Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


40th Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2014

Event Details

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Poster Session #467
Monday, May 26, 2014
7:00 PM–9:00 PM
W375a-d (McCormick Place Convention Center)
63. What Constitutes Performance in Performance Feedback?
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
CANDICE HANSARD (California Sate University Northridge), Denice Rios (California State University, Northridge), Meline Pogojana (California State University, Northridge ), Ellie Kazemi (California State University, Northridge)
Abstract: Previous authors have provided evidence that the delivery of feedback does not uniformly improve performance. In an attempt to improve the effectiveness of feedback, researchers have evaluated various characteristics such as sources and modes of delivery, content, addition of rewards, frequency, and timing. One factor that may contribute to maximizing the effectiveness of feedback delivery, which researchers have yet to take into consideration, is the type of target behavior(s) for which feedback is delivered. In our literature review, we found that researchers provided feedback for performance, or target behavior(s), that involved either skill acquisition (e.g., training novice staff to conduct preference assessments) or staff management (e.g., increasing and maintaining residential staff’s adherence to hand hygiene). Therefore, our objective was to identify whether differences in the use and effectiveness of performance feedback emerged when we divided published studies based on the targeted behavior--either skill acquisition or staff management. We used methods similar to Balcazar et al., (1985) and Alvero et al., (2001) and reviewed a total of 87 articles (27 skill acquisition, 60 staff management) from 2003-2013. We discuss the implications of our findings and future directions for researchers who wish to identify effective methods to deliver performance feedback.
64. A Behavioral Systems Analysis Approach of a Startup Software Firm
Area: OBM; Domain: Service Delivery
Sigurdur Oli Sigurdsson (Florida Institute of Technology), Elizabeth A. Henry (Florida Institute of Technology), Clare Liddon (Florida Institute of Technology), Courtney J. Wolff (The Bay School), BRANDON MARTINEZ-ONSTOTT (Florida Tech)
Abstract: The purpose of the study was to document the processes of a startup and to create a formalized structure based on the BSA Workbook. The needs identified by the organization were addressed throughout this process. A systems approach was adopted to focus on structuring the skeleton of the organization and documenting initial processes. Once the processes were documented, recommendations were created by pinpointing specific performance problems. The methodology used established best practice standards and metrics to evaluate the effectiveness of these processes. Those involved within the startup were satisfied with the process improvements and the organization operated more efficiently as a result.
65. From Feedback to Fluency
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
DANIELLE KRETSCHMER (Appalachian State University ), Timothy D. Ludwig (Appalachian State University)
Abstract: Journey Management call center agents communicate with drivers at a global oil-services corporation to promote safe occupational driving. This study examined the effects of mastery training and feedback on increasing fluency to a script promoting a greater quality of conversation between call center agents and drivers. Approximately 3,000 calls were recorded, transferred, and analyzed using a behavioral checklist. Behavioral training methods were applied to 28 verbal behaviors that were deemed critical questions as well as optional questions designed to increase the quality of conversations. Training included self-discovery, experiencing an exemplar, role-play, and intensive feedback. Agents attained a targeted 85% adherence rate on all but one critical behavior due to the training and feedback with an average increase of 20 percentage points. In addition, an average increase of 15 percentage points was observed across the behavioral occurrences of optional questions. A small but promising relationship was found between agents providing feedback on driving behaviors (an optional question) and driver conversational utterances during the call.
66. Using Public Posting to Improve Staff Data Completion
Area: OBM; Domain: Service Delivery
SARAH J. PASTRANA (University of British Columbia), Sheena Crawford (Arcus Community Resources), Sharon E. Baxter (Semiahmoo Behaviour Analysts, Inc.)
Abstract: Public posting of employee performance has been used in a variety of contexts to affect behavior change in workplace settings. This case study examined the use of a simple public posting procedure to improve staff data completion at a residential applied behavior analytic teaching home. We selected five target data requirements being completed inconsistently by staff and used an ABA design to evaluate behavior change. Each week we graphed the total number of data errors recorded across all target tasks and publicly posted the graph in the staff office. Data were collapsed across all employees. This intervention resulted in improved data completion for all staff members but one, and results were maintained following removal of the intervention. Additional training was provided for the staff member whose data completion scores were low. Anecdotal evidence indicated the public posting procedure was acceptable to staff members. This case study replicates in part previous research supporting the effectiveness of performance feedback interventions in workplace settings.
