Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

47th Annual Convention; Online; 2021

All times listed are Eastern time (GMT-4 at the time of the convention in May).

Program by : Sunday, May 30, 2021


 

Paper Session #181
Diversity submission Establishing Equitable Policies in a Diverse Workplace
Sunday, May 30, 2021
9:00 AM–9:25 AM EDT
Online
Area: OBM
Instruction Level: Basic
Chair: Tedi Renee Teabout (ABA Adaptive Services)
 
Diversity submission Establishing Equitable Policies in a Diverse Workplace
Domain: Theory
TEDI RENEE TEABOUT (ABA Adaptive Services), Krista M. Clancy (University Pediatricians Autism Center)
 
Abstract: In recent years the BACB has taken a closer look at diversity in the field of ABA. However, according to a study published by the National Institute of Health (NIH) in 2019, while the majority of board certified behavior analyst (BCBA) respondents felt diversity training is extremely important, respondents reported little to no training in this area. In 2013, Tanka and Fong highlighted the need for multicultural awareness in the International Journal of Behavioral Consultation and Therapy. This presentation will highlight the journey of a minority established ABA clinic in a predominantly caucasian/affluent area of southern California. This presentation will also cover the use of consultation and collaboration with other experienced clinical professionals to produce policies and procedures that are equitable for employees and clients (Boundaries of Competence 1.02(b) in the Responsible Conduct of Behavior Analysts and Consultation 2.03(b) in Behavior Analysts’ Responsibility to Clients).
 
 
 
Panel #186
CE Offered: BACB/QABA — 
Ethics
Diversity submission Unchartered Territories for Behavior Analysts: New Frontiers for the Science We Love (A Scientific Framework for Compassion and Social Justice: Contributor Series)
Sunday, May 30, 2021
9:00 AM–9:50 AM EDT
Online
Area: CSS/PCH; Domain: Theory
CE Instructor: Liliane Rocha, DBH
Chair: Robyn M. Catagnus (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
MARGARET UWAYO (Michigan State University; By Your Side Autism Services)
KOZUE MATSUDA (Children Center Inc)
LILIANE ROCHA (The Behavior Web, LLC)
Abstract:

If we truly intend to improve and impact the world with behavior analysis, it is imperative for researchers and clinicians alike to embark on new areas in which the field of behavior analysis has the ability to address cultural injustices that limit marginalized populations, women, and black, indigenous people of colour (BIPOC). Our field has the ability to inform and create change that will have collateral impacts on society to combat systemic barriers that limit those without societal privilege. An overview will be conducted of current societal norms with respect to racism, healthcare, and economic inequalities and ways in which behaviour analysis can analyze contingencies to improve access and opportunities for marginalized populations. Behaviour analytic interventions centred around processes highlighting how to deconstruct racism, remediate the healthcare system using behavioral economics, and income inequality will be discussed.

Instruction Level: Advanced
Target Audience:

Advanced. BCBAs and BCBA-Ds. Discuss how we can effectively implement behavior change at any larger scale, such as community wide… Our field has struggled to apply change initiatives beyond small groups and individuals.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) create change that will have collateral impacts on society to combat systemic barriers that limit those without societal privilege; (2) dissect current societal norms with respect to racism, healthcare, and economic inequalities and ways in which behaviour analysis can analyze contingencies to improve access and opportunities for marginalized population; (3) identifying cultural injustices in one's own environment and how to address injustices ethically and within one's competence
Keyword(s): behavioural economics, health care, income inequality, racism
 
 
Symposium #187
CE Offered: BACB
Diversity submission Cultural Representation and Responsiveness in Behavior Analytic Research
Sunday, May 30, 2021
9:00 AM–9:50 AM EDT
Online
Area: DDA/AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Emily Gregori (University of Illinois at Chicago)
Discussant: Emily Gregori (University of Illinois at Chicago)
CE Instructor: Emily Gregori, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Over the last several years, there has been a push for the field of applied behavior analysis ABA to become more inclusive to individuals from culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) backgrounds and to adapt evidence-behavioral interventions to meet the needs of individuals from such groups. To address these issues, the field must (a) identify racial and ethnic groups that have been historically underrepresented in behavior analytic research, and (b) identify methods for adapting evidence-based behavioral interventions to meet the needs of individuals from CLD backgrounds and their families. Therefore, the purpose of this symposium is to present a series of research studies that examine the representation of individuals from CLD backgrounds in the behavioral intervention research and methods for adapting such interventions based on the cultural values and preferences of the individual and their families. Major findings of each study will be presented and discussed. Additionally, presenters will provide attendees with strategies to enhance the cultural relevance of behaviorally-based interventions in practice.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Cultural responsiveness, Representation, Diversity
Target Audience:

Participants should have a basic understanding of single-case experimental research and behaviorally-based interventions

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) Describe the racial and ethic groups historically underrepresented in the behavior analytic research (2) Describe methods for enhancing the cultural relevance of behavioral interventions (3) List and describe methods for involving families of children from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds in intervention
 
Diversity submission 

Online Literacy Instruction to Promote School Readiness of Korean Dual-Language Learners

Sunyoung Kim (University of Illinois at Chicago), VERONICA YOUN KANG (University of Illinois at Chicago), Hanae Kim (University of Illinois at Chicago), Jing Wang (University of Illinois at Chicago), Emily Gregori (University of Illinois at Chicago)
Abstract:

English language development is a critical component for young children’s school readiness. In this study, we examined the effect of Read it again-Pre-K! (Justice, 2013), that is an evidence-based literacy curriculum designed to prepare young children’s school readiness on Korean Dual language learners’ English literacy skill. Adopting a multiple probe design, eight Korean Dual language learners received online synchronous daily instructions over 2 months during the summer before their entering to the Kindergarten programs. Through the intervention, all eight children demonstrated increases in the use of English vocabulary, story comprehension and oral fluency.

 
Diversity submission 

A Systematic Review of Behaviorally Based Interventions for Students With Disabilities: Analysis of Participant Demographics Across All Disability Categories

Emily Gregori (University of Illinois at Chicago), LISA S. CUSHING (University of Illinois, Chicago), Sunyoung Kim (University of Illinois at Chicago), Daniel M. Maggin (University of Illinois at Chicago), Veronica Youn Kang (University of Illinois at Chicago)
Abstract:

Interventions based on the principles of applied behavior analysis (ABA) have been shown to be effective in reducing challenging behavior and improving academic, social, and functional skills for students with disabilities. While some reviews have summarized participant demographics, the reviews have been limited to specific populations or interventions. Thus, the purpose of this systematic review was to analyze all single-case intervention studies that implemented behaviorally-based interventions for individuals across all disability categories disabilities between the ages of 6-22. Over 600 peer-reviewed articles were obtained via a systematic database search and were coded for specific demographic information. Demographic information, including race, gender, language intervention was delivered in, disability diagnosis, socioeconomic status, was extracted from each study and analyzed. Data were also extracted on the dependent variable, intervention setting, and intervention agent to determine the contexts in which the interventions were implemented. Additionally, the methodological quality of each included study was evaluated against the What Works Clearinghouse design standards. Results of the systematic review revealed major gaps in the implementation of behaviorally-based interventions for several racial and ethnic groups, transgender and non-binary students, and students who receive intervention in languages other then English. Implications for future research and recommendations for adapting behaviorally-based interventions based on individual participant characteristics will be discussed.

 
 
Panel #191
CE Offered: BACB/QABA — 
Ethics
Diversity submission Changing Workplace Culture: Making the Workplace Inclusive for All (A Scientific Framework for Compassion and Social Justice: Contributor Series)
Sunday, May 30, 2021
9:00 AM–9:50 AM EDT
Online
Area: OBM/CSS; Domain: Translational
CE Instructor: Kate Elizabeth Harrison, M.Ed.
Chair: Kate Elizabeth Harrison (Brett DiNovi & Associates, BCBA)
NATALI WACHTMAN PERILO (Behavior Momentum Group)
JANANI VAIDYA (Louisiana Contextual Science Research Group)
STEPHANIE D BOLDEN (Student / RBT)
Abstract:

Our Ethics Code guides us to promote an ethical culture in work environments (7.01) and to not engage in discriminatory practices (1.05d). As behavior analysts we have the capacity to promote better work environments for marginalized groups that face discrimination because of their sexual orientation, gender discrimination, or skin colour. Factors that are known to be impacted include: recruitment and retention, participation numbers and representation of women and black, indigenous people of colour (BIPOC) in management positions, compensation for equal work and equal pay, microaggressions, and organizational policies and hiring practices that tend to favor biases towards white cis-gendered men (Cirincione-Ulezi, 2020; Iwata & Lent, 1984; Johns, 2013; Li et al., 2019; and Odum, 2000). Behaviour analytic interventions centred around processes highlighting equality, aligning organizational values amongst employees, as well as diversity appreciation will be discussed.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Supervisors and business owners

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) Ability to implement interventions centred around processes highlighting equality, aligning organizational values amongst employees, as well as diversity appreciation; (2) Identify discriminatory practices and behaviors in the work environment and develop interventions to reduce microagressions and gender discrimination; (3) Discuss organizational practices that can lead to a more inclusive, value-oriented work environment
Keyword(s): discrimination, ethics, microaggressions, organizational culture
 
 
Symposium #197
CE Offered: BACB
Diversity submission Applications of Technology to Enhance Substance Abuse Treatment
Sunday, May 30, 2021
9:00 AM–10:50 AM EDT
Online
Area: BPN/CSS; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Forrest Toegel (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
Discussant: August F. Holtyn (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
CE Instructor: Sean Regnier, Ph.D.
Abstract: Recent technological advances have made it possible to navigate barriers that stand in the way of effective substance abuse treatment. Technology has made it easier to link patients to treatment, retain them in treatment, monitor their progress, and deliver interventions and consequences that can enhance treatment effects. The present symposium arranges four recent studies that apply technology to enhance the treatment of substance abuse. The goal of this symposium is to describe new methods to apply the technology that is available to behavior analysts interested in substance abuse treatment, and provide behavioral scientists with potential directions for using technology in future clinical research and practice.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): addiction, behavioral pharmacology, substance abuse, technology
Target Audience: This symposium is for students and behavior analysts interested in the application of operant principles to the treatment of substance abuse.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) Describe some relevant target behavior for operant procedures aimed to treat substance abuse; (2) Identify several logistical barriers to implementing effective substance abuse treatment remotely; (3) Describe how technology can be applied to enhance the treatment of substance abuse.
 
Diversity submission 

Computer-Based Opioid Education for Out-of-Treatment Adults With Opioid Use Disorder

FORREST TOEGEL (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Matthew Novak (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Kenneth Silverman (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), August F. Holtyn (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
Abstract:

Opioid overdose is a major contributor to death among U.S. citizens. This study used a computer-based education program to teach out-of-treatment adults with opioid use disorder (N=40) about opioids; preventing, detecting, and responding to an opioid overdose; and FDA-approved medications prescribed to treat opioid use disorder. The education program contained three courses. Each course presented information and required participants to answer multiple-choice questions. All answers produced immediate feedback. Participants earned incentives for providing correct answers and progressing through each course. We evaluated the program using a multiple-probe design in which a test was delivered before and after participants completed each course. Each test contained 50 questions and was divided into three subtests that corresponded to questions from each of the education courses. Accuracy on each subtest increased reliably after participants completed the course that corresponded to that subtest. Accuracy on subtests was unchanged prior to completion of the relevant course and increases in accuracy were retained across tests that followed the relevant course. These increases occurred at similar rates across participants independent of education, employment, and poverty status. We hope that this study will contribute to the body of research aimed to prevent opioid overdose.

 
Diversity submission Bridge to Medication Assisted Treatment
Anthony DeFulio (Western Michigan University), SEAN REGNIER (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Opioid Use Disorder (OUD) is a major public health crisis. Many people with OUD, especially those who have overdosed, receive treatment in an Emergency Department. However, few of them enroll in treatment, even if they receive care and referral to treatment while in an emergency department. Medication assisted treatments (MAT) are among the most effective treatments for opioid use disorder. Promoting entry into MAT in people who received OUD related care in an emergency department could reduce the risk of overdose. Contingency management (CM) interventions have successfully improved a broad range of health behaviors including promoting physical activity, medication adherence and treatment attendance. In CM, incentives are made available contingent upon objective verification that the patient has engaged in a specified behavior, such as the ones described above. The purpose of this ongoing study is to develop a smartphone-based intervention to promote entry and adherence to MAT for people with opioid use disorder who have recently received care in an emergency department. In this presentation an overview of the study procedures will be provided, and a case study will be described to highlight the aforementioned barriers and how remote access to the platform was able to navigate them.
 
Diversity submission The Feasibility, Acceptability, and Initial Efficacy of a Remotely Delivered, Financial-Incentive Intervention to Initiate Vaping Abstinence in Young Adults
CAITLYN UPTON (Rowan University), Schyler Newman (Rowan University), Bethany R. Raiff (Rowan University)
Abstract: Electronic cigarette use (i.e., vaping) is becoming more popular among young adults, leading to concerns about their long-term health effects, as well as their potential to lead to future combustible cigarette use. Interventions to promote vaping abstinence have not been explored and are sorely needed. The present study examined the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of a remotely delivered, abstinence-contingent financial incentive intervention to reinforce nicotine abstinence from vaping among young adults. Using a multiple-baseline design, college students (N=8) were given saliva cotinine testing kits to verify nicotine abstinence from home, remotely, via every-other-day teleconferencing calls. During baseline condition (2, 4, or 6 day duration), financial incentives ($3) were delivered contingent on submitting cotinine samples, regardless of cotinine levels. During an abstinence condition (14 days for all participants), escalating financial bonuses ($2, $7, $12, etc) were delivered contingent on negative cotinine samples only. All participants quit vaping nicotine during the 2-week pilot intervention when the abstinence-contingent bonuses were introduced. Participants rated the intervention favorably on all measures. This study supported the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of this remotely delivered intervention.
 
Diversity submission Development and Initial Efficacy of a Digital Episodic Future Thinking Intervention for Reducing Cannabis Use
MICHAEL SOFIS (Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth College), Shea M. Lemley (Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth College), Nicholas Jacobson (Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth College), Alan J. Budney (Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth College)
Abstract: Cannabis use is associated with deficits in episodic memory, the ability to retrieve and recombine details of past events, and delay discounting (DD), defined as the valuation of delayed rewards. Episodic memory and DD are both required to simulate valuable future events during Episodic Future Thinking (EFT), an intervention that prompts mental simulation of positive future events. This presentation will summarize three studies dedicated to developing a digital, remote EFT intervention to reduce cannabis use among active users. Study 1 tested whether simulating EFT across life domains (social, leisure, work/financial, and health), Domain-Specific Episodic Future Thinking (DS-EFT), reduced DD and cannabis relative to EFT and an Episodic Recent Thinking (ERT) control. DS-EFT alone engendered greater reductions in cannabis grams (d=.54) than ERT one-week post-intervention. DD did not differ between conditions. Study 2 tested the feasibility of delivering an abbreviated, digital DS-EFT across six weekly sessions. Participants have completed 88% of sessions (ongoing). In Study 3, an RCT (DS-EFT/ERT) will be used to compare DS-EFT sessions on cannabis use and will test whether DD and episodic memory mediate the effects of DS-EFT on cannabis use. Preliminary RCT findings will be presented and the findings from these studies will be discussed.
 
