure sessions was alternated in a multielement design. Results demonstrated higher levels of challenging behavior during leisure sessions when the participants did not have access to the reinforcers prior to the sessions. Little challenging behavior occurred during leisure sessions when the participants had prior access to the reinforcers. Arguments for further examining the behavior-altering effects of the motivating operation in future applied research are presented.
 
Influences of Motivational Operations on Challenging Behaviors in the Classroom.
MANDY J. RISPOLI (University of Texas, Austin), Mark O'Reilly (University of Texas, Austin), Wendy A. Machalicek (University of Texas, Austin), Russell Lang (University of Texas, Austin)
Abstract: Antecedent interventions for challenging behavior have received attention in recent literature. This study extended the literature on antecedent interventions in applied settings by examining the influences of motivational operations on the challenging behaviors of three participants with autism spectrum disorders in their classroom. Functional analyses were conducted with each participant and demonstrated that challenging behavior was maintained by access to positive reinforcement in the form of preferred toys. In a multielement design, students participated in one of two pre-session conditions: access to preferred tangible or no access to preferred tangible. Immediately following the pre-session condition, the participant was observed during group instruction in the classroom. Data were collected on percent of intervals engaged in challenging behavior during group instruction. Results are presented and implications for the inclusion of motivating operations in applied antecedent interventions for students with autism are discussed.
 
A Systematic Analysis of the Influence of Motivating Operations on the Acquisition, Maintenance and Generalization of Mands.
TONYA NICHOLE DAVIS (University of Texas, Austin), Mark O'Reilly (University of Texas, Austin)
Abstract: n this three-phase study we examined the influence of motivating operations on the acquisition, generalization, and maintenance of mands for three children with autism who displayed challenging behavior. In the first phase of the study the consequences maintaining challenging behavior and their associated motivating operations were isolated. In Phase 2, we taught replacement mands and systematically examined the influence of motivating operations (identified in Phase 1) on the efficiency and effectiveness of the instructional process. Finally, we probed for generalization of these new mands across persons, settings, and activities while again systematically examining the influence of motivating operations on this generalization process. The results are discussed in terms of the importance of including motivating operations during functional communication training.
 
Evaluation of a Functional Assessment Methodology for Determining Behavioral Indicators of Satiation.
WENDY A. MACHALICEK (University of Texas, Austin), Mark O'Reilly (University of Texas, Austin), Russell Lang (University of Texas, Austin), Mandy J. Rispoli (University of Texas, Austin), Jeffrey Michael Chan (University of Texas, Austin), Tonya Nichole Davis (University of Texas, Austin)
Abstract: Pre-session access to a reinforcer that maintains challenging behavior has been shown to have two possible and contradictory effects; a reduction in challenging behavior (O'Reilly et al.,2007) and subsequent increase in challenging behavior (Roantree & Kennedy, 2006). This discrepancy could be explained by whether satiation on the maintaining reinforcer was reached during presession access conditions. This study demonstrates a potential methodology for determining behavioral indicators of satiation. A functional analysis (FA) indicated that a child with autism engaged in challenging behavior to obtain preferred tangibles. Interviews with parents and teachers identified topographies associated with rejection of stimuli. An alternating treatment design was used to compare the occurrence of this rejecting topography with a high versus low preferred item. Results indicated higher levels of rejecting with the low preferred item than with the highly preferred item. This rejecting behavior was considered a behavioral indicator of satiation. This assumption was tested in tangible FA conditions consisting of: (a) 5 min. pre-session access to preferred item (b) pre-session access to preferred item until occurrence of rejecting behavior and (c) no pre-session access (control). Results provide insight to previous discrepant findings and suggest this methodology may be effective in identifying behavioral indicators of satiation.
 
 
Symposium #459
CE Offered: BACB
Recent Advances in the Assessment and Treatment of Stereotypy
Monday, May 26, 2008
3:30 PM–4:50 PM
Continental C
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: John T. Rapp (St. Cloud State University)
CE Instructor: John T. Rapp, Ph.D.
Abstract:

The extent to which noncontingent access to structurally matched stimulation decreased stereotypy in children diagnosed with autism and other developmental disabilities was evaluated in each study. Lanovaz and Rapp evaluated the extent to which both unconditioned and conditioned motivating operations could be used to alter stereotypy. Swanson and Rapp evaluated the within-session patterns of stereotypy to determine if competing stimulation exerted differential effects at the beginning, middle, or end of each session. Smith and Rapp assessed whether conjugate-controlled vs. experimenter-controlled noncontingent preferred stimulation was more efficacious for decreasing stereotypy and also which intervention was preferred by the participants. Finally, Frewing and Rapp used a conditional percentage analysis from a free-operant preference assessment to accurately predict which stimuli would be most effective for decreasing stereotypy. The behavior changes produced in each experiment are discussed in terms of the utility of procedures for altering the value of automatically reinforced behavior.