67. Effects of Celebrity Endorsement as Discriminative Stimulus in an Apartment Sale Advertising Catalog
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
Carla Simone Castro da Silva (Universidade Católica de Goiás), CRISTIANO COELHO (Universidade Catolica de Goias)
Abstract: Major advertisement campaigns use people endorsement to introduce a product. Among these people, its common the celebrities endorsement. The present work tried to investigate the influence of a celebrity on the building consumer evaluation of an ad catalog. This catalog contained or a celebrity, or a non-public person. It was tried to identify which aspects are most influenced by celebrity insertion, since this resource has been used in advertisements in Goiania. We made a hypothesis that this process could be benefited by behavioral science principles, what should potentiate those resources. Ninety eight consumers looking for property in the last years responded to questions about the catalog, including the person, to the venture itself, and to building company. The participants whose received the catalog with the celebrity (CC) evaluated the catalog as cheaper, the venture as more luxurious, and the builder as more expensive as well confident in comparison to the group without celebrity (SC). Besides this, the presence of the celebrity increased the attention to the person, but reduced the attention to others catalog aspects. These data suggest careful in utilize the celebrity endorsement, from the behavior analysis perspective.
68. Pyramidal Training Utilizing Feedback in an Adult Dual Diagnosis Residential Treatment Setting
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
HALEY EPPES (The Arc of the Ozarks), April M. Williams (The School of Professional Psychology at Forest Institute)
Abstract: The study author investigated the effectiveness of combining pyramidal training with descriptive feedback in increasing implementation of antecedent and consequent behavior support skills by direct support staff members working with individuals with dual diagnoses (i.e., an intellectual disability plus a psychological disorder) in a residential setting. The training program consisted of training a supervisor how to train other direct support staff members to implement specific behavior support skills using descriptive feedback. The targeted behavior support skills were chosen based on their usefulness with a wide range of consumers. The expectation was that consistent implementation of these specific skills would reduce inappropriate behaviors and increase appropriate behaviors of each client. A multiple baseline across direct support staff members design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of this training program.
69. The Relative Effects of Correct vs. Incorrect Response Feedback on Performance and Emotions
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
SEONG EUN KIM (Chung Ang University), Kwangsu Moon (Chung-Ang University), Jaehee Lee (Chung Ang University), Shezeen Oah (Chung Ang University)
Abstract: This study evaluated the relative effectiveness of correct and incorrect response feedback on task performance and perceived emotion for the feedback. Between group design was adopted and 44 participants were randomly assigned to one of the four experimental groups: (1) correct response feedback, (2) incorrect response feedback, (3) correct and incorrect response feedback and (4) control group. Participants were asked to work on a computerized task. They performed 10 tasks per session and attended 4 sessions. The dependent variables were error rate of the completed tasks and perceived emotions for the feedback. The results showed that the group which received incorrect response feedback and correct and incorrect response feedback had lower error rates than the group which received correct response feedback. In addition, the participants in the incorrect feedback group experienced more negative emotion (e, g., dissatisfaction, depressed, and tension), than other two groups.
70. The Relative Effects of Individual and Group Feedback on Work Performance
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
KWANGSU MOON (Chung-Ang University), Minjung Cha (Chung-ang University), Kyehoon Lee (Chung-Ang University), Shezeen Oah (Chung Ang University)
Abstract: This study compared the effects of individual and group feedback on work performance. The task was to type English documents on a PC computer and both the number of words typed (quantity) and the percentage of correctly typed words (quality) were measured. Between-group design was adopted and 48 participants were randomly assigned to either individual or group feedback condition. Each group consisted of three participants and completed four sessions together. Under the individual feedback condition, each participant was provided with information on his / her own work performance, while under the group feedback condition, three participants were provided with information on their total work performance. Results showed that the group feedback produced better results on the quantity of performance than the individual feedback. However, there was no difference between two conditions in terms of quality of performance.
71. Factors Affecting Observer Error When Using Interval Sampling Methods
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
MATTHEW A. TAYLOR (The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), Matthew T. Weaver (Mercyhurst Univesity), Oliver Wirth (The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Abstract: Observational sampling methods inherently produce measurement error in duration estimates of a target event; however, it is unclear to what extent the observer introduces additional error by scoring intervals incorrectly. As a step towards identifying key factors that contribute to observer error, the present study attempted to rule out two possible variables by minimizing the difficulty of discriminating target events and reducing the attentional demands on the observer. Observer error was assessed across different interval sampling methods, interval durations, event durations, and event frequencies. Participants viewed and scored video depicting easy-to-discriminate safe and at-risk postures of an animated character performing a computer-based task. Computer software (Praxis PinPoint) was used to reduce attentional demands by aiding the viewing and scoring of the videos. Observer error was marginally greater with partial-interval recording and shorter interval durations; nevertheless, interval method, interval duration, event duration, and event frequency had little impact on error. Overall, observer error in duration estimates was less than 5% in all conditions. Results indicate that difficulty discriminating the target event and/or attentional demands associated with traditional paper-and-pencil methods may have been key factors in previous reports of observer error with interval-based observational measurements.