 
Symposium #207
CE Offered: BACB
Diversity submission Evaluation of Culturally Responsive Assessments and Treatments
Sunday, May 30, 2021
10:00 AM–10:50 AM EDT
Online
Area: AUT/VRB; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Daniel Kwak (University of South Florida)
CE Instructor: Daniel Kwak, M.S.
Abstract: Consideration of cultural variables such as language may be an integral part of assessment and treatment because incorporation of these variables may be more appropriate for serving individuals from diverse backgrounds and result in enhanced outcomes. Even when implementing evidence-based practices, such as functional analysis and functional communication training (FCT), it is still important to consider the relevance of culture with the individuals and families we serve. This symposium consists of three presentations related to culturally responsive assessment and treatment. The first two studies examined language as a potential variable to evaluate assessment and treatment in English and Spanish for individuals whose home language was reported to be Spanish. Specifically, the first study compared the results of functional analyses when they were conducted in both Spanish and English. The second study examined the emergence of functional communication responses in the untrained language. The final study evaluated empirical studies that have used culturally responsive practices to serve diverse populations.
Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): culturally responsive, functional analysis, functional communication, language
Target Audience: The target audience members for this symposium are practitioners and researchers.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) State the evidence supporting the impact of language on assessment results; (2) Consider how the language spoken by local verbal communities can influence the effectiveness of functional communication taught to children from bilingual homes; (3) Identify several cultural adaptations that have been made within assessment, treatment, and training
 
Diversity submission Impact of Language on Behavior Assessment Outcomes
KATHERINE CANTRELL (University of Texas at San Antonio), Leslie Neely (The University of Texas at San Antonio), Amarie Carnett (Victoria University of Wellington), S. Shanun Kunnavatana (Easterseals UCP North Carolina & Virginia ), Jordan Wimberley (Autism Treatment Center )
Abstract: Functional analyses have been well established as a valid way to identify the maintaining variables for behavior (Iwata & Dozier, 2008). Conducting a functional analysis is the “gold standard” of behavior assessment with best practices recommending identification of idiosyncratic variables as essential to valid results. One potential variable that might impact assessment results is language of assessment. For individuals who operate in environments with multiple languages (e.g., English and Spanish), the language of assessment might differentially impact assessment results. Therefore, there is a need to evaluate if language of assessment affects identified function. The current study presents the results of 10 cases in which the experimenters conducted assessments (i.e., functional analysis) in both the Spanish and English language. Participants were nine children with autism who engaged in problem behavior and whose parents reported Spanish as the primary home language. Result indicate correspondence of function for eight of the ten cases. Discussion of results and recommendations for practice and future research are presented.
 
Diversity submission 

Mitigating the Effects of Resurgence of Problem Behavior in Bilingual Children Using a Bilingual Functional Communication Training Treatment Package

IPSHITA BANERJEE (Peabody College, Vanderbilt University), Joseph Michael Lambert (Vanderbilt University), Bailey Copeland (Vanderbilt University), Jessica Lee Paranczak (Vanderbilt University), Kathryn Madesta Bailey (Vanderbilt University), Cassandra Standish (Vanderbilt University)
Abstract:

Little research has highlighted how evidence-based practices (e.g., functional communication training) might be adapted to meet the needs of children with disabilities from bilingual families. In our study, we served two children with disabilities and challenging behavior whose parents primarily spoke Spanish at home, and whose teachers primarily spoke English at school. Following traditional functional communication training (i.e., one language only), we systematically replicated the findings of Neely et al. (2019) by demonstrating that functional communication responses in the untrained language (i.e., English) did not emerge when trained functional communication responses (i.e., Spanish) contacted extinction in alternative-language contexts. Simultaneously, challenging behavior consistently resurged. After children received explicit training with both languages and were taught to change the language of request when initial attempts were unsuccessful (i.e., “repair the message” training), these same children successfully obtained near optimal rates of reinforcement in both language contexts and challenging behavior did not resurge.

 
Diversity submission Culturally Responsive Service Provision in Behavior Analysis and Related Fields: A Systematic Review
DANIEL KWAK (University of South Florida), Marlesha Bell (University of the Pacific), Kwang-Sun Cho Blair (University of South Florida), Sarah E. Bloom (University of South Florida)
Abstract: Identifying and utilizing culturally responsive assessment, treatment, and training is important to meet the needs of culturally diverse individuals. Overall, limited research exists that addresses culture as a critical component of service provision, especially, when considering the number of empirical studies published to date. These empirical studies have been published across fields and may not easily be accessible to behavior analysts. The purpose of the study was to conduct a systematic review of literature to identify empirical studies that have incorporated culturally responsive services for individuals from diverse backgrounds. We searched for articles that considered a multitude of cultural variables including language, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, sex, gender identity, religion or spirituality, age, dis/ability, and geographical areas, among other variables. The identified articles were evaluated using cultural adaptation frameworks. We will present the adaptations that were made within the included empirical studies and discuss gaps in the literature and future directions for cultural adaptation research.
 
 
Symposium #221
CE Offered: BACB
Diversity submission Stress, Trauma, Anxiety, and Depression: Hidden Factors Underlying Behavior Problems
Sunday, May 30, 2021
11:00 AM–11:50 AM EDT
Online
Area: CBM/EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Jeannie A. Golden (East Carolina University)
CE Instructor: Jeannie A. Golden, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Behavior analysts often fail to realize that there may be hidden factors underlying behavior problems. By not identifying those hidden factors, behavior analysts may be overlooking important establishing operations that may make reinforcers more salient and result in increases in problem behaviors. In school-aged children, behaviors may include tantrums, off-task, noncompliance, and verbal and physical aggression. In college students, behavior problems include skipping classes, not completing assignments, not participating, not paying attention, and not studying. While behavior analysts may admit that people experience stress, trauma (sudden loss, abuse, racial trauma), anxiety and depression, behavior analysts may not believe that they have the skills to identify these hidden factors because they are not directly observable in the present environment. However, often there are important antecedents to problem behaviors that may have occurred in a different environment or time period and may be part of their learning history. This symposium will provide strategies for identifying each of these factors and provide examples of how to incorporate these factors to develop more effective behavior programs.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): behavior problems, distal antecedents, establishing operations, trauma
Target Audience:

Behavior analysts, psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, counselors, teachers who are able to define and give examples of basic behavioral principles: positive and negative reinforcement, punishment, motivating operations, discriminative stimuli

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: 1. describe how to identify the pain and hurt associated with trauma in children with aberrant behavior and help those children cope with those feelings 2. describe how to identify anxiety and anger in school-aged children and ways to help those children cope with those feelings 3. describe how to identify depression and anxiety in college students and ways to help those students cope with those feelings
 
Diversity submission 

Removing the Mask: Discovering and Altering the Function of Aberrant Behavior

JEANNIE A. GOLDEN (East Carolina University)
Abstract:

Early abuse and neglect can teach children to engage in functional survival behaviors. Living in a chaotic environment, with intermittent reinforcement for aberrant behavior, unpredictable aversive stimuli, deprivation of attention, care and comfort, and discriminative stimuli for punishment of expression of emotions, can create the setting conditions for unattached, callous and unemotional behaviors. The emotional and physical hurt and pain from maltreatment are so severe that they become an establishing operation for escaping negative emotions, making its reinforcement value more salient and stronger. By blocking or numbing the pain, sadness and/or anxiety so they cannot feel these emotions, children can be negatively reinforced and thus more likely to continue blocking those emotions. When they start to feel anxiety, pain or hurt, or even sad, guilty or ashamed, they escape those feeling by blocking them or becoming numb. Often what survives are anger and rage expressed in the form of aggressive behavior. This presentation will address ways for behavior analysts to discover these blocked emotions in children exhibiting behavior problems and assist children in acknowledging, experiencing, and coping with these negative emotions.

 
Diversity submission 

Underlying Trauma: The Invisible Elephant in the Classroom

PAULA FLANDERS (Raleigh Montessori School)
Abstract:

Underlying trauma can be an invisible elephant in a classroom. By the age of 12, many adolescents have lived through brain-altering traumatic events, which impact their perception of people, places, and situations. Science tells us that our brain changes with each experience we face. From birth to adolescence children are absorbing everything in their environment. Children forced to deal with daily traumatic events such as abuse, neglect, and abandonment can present with problematic behaviors in the school setting. Behaviors related to underlying trauma can present as withdrawal, verbal aggression, physical aggression, anxiety, and disruptive outbursts. As behavior analysts, we need to discern whether these behaviors are related to underlying trauma, lack of parental guidance, or a disability. Making this determination will be necessary to develop a trusting and effective working relationship with the student. Identifying if behaviors are rooted in sadness, fear, or shame related to underlying traumatic events, allows adults to address the problem with a broader perspective and in a manner that will prevent escalation. Addressing students who are combative or reclusive requires tactical approaches created with all variables in mind, even when they are not observable and occurred in the past.

 
Diversity submission 

Covert Mission: Identifying and Alleviating Trauma-Based Behaviors in College Students

ALBEE MENDOZA (Wesley College)
Abstract:

In a survey by the Association for University and College Counseling Center Directors (2012), anxiety is the most reported concern among college students followed by depression and relationship problems. In a more recent study (2020), college students are reporting even more stress and anxiety due to COVID-19. This presentation is relevant as more and more college students experience poor mental health due to the pandemic and the measures to protect against the virus (i.e., shelter-in-place restrictions, online learning vs. in-person learning). Trauma may occur as loved ones are being impacted by COVID-19. College educators and counselors may be the first line responders to notice problem behaviors and recommend strategies for prevention and intervention. As such, this presentation will inform audience members of ways to identify problem behaviors, develop operational definitions, gather indirect and direct information, and collect data in higher education settings. This presentation has the potential impact of assisting college educators and counselors in having difficult conversations with students/clients and utilizing applied behavior analysis to identify and alleviate trauma-based behaviors.

 
 
Symposium #230
CE Offered: BACB — 
Ethics
Diversity submission Ethics Under the Umbrella: Sexual Behavior Considerations for Client Intervention and Beyond
Sunday, May 30, 2021
11:00 AM–12:50 PM EDT
Online
Area: DDA/AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Worner Leland (Upswing Advocates)
CE Instructor: Ran (Miranda) Courant-Morgan, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Sexual behavior is a complex and wide-reaching topic. And though sexual stimulation is considered to be a primary reinforcer for most, there is frequently shame and stigma associated with sexual behavior, leaving it under-discussed within our field. This symposium examines an array of ethical considerations pertaining to sexual behavior, from direct client interventions and supports around assent and noncompliance, to scholarship and theory on sex and risk, to legal considerations in sex education and censorship, to dissemination of behavior analytic analysis as it benefits pleasure-based sex education at large. Presenters will discuss resulting data and their implications as applicable, and will discuss recommendations for future research, instruction, and applied projects.

Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): ethics, sex education, sexual behavior, sexuality
Target Audience:

Practicing BCBAs and BCaBAs

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) identify resources for gaining scientific knowledge regarding sexual behavior from within and outside of the field of behavior analysis, (2) identify ways to reduce legal risk when addressing sexual behaviors, (3) identify ways to apply behavior analytic interventions to at least two populations.
 
Diversity submission 

What is Sexual Behavior Anyway?A Biopsychosocial Account of Conceptualizing Sex and Risk

WORNER LELAND (Upswing Advocates)
Abstract:

Because of the complexity of potential sexual repertoires and beliefs about sex at both the ontogenic and cultural level, it can be difficult to tact what “counts” as sexual behavior. Additionally, multiple factors impact the labeling of sexual behavior as “high risk.” Relational Frame Theory (RFT) provides an account of language as operant behavior (Hayes, Barnes-Holmes, & Roche, 2001). This presentation will examine different possible response classes and consequences which may be labeled as “sex” and which may be described as “risky” and will examine both derived beliefs and transfer of stimulus function when considering potentially risky sexual behavior. Relying on scientific knowledge both within and outside the field (BACB, 2019, 1.01), sex and risk will be examined as a biopsychosocial phenomenon, and the acquisition of these labels will comparably be examined through a contextual examination of selectionism at the phylogenic, ontogenetic, and cultural levels (Skinner, 1953). Harm reduction modalities will be considered as the impact of this language is examined.

 
Diversity submission Censorship, the Right to Effective Treatment, and Avoiding Legal Risk
ALEXANDRA ZHESTKOVA (Moscow Centre of Pedagogy and Psychology)
Abstract: Behavior analysts must conform to the legal and ethical codes of their social and professional communities, and must resolve any conflict in their ethical obligations and legal obligations in accordance with the law (BACB, 2019, 1.04 d & e). When considering the law regarding sexuality and sexual behavior education, behavior analysts must be especially mindful of potential conflicts between the ethical code and the law. While behavior analysts must advocate for the most effective interventions - keeping in mind cultural differences, resources and practices - legal considerations must not be forgotten. While most countries have direct laws regarding censorship and/or sexuality, the writing of these laws often leave room for loopholes or ambiguity. One must often look to legal precedent to examine actual consequence of the law in addition to the law’s written intention. This presentation will provide examples of sexual behavior related treatments that can result in legal proceedings in different countries, highlighting legal ambiguity regarding sexual education and, finally, will offer some steps that could be taken to avoid or minimize risk of legal proceedings while pursuing ethical and effective intervention.
 
Diversity submission The Use of Preference Assessments in the Selection of Sex Toys in Adult Retail Environments
LANDA L. FOX (Positive Connections)
Abstract: The utility of preference assessments in the discovery of powerful reinforcers is a vitally important technology within the field of applied behavior analysis. While preference assessments have been researched and used extensively in the area of developmental disabilities and autism their application outside of this area is more limited (e.g., Organizational Behavior Management; Applied Animal Behavior). As ethical dissemination of our science to novel environments is of value (BACB, 2019, 6.02), this presentation will explore the potential for the use of preference assessments (free operant, paired-stimulus, multiple stimulus without replacement) in adult retail stores. We will review important considerations in the application of preference assessments in adult retail stores. Considerations include: determining the type or types of preference assessment that are most appropriate; the ethics of implementation of an assessment in this environment; barriers and ethics related to effectively identifying potential reinforcers when the items in arrays cannot be directly experienced; and the potential temporal stability or instability of preferences with reference to knowledge about shifting preferences in sexual stimulation across time. Effectively assisting customers in an adult retail store in the selection of sex toys/pleasure products that will ostensibly serve as a reinforcer after purchase is a novel application of this technology.
 
Diversity submission When Should or Shouldn’t an Individual be Compliant to an Instruction?
ROBIN MOYHER (George Mason University)
Abstract: Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Delays (IDD) are victims, with alarmingly high rates, of sexual abuse and/or harassment (Sobsey & Varnhagen, 1989; Tyiska (1998). Compliance to instructions given to them from others, especially those in a position of authority, is often taught to individuals with IDD as part of their IEPs and home programming. However when considering our ethical obligation to our clients (BACB, 2019, 2.02, 2.05a) it is crucial to consider the benefit of direct noncompliance instruction, such in the case of a sexual harassment lure or sexual abuse lure. Presenting statistically significant data from a sexual harassment in the employment intervention to young adults with IDD (29 single subjects), the research will share data that demonstrates individuals are more likely to comply with instructions when presented from a person of authority versus a person of no authority. Data from this research study also shows that this population can be taught to recognize a sexual harassment lure, to respond appropriately, and report it accurately (Moyher, manuscript in progress). In the time of #metoo, it’s crucial to bring this topic to the IDD population. Instead of citing statistics of abuse that do not change decade after decade (Casteel, Martin, Smith, Gurka, and Kupper; 2008), this presentation will specifically discuss ways of teaching prevention skills to this population.
 
 
Symposium #232
CE Offered: BACB/QABA/NASP
Diversity submission Passport Pedagogy: Excellence in Applied Behavior Analysis from China and Italy
Sunday, May 30, 2021
11:00 AM–12:50 PM EDT
Online
Area: EDC/AUT; Domain: Translational
Chair: Lin Du (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Discussant: Jeremy H. Greenberg (The Children's Institute of Hong Kong)
CE Instructor: Jeremy H. Greenberg, Ph.D.
Abstract:

This collection of applied and descriptive research studies push our science in China and Italy. The first paper titled All For One And One For All used behavioral observation techniques to determine socially valid performance criterion for attending behaviors in typically developing students during group instruction. The second paper used functional behavior assessment and a conditioning procedure to replace stereotype with toy with a student having autism in an international primary school. The third paper outlines current dimensions of applied behavior analysis research in China. The fourth paper tested the effects of a different intensity CABAS®-based intervention packages using an alternating (ABACA) treatment design for 9 children diagnosed with Autism, aged 2 to 6 years old in Italy.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): aba, autism, china, school
Target Audience:

Designed for Supervisors, Directors, and Administrators

Learning Objectives: 1. Participants will understand conditioning reinforcement to replace stereotypy as an effective tactic for students with autism. 2. Participants will be able to name some reference in our field from China. 3. Participants will have an understanding of a CABAS systems approach to a school in Italy.
 
