|Strategies to Promote Emergent Verbal Behavior in Typically Developing Adults
|Monday, May 30, 2016
|9:00 AM–10:50 AM
|Michigan ABC, Hyatt Regency, Bronze East
|Area: VRB; Domain: Translational
|Chair: Anna I. Petursdottir (Texas Christian University)
|Discussant: Kenneth F. Reeve (Caldwell College)
|CE Instructor: Sarah A. Lechago, Ph.D.
Scientific examination of strategies that produce emergent verbal behavior is significant with respect to the potential conceptual and applied contributions to the field of Behavior Analysis and even to fields outside of Behavior Analysis. These strategies can inform important decisions regarding educational practices and can contribute to narratives and research related to stimulus control. One study compared a stimulus equivalence online teaching protocol to a standard online teaching protocol to teach single-subject research design to graduate students. A second study evaluated a mand-based training protocol to a tact- and two intraverbal-based training protocols to teach foreign language words to typically developing adults. A third study investigated the role of tact and intraverbal training in developing intraverbal naming, and the mediating effects of intraverbal naming in the formation of generalized equivalence classes in undergraduate students. A final study conducted two experiments and investigated the effects of an auditory pairing procedure on the emergence of tacts, selection responses, and intraverbals to teach information about musical instruments to 24 typically developing adults.
|Comparison of Mand Training and Other Strategies to Teach a Foreign Language
|WAI-LING WU (University of Houston-Clear Lake), Sarah A. Lechago (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
|Abstract: A current recommendation for verbal behavior training with individuals with autism is to initiate training with the mand due to the multiple benefits it brings the speaker (Sundberg & Michael, 2001). Inspired by this recommendation, the current study endeavors to examine the effects of mand training in teaching a foreign language. A multiple baseline across participants design with an embedded adapted alternating treatments design is used to compare the effects of mand training, tact training, and bidirectional intraverbal training on acquisition of foreign language words. Previous foreign language studies have shown that untrained responses emerged after participants were taught foreign language words using tact training, bidirectional intraverbal training, and listener response training (Dounavi, 2014; Petursdottir & Haflidadottir, 2009). The current study also examines the emergence of untrained foreign language responses for each training condition. Data for one participant suggest that mand training is the most efficient training procedure with respect to the total number of training trials to the mastery criterion and resulting emergent responding. Data are being collected on additional participants.
|A Comparison of a Stimulus Equivalence Protocol and Standard Study to Teach Single-Subject Design to Graduate Students
|WILLIAM ROOT (Southern Illinois University), Ruth Anne Rehfeldt (Southern Illinois University)
|Abstract: The Online Consortium for Higher Education (2012) reported that in 2012, 6.7 million students were enrolled in at least one online course. With this number growing each year, the need for empirically based, online instructional methods is critical. The effect of an online stimulus equivalence protocol was compared to that of a more standard online study protocol on the emergence of untaught relations involving single subject designs. Participants were instructed on relations between design name, design definition, design graphs, and clinical vignettes. Experimental groups deferred only in the instructional format: The stimulus-equivalence group was instructed using a protocol similar to Lovett, Rehfeldt, Garcia, and Dunning (2011), whereas the Standard Study group read a standard text book and article that covers single-subject methodology. Generalization was assessed by comparing scores on novel questions directly taken from the CBA learning modules, developed by Behavior Development Solutions, as a measure of possible performance on the BCBA exam. Data collected to date suggest that when compared to the standard online study protocol, the stimulus equivalence protocol produced greater changes in correct responding from pre to posttest scores, further suggesting the practical utility of a stimulus equivalence protocol as an instructional tool for online courses.
Emergence of Naming Relations and Intraverbals After Auditory Stimulus Pairing
|JOSE JULIO CARNERERO ROLDAN (Centro Almudarïs, Spain), Luis Antonio Perez-Gonzalez (Universidad de Oviedo)
We analyzed the emergence of tacts, selections, and intraverbals after observing paired auditory stimuli. In Experiment 1, 12 typical developing adults were randomly assigned to two experimental conditions. In Part 1, four sounds of musical instruments were paired with their respective names spoken by the experimenter; in Part 2, the sounds were paired with their native country names. Participants in Condition 1 received Part 1 first; participants in Condition 2 received Part 2 first. After pairing, the emergence of tacts was probed. When the tacts emerged, the selections were probed. After Parts 1 and 2, the intraverbals were probed. In Experiment 2, 12 novel adults received a similar sequence, but after pairing the selections were probed and after reaching criterion the tacts were probed. The results indicate that probing the tacts or the selections after each pairing phase does not influence emergence in adults; pairing first the sound and the name and then the sound and the country seems to produce more instances of naming than pairing first the sound and the country and then pairing the sound and the name. The findings have direct implications on the teaching procedures to facilitate these types of emergence.
The Role of Intraverbal Naming on The Emergence of Generalized Equivalence Classes
|ADRIENNE JENNINGS (California State University Sacramento), Charisse Ann Lantaya (California State University, Sacramento), Amanda Chastain (California State University, Sacramento), Caio F. Miguel (California State University, Sacramento)
The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the role of intraverbal naming on the emergence of generalized equivalence classes. Seventeen undergraduates were exposed to tact training with 3 stimulus sets (A1B1C1, A2B2C2, and A3B3C3) and baseline intraverbal training (A?B? and B?C?). Formation of equivalence classes was assessed using visual-visual matching-to-sample (MTS) tasks and intraverbal tests for symmetrical (BA, B?A?, CB, C?B?) and transitive relations (AC, A?C?, CA, C?A?). Generalization MTS posttests were then presented for 4 untrained sets of stimuli. Thirteen participants passed all MTS and intraverbal posttests. Two of the remaining 4 required either tact or intraverbal remedial training in order to achieve passing criterion. Performance improved for 5 participants during the vocal MTS posttest. These findings show the efficacy of tact and intraverbal training in the formation of generalized equivalence classes. Overall, results suggest verbal mediation strategies (i.e., intraverbal naming) may have facilitated MTS performance.