 
An Evaluation of Events that Alter the Value of Stereotypy: Some Preliminary Effects of Conditioned Motivating Operations.
MARC J LANOVAZ (Centre de Réadaptation Lisette-Dupras), John T. Rapp (St. Cloud State University)
Abstract: The effects of unconditioned and conditioned motivating operations (CMOs) on the vocal stereotypy of three participants were evaluated in two experiments using a three-component multiple-schedule. The results from Experiment 1 showed that two participants typically displayed lower levels of stereotypy in the third component than the first component, suggesting that prior access to stereotypy functioned as an abolishing operation (AO) for later engagement in stereotypy. Based on this outcome, a stimulus was subsequently paired with the third component to determine if that stimulus could acquire properties of a CMO. After several pairings, presentation of the stimulus in the first component altered vocal stereotypy for both participants, suggesting that it functioned as a CMO. The results from Experiment 2 varied across the three participants but generally showed that preferred stimulation functioned as a temporary AO for later engagement in vocal stereotypy. The behavior changes produced in both experiments are discussed in terms of the utility of procedures for altering the value of automatically reinforced behavior.
 
Changes in Stereotypy as a Function of Antecedent Stimulation and Access to Stereotypy.
GREGORY J. SWANSON (St. Cloud State University), John T. Rapp (St. Cloud State University)
Abstract: The percentage of time two participants engaged in stereotypy in the presence and absence of alternative stimulation (toys and music) was evaluated using three consecutive components. For one participant, the results showed that alternative stimulation increased stereotypy and that stereotypy typically decreased across the 3 components in the presence or absence of alternative stimulation. For the other participant, data indicated that antecedent stimulation decreased one form of stereotypy and increased another. The results are briefly discussed in terms of interactions between establishing operations and abolishing operations for stereotypy.
 
The Effects of Conjugate Reinforcement versus Noncontingent Reinforcement on Levels of Stereotypy.
DEAN SMITH (UK Young Autism Project), John T. Rapp (St. Cloud State University)
Abstract: Research has shown that conducting functional analyses can identify whether or not stereotypy is maintained by automatic reinforcement, and preference assessments can be conducted to identify reinforcers that can be used to compete with stereotypy and reduce levels of the behaviour. Noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) procedures that use stimuli that are matched to the stereotypy have been shown to reduce levels of stereotypy. The current study aims to compare NCR procedures with conjugate reinforcement procedures to determine whether participants’ control over levels of stimulation is more effective than response-independent procedures using a brief reversal design. In addition, this study aims to determine whether participants show a preference for the two conditions using a concurrent operants design.
 
Using a Stimulus Preference Assessment to Predict the Effects of Noncontingent Access to Preferred Stimulation on Levels of Stereotypic Chin-Tapping.
TYLA M. FREWING (St. Cloud State University), John T. Rapp (St. Cloud State University)
Abstract: A mulitelement design with an extended baseline condition was used to evaluate the effects of noncontingent access to preferred stimuli on levels of stereotypical chin-tapping in a five-year-old boy. A 30-min free-operant stimulus preference assessment (FOSPA) was used to identify preferred stimuli that were correlated with either high or low conditional percentages of stereotypical chin-tapping. The results showed that the conditional percentages that were generated from the FOSPA accurately predicted the efficacy of preferred stimuli for decreasing stereotypy.
 
 
Invited Panel #467
CE Offered: BACB
The Role of the Listener in the Analysis of Verbal Behavior
Monday, May 26, 2008
3:30 PM–4:50 PM
International North
Area: VRB/TPC; Domain: Theory
Chair: William F. Potter (California State University, Stanislaus)
CE Instructor: Mark L. Sundberg, Ph.D.
Panelists: MARK L. SUNDBERG (Sundberg and Associates), DAVID C. PALMER (Smith College), PHILIP N. HINELINE (Temple University), HENRY D. SCHLINGER (California State University, Los Angeles)
Abstract:

Listening is action, as one can plainly see when someone abruptly turns off the stereo in the middle of a stirring passage of music. We sing along to music, and we speak along with speakers, but the dimensions of this behavior are obscure, and the role it plays in the complex effects verbal behavior has on the listener is unknown. A common misunderstanding about Skinner's(1957) analysis of verbal behavior is that he neglects the behavior of the listener. It is true that he shifts the primary focus of the analysis to the speaker. However, the listener still plays a critical role in a behavioral analysis of language. For example, in reacting to autoclitics, if autoclitic relations are to be operative, the listener's discriminations must coordinate with those of the speaker. This panel will explore the range of potential listener behavior and discuss the extent to which interpretations of complex behavior require an understanding of it, and whether the domain is experimentally too intractable to bring into order.