Diversity submission All For One And One For All: Establishing Social Validity Measures for Inclusion
(Applied Research)
HIU CHING CHEUNG (The Children's Institute of Hong Kong)
Abstract: Inclusion of students with special education needs (SEN) and especially autism spectrum disorder (ASD) into general education curricula is a challenging practice. In recent years, the practice of inclusion has been expanding within the international school community. Outside of the United States, the process of inclusion is developing rapidly due to an ever increasing demand mostly. The demand is fuelled by families and is compounded by the scarcity of international schools with developed programs and inclusive classrooms. Applied Behavior Analysis provides strategies and tactics that support educators and those responsible for inclusion of students SEN and ASD. The purpose of the present study was to use behavioral observation techniques to determine socially valid performance criterion for attending behaviors in typically developing students during group instruction. Direct observations occurred in situ using partial interval recording procedures across typical students across primary grades one through eight, inclusive. Data were collected under two types of conditions, lecture style instruction, and independent desk work for boys and girls across all grades. Results add to our evidence-based criterion that are used to determine the level of services needed, if any, to support our students in the general education setting.
 
Diversity submission 

Using Functional Behavior Assessment and Conditioning Procedures to Replace Stereotypy in an International School Student With Autism

(Applied Research)
JAMIE SO (The Children's Institute of Hong Kong)
Abstract:

The present study used functional behavior assessment and a treatment package including conditioning of toy play with a student with autism in an international primary school. The functional behavior assessment confirmed that the behaviors were being maintained through automatic reinforcement. The procedure was a partial replication from research conducted with adults and preschool students. Our student was 11 years old and had a long history of stereotypy behaviors and a limited community of reinforcers. This study tested for the external validity of the treatment package.

 
Diversity submission 

Current Dimensions of Applied Behavior Analysis in China: A Critical Review of Research

(Basic Research)
WEIHE HUANG (Creating Behavioral + Educational Momentum)
Abstract:

Applied behavior analysis (ABA) was introduced into Mainland China at the beginning of the 21st century as a direct result of the rise of autism spectrum disorder. The following decades can roughly be divided into two phases in terms of the development of ABA in China. Phase one was the time period with a focus on dissemination of ABA practice in China and it lasted from 2000 to 2009. In phase two, which lasted from 2010 to the current date, initial research on ABA emerged in China while dissemination of ABA practice continued and accelerated. The objective of this presentation is to critically evaluate ABA studies conducted by Chinese researchers. For this purpose, the author conducted a systematic search for literature on ABA published by Chinese scholars. In this presentation, the author will use seven ABA dimensions (Baer, Wolf, & Risley, 1968) to measure the quality of the ABA literature and present results from quantitative analysis and qualitative evaluation of empirical studies published by Chinese ABA researchers. The author will also attempt to explain the unique feature of ABA research published by Chinese scholars by analyzing relevant cultural contingencies. Based on these descriptions and analyses, the author will make recommendations for the future development of ABA research in China.

 
Diversity submission 

Comparing the Effects of Different ABA Interventions for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder During a Pandemic

(Service Delivery)
FABIOLA CASARINI (Scuola delle Stelle)
Abstract:

We tested the effects of a different intensity CABAS®-based intervention packages using an alternating (ABACA) treatment design for 9 children diagnosed with Autism, aged 2 to 6 years old. The study was conducted in a learning and research centre in Italy prior and during the COVID-19 Pandemic, and is still ongoing. The obligation to stop the CABAS® intervention created an opportunity to change the treatment frequency while keeping the treatment integrity for all participants, and provide the experimenters with an opportunity to collect data and compare them on the optimal treatment intensity. Condition A constituted high educational intensity where each participant received 1:1 intervention for 12 hours a week, while Condition B constituted 1:1 intervention for 3 hours a week (during the first lockdown), and during Condition C, intervention was delivered for 6 hours a week (during the second lockdown).The dependent variables in the study were the changes in participant’s ADOS-2 and CARS-2 scores prior and after each treatment change, and participants number of Learn Units to Criterion rate. The early results showed a significant difference between before and after the low-frequency package was implemented, for the total scores and each sub-test of both instruments. So far, results suggest that normative tests, together with individual graphs’analysis, can help differentiate between treatment effectiveness and efficiency for each child. Further research is needed in order to make more generalized conclusions into the optimal intensity of intervention, especially in countries, such as Italy, where children with Autism can’t attend special schools or have insurance-covered intensive treatments.

 
 
Paper Session #235
CE Offered: BACB
Diversity submission Leading Through Crisis: Coming Together and Coming Out Strong
Sunday, May 30, 2021
11:30 AM–11:55 AM EDT
Online
Area: OBM
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Chair: Maria Sasaki Solis (The Reilly Behavioral Group, LLC)
CE Instructor: Maria Sasaki Solis, Other
 
Diversity submission 

Leading Through Crisis: Coming Together and Coming Out Strong

Domain: Service Delivery
MARIA SASAKI SOLIS (The Reilly Behavioral Group, LLC)
 
Abstract:

The year 2020 thrust applied behavior analysis into an uncharted intersection of clinical practice, public health, and sociopolitical evolution. On March 11, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a pandemic. Two days later, COVID-19 was declared a U.S. national emergency. Already vulnerable individuals served by the behavior analytic community found their worlds turned upside down and inside out, routines violently disrupted, and many were suddenly cut off from essential behavioral health treatment. Practitioners were furloughed, laid off, or altogether let go. Many others chose unemployment, terrified of contracting COVID-19. On May 25, a nation already gripped by health and economic fear and uncertainty exploded in protest, sparked by the death of George Floyd. Unified like never before, our nation demanded reformation of the inequity and fundamental flaws in the criminal justice system and in our society as a whole. Using a behavioral systems approach guided by the Stockdale Paradox (Collins, 2001), cognitive-diversity hypothesis (Miller, Burke, & Glick, 1998), and simple notion of kindness, a small, privately owned agency utilized professional networks, local and state resources, and sheer determination to persevere, pivot, and redefine its commitment to its clients, staff, and our science.

 
Target Audience:

Prerequisite skills/competencies: behavior systems; business strategy; corporate culture; diversity in the workplace; ethics; leadership/management; supervision.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) state at least 3 different activities likely to foster diversity, cultural humility, and/or social justice in their workplace; (2) identify at least 2 non-monetary variables in a cost-benefit analysis of organizational health during a crisis.
 
 
Symposium #237
CE Offered: BACB
Diversity submission Why are Teachers Doing This: Assessing Social Validity and Instructional Challenges
Sunday, May 30, 2021
12:00 PM–12:50 PM EDT
Online
Area: AUT/EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Theodore A. Hoch (George Mason University)
CE Instructor: Dorothy Xuan Zhang, Ph.D.
Abstract:

The separation between educational research and practice has been gaining a lot of interest in the field. To bridge these two areas requires collaboration between both parties (Vanderlinde & Braak, 2010), shared experiences (Montgomery & Smith, 2015), and intensified contacts in the process of the research (Huberman, 1990). In the field of special education, the need for highly qualified educators, teacher attrition, and workplaces/institution play the key roles to improve the transfer of knowledge for the education communities (McLeskey & Billingsley, 2012). Education researchers must carefully consider the challenges that teachers may encounter in their daily work so that the research questions and interests can go beyond the basic science and theoretical debates. Social validity leads researchers to consider the needs of practitioners while the follow-up application research facilitates the delivery of evidence-based practices. In this symposium, we will explore how researchers explore the social validity in the cultural context of the practitioners and clients while teachers’ dilemmas are embedded in research.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): China ABA, Data Collection, Perspective Taking, Social Validity
Target Audience:

professionals with teaching experience in social skills and experience with data collection will benefit from attending this symposium.

Learning Objectives: 1. State the key dilemmas that teachers may be facing 2. Connect the applied research (perspective-taking and data collection) with teaching practice 3. Identify ways to assess social validity during research and practice
 
Diversity submission Assessing Social Validity in the Context of Culture
DOROTHY XUAN ZHANG (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology; George Mason University; ABA Professional Committee of China Association of Rehabilitation of Disabled Persons (ABA-CARDP)
Abstract:

Social validity reflects the social significance of a behavioral investigation, which is a unique and vital component of a behavior intervention and research (Kazdin, 1977). It is essential for the survival of behavior analysis as a field and it connects closely with ethics (Baer & Schwartz, 1991). Wolf (1978) states that social validity reveals the social significance of treatment goals, acceptability of the treatment procedure, and outcomes of the treatment, which are often times, opinion based. Researchers and practitioners have provided recommendations about how to assess social validity (Carter, 2019), but how does this process look like in a specific cultural context such as autism treatment in China, where culture variables may influence consumer’s opinion regarding the social validity domains differently than other cultures? Based on the strategies suggested by Carter (2019) regarding assessing social validity, this presentation bring forward the challenges of assessing social validity domain with specific examples as well as recommendations for assessing the social validity of intervention in a given cultural context.

 
Diversity submission 

Nature is the Best: Teaching Virtual Perspective-Taking

FAN YU LIN (ALSOLIFE), Bijun Wang (ALSOLIFE)
Abstract:

Visual perspective taking is the ability to discriminate whether one can see an object. A prerequisite of visual perspective taking is to identify the object another person is seeing. Conventionally, visual perspective taking task may start with use of cards (e.g., present a card of a person who gazes toward different directions), followed by generalizing to real persons in natural environments. This study included three different visual perspective taking tasks: cards, real person, real person in natural context. Six children with ASD between age of 3.5 and 9 participated in this study. The initial probe revealed most children, though not having achieved the mastery level, had relatively better performance with real human. When further conducting the training, the results showed that children quickly learned to track visual perspective from a real person, either in a lab or a natural setting. While acquisition of visual perspective taking with real person helped generalization to natural context, it did not affect the task with cards. In addition, operation of cards presented a great challenge on three of six children. This finding may stimulate practitioners and researchers to rethink the sequence and the use of cards in teaching visual perspective taking.

 
Diversity submission 

Let It Be Three: Comparing All- and Three-Trial Data Collection Method

BIJUN WANG (ALSOLIFE), Fan Yu Lin (ALSOLIFE)
Abstract:

When making a decision about child progress, teachers who provide discrete trial teaching struggle with finding a proper balance between continuous recording (e.g., taking all trials data) and discontinuous recording (e.g., taking the first few trials data). Continuous data collection method provides comprehensive information, which leads to proper decision, yet it could be labor-intensive and potentially interrupt the natural flow of teacher-child interaction. Discontinuous data collection method allows the teachers to devote to instruction, yet it may lead to inadequate reference for student performance. Previous studies have examined the effects on child progress toward mastery and maintenance, which yields rather mixed results. This study reviewed the existing data across four children with ASD, eight different tasks, 174 sessions, and over 2000 trials. Given the mastery criterion of “80% accuracy for two consecutive days”, the results revealed a moderate match between all- and three-trial data collection method. It suggests the potential of using discontinuous data collection method.

 
 
Symposium #244
Diversity submission Participant Identity in Behavior Analysis: Current Landscape and Future Directions
Sunday, May 30, 2021
12:00 PM–12:50 PM EDT
Online
Area: CSS; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Alyssa N. Wilson (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology--SoCal)
Discussant: Joseph H. Cihon (Autism Partnership Foundation; Endicott College)
Abstract:

Scientific research publications are permanent products that communicate the values, aims, and outcomes of the scientific enterprise to stakeholders, scientists, and members of society. Applied behavior analytic research, as a field dedicated to intervening on socially significant behaviors, should be upheld to similar publication standards as other professions. The current symposium will focus on the disciplinary reporting practices as they relate to participant identity, to explore the extent to which a) ABA research participation is equitable across social groups, and b) provides a wholistic reporting of demographic variables. The first presentation will present findings from a systematic review on the quality reporting strategies of research articles published in ABAI journals (e.g., Analysis of Verbal Behavior, Behavior Analysis in Practice, Perspectives on Behavior Science, and The Psychological Record) between 2010-2019. The second presentation will present findings from a similar review on reporting of participant demographics in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. Both presentations will highlight how to improve disciplinary practices for demographic reporting policies and practices in applied behavior analytic research journals.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Applied Research, Cultural Humility, Human Rights, Research Ethics
 
Diversity submission Participant Identity in Behavior Analytic Research: Examining ABAI Journal Publications from 2010-2019
ALYSSA N. WILSON (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology--SoCal), Kathryn Sharp (Saint Louis University), Claudia CottoVerdon (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology--SoCal)
Abstract: The current study explored quality of reporting generally as well as specifically related to participant demographic variables, within behavior analytic publications including Analysis of Verbal Behavior, Behavior Analysis in Practice, Perspectives on Behavior Science, and The Psychological Record between 2010-2019. Of 2,348 articles identified, 281 used single-subject designs and human participants. Data was extracted by researchers answering yes, no, or open-ended answers on a google form. Questions were derived from the Single-Case Reporting Guidelines for Behavior Interventions (SCRIBE; Tate et al., 2016), a 26-item checklist that describes components needed for quality reporting of single-subject experimental design. Additional questions about participant demographic variables including age, race/ethnicity, gender, socioeconomics, and geographical location were added during data collection, and separated during data analysis to maintain the total score of 26. Total SCRIBE scores were calculated by counting all yes responses. Average SCRIBE scores across all included articles was 16.7 (64%), with most articles reporting scientific background in their introduction, procedural detail related to the intervention and results, and operational definitions of all target behaviors. Participant demographic information was reported inconsistently across articles (race/ethnicity = 16.6%, age=92%, sex/gender=85%, socioeconomic=16%, and geographic location = 24%). Implications for future reporting of behavior analytic research is discussed.
 
Diversity submission 

CANCELED: Why Participant Identity Matters

MALIKA N. PRITCHETT (Positive Enlightenment; The Chicago School of Professional Psychology at Dallas), Shahla Susan Ala'i (University of North Texas), Alicia ReCruz (University of North Texas), Traci M. Cihon (University of North Texas)
Abstract:

In the context of research that involves human participants, justice is about fairness, protecting vulnerability, and the equitable distribution of research burdens and benefits across social groups. Historically the burdens of biomedical and behavioral research participation have been disproportionately endured by persons with vulnerabilities. Central to the principle of justice are protections for the over selection of participants from homogenous cultural and ethnic groups. Ideally, applied behavior analytic research is driven by a steadfast orientation toward the amelioration of the types of human suffering often experienced by members of society who are marginalized. Recent analyses of participant demographics in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis suggests, on one hand, over selection of persons with vulnerabilities and on the other hand, a consistent lack information regarding demographics and selection criteria. A discussion of colonial research practices in applied behavior analytic research is critical in the assessment of human rights trends in applied behavior analytic research. There is an inherent danger when participation is a primarily a function of the ease and benefit of the researchers’ agenda. To address the lack of participant demographic reporting practices, we suggest systemic changes to policies, strategies, and research practices within our field be interwoven with a commitment to social justice, including racial justice, for all.