72. An Exploratory Comparison of Accurate and Inaccurate Performance Feedback
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
MICHAEL PALMER (Central Michigan University), Carl Merle Johnson (Central Michigan University)
Abstract: Performance Feedback is ubiquitous in Organizational Behavior Management; yet after years of different topographies and uses performance feedback’s function and essential components are still debated. It has been assumed that performance feedback must be accurate, but this assumption has not been empirically validated. Objective feedback, conceptualized as a verbal discriminative stimulus in this study, was tested to see if feedback must be accurate to improve performance. A single subject design (n=3) was conducted with undergraduate students engaged in a data entry task. The number and accuracy of entered data points served as dependent variables. Type of feedback received served as the independent variable: accurate, inaccurate (yoked to another subject’s performance), and doubled in sequential phases for two subjects while the third participant received no feedback (control). Participants worked on this task for thirteen 45-minute sessions. The total number of data points entered per session differed little between all three subjects. Results suggest that performance feedback may not need to be precisely accurate; however these results can be interpreted multiple ways and further research is clearly warranted.
73. An Examination of the Impact of Feedback and Acceptance and Commitment Training on the Quantity and Quality of Active Training Provided by Direct Support Professionals
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
JOHN PINGO (Goldie B. Floberg Center), Mark R. Dixon (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract: This study examined the effect of a verbal and written performance feedback system with a low cost probabilistic contingency reward program and an eight hour Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) training program on the percentage of time Direct Support Professionals (DSPs) spent engaged in active treatment and the technical competence of active treatment provided to people with disabilities. The experiment used a pretest/posttest design with a waitlist control group and two intervention groups. DSPs serving children and adults with developmental disabilities in a residential and small group home settings participated in the experiment. The first intervention group received only the feedback intervention while the second intervention group received the feedback intervention and the ACT training. After attrition the group sizes were control N = 12, feedback only N = 12, and feedback plus ACT N = 17. Both intervention groups performed significantly better than the control group. The feedback plus ACT group outperformed the feedback only group by 27.8% in percentage of observation time engaged in active treatment at posttest. The result was statistically significantly at the .05 level of significance. The feedback plus ACT group also exhibited superior but nonsignificant improvements over the feedback only group in the areas of competency of operant teaching techniques (14.9%), percentage of clients engaged in purposeful activities (10.7%), and percentage of clients with learning or leisure materials within arms reach (11.0%). Regression analyses found a weak positive correlation between age and frequency of active treatment (R2 = .11, F(1, 39) = 4.99, p < .05), a weak positive correlation between psychological flexibility as measured by the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-2 (AAQ-2) and job satisfaction, a weak negative correlation between psychological flexibility and self-reported workplace stress, and a weak negative correlation between stress and job satisfaction. Self-reported levels of psychological flexibility, workplace stress, and job satisfaction remained stable for all three groups from pre to posttest despite the increased performance expectations on DSPs in the two intervention groups.
74. Efficiency of Experimental Analogs of the Employee of the Month Program to Promote Performance
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
PATRICIA ULRICH PINTO (Positivo University), Helder Gusso (Positivo University)
Abstract: The "employee of the month" program is frequently indicated in books about people management to promote performance however there is little empirical evidence on this practice. The objective of this work was to verify through experimental analogs the efficiency of the “employee of the month” programs. By the systematic replication of the study of Johnson and Dickinson (2010), the first experiment was conducted with four college students who individually transcribed audio recordings, along six sessions of 40 minutes. The second and third experiments were conducted with six participants each, also college students, who individually produced origami in social context along five sessions of 15 minutes each. In all three experiments, the participants` performance was measured in each session and it was also verified if the title “employee of the month”, which was accomplished by means of individual context of enhancement in the first, of social context of enhancement in the second and in a social context added to an award in the third, interfered in the performances. In any of the three conditions, significant alterations in the performances were not observed.
Keyword(s): poster session



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