MARK L. SUNDBERG (Sundberg and Associates)
Dr. Mark L. Sundberg received his doctorate degree in Applied Behavior Analysis from Western Michigan University (1980). He is the founder and past editor of the journal The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, and co-author of the books Teaching Language to Children with Autism or Other Developmental Disabilities, The ABLLS, and A Collection of Reprints on Verbal Behavior. He has published over 40 professional papers, given over 400 conference presentations and workshops, and taught 80 college courses on behavior analysis, verbal behavior, sign language, and child development. He is a past-president of the Northern California Association for Behavior Analysis, and a past-chair of ABA’s Publication Board. Dr. Sundberg has received numerous awards, including the 2001 “Distinguished Psychology Department Alumnus Award” from Western Michigan University.
DAVID C. PALMER (Smith College)
Dr. David C. Palmer held a bachelor’s degrees in geology and English, while devoting his post-graduate years to avoiding the draft when he chanced to pick up a copy of Walden Two from a friend’s bookshelf. He read the rest of the Skinner canon and spent the next decade trying to start an experimental community and preaching radical behaviorism to anyone who would listen. Eventually he entered graduate school under the guidance of John Donahoe. He was happy in grad school and would be there still if the University of Massachusetts had not threatened to change the locks. He has spent the last 18 years as the token behaviorist at Smith College. During that time he co-authored, with Donahoe, Learning and Complex Behavior. He continues to puzzle over the interpretation of memory, problem-solving, and, particularly, verbal behavior. He still thinks Skinner was right about nearly everything.
PHILIP N. HINELINE (Temple University)
Dr. Philip N. Hineline received a BA from Hamilton College and a Ph.D. from Harvard University and spent three years at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research before moving to Temple University, where he is now a Professor. While developing the “interteach format” for use in classroom teaching, he has maintained a laboratory-based teaching environment, where much of the mentoring occurs between graduate and undergraduate students. He has served as Associate Editor, as Editor, and as Review Editor of the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. He has been President of ABA International, as well as of Division 25 of the American Psychological Association, the Eastern Psychological Association, and the Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. He has received several awards for excellence in teaching, research, and service to the field, the most recent being the Fred S. Keller Behavioral Education Award, from Division 25 of the American Psychological Association. His conceptual writing has addressed the characteristics of explanatory language and the controversies that have confronted behavior analysis. His basic research has focused upon temporal extension in behavioral/psychological processes, with recent applied work evaluating behavioral interventions and addressing skill acquisition for persons who implement those interventions.
HENRY D. SCHLINGER (California State University, Los Angeles)
Dr. Hank Schlinger received his Ph.D. in Psychology from Western Michigan University where he also completed a post-doctoral fellowship in behavioral pharmacology. He was a professor of psychology at Western New England College in Massachusetts before moving to Los Angeles in 1999. He is now Assistant Professor of Psychology and Coordinator of the M.S. Program in Applied Behavior Analysis at California State University, Los Angeles. Dr. Schlinger has authored (or co-authored) three books Psychology: A Behavioral Overview (1990), A Behavior-Analytic View of Child Development (1995) (which was translated into Japanese), Introduction to Scientific Psychology (1998) and more than forty scientific articles.
 
 
Invited Tutorial #468
CE Offered: BACB
Tutorial: Licensure for Behavior Analysts: Has the Time Arrived?
Monday, May 26, 2008
4:00 PM–4:50 PM
Grand Ballroom
Area: CSE; Domain: Service Delivery
BACB CE Offered. CE Instructor: Michael Weinberg, Ph.D.
Chair: Maria R. Ruiz (Rollins College)
Presenting Authors: : MICHAEL WEINBERG (Orlando Behavior Health Services, LLC)
Abstract:

This tutorial will focus on the comments made in the preceding panel discussion on the topic of licensure of behavior analysts by Joseph Cautilli, Ph.D., BCBA. In his presentation, Dr. Cautilli presented a comparison analysis of the professionalism of Behavior Analysis and other professions, with regard to licensure and their histories. This tutorial will present some parallel histories of development with other professions including psychology, social work, speech, and the NBCC (certification for counselors). The issue of licensure for behavior analysts is indeed a controversial one with myriad guild, professional and legal ramifications and considerations. Given the now 50 year history of Behavior Analysis flagship journal, JEBA, and 40 years if JABA, as well as the creation of the BACB in 2000, now the standard for behavior analyst practitioners in the United States and other countries, has the time come for licensure? The reasons for licensure and what makes it different from certification will be presented. Ethical and legal ramifications (protecting the public), as well as third party payment, are among the main distinctions, and reasons for pursuing licensure.

 
MICHAEL WEINBERG (Orlando Behavior Health Services, LLC)
Dr. Michael Weinberg is editor and a co-founder of the Behavior Analyst Today, and Behavior Analyst Online journals, and founder and president of Orlando Behavior Health Services, L.L.C., a BACB approved CE provider. He received his Ph.D. in 1985 in the experimental analysis of behavior program at Temple University, and B.A. in psychology in 1977 with an ABA focus at the E.K. Shriver Center and Northeastern University. Dr. Weinberg is a licensed psychologist in three states, and a Board Certified Behavior Analyst, with over 30 years of experience in the field, providing treatment to children and adults with developmental disabilities, autism, emotional and behavioral disorders, and other disorders. He has been on the part-time faculty of Temple University, Psychology Department, adjunct at Rutgers University, and Penn State University. He was also a BACB approved independent instructor of certification courses in Florida. Dr. Weinberg has published articles and book chapters in behavior analysis in the areas of juvenile justice, functional analysis, and reactive attachment disorder. He conducts workshops and training on OBM, behavioral counseling approaches, and other areas. A Trustee of the Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies, and collaborated in the development of an accreditation process for programs providing ABA services.
 

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