 
 
Symposium #249
CE Offered: BACB
Diversity submission Bringing ABA to the World: Changes Across Cultures, Borders, and Disciplines
Sunday, May 30, 2021
12:00 PM–12:50 PM EDT
Online
Area: TBA/PCH; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Dipti Mudgal (Ball State University)
Discussant: Lina M. Slim-Topdjian (ASAP - A Step Ahead Program, LLC)
CE Instructor: Lina M. Slim-Topdjian, Ph.D.
Abstract:

The world as we know it is changing and, in many ways, there are tremendous signs of growth for humanity. One such sign is the removal of boundaries for service delivery. Behavior analysts are contributing to this process in a remarkable way, for example, by taking advantage of developments in technology that allow us to communicate and collaborate in ways that were previously unthinkable. However, stepping into this new world requires us to notice differences in each other, and to work diligently to build bridges. To expect that the application of behavioral science is devoid of context and cultural norms would not provide desirable outcomes. Hence, several parameters must be considered when planning and implementing global access to behavior analysis. The aim of this symposium is to present two unique and successful collaborations that fostered equality, equity, and inclusion of recipients. Both papers will shed light on different aspects of service delivery and dissemination of applied behavior analysis in the international context.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): India, International, Speech pathologists, UAE
Target Audience:

Providers, program developers, researchers,

Learning Objectives: Participants will be able to: (1) Explain the FBA workshop changes that were made for Indian SLPs. (2) Explain the changes made in the ABA program for UAE population. (3) List considerations to be made when disseminating ABA services and education in other countries.
 
Diversity submission 

Cross-Discipline Training Model for Speech-Language Pathology Students in India to Develop Function-Based Interventions

GEETIKA AGARWAL (Ball State University), Dipti Mudgal (Ball State University)
Abstract:

The awareness, acceptability, and availability of Speech and Hearing programs in India far exceeds the prevalence and awareness of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) programs. There are over 800,000 registered speech therapists (Indian Speech and Hearing Association, 2019), whereas BCBAs, BCaBAs, RBTs together add up to merely 86 (Behavior Analysis Certification Board, 2020). For a country with over 2 billion people, the number of behavior therapists is pittance. While this gap in the number of providers is discouraging, we believe practitioners of applied behavior analysis should find mutual synergy to collaborate and train speech therapists in the science of our field. This collaboration is intuitive given the remarkable overlap in both fields. The purpose of this grant funded project was to disseminate our science by training the students and supervisors of the Department of Speech and Hearing, which was housed within a medical college in South India. We implemented a two-day intense Functional Behavioral Assessment training workshop focusing on most commonly seen challenging behaviors in their speech sessions. This paper aims to cover the model we used for customizing the workshop for speech therapists in India so that it is more relevant and inclusive of their experiences and context. Recommendations for future collaboration of both fields and/or dissemination of behavior analysis technology in India will also be provided.

 
Diversity submission 

Student-Faculty Collaboration in Dissemination of Behavior Analysis in the United Arab Emirates

CLODAGH MARY MURRAY (Emirates College for Advanced Education), Michelle P. Kelly (Emirates College for Advanced Education (ECAE)), Sarah C. Mead Jasperse (Aurora University)
Abstract:

The current paper will describe the establishment of the first graduate level Verified Course Sequence in ABA in the United Arab Emirates in August 2019, and the concomitant challenges and opportunities that arose for the UAE national students and expatriate faculty. With the aim of building local capacity in the provision of ABA services and expanding the reach of behavior analysis beyond the field of ASD intervention in the country, the faculty and students have worked together in a range of interesting and rewarding ways. The paper will discuss cultural competence as an ongoing collaborative effort. The faculty has learned to work in a Middle Eastern culture, understanding the impact of local traditions and customs on teaching and learning. Meanwhile, the students have learned to navigate the world of behavior analysis by analyzing and questioning how the methods and guidelines “fit” with the populations they serve now and into the future, for example in the selection of socially significant target behaviors, in discussing the prevalence of culturally-specific pseudoscientific interventions and in their critical evaluation of ethical codes. The positive student-faculty collaboration fostered in the UAE provides lessons for behavior analysts who work in culturally diverse settings. In particular, this paper will describe our achievements in the dissemination of the science of behavior analysis through community outreach and high-quality student-led projects, supported by faculty.

 
 
Poster Session #251
Sunday, May 30, 2021
1:00 PM–3:00 PM EDT
Online
1.

Does Cannabidiol Share Discriminative-Stimulus Properties With the Benzodiazepine Anxiolytic Chlordiazepoxide?

Area: BPN; Domain: Basic Research
REBECCA CHALMÉ (West Virginia University), Karen G. Anderson (West Virginia University)
Discussant: Sally L. Huskinson (University of Mississippi Medical Center)
Abstract:

Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of the major centrally active phytocannabinoid components of cannabis, and has been approved by the FDA only for the treatment of two rare seizure disorders. However, CBD has been touted as a potential treatment for anxiety in place of more traditional pharmacological treatments like benzodiazepines. Although there is some evidence of anxiolytic effects of CBD, its suitability as a substitute for benzodiazepines is unknown. This experiment was designed to assess to what extent CBD shares interoceptive discriminative-stimulus properties with the anxiolytic chlordiazepoxide (CDP), a benzodiazepine. In the present experiment, a range of doses (0-333.3 mg/kg) of CBD were administered in rats trained to discriminate 5.6 mg/kg CDP from saline. Due to the long time-course effects of CBD, generalization tests were conducted at 90 and 120 min post-CBD administration. Results indicate that CBD likely does not substitute for CDP, as mean percent CDP-appropriate responding remained under 20% at most doses. Future areas of investigation, including lowering the CDP training dose, could provide additional clarity regarding the present results.

 
2. Oxycodone Impacts Sensitivity to Reinforcement Magnitude in Male and Female Rats: Implications for Impulsive/Risky Choice
Area: BPN; Domain: Basic Research
JUSTIN T VAN HEUKELOM (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Thomas Wagner (Louisiana State University), Isabelle R Rinkert (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Jeremy Langford (West Virginia University), Christine E. Hughes (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Raymond C. Pitts (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Discussant: Sally L. Huskinson (University of Mississippi Medical Center)
Abstract: Acute administration of opioid agonists has been shown to increase impulsive choice. Behavioral mechanisms of this effect may include an increased sensitivity to delay and/or a decreased sensitivity to reinforcement magnitude. Furthermore, there is current interest in characterizing differences in drug effects on impulsive and risky choice between sexes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate acute effects of the prescription opioid oxycodone on sensitivity to reinforcement magnitude in male and female rats. Rats chose between different reinforcement magnitudes in a within-session, concurrent-chains procedure in which the magnitude for one option (i.e., 1, 3, and 9 dipper presentations of a sucrose solution) varied across blocks of choice trials, while the magnitude of the other option remained constant (i.e., 3 presentations). Baseline sensitivity to reinforcement magnitude tended to be higher in females (M=0.60; n=6) than in males (M=0.52; n=8). On average, oxycodone (0.3, 0.56, and 1.0 mg/kg) tended to decrease sensitivity to reinforcement magnitude in both males and females. Based upon these findings, we tentatively conclude that male rats would be more likely to engage in impulsive choice, and that oxycodone would likely induce impulsive choice in both male and female rats.
 
3.

Neonatal Co-Exposure of Mice to Ultrafine Iron and Sulfur Dioxide Does Not Affect Response Inhibition or Reversal Learning in Adulthood

Area: BPN; Domain: Basic Research
MATTHEW LELAND ECKARD (University of Rochester Medical Center), Alyssa Merrill (University of Rochester Medical Center), Katherine Bachmann (University of Rochester Medical Center), Elena Marvin (University of Rochester Medical Center), Günter Oberdörster (University of Rochester Medical Center), Marissa Sobolewski (University of Rochester Medical Center), Deborah Cory-Slechta (University of Rochester Medical Center)
Discussant: Sally L. Huskinson (University of Mississippi Medical Center)
Abstract:

Air pollution (AP) is a growing threat to human health including its effect on neurological development and function. AP is a complex mixture of gases and particulate matter, including trace elements, which may differentially contribute to its neurodevelopmental toxicity. In our lab, brains of neonate mice exposed to concentrated ambient ultrafine particulate matter showed brain accumulation of iron (Fe) and sulfur (S). To determine the neurodevelopmental impact of Fe and S specifically, male and female neonate mice were exposed to air or an aerosol mixture of ultrafine Fe and sulfur dioxide (n=12). Inhalation exposures occurred from postnatal day (PND) 4-7 and 10-13 for 4 hr/day. Following training on a fixed-interval schedule in adulthood, mice were trained on successive differential-reinforcement-of-low-rates schedules (10 - 36 s) followed by a discrimination reversal task. Peak deviation analysis of DRL responding showed relatively inaccurate timing in all groups across DRLs and no differences in within-bout response IRTs or overall reinforcers earned. Similarly, across three discrimination reversals, overall errors decreased, but there were no group differences in error patterns or response latencies. Thus, Fe and S in combination at the current dose may not recapitulate the behavioral impairments associated with developmental AP exposure.

 
4. Economic Demand and Cross-Price Elasticity of Cocaine and Social Reinforcement
Area: BPN; Domain: Basic Research
MARK A. SMITH (Davidson College), Jessica Sharp (Davidson College), Hannah Cha (Davidson College), Justin Charles Strickland (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
Discussant: Sally L. Huskinson (University of Mississippi Medical Center)
Abstract: Aim: Drug addiction is characterized, in part, by the pathological choice of drugs over other reinforcers. This study used a behavioral economic approach to examine demand and cross-price elasticity of cocaine and social contact with a cocaine-free and cocaine-intoxicated partner under concurrent-access conditions. Methods: Male rats responded under a concurrent schedule of reinforcement in which the two reinforcers were cocaine (0.5 mg/kg, iv) and 30-s access to a social partner. The availability of each reinforcer was independent of the other. Social access was evaluated with a social partner that was cocaine-free and cocaine-intoxicated (10 mg/kg, ip). The ratio value (i.e., unit price) of both reinforcers varied across sessions, and economic analyses determined demand intensity and elasticity of each reinforcer under conditions in which the alternative was or was not concurrently available. Cross-price elasticity was determined by the slope of consumption for the concurrently available, fixed-price reinforcer. Results: Concurrent social access to a cocaine-free or cocaine-intoxicated partner did not reduce cocaine demand intensity or elasticity. Concurrent cocaine access decreased social demand intensity and increased social demand elasticity for a cocaine-free partner; however, this effect was not observed with a cocaine-intoxicated partner. Cross-price elasticities indicated a weak positive slope for each reinforcer with the exception of cocaine-free social access. Conclusion: Cross-reinforcer demand procedures suggest that social contact can serve as a weak substitute for cocaine, whereas access to cocaine can serve as a strong substitute for social contact, especially if the social partner is not cocaine intoxicated.
 
5.

Uncertain Drug Cost as a Historical Factor Contributing to Drug vs. Nondrug Choice in Rhesus Monkeys

Area: BPN; Domain: Basic Research
William Doyle (Program in Neuroscience; University of Mississippi Medical Center), Carlos Zamarripa (Program in Neuroscience; University of Mississippi Medical Center), Kevin B. Freeman (University of Mississippi Medical Center), James K. Rowlett (University of Mississippi Medical Center), SALLY L. HUSKINSON (University of Mississippi Medical Center)
Discussant: Sally L. Huskinson (University of Mississippi Medical Center)
Abstract:

Relative to nondrug reinforcers, illicit drugs may be more uncertain in terms of their availability, quality, and in the time and effort required to obtain them. In drug vs. nondrug choice, we have shown that a variable-ratio (VR) schedule of cocaine delivery increased cocaine’s potency as a reinforcer compared with an equal on average fixed-ratio (FR) schedule of cocaine delivery. However, it is unknown whether an history of chronic exposure to uncertain drug cost results in subsequent changes in the reinforcing properties of cocaine. Adult rhesus monkeys chose between cocaine (0-0.1 mg/kg/injection) and food (2 pellets/delivery) under concurrent FR FR schedules to establish baseline drug vs. nondrug choice functions. Subjects were then exposed to 60 days of cocaine availability (0.1 mg/kg/injection) under an FR 200 (fixed history) or VR 200 (uncertain history) schedule of reinforcement, followed by redetermination of cocaine vs. food choice functions. Then, subjects first exposed to the FR schedule experienced the VR schedule, and vice versa, followed by a final determination of cocaine vs. food choice. Thus far, cocaine choice is reduced or unchanged following a fixed history with cocaine and is increased following an uncertain history with cocaine. If replicated with additional subjects, these results suggest that exposure to uncertain drug costs could enhance the reinforcing properties of the drug compared with exposure to fixed drug costs.

 
Diversity submission 6. Assessing Demand for Cigarettes and Substitutes in African American/Black and White Smokers
Area: BPN; Domain: Basic Research
SYDNEY BATCHELDER (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Yohan Krumov (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Josie Newburg (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Ashley Haberman (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Devon Bigelow (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Wendy Donlin Washington (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Discussant: Sally L. Huskinson (University of Mississippi Medical Center)
Abstract: Although smoking is on the decline in the United States, it still poses a challenge for certain minority populations including Black smokers. Black Americans who smoke cigarettes are more likely to be affected by smoking related illnesses than White Americans (Inoue-Chol et al., 2017; Lortet-Tieulent et al., 2016). And though Black Americans are more likely to report intentions to quit, they are less likely to successfully quit (Stahre et al., 2010). For these reasons, it is necessary to delineate what variables affect smoking in Black Americans. The present study used a cigarette purchase task (CPT) and the experimental tobacco marketplace (ETM) to evaluate whether Black and White smokers have similar demand for cigarettes and whether nicotine alternatives function similarly as substitutes. Participants were recruited via Amazon Mechanical Turk to take measures including the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Depedence, Everyday Discrimination Scale, intentions to quit, and Timeline Followback. Participants then took the CPT and ETM, which ask smokers how many cigarettes and alternatives they would consume at increasing prices. Race, menthol status, and socioeconomic status comparisons will be conducted. Implications for treatment including harm reduction and nicotine replacement therapy based on these findings will be discussed.
 
7. Abstinence-Contingent Wage Supplements to Promote Drug Abstinence and Employment: Post-Intervention Outcomes
Area: BPN; Domain: Applied Research
MATTHEW NOVAK (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), August F. Holtyn (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Forrest Toegel (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Kenneth Silverman (Johns Hopkins University)
Discussant: Sally L. Huskinson (University of Mississippi Medical Center)
Abstract: Given the interrelated nature of substance use, unemployment, and poverty, interventions designed to promote health and move low-income people out of poverty could lead to long-lasting treatment effects. This study assessed effects of abstinence-contingent wage supplements after discontinuation. Participants were randomly assigned to an abstinence-contingent wage supplement group (n = 44) or a usual care control group (n = 47). All participants could work with an employment specialist throughout the 12-month intervention period. Participants in the abstinence-contingent wage supplement group earned stipends for working with the employment specialist and, after gaining employment, abstinence-contingent wage supplements for working in their community job and providing opiate- and cocaine-negative urine samples. Assessments of drug use and employment were collected every 3 months during the 12-month intervention and the 12-month follow-up period. During the intervention, participants in the abstinence-contingent wage supplement group maintained higher levels of opiate and cocaine abstinence and were more likely to become employed and live out of poverty than control group participants. During the follow-up period, both groups had similar levels of drug abstinence, employment, and poverty status. Results will be discussed in terms of methods to promote long-term treatment maintenance.
 
 
 
Poster Session #254
Sunday, May 30, 2021
1:00 PM–3:00 PM EDT
Online
Diversity submission 24.

Higher Education Dual Enrollment for Students With Autism and Intellectual Disabilities

Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
ASHLEY BLANCA RODRIGUES (Bridgewater State University)
Discussant: Kayla Crook (University of Mississippi)
Abstract:

Of all students with disabilities, individuals with autism and intellectual disabilities (ID) have the fewest post-school educational prospects. High school students with autism and ID often have the difficult experience of watching their general education peers and siblings go on to further their education while they are left behind. Typical opportunities for these individuals, particularly those past the age of 18, have been restricted to isolated public-school classrooms (until they reach 22) or community-based day habilitation centers. Lately in the area of special education there is an appeal for the advancement and growth of higher education opportunities for students with autism and ID. In response, school systems and institutions of higher education have started partnering to offer transition services through dual enrollment to individuals ages 18 through 21 with autism and ID. This poster offers a synopsis of effective models of higher education dual enrollment for students with autism and intellectual disabilities applied at one public university. These include a college inclusion model using mentoring during the day and in the residence halls in the evenings where students with autism and ID are fully assimilated into all aspects of the college experience. Relevant supporting research will be discussed and an exploration of the implications and approaches for creation and implementation of partnership programs will be put forward.

 
25. Video Self-Modeling as a Classroom Based Intervention to Reduce Off-Task Behavior in Mainstream Students
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
STEVEN G. LITTLE (Walden University), Angeleque Akin-Little (Walden University)
Discussant: Kayla Crook (University of Mississippi)
Abstract: Video Self-Modeling involves individuals observing images of him/herself engaging in a desired behavior with the intent to increase the probability of the behavior occurring again. Video Self-Modeling has been used to improve academic success and/or promote positive change in a range of behaviors, most frequently with those diagnosed with disorders such as Selective Mutism or Autism Spectrum Disorder. There are a limited number of studies on the effects of Video Self-Modeling for non-exceptional students in a mainstream school. The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of Video Self-Modeling on intermediate school students in New Zealand who were identified by their teacher as engaging in off-task behavior. Participants were videoed completing independent tasks in literacy, the recording was edited to remove instances of off-task behavior, and then viewed by each participant before school for 3 weeks. The mean number of words participants wrote, and the frequency of off-task behavior were recorded. Results indicated that all four students made gains in the amount of work completed. Two of four participants demonstrated a reduction in all three recorded off-task behaviors and two participants in two out of the three off-task behaviors. Practical implications are discussed.
 
Diversity submission 26.

Online Parent Training on Behavioral Principles for Korean Parents of Children With Disabilities

Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
JAMES LEE (Department of Special Education, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign ), Hedda Meadan (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign)
Discussant: Kayla Crook (University of Mississippi)
Abstract:

Consistent challenging behaviors of young children are known to have significant impact on the child’s optimal development, such as social-emotional development or communication skills (Dunlap et al., 2006). Parents of children who exhibit challenging behaviors report that these behaviors have negative effects on family’s stress, social isolation, and well-being (Meadan et al., 2010). Furthermore, many parents who live in low-resource settings outside the United States report exacerbated hardships due to limited access to resources, such as Korea. To strengthen capacity of parents in Korea, who have limited access to resources, we developed and examined the effectiveness of a series of online parent training modules on behavioral principles using a randomized controlled trial with waitlist control group (N = 88). We found significant interaction effects of Group X Time for (a) parental knowledge of behavioral principles, (b) positive parenting practices, and (c) parental stress, with no preexisting differences between the two groups. Qualitative social validity data indicated that parents were highly satisfied with the goals, procedures, and outcomes, and that the modules affected their parenting styles, increased knowledge leading to better child outcomes, and recommendations for future research.

 
27.

Functional Communication Training Using Concurrent and Chained Schedules of Reinforcement in Public Elementary School Classrooms

Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
JESSICA TORELLI (Western Kentucky University), Blair Lloyd (Vanderbilt University)
Discussant: Kayla Crook (University of Mississippi)
Abstract:

Children with intellectual and developmental disabilities frequently engage in escape-maintained problem behavior, which can limit their access to academic instruction and lead to placement in more restrictive educational settings. While there are function-based interventions to treat escape-maintained problem behavior, these interventions have primarily been evaluated in clinic settings using procedures, such as extinction, that are not feasible for teachers to implement in classrooms. The goal of this study was to evaluate a multi-component intervention without extinction to treat escape-maintained problem behavior for two children with developmental delays (one child also had autism). Functional analyses indicated each participant’s problem behavior was maintained by multiple sources of reinforcement, including escape. Functional communication training + concurrent schedules reduced problem behavior for one of two participants and increased functional communicative responses for both participants. Chained schedules were implemented with one participant; results showed work completion and some types of functional communicative responses came under stimulus control, but rates of problem behavior showed an increasing trend. Results suggest continued evaluation of chained and concurrent schedules following functional communication training is warranted. Implications for future research are discussed.

 
28. Intervention Results of Using Extra Credit to Increase Quiz Scores for College Students
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
PIK WAH LAM (University of South Dakota )
Discussant: Kayla Crook (University of Mississippi)
Abstract: This poster presents the results of an intervention using extra credit as a positive reinforcer in a token economy system to increase students’ weekly quiz scores. The intervention was conducted in a Special Education course offered in a midwestern 4-year university. A total of 46 undergraduate students were enrolled in the course. Tokens were given to students who scored from 8 to 10 points out of 10 points in each weekly quiz. Students could use the tokens they earned to exchange for extra credits at the end of the semester. An AB design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention. The first three weekly quizzes served as a baseline. The intervention was conducted throughout the rest of the semester. Results suggested that there is a very slight increase in the overall class average in the weekly quizzes. The mean score of the weekly quiz was increased by 1.02 points from 7.39 to 8.41 from baseline to intervention respectively. Extra credit showed small positive effects on students' scores in the weekly quizzes and was demonstrated to be an effective positive reinforcer. Stronger reinforcers should be identified and other extra credit delivery methods should also be examined in the future.
 
29. Effects of Intensive Coaching on Educator Implementation of a Comprehensive Function-based Intervention Package
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
MARNEY SQUIRES POLLACK (Vanderbilt University), Johanna Staubitz (Vanderbilt University), Blair Lloyd (Vanderbilt University)
Discussant: Kayla Crook (University of Mississippi)
Abstract: The effectiveness of behavioral interventions in schools depends heavily on the ability of educators to implement procedures with fidelity. However, much of the training literature focuses on teaching educators to implement interventions with relatively few components (Kirkpatrick et al., 2019). We used a multiple probe across participants design to evaluate the effects of an intensive coaching package on educator fidelity of a comprehensive, function-based intervention package (skill-based treatment; Hanley et al., 2014) for three public school educators without previous training in applied behavior analysis. The coaching package included (a) teaching one intervention component to mastery at a time, (b) practicing trials with pre-trial and in-vivo feedback, and (c) individualizing coaching procedures based on intervention fidelity data and participant feedback. Relative to a workshop-style behavioral skills training session, intensive coaching increased educators’ fidelity to criterion levels. Criterion fidelity in one or both intervention intervals generalized from implementation with an actor to the target student, and subsequently to the student’s regularly assigned classroom. Educators reported the training package to be feasible and the intervention to be effective for improving their student’s behavior. Results of this study highlight the need to individualize coaching supports for educators learning to implement comprehensive, function-based interventions.
 
30. Teaching Graduate Students to Identify and Adhere to Practicum Requirements
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
RYAN ATKINSON (Regis College), Diana Parry-Cruwys (Regis College), Jacquelyn M. MacDonald (Regis College)
Discussant: Jennifer Ledford (Vanderbilt University)
Abstract: A critical component of becoming eligible for Behavior Analyst Certification Board® (BACB®) certification is the completion of fieldwork experience hours according to the BACB Experience Standards (2018). The accrual of experience hours must meet stringent criteria and are strongly recommended to be documented using the BACB Fieldwork Tracker. Thirteen graduate students of behavior analysis were taught to enter data into the BACB Fieldwork Tracker using mock fieldwork scenarios. Training was conducted using group behavioral skills training (BST). The training occurred remotely using both synchronous and asynchronous components. Of the 13 participants, 11 showed improvement from baseline and 10 met and maintained performance at mastery levels at the end of the study. Results suggest training on the Fieldwork Tracker is necessary and BST is effective. Social validity scores indicated most participants felt the training was helpful and reported lower levels of fieldwork accrual-related stress following training (81.8% and 72.7%, respectively). Limitations and areas for future research are discussed.
 
31. The Frequency of Behavior Analysis in School Psychology Literature: A Review of 20 Years
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
LAUREN GALANAUGH (Queens College, City University of New York), Frank R. Cicero (Seton Hall University), Paulina Luczaj (Seton Hall University), Ashley Younger (Seton Hall University), Fabiana R Cacciaguerra (Seton Hall University)
Discussant: Jennifer Ledford (Vanderbilt University)
Abstract: Although assessment for special education services continues to be a primary role of school psychologists, an increased role in behavioral assessment and treatment has been noted over time (Bahr et al., 2017). School psychologists are frequently required to conduct functional behavior assessments for student problem behavior as well as follow Response to Intervention treatment models. Both activities can be considered rooted within the theories and procedures of behavior analysis (Johnson et al., 2018; Ardoin et al., 2016). This indicates a need for behavior analytic research within the school psychology literature. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the frequency of articles consistent with the theories and practices of applied behavior analysis (operant and respondent conditioning models of assessment and intervention) published in four school psychology journals between 2000 and 2020. A total of 2765 original research articles were reviewed by looking for the presence of ABA focused content within the title or abstract. Results indicate that only 5.5% of articles (n=153) had a primary focus reflective of ABA theory or practice. These data were lower than would have been expected given the current job roles reported by practicing school psychologists. The authors will discuss the implications of this finding to the practice of psychology in the schools.
 
32.

A 30-Year Systematic Review of the Use of Self-Monitoring for Improving Teacher Performance

Area: EDC; Domain: Theory
TERESA CROWSON (Old Dominion University), Selena J Layden (Old Dominion University)
Discussant: Jennifer Ledford (Vanderbilt University)
Abstract:

Self-monitoring, by encompassing the methodical observation of one’s own behavior, is a process which can be used by teachers to improve their performance in the classroom. In this systematic review, we identified 22 articles of published research that included teachers as participants implementing self-monitoring procedures in a school setting from 1990 through 2020. These studies were analyzed with a focus on participants, dependent and independent variables, type of self-monitoring used, and outcomes. In addition, the studies were analyzed using the Council for Exceptional Children’s Quality Indicators for study quality. Results yielded 21 of 22 studies having indicated positive results, though some included self-monitoring as part of an intervention package. However, only eight of the 22 studies met all of the quality indicators.

 
33.

An Analysis of Stimulus Presentation on Fluent Performance

Area: EDC; Domain: Basic Research
COURTNEY SMITH (University of Nevada, Reno), Matt Locey (University of Nevada, Reno), Helen Tecle Kidane (University of Nevada, Reno)
Discussant: Jennifer Ledford (Vanderbilt University)
Abstract:

The demand for effective and efficient instruction in education is clear; research at the experimental level is needed in order to extend a behavior analytic understanding of the process of learning. The purpose of the current study was to extend the understanding of learning by manipulating the presentation of stimuli presented in an array. Two presentation types were examined: An Additive Presentation (starting with one stimulus and progressively adding stimuli) and a Complete Presentation (presenting all stimuli). The targeted response was assessed using measures of fluency including performance standards, application, and endurance. Data show that an Additive Presentation of stimuli is correlated with more time to meet criteria (defined by fluency aims) than is a Complete Presentation of stimuli when the stimulus set is comprised of five stimuli. When the stimulus set size is comprised of seven stimuli, data show that the order of presentation is the more relevant factor.

 
34.

Response Accuracy Does Not Align With Generalization During Discrete-Trial Instruction

Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
MADELINE JOYCE MURPHY (West Virginia University), Catherine Williams (West Virginia University), Claire C. St. Peter (West Virginia University)
Discussant: Jennifer Ledford (Vanderbilt University)
Abstract:

Discrete-trial instruction (DTI) involves training response(s) under the discriminative control of multiple stimuli. A desired outcome of DTI is often that responses generalize to novel examples and not to novel nonexamples (i.e., concept formation). Multiple factors influence acquisition and generalization, though factors that influence acquisition may not have the same effect on generalization and vice-versa. Previous experiments demonstrated that the number of distinct stimuli included in training (i.e., set size) is one factor that affects acquisition during DTI, but did not evaluate whether the response taught generalized to novel stimuli. The present experiment measure acquisition and generalization with college students across two conditions: 1) gradually increasing the number of stimuli and 2) including all stimuli from the start of training. The findings suggest that the number of distinct stimuli required for acquisition and generalization varied across participants. Generally, response accuracy during training was not an indicator of response accuracy in the generalization probes nor did response accuracy during generalization probes indicate training mastery. However, response accuracy was more highly correlated with generalization when all stimuli were included from the start of training. The relation between generalization and accuracy-based mastery and considerations regarding mastery criteria for DTI when generalization is a desired outcome are discussed.

 
35. Noncontingent Reinforcement in the Classroom: Effects on Levels of On-Task Behavior and Inappropriate Vocalizations in a Virtual Setting
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
EMILY WILTSCH (University of Missouri-St Louis), Keely Stephens (Special School District), Andresa De Souza (University of Missouri St. Louis)
Discussant: Jennifer Ledford (Vanderbilt University)
Abstract: Schools and clinics have had to adjust their practices to provide services in a virtual setting on a greater scale than in previous years. In order to ensure students and clients receive the most effective treatment possible, there needs to be an increased focus on determining appropriate interventions to apply in the virtual setting. Noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) has been shown to be effective with students with a wide variety of disabilities (Austin & Soeda, 2008; Noel & Getch, 2016; Rasmussen & O'Neill, 2006). It has also been shown to be effective when implemented during typical classroom and group activities with selected students (Austin & Soeda, 2008; Noel & Getch, 2016). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of NCR on the levels of on-task behavior and inappropriate vocalizations for three students with developmental disabilities in a middle-school, self-contained classroom in the virtual setting. Results indicated that NCR can be used virtually within a group setting to increase on-task behavior and decrease inappropriate vocalizations when implement as a package along with other intervention components.
 
36.

Reset Contingencies are Not Necessary to Maintain Quiz Submission in College Students

Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
HELOISA CURSI CAMPOS (University of Central Oklahoma)
Discussant: Jennifer Ledford (Vanderbilt University)
Abstract:

Escalating reinforcement schedules with reset contingencies maintain drug abstinence. Escalating reinforcement schedules can also sustain quiz submission in college students. This study investigated if the reset contingency is necessary for the submission of optional weekly quizzes. Undergraduate students were divided into three groups—fixed reinforcement schedule (Fixed Group), escalating reinforcement schedule without a reset contingency (No-Reset Group), and escalating reinforcement schedule with a reset contingency (Reset Group). The baseline measured how many participants submitted quizzes 1 and 2. Next, participants could earn 50 bonus points for submitting quizzes 3 through 12. Participants in the Fixed Group earned 5 bonus points for each quiz submission. Participants in the No-Reset and Reset Groups earned 3, 3, 4, 4, 5, 5, 6, 6, 7, and 7 bonus points for submitting respectively quizzes 3 through 12. If participants in the Reset Group missed one quiz, the bonus points reset at 3. Results showed fewer participants in the Fixed Group who submitted quizzes 3-12 while participants in the No-Reset Group submitted more quizzes throughout the study. Participants in the No-Reset Group also sustained more consecutive quiz submissions. These results suggest that the reset contingency is not necessary to maintain quiz submission in college students.

 
37.

On DeMAND: Mand Training in the Classroom

Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
ADRIENNE JADE BOHLEN (Western Michigan University), Alyssa R McElroy (Western Michigan University), Jessica E. Van Stratton (Western Michigan University), Mindy Newhouse-Oisten (Western Michigan University)
Discussant: Jennifer Ledford (Vanderbilt University)
Abstract:

Mand training is an evidence-based strategy that involves altering the motivating operations (MOs) in a student’s environment and is commonly used to increase requests made among students with and without developmental disabilities (Jennett et al., 2008). There is evidence that behavior analysts serving as consultants can use Behavioral Skills Training (BST) to effectively train teachers and other classroom professionals to implement interventions with high fidelity, including mand training (Hsieh et al., 2011; Homlitas et al., 2014; Nigro-Bruzzi & Sturmey, 2010; Suberman & Cividini-Motta, 2020). The current project adds to previous literature on the utility of BST to train teachers and classroom staff to implement mand training in an early childhood special education (ECSE) setting. Using instructions, modeling, feedback, and in-vivo practice, staff were trained to contrive and capitalize on naturally occurring opportunities to teach requesting to ECSE students with varying verbal repertoires. Once classroom staff met mastery criterion for each skill with a confederate, they were observed with students in the classroom, and generalization of skills were measured. Results of the project will be shared and discussed in relation to past findings in the literature and future applications for the field.

 
 
 
Poster Session #256
Sunday, May 30, 2021
1:00 PM–3:00 PM EDT
Online
47.

Cooperation in Groups: Effects of a Values-Based Task

Area: CSS; Domain: Basic Research
SADIE LYNN KLASSEN (University of Nevada, Reno), Natalie Buddiga (University of Nevada, Reno), Matt Locey (University of Nevada, Reno)
Discussant: Mychal Machado (University of Alaska Anchorage)
Abstract:

In behavior analysis, public goods games have been used to experimentally analyze cooperative behavior. Despite a growing number of studies using this and similar preparations, research is yet to evaluate how participants contribute other resources besides money. Furthermore, while research in values-based interventions have shown a contingent increase in prosocial behavior among participants, no study has yet examined this effect in an experimental preparation. The aim of the present study was twofold: (1) Assess how participants would allocate time—specifically towards pollution reducing activities—compared to money and (2) evaluate the effects of a values-based intervention on cooperation. During the public goods rounds, participants were instructed to allocate their given money or minutes to a collective fund in the standard task or for pollution reducing activities in the modified task. Values-based interventions asked the participant to evaluate and develop goals aligned with certain values concerning general social or environmental factors. Thus far, results have demonstrated more inconsistency in contributions prior to intervention and stability in responding post-intervention across both values-based tasks and the control task. This calls into question whether a values-based intervention can effectively alter cooperative behavior in an experimental task. More investigations, however, are warranted to isolate the necessary and sufficient variables for cooperation.

 
Sustainability submission 48. COVID-19: The Past, Present, and Future
Area: CSS; Domain: Applied Research
TAYLOR ANNALISE JANOTA (Missouri State University), Jordan Belisle (Missouri State University), Dana Paliliunas (Missouri State University), Elana Keissa Sickman (Missouri State University)
Discussant: Mychal Machado (University of Alaska Anchorage)
Abstract: COVID-19 is considered the most impactful global viral infection in the last century, resulting in a declaration by the World Health Organization (WHO) that the virus had met pandemic levels in March, 2020. In the first study, college student participants were given a probability discounting task that presented concurrent choices of social distancing for an amount of time or risk a global pandemic at a given probability ranging from 2.5 to 50 percent. In one condition, the participants selected options individually and in the other condition their choices were assumed to account for the group. Following the closure of the university and the pandemic announcement by the WHO, the same discounting tasks were re-administered. Results suggested that participants were more willing to socially distance for a longer duration if the choice was collective rather than individualistic and willingness was greater during the second administration within the pandemic. The second study extended upon the first study by incorporating delay discounting of past, present, and future, where participants were required to make probabilistic choices today, 4-months ago (i.e., on-set of the pandemic), and 4-months in the future (i.e., unknown state of the pandemic). Results are discussed in terms of policies related to collective action with implications for future pandemic events and similar global catastrophes.
 
50. Using Behavioral Skills Training to Teach Sexual Assault Reporting Steps to University Students
Area: CSS; Domain: Applied Research
ASHA FULLER (University of South Florida; Arizona State University), Donald M. Stenhoff (Arizona State University)
Discussant: Mychal Machado (University of Alaska Anchorage)
Abstract: Among college students, sexual assault underreporting occurs significantly more than among other populations (NSVRC, 2018a). Two main types of training attempt to address the prevalence and underreporting of sexual assault: bystander education and victim advocate training. However, neither of these methods have been empirically validated. The purpose of this study was to compare behavioral skills training to the traditional information-only approach when teaching college student victim advocates the steps to reporting a sexual assault. Results from this study indicate that individuals in the behavioral skills training group demonstrated a greater understanding of the training content and retention of this information as compared to the information-only group. Future research should evaluate how these procedures extend to different populations and how long victim advocates can retain information on the steps to reporting.
 
51.

Self-Care Strategies and Job-Crafting Practices as Predictors of Work-Life Balance, Work Engagement, and Burnout

Area: CSS; Domain: Theory
JULIE M. SLOWIAK (University of Minnesota Duluth; InJewel LLC), Amanda DeLongchamp (University of Minnesota Duluth)
Discussant: Mychal Machado (University of Alaska Anchorage)
Abstract:

Applied behavior analysis (ABA) practitioners report high levels of burnout, exhibited as exhaustion and disengagement. Turnover, a stressful and costly experience for individual practitioners and the human service organizations that employ them, is a potential consequence of burnout. Work-life balance and work engagement are associated with lower burnout and lower intention to quit. Research concerning behavioral predictors of work-life balance, work engagement, and burnout—all of which are associated with turnover intentions—among ABA service providers is scant. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to explore whether and how the use of self-care strategies and job crafting practices influence perceived levels of work-life balance, work engagement, and burnout among ABA practitioners who work in human service settings. In a sample of 826 ABA practitioners, 72% reported medium to high levels of burnout. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that the use of both self-care strategies and job crafting practices strongly predicted work-life balance, work engagement, and burnout above and beyond sociodemographic variables (gender and years of experience). Findings can inform the development of effective organizational/systems- and individual-level self-care and job crafting interventions that support sustainable individual, organizational, and client-related outcomes. We contend that self-care and job crafting interventions support a culture of wellbeing in graduate programs, training/supervision curricula, and mentor/mentee relationships.

 
52. A Behavior Analytic Approach to Promote Fact-Checking on Social Media
Area: CSS; Domain: Applied Research
CAROL E WILLIAMS (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Discussant: Mychal Machado (University of Alaska Anchorage)
Abstract: Since at least 2017, Americans have turned to online sources for news and related information. Information propagated as false news has political, social, economic, and health implications which have potential collateral consequences of altering resource allocations, changing the status quo, and polarizing populations against one another based on interpretations of virally produced false information or identification with certain groups disseminating false narratives. To stem the flow of false information, online platforms such as Twitter, could utilize bilateral strategies, including analysis of response effort and individual behavior consequences. This quasi-behavioral experiment examined variables related to the flexibility of rule-governed behavior specific to sharing information using a single subject reversal design. The research determined a relation between the availability of convenient fact-checking services and the rates of sharing behavior. Additionally, the study examined factors relative to implementation of a consequence, wherein participant’s shared information was rated according to percentage of factually checked information and resulting in a publicized percentage on each participant’s public profile. The study results were that participants increased sharing of factual information with fact checking resources conveniently available; that sharing of false information was reduced with the introduction of a consequence; and that participants overall made use of a fact checking resource when it was conveniently available. Knowledge regarding what factors motivate readers to determine the validity of shared information and what may deter the spread of false news may provide strategies to improve social outcomes and reduce the negative impact of false information.
 
Sustainability submission 53. The Environmentalist Behavior Analyst: Identifying Opportunities and Feasibility of Behavior Analytic Careers in Sustainability
Area: CSS; Domain: Service Delivery
JESSICA GHAI (Boston University), Julia H. Fiebig (Ball State University; Applied Global Initiatives LLC), Holly Seniuk (Behavior Analyst Certification Board)
Discussant: Mychal Machado (University of Alaska Anchorage)
Abstract: While a vast majority of behavior analysts work within the fields of education and human services with individuals with autism and intellectual disabilities, a growing number of practitioners and researchers have expressed the desire to expand, or fully transition, beyond these traditional outlets to other emerging sectors of opportunities. Environmental sustainability is one area that continues to grow as a legitimate professional opportunity for behavior analysts. Given the complexity and urgency of this Super Wicked Problem, there exists a vast number of issues related to the environmental crisis that behavior analysts can apply their unique skill sets to achieve meaningful impact. This poster presents the vast array of environmental sustainability issues behavior analysis can help solve as well as a systematic framework for those behavior analysts thinking of focusing their behavior analytic work on sustainability. A comprehensive task analysis that encompasses procedures to clarify personal values, evaluate situational needs and assets, and the creation of an action plan are outlined. By undertaking this cyclical and interrelated individualized evaluation process, behavior analysts can start to think about how they may augment, or fully focus, their work in behavior analysis to critical issues of environmental sustainability.
 
Diversity submission 54. A Systematic Literature Review of Cultural Competency Training: Implications for Behavior Analysts
Area: CSS; Domain: Service Delivery
ALYSSA MICHELLE UHER (Michigan State University), Marisa H Fisher (Michigan State University)
Discussant: Mychal Machado (University of Alaska Anchorage)
Abstract: The new Ethics Code for Behavior Analysts goes into effect on January 1, 2022, including the updated Standard 1.07: Cultural Responsiveness and Diversity. To bring attention and change to the current absence of cultural competence and prioritization of culturally responsive practices, this addition places the responsibility to gain said competence on each practitioner. As content and materials to gain this competency will be a high priority, the field will need to create trainings and other resources to ensure all practitioners are culturally competent. Aligning with behavioral practices, behavior analysts will need to look to other fields to identify practices demonstrated to be effective in teaching cultural responsiveness. To assist the research, creation, and development of these trainings and content, the purpose of this project was to identify how other education-based professions teach cultural competence. A systematic review was conducted to identify cultural competency trainings for practitioners in fields that work with students with disabilities within the public school setting. The focus was to identify how cultural competency is defined by different fields, the methods used to teach cultural competency, the skills that were most often targeted, and to what extent performance was assessed before, during, and after training.
 
Sustainability submission 55.

Community Data Collection Initiative: Box Turtles

Area: CSS; Domain: Applied Research
Marwa Abdelkader (Florida State University, Panama City), LEAH JULIA KOEHLER (Florida State University, Panama City), Adam Kaeser (Bay County Box Turtle Project)
Discussant: Mychal Machado (University of Alaska Anchorage)
Abstract:

Currently, there is minimal research to engage members of the community to be involved in data collection. Traditional research standards encourage investigation of questions in which all variables can be controlled or influenced by investigators. By not conforming to these research values, broader contextual variables and new research questions can be studied at a community level (Fawcett, 1991). This study is a community-level initiative to engage members of three local neighborhoods to be involved in data collection on neighborhood box turtle sightings to aid local wildlife biologists in gaining information on species prevalence and conservation. We plan to examine the effectiveness of brochures, magnets, and social media platforms by systematically staggering these interventions across neighborhoods utilizing a multi-baseline design. Baseline data show an increase in data collection in one neighborhood without the introduction of a formal intervention and steady levels of data collection in the other neighborhoods. The first phase, a brochure delivered to all addresses in the first neighborhood, will be initiated this spring (March/April). Sustained data collection by community members will aid in a larger demographic data collection initiative on the local box turtle population.

 
56.

Ethical Dilemmas by Military Impacted ABA Practitioners

Area: CSS; Domain: Theory
BETHANY A PATTERSON (Helianthus Positive Behavior Services), Tiffany Michels (Helianthus Positive Behavior Supports), Kristen Grilli (23464)
Discussant: Mychal Machado (University of Alaska Anchorage)
Abstract:

The military lifestyle is a difficult, unique, and selfless lifestyle, yet poses many difficulties. One of these difficulties is the many ethical dilemmas to Applied Behavior Analysis practitioners. Within the military life, military and their families are to move every few years. Military lifestyle sends practitioners to remote areas with very few people on and surrounding the military base area. In some case the Applied Behavior Analysis practitioner is the only practitioner within miles, while in other cases they may be overseas with limited supports. Military may send practitioners to areas that have limited resources and cannot support adequate supervision. Remote supervision has been a huge help for many practitioners that are impacted by the military lifestyle and those that live in rural locations. Often times, the military will also send practitioners to areas that are very sparsely populated, with no other practitioner to provide Applied Behavior Analysis services from. There are many ethical dilemmas that can cause concern to Applied Behavior Analysis practitioners such as multiple relationships, exploitative relationships, working with limited resources, limited intervention staff, navigating cultural differences, and becoming burnt out. Further research is needed on the ethical dilemmas and limited supports of Military impacted Applied Behavior Analysis practitioners.

 
 
 
Poster Session #261
Sunday, May 30, 2021
1:00 PM–3:00 PM EDT
Online
78.

Clinical Evaluation of a Nonsequential Approach to Studying Operant Renewal

Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
RAYMOND ANTHONY CECORA (Upstate Medical University), William Sullivan (Upstate Medical University), Andrew R. Craig (SUNY Upstate Medical University), Nicole M. DeRosa (SUNY Upstate Medical University), Charlene Nicole Agnew (Upstate Medical University), Henry S. Roane (Upstate Medical University)
Discussant: Brandon May
Abstract:

Renewal assessments typically arrange reinforcement for target behavior in one context (Context A), extinction in a second context (Context B), and a renewal test by returning to Context A with extinction still enforced. During outpatient behavioral treatment, however, Context A (e.g., home) associated with reinforcement for challenging behavior and Context B (e.g., clinic) associated with extinction alternate. We developed a “nonsequential” renewal assessment wherein Contexts A and B, associated with reinforcement and extinction for target behavior respectively, alternate during treatment to more closely approximate outpatient treatments. Here, we extended this procedure to an individual who engaged in posturing maintained by escape from demands. Contexts A and B were signaled by different treatment rooms and therapists. During baseline in Context A, posturing produced escape. Next, we arranged sessions of functional communication training (FCT) in Context B that alternated with sessions of reinforcement for posturing in Context A. We assessed renewal of posturing by re-presenting Context A with FCT in place. We subsequently exposed the participant to a standard renewal assessment. As in our previous research with college students and rats, our nonsequential approach resulted in more renewal than the standard laboratory approach. Implications of these findings for practice will be discussed.

 
79. Analysis of Competition Factors in the Reduction of Automatically Maintained Self-Injury
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
CHRISTOPHER M DILLON (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Louis P. Hagopian (Kennedy Krieger Institute; Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Griffin Rooker (Kennedy Krieger Institute; Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
Discussant: Brandon May
Abstract: Research shows that self-injurious behavior (SIB) is most often maintained by social reinforcement; however, for about 25% of individuals who engage in SIB, it occurs independent of social reinforcement (“automatically maintained SIB”). Hagopian et al. (2015) reported that ASIB could be delineated into subtypes based on patterns of responding during the functional analysis and the presence of self-restraint. SIB that varies inversely with the level of ambient reinforcement is classified as Subtype 1, while SIB that is undifferentiated is classified as Subtype 2. Research shows that the level of differentiation in the functional analysis predicts response to treatment using reinforcement alone. These findings suggest that the sensitivity to disruption by alternative reinforcement is a critical dimension of automatically maintained SIB. Rooker et al. (accepted, in revision) unexpectedly observed little to no SIB when participants with Subtype 2 performed an operant task engendering high rates of responding that produced food. The researchers speculated that the observed reductions could be due to reinforcer or response competition. The present study examined the role of reinforcer or response competition as the possible mechanisms for reductions in SIB across two participants. To do so, rates of SIB were compared across a contingent reinforcement (CR), a yoked noncontingent reinforcement (NCR), and no reinforcement conditions. Lower levels of SIB were observed in the CR and NCR conditions relative to the control condition, suggesting the observed effects with these two cases were due to reinforcer competition.
 
80.

A Comparison of One-to-One and Embedded Group Instruction on Discrete Trial Teaching for Students With Severe Disabilities in Taiwan

Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
PEI-FANG WU (National Kaohsiung Normal University), Siang-Wun Yue (National Taichung Special Education School), Li-Ting Liao (National Taichung Special Education School)
Discussant: Brandon May
Abstract:

Discrete Trial Teaching (DTT) is an evidence-based intervention for various students with disabilities. Traditional DTT is implemented in a one-to-one instructional format. However, one-to-one pull-out instruction is not fully feasible in Taiwan. Nearly all special education instruction is implemented in group, especially for self-contained special education classes in Taiwan. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore whether DTT embedded in group instruction is as effective as one-to-one DTT (1:1 DTT). Two students with severe disabilities (autism and intellectual disabilities) were participated in the study. An alternating treatment design was implemented to compare the two instructional formats. Adam was working on categorization in 1:1 DTT, and matching in embedded group DTT. James was working on two objectives. One was categorization and matching; another one was looking at pictures in 1:1 DTT, and looking at teacher in embedded group DTT. Results indicated that 1:1 DTT was more effective than embedded group DTT for both students. Adam met instructional objectives in both conditions, but mastered faster and more effectively in 1:1 DTT. James mastered both objectives in 1:1 DTT, but failed in embedded group DTT. However, the teacher reported that James eye contact was improved from 1 second to 2.5 seconds duration, although in a slow rate. Social validity data showed the classroom teachers preferred embedded group DTT than 1:1 DTT.

 
81. Self-Control Equipment Assessment: Identification of Appropriate Forms of Self-Control via the Use of Competing Equipment
Area: DDA; Domain: Basic Research
DREW E. PIERSMA (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Louis P. Hagopian (Kennedy Krieger Institute; the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Griffin Rooker (Kennedy Krieger Institute; the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Michelle A. Frank-Crawford (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Alyssa Fisher (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Jonathan Dean Schmidt (Kennedy Krieger Institute; the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Ashley N. Carver (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Brandon May
Abstract: Some individuals who engage in self-injurious behavior (SIB) also engage in self-restraint (SR), generally defined as behaviors that interfere with the occurrence of SIB (including holding onto objects or others, wrapping hands in clothing, sitting on hands). Although SR can reduce the occurrence of SIB, it can be maladaptive when it limits hand use or has other detrimental consequences (e.g., decreased circulation, skin breakdown). Self-restraint appears to be maintained by the avoidance of SIB, thereby suggesting that it can serve as a maladaptive form of self-control. It is possible that alterations to the topography of SR can mitigate these detrimental consequences while maintaining low levels of SIB. As part of a clinical trial investigating treatment-resistant subtypes of SIB, three participants completed a self-control equipment assessment (SCEA) in order to identify equipment that would compete with SR. The assessment examined the effects of the equipment when it was freely available, when its use was prompted, and when its use was prompted while SR was blocked. Preliminary results suggest that empirical identification of equipment that competes with SR is possible in the context of brief sessions. Implications for the extended use of these procedures are described.
 
82.

Comparison of Social Cognition in Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder and Down's Syndrome: A Review

Area: DDA; Domain: Theory
Amelia Yanchik (Montclair State University), SADAF KHAWAR (Montclair State University/Helping Hands Therapeutic Services, Inc), Michelle Grazioli (Montclair State University), Ghowash Irshad (Montclair State University), Peter M Vietze (Montclair State University)
Discussant: Brandon May
Abstract:

Impairments in social cognition is a key symptom of ASD and Down’s Syndrome. Individuals with these developmental disabilities have a dif?culty understanding the beliefs and desires of other people. In recent years, literature has begun to examine the link between impairments in social cognition and abilities that demand spatial and social skills, such as visual perspective taking (VPT). Flavell (1977) de?ned two levels of perspective-taking: VPT level 1 is the ability to understand that other people have a different line of sight to oneself, whereas VPT level 2 is the understanding that two people viewing the same item from various points in space see different views. Additionally, some theorists believe that Theory of Mind and VPT share standard cognitive processes (Hamilton et al., 2009). Both skills involve the simultaneous representation of two differing points of view (Aichhorn et al., 2006). We aim to compare the social-cognitive processes in individuals with ASD and Down’s Syndrome based on a thorough literature review of research conducted in the last decade. As VPT is a sociocognitive ability that impacts social interaction, the study will lay a theoretical framework for clinical interventions to meet underlying perspective-taking deficits causing social skill impairments.

 
83.

Effects of Session-End Criteria on Break Points and Problem Behavior during Progressive Ratio Assessments

Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
GABRIELLE BALZANO (University of Miami), Yanerys Leon (University of Miami), Nicolette Duffin (University of Miami), Juan Flagge (University of Miami), Kamila Garcia (University of Miami), Franchesca Izquierdo (University of Miami)
Discussant: Brandon May
Abstract:

Basic research has shown that session-end criteria can influence break points obtained for pigeons responding on progressive-ratio schedules. Although applied researchers have used progressive ratio schedules to assess reinforcing efficacy of stimuli in clinical populations, there remains a dearth of evidence on optimal parameters (i.e., step-size, session-end criteria) of progressive ratio schedules in this context. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent to which session-end criteria impact breakpoints and problem behavior of 5 children diagnosed with a developmental disorder responding on progressive ratio schedules. We retroactively examined data obtained in Leon et al. (2020) and applied the following session-end criteria to second-by-second data streams: 1-min, 2-min, and 3-min of no target response. Breakpoints were nearly identical in the 2- and 3-min criteria sessions for all 5 participants; whereas, breakpoints were slightly lower in 33- 50% of sessions in the 1-min criteria phase. Additionally, for 2 of 3 participants that emitted problem behavior during the study, more problem behavior was observed in the longer session end criteria sessions (i.e., more problem behavior in 3-min relative to 2-min and more problem behavior in 2-min relative to 1-min).

 
84.

Evaluating Mask Preference to Increase Cooperation With COVID-19 Health Precautions

Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
LINDSAY COHEN (University of North Texas), Elizabeth Joy Houck (University of North Texas), Joseph D. Dracobly (University of North Texas), Richard G. Smith (University of North Texas)
Discussant: Mindy Christine Scheithauer (Marcus Autism Center)
Abstract:

People with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often have difficulty in tolerating new or infrequently contacted stimuli (e.g., Fisher et al., 2019; Woodcock & Humphreys, 2009). Limited tolerance for health-related behavior, such as nail cutting, haircuts, and dental cleanings can cause distress for these individuals and their families (e.g., Cavalri et al., 2013). During the Covid 19 pandemic, face masks are a new stimulus that may cause distress for many people, especially those who may not understand the need for a mask. The inability to tolerate face masks could limit safe access to public locations for people with IDD and ASD. Therefore, we evaluated preference for different types of face masks with three adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities and limited verbal communication skills. Using a multielement design, we assessed the duration each participant wore five different face masks. Our data indicate that, for two of three participants, a single stimulus assessment using a multi-element design is an effective way to assess preference for different types of face masks. This assessment was also helpful in determining appropriate, individualized treatment steps for increasing cooperation with wearing a face mask.

 
85.

A Meta-Analysis of Money Management Intervention on Students With Developmental Disability

Area: DDA; Domain: Theory
SUNGWOO KANG (Purdue University), Ben A Mason (Purdue University), Marie David (Purdue University)
Discussant: Mindy Christine Scheithauer (Marcus Autism Center)
Abstract:

Money management skill is essential to student with developmental disabilities that assist them to successfully transition to local community environment. This paper analyzes 20 published articles that report the results from research conducted on money management skill training for students with developmental disabilities that were published between 1997 and 2020. No studies that met inclusion criteria investigated or attempt to improve budgeting or financial planning skills. From this research synthesis, guidelines are offered for research and practice. Future research should consider the importance of meta skill in money management.

 
86.

A Preliminary Evaluation of the Performance-Based, Interview-Informed Synthesized Contingency Analysis

Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
TESS FRUCHTMAN (Queens College, City University of New York), Joshua Jessel (Queens College, City University of New York), Natasha Raghunauth-Zaman (Queens College), Aaron Leyman (Queens College)
Discussant: Mindy Christine Scheithauer (Marcus Autism Center)
Abstract:

Functional analyses are conducted to understand problem behavior and inform function-based treatments. The performance-based, interview-informed synthesized contingency analysis (IISCA) is a brief model that has recently been developed with the intent of improving practicality and acceptance of functional analysis procedures among clinicians. However, the efficacy of the performance-based IISCA for identifying environmental contributors to problem behavior has yet to be fully evaluated. We compared the relative efficacy of the performance-based IISCA with the full IISCA in a single-subject design with two participants who exhibited problem behavior. We began by conducting open-ended interviews with the caregivers to identify the unique contingency to be incorporated in the functional analysis process. The performance-based IISCA involved a single session in which the putative reinforcers were presented following problem behavior and removed following 30-s of calm behavior. A socially mediated function was implicated after five instances of problem behavior was observed each time a reinforcer was removed. The two participants then experienced the full IISCA that included a single test condition compared to a matched control with five, 3-min sessions conducted total. The results of both analyses corresponded and informed a subsequent function-based treatment that eliminated problem behavior and strengthened communicative responses.

 
87.

A Survey of Practitioners' Use of Stimulus Preference Assessments

Area: DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
BRIANNA MARY ZEY (University of Nebraska at Omaha), Jordan David Lill (University of Nebraska - Medical Center), Macy Collins (University of Nebraska at Omaha), Sara S. Kupzyk (University of Nebraska Omaha)
Discussant: Mindy Christine Scheithauer (Marcus Autism Center)
Abstract:

Stimulus preference assessments (SPA) are routinely used by behavior analysts to identify stimuli that are likely to function as reinforcers (Graff & Karsten, 2012). Although SPAs are routine, decision-making criteria on which SPA procedure is most effective within a specific context is limited. Lill and colleagues (in press) proposed an a priori decision-making tree, Stimulus Preference Assessment Decision-Making System (SPADS), to aid practitioners in selecting an appropriate SPA based on a summary of published, peer-reviewed research up to 2018. Decisions are derived from peer-reviewed research that includes stimulus dimensions, client characteristics, and outcome. We surveyed 24 BCBAs about their use of SPAs, how they select items to include, and which SPA they would select for specific scenarios based on the SPADS. Results showed that practitioners use SPA on a routine basis with clients. BCBAs most frequently reported using observations and structured interviews to determine which stimuli to include. Overall, respondents reported most confidence with use of Paired Choice and Multiple Stimulus without Replacement. Selection of the most appropriate and efficient SPA for each scenario did not consistently align with recommendations based on the SPADS. The data indicate that it is important to identify ways to encourage practitioners to make evidence-based decisions. Reference Graff, R. B., & Karsten, A. M. (2012). Assessing preferences of individuals with developmental disabilities: a survey of current practices. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 5, 37–48. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03391822 Lill, J. D., Shriver, M. D., & Allen, K. D (in press). SPADS: Stimulus Preference Assessment Decision-Making System: A practical decision-making model for practitioners. Behavior Analysis in Practice.

 
Diversity submission 88.

Assessing the Efficacy of Telehealth Coaching of Behaviors Interventions and Assessment: A Review

Area: DDA; Domain: Theory
ARGNUE CHITIYO (Ball State University), Chaidamoyo Dzenga (Tennessee Technological University)
Discussant: Mindy Christine Scheithauer (Marcus Autism Center)
Abstract:

Since the beginning of the Corona Virus pandemic, access to behavioral healthcare services has become significantly different following the closure of most clinical facilities. Telehealth technologies have become an increasingly common strategy in accessing behavioral interventions services among families of children with disabilities. This study presents a review of interventions research on telehealth training in applied behavioral interventions. Twenty-eight studies meeting inclusion criteria were reviewed to assess the types of techniques taught, including behavioral assessments and interventions, procedures for administering the trainings, effects of the intervention on behavioral outcomes, and their social validity. Preliminary findings showed that many interventions were trained, including ABC data recording, functional analyses, functional communication training, activity schedules, picture exchange communication, and many others. Improvements in behaviors were observed for both caregivers and clients. Social validity assessments showed that telehealth training were cost efficient, convenient, and easy to access. Implications of the review for policy and future research are provided.

 
89.

Effectiveness of anApp-Based Cognitive Rehabilitation Program for Youths With Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Intellectual Disability

Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
KYONG-MEE CHUNG (Yonsei University), Narae Shin (Yonsei University)
Discussant: Mindy Christine Scheithauer (Marcus Autism Center)
Abstract:

One-on-one training based on ABA has been shown to be effective in cognitive rehabilitation in children with intellectual disabilities (ID). However, its high costs, extensive training hours as well as shortage of professionals limit the expansion of the one-on-one training method. Recently, various computerized training programs such as Cogmed, Cognifit, and Rehacom have been developed, yet their usage are limited for children with ID in terms of task difficulty and scope of training. In this study, an app-based cognitive rehabilitation training program combined with token economy, YESS, was developed and its effectiveness was evaluated. In study 1, 48 children with ID were assigned to either YESS or control group. YESS group completed 6 games per day while the control group did not receive any training for 5 months. Participants’ executive functions (EF) and their parents’ parental stress were assessed before and after the training. Results showed that YESS is effective for enhancing EF (cognitive flexibility and planning) of children with ID and decreasing parental stress. The issues found in the process of study 1, such as difficulty problems and monotonous design, were modified, and the effectiveness of the updated program is being reevaluated in study 2.

 
 
 
Poster Session #262
Sunday, May 30, 2021
1:00 PM–3:00 PM EDT
Online
90.

Evaluation of the Effects of the Stimulus Pairing Observation Procedure and Matching-to-Sample on the Emergence of Listener Responses in Children With Autism

Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
NOUF ALZRAYER (King Saud University )
Discussant: Amy Rachel Bukszpan (Butterfly Effects)
Abstract:

Many listener training programs target the development of appropriate nonverbal responses to the verbal behavior emitted by the speaker. This type of training is commonly used in the early intensive behavior intervention programs (EIBIs) provided for individuals with developmental disabilities, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Instructional procedures play a critical role in the acquisition of listener responses. Practitioners frequently face difficulties in teaching arbitrary auditory-visual conditional discriminations with individuals with limited experience with such tasks. Therefore, this study was to investigate the effects of the stimulus pairing observation (SPOP) procedure in conjunction with match-to-sample (MTS) training to establish untrained listener responses in three children with ASD and limited vocal repertoire. The participants were 4 and 5 years old, and the study used a multiple probe across participants design. Each participant was received MTS and SPOP training until the acquisition criterion was reached. Then, post-test probes were conducted across five stimuli set for each participant after exposure to MTS and SPOP. The results indicate that the intervention is effective in the emergence of untrained listener responses. Also, the participants were able to maintain their untrained listener responses.

 
91.

Parent-Training Procedures and Their Effects: A Systematic Review

Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
Mônica da Costa Heluany Dias (Clínica Conecta Intervenção Comportamental), ANA CAROLINA CAROLINA SELLA (Private practice)
Discussant: Amy Rachel Bukszpan (Butterfly Effects)
Abstract:

Parents influence all aspects of their children’s development. Parent training may help in mental health service provision and increase the chances of treatment generalization to new people and settings. Parent training usually teaches positive parent practices, such as attending, describing, and praising behaviors considered adequate. Behavior skills training (BST) is one format that can be effective for parent training. This study aimed at analyzing which procedures have been used to train parents and their effectiveness. Additionally, it looked at the frequency with which BST and its components have been used in parent training. A systematic review was conducted in 3 phases. At the end of these phases, 28 articles remained. Regarding procedure effects, in 24 out of the selected 28 articles we found an effect of the independent variable on parent behavior. On procedures used for parent training: only 4 studies used the term “behavior skills training” to describe procedures. Instructions, modeling, role play, and feedback were the main procedures implemented in the 28 selected studies. Frequent systematic and narrative reviews are recommended to systematize the literature to those professionals and researchers that might need synthetic, updated, and organized information to make decisions.

 
92.

Practical Functional Assessment and Differentiating the Omnibus Mand to Specific Mands to Treat Problem Behavior in a Child With Autism

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ALINE ATALLAH (Mohammed bin Rashid Center for Special Education operated by the New England Center for Children.), Daniel John Sheridan (Mohammed bin Rashid Center for Special Education operated by the New England Center for Children.), Franco Esterhuyse (Mohammed bin Rashid Center for Special Education operated by the New England Center for Children.), Shannon Ward (Mohammed bin Rashid Center for Special Education operated by the New England Center for Children. )
Discussant: Amy Rachel Bukszpan (Butterfly Effects)
Abstract:

When problem behavior is maintained by multiple reinforcers or a combination of reinforcers, functional communication training (FCT; Carr & Durrand, 1991) may begin with an omnibus mand (Hanley et al., 2014; Ghaemmaghami et al., 2018). However, specific and complex communicative responses may a desirable outcome of treatment (Tiger et al., 2008). The present study replicated the methods described by Ward et al. (2020) to differentiate an omnibus mand (“my way please”) into specific mands (“Break, please”, “I want iPad”). First, an interview informed synthesized contingency analysis (IISCA; Hanley et al., 2014) was conducted and suggested that the problem behavior of a young child to be sensitive to escape from demands to access tangibles, edibles, and attention. An omnibus mand was taught to replace problem behavior and then the omnibus mand was differentiated into specific mands using the systematic shaping process described by Ghaemmaghami et al., (2018) to increase the complexity of functional communication. Problem behavior remained low while specific FCRs were acquired. Terminal probes suggested that the systematic shaping process was necessary to teach complex communicative responses while maintaining low rates of problem behavior. A social validity questionnaire indicated that classroom teachers were satisfied with the outcomes.

 
93.

Feasibility of Home-Based Caregiver Training via Telehealth: Preliminary Findings

Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
RYAN J. MARTIN (May Institute), Jaime Crowley (May Institute), Cynthia M. Anderson (May Institute)
Discussant: Amy Rachel Bukszpan (Butterfly Effects)
Abstract:

Reviews of the literature indicate that interventions based in applied behavior analysis (ABA) are highly effective approaches to treat the symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), although under-utilization of services remains a significant problem. Potential barriers to utilizing services for families include an insufficient number of trained providers, distance to access services, and the time commitment required for comprehensive services. There is thus a need to provide evidence-based services without these barriers. Parent training, such as the Research Unit on Behavioral Interventions (RUBI) Autism Network’s parent training program, has proven efficacious in empowering caregivers and improving the behavior of children with ASD (Scahill et al., 2016), but is typically provided in clinical settings. A telehealth version of RUBI could potentially eliminate impediments to utilization of ABA services. Therefore, the purpose of the current study is to evaluate the feasibility of adapting RUBI parent training to be delivered to caregivers via telehealth, directly in their homes. We will report the current results of this intervention using the RE-AIM framework (i.e., reach, efficacy, adoption, implementation, and maintenance) and discuss implications for both future research and clinical practice.

 
94.

A Comparison of Procedures to Establish Tokens as Conditioned Reinforcers

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
TRACY ARGUETA (University of Florida), Iser Guillermo DeLeon (University of Florida), Yanerys Leon (University of Miami), Nathalie Fernandez (University of Florida)
Discussant: Amy Rachel Bukszpan (Butterfly Effects)
Abstract:

Tokens are among the most common consequences delivered by behavior analysts who work with individuals with developmental disabilities (Graff & Karsten, 2012). However, recommendations for establishing tokens as conditioned reinforcers vary and many questions remain about best practices. In this study, children with intellectual and developmental disabilities completed preference and reinforcer assessments, from which we identified two to three backup reinforcers. We then evaluated four procedures for establishing tokens as conditioned reinforcers, usually followed by extinction tests to determine if the token had assumed any independent value. We began with stimulus-stimulus (SS) pairing of tokens with the backup reinforcers. If SS pairing did not establish tokens as conditioned reinforcers, we evaluated response-stimulus (RS) pairing and/or noncontingent token-exchange training, in which participants exchanged noncontingently delivered tokens for backup reinforcers. If neither of these procedures established tokens as conditioned reinforcers, we assessed response-contingent token-exchange training. Results suggest that (1) exchange plays a critical role in supporting reinforcer effectiveness, and (2) the conditions under which we evaluate the effects of token training might influence our results and conclusions.

 
Diversity submission 95.

Three-Step Prompting: Teaching Young Children With Autism to Follow Instructions

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
AMANDA BARTON (University of South Dakota, Division of Curriculum and Instruction, Special Education Program & Southwest West Central Service Cooperative), William J. Sweeney (University of South Dakota)
Discussant: Amy Rachel Bukszpan (Butterfly Effects)
Abstract:

Within recent years, advances in screening and diagnosis allows children with autism and developmental disabilities to receive intervention earlier. Earlier diagnoses of autism and developmental disabilities highlights the need for strong, evidence-based early interventions. Additionally, research demonstrates that earlier intervention is associated with better social skills, language acquisition, communication, and reductions in challenging behavior. Earlier intervention can potentially circumvent some of the risk factors associated with autism and potentially increase the amount of time spent with typical peers in general education. One important preventative life skill derived from the research and school readiness literature was related to following directions. The three-step prompting procedure appears necessary for participants who initially do not respond to other intervention techniques aimed at demonstrating increased levels of compliance. The three-step prompting procedure provided teachers and parents with a tool to promote compliance with children and for increasing overall independence in following directions. The relative ease in training and implementation with a three-step prompting procedure makes it ideal for use in a wide variety of settings as a tool for teaching instruction following; unfortunately, to date, most of the literature available on the uses of this procedure to address noncompliance in highly structured settings. The current study aims to expand the literature base on the use of the three-step prompting procedure as a teaching tool in a group setting. This study provides an extension of the previous research into the three-step prompting procedure as it relates to young children with autism and developmental disabilities in a group setting. The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of teaching instruction following using a three-step prompting procedure versus no explicit instruction and the concurrent effects on on-task and problem behavior of young children with autism and/or developmental disabilities in a group setting.

 
96.

Telehealth Intervention of Verbal Behavior in School Context for a Student With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MIHO HIGASHI (Keio University), Jun'ichi Yamamoto (Keio University)
Discussant: Amy Rachel Bukszpan (Butterfly Effects)
Abstract:

After acquiring basic verbal behavior, the children extend its functional use of verbal behavior to more naturalistic, contextual situations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of online teaching method on establishing functional verbal behavior in school lives. An elementary school student with autism spectrum disorder participated in the study. The target verbal behaviors were consisted of four sets(20 stimuli): talking naturally (5 stimuli), reacting on unexpected situations(5 stimuli), talking in the contexts(5 stimuli), teaching to peers(5 stimuli). We implemented the multiple baseline design across tasks. The experimenter conducted the probe trials once a week. An experimental stimulus consisted of sentences expressing context and peer’s talk in computer display. The student was required to made four different verbal behaviors fitting in the school situations. The parent was required to teach verbal behavior by iPad including stimuli of teaching program. At baseline, the appropriate verbal responses were low place. After home-based teaching, the appropriate verbal responses drastically increased. The result suggested that telehealth program was effective for increasing functional verbal behavior.

 
97. Caregiver-Mediated Play-Based Intervention for Toddlers At-Risk for Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KATHERINE CANTRELL (The University of Texas at San Antonio ), Leslie Neely (The University of Texas at San Antonio), Sierra Stegemann (The University of Texas at San Antonio )
Discussant: Amy Rachel Bukszpan (Butterfly Effects)
Abstract: Caregiver-mediated, play-based intervention programs have demonstrated positive effects for young children diagnosed with and at-risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The Sunny Starts DANCE program (Decide, Arrange, Now, Contemplate, Enjoy) incorporates the principles of operant conditioning in an age-appropriate way to support closeness, mutual enjoyment, attending, and social responding. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a caregiver training program on the fidelity of caregiver implementation of the first phases of the DANCE. A total of nine caregiver-child dyads participated in two cohorts. Two multiple-baseline across participants designs were used to evaluate the effects of the training program. Distal data was also collected to measure the child’s indices of happiness, social engagement and vocalizations, as well as caregiver indices of happiness. Results indicate that the caregiver training program was effective in teaching caregivers of to implement play and pairing procedures with their child. Due to the Covid-19 pandemic, data collection was interrupted for the 3 of the participants.
 
98.

Differential Reinforcement and Extinction to Increase Eye-Face Gaze With Children With Autism

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
RODRIGO ESTEBAN MENDOZA (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Discussant: Amy Rachel Bukszpan (Butterfly Effects)
Abstract:

Eye contact is an important ability observed early in human development. We investigated eye-face gaze to gain greater understanding regarding the specific variables controlling the natural acquisition of this behavioral class. We used extinction of high probability responses, keeping motivating operations in place to evoke mands with eye-face gaze as a function of differential reinforcement. We wanted to answer the question: Can children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) learn social pragmatic skills (e.g., eye-face gaze) while manding? We use a non-concurrent multiple probe baseline design across participants, and we analyzed the data visually. We demonstrated that these procedures increased eye-face gaze while manding for three children with ASD. The procedures controlled the behavioral class of two and had some control over the behavioral class of the other. It is an important finding because these participants had manding in their repertoire and through extinction and differential reinforcement of a more complex behavior, an improvement in their performance was possible. It could pave the way for more efficient tactics to assist this population access social interactions.

 
99.

Interventions Targeting Interactive Play in Individuals With Autism: A Systematic Review

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
NICOLE OGUINN (Baylor University), Jessica Akers (Baylor University), Kristina Gerencser (Marcus Autism Center/Emory University )
Discussant: Amy Rachel Bukszpan (Butterfly Effects)
Abstract:

Individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may fail to acquire interactive play and leisure skills due to deficits associated with the diagnosis. Through interactive play, individuals gain more opportunities to develop proficiency in areas such as problem solving, communication, and emotional development. In an effort to inform practice and research, this systematic literature review analyzes behavioral interventions used to teach interactive play and social leisure skills to individuals diagnosed with ASD. The predetermined inclusion criteria resulted in 23 studies to be analyzed. The findings of this review indicate that there are interventions that successfully increased interactive play and leisure skills with children, but there is a gap in the research regarding teaching these skills to adolescents and adults. Additional needs for future research are discussed.

 
Sustainability submission 100.

Medical Clinic for Autism and Neurodiversity: Good Practices for Services and Families in the Public Health Service in Modena

Area: AUT; Domain: Theory
GIULIA FERRAZZI (AARBA), chiara Melotti (University of Modena and Reggio Emilia)
Discussant: Lindsey Audrey Marie Dennis (Missouri State University)
Abstract:

Studies in literature (Evans et al., 2005; MacNeil et al., 2009) shows that patients diagnosed with neurodiversity disease rich higher levels of anxiety and phobias. These awkwardness come true even in medical visits, with direct consequences on the patient's health, on family members and on the costs of the National Health Service (Cisini et al., 2019; Raffin, 2018) The purpouse is to create and evaluate a training procedure available for the operators in Modena Health Services. The aim is to ensure an easier execution of instrumental clinical examinations, for users with Autism Spectrum Disorder in developmental age. The start point was create raw materials: task analysis and support in Augmentantive and Alternative Communication (photos, videos and PCS). Secondly, we gather from the literature techniques with proven efficacy for the reduction of phobias during clinical exams. Gradual exposure and differential reinforcement, from the Applied Behavior Analysis, were detect as the most efficient (McMurtry et al., 2016; Shabani and Fisher, 2006). Thanks to studies researchers can create procedures for anxiety and fear reduction relating to the execution of clinical examinations. The procedures involved were: Electrocardiogram, Echocardiogram and blood pressure measurement. The goal is to create a model of “good practice”, ethical sustainable and plain, that can be share with service operators. Furthermore, the project providing for the use of effective techniques to users with no link to a diagnosis with neurodiversity.

 
101. The Use of a Paired-Stimulus Preference Assessment to Predict Appetitive Functional Communication Topographies
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MATHEW C LUEHRING (Children's Hospital Colorado), Sara Jeglum (Kennedy Krieger Institute and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Patricia F. Kurtz (Kennedy Krieger Institute and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
Discussant: Lindsey Audrey Marie Dennis (Missouri State University)
Abstract: Functional communication training (FCT) is an effective intervention for decreasing problem behaviors and increasing communicative repertoires for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (Kurtz et al., 2011). However, little is known about the influence of preference on communication topographies within FCT (Ringdahl et al., 2018). The present study sought to extend previous research on determining communication preferences through the use of a paired-stimulus preference assessment (Fisher et al., 1992) and included use of a BigMac© button press, picture card touch, and sign-language. The participant was a 16-year-old female with autism spectrum disorder and severe intellectual disability. Functional analysis results indicated problem behaviors (self-injury, aggression) were maintained by access to preferred food items. Three communication responses for food were presented in a paired-choice arrangement to identify participant preference. A picture card was identified as the preferred communication modality and was included within a larger FCT treatment evaluation. Once FCT/picture card plus extinction was demonstrated to be effective, all communication modalities were presented concurrently in a mand topography analysis. Consistent with previous research, communication preferences changed when all modalities were concurrently available. Limitations of and future directions for assessing communication preference during FCT are discussed.
 
102.

A Parent-Training Program to Increase Academic Compliance in a Child With Autism During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CRISTINA CITEREI (Associazione ALBA Onlus - Pescara), Alessandro Dibari (Associazione ALBA Onlus - Pescara), Romilda Napolitano (Associazione ALBA Onlus - Pescara), Daniele Rizzi (Associazione ALBA Onlus - Pescara)
Discussant: Lindsey Audrey Marie Dennis (Missouri State University)
Abstract:

The health emergency caused by Covid-19, with the consequent measures of social distancing, produced operational problems with the implementation of services to people with disabilities and their families. In the present study, we conducted a parent training program almost completely via telehealth to teach a parent some strategies to increase the compliance of their son. The boy was a 5-year-old with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) who engaged in challenging behavior when asked to comply with academic tasks, and which was maintained by negative reinforcement. The intervention consisted of a package which included behavioral skills training (BST) with written instructions, video modeling, rehearsal and feedback, to implement demand fading procedures and concurrent schedules arrangements. The intervention reduced challenging behavior to zero, allowing the parents to increase the number of academic tasks presented to the child.

 
103. Evaluating Protective Procedures for Assessment, Treatment, and Research on Automatically Maintained Self-Injurious Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JASMEEN KAUR (Kennedy Krieger institute ), Michelle A. Frank-Crawford (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Louis P. Hagopian (Kennedy Krieger Institute), ALEXANDER Rodolfo AREVALO (Kennedy Krieger Institute ), Lynn G. Bowman (Kennedy Krieger Institute and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Christopher M Dillon (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Ashley N. Carver (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Lindsey Audrey Marie Dennis (Missouri State University)
Abstract: Automatically maintained self-injurious behavior (ASIB) has been shown to be associated with more severe injuries relative to socially maintained self-injury. Assessing, treating, and conducting research on severe ASIB poses many practical and ethical challenges. Among them is the necessity to minimize risks of SIB, while allowing the occurrence of SIB to the extent that it can be assessed and treatment efficacy can be evaluated. As such, protective procedures are sometimes used during the assessment and treatment process. Protective procedures can include mechanical devices that limit the occurrence of the behavior, protective equipment that protect areas of the body from injury, response blocking to prevent the completion of the response, and abbreviated session durations to limit exposure to situations in which the behavior is occurring. We describe two cases with treatment resistant subtypes of ASIB for whom protective procedures were evaluated. Findings demonstrate that assessments can be designed in a manner that allows some self-injurious behavior to occur while minimizing the potential risk of injury. Although these procedures were highly individualized for each case, some guiding principles were identified that could be extended to others.
 
104.

Teaching Independent Nighttime Routines Through Prompt Fading and Transfer-of-Stimulus-Control Procedures: A Case Study

Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
ANGELA CARDASCIA (Associazione Bambini Autistici ), Alessandro Dibari (Alba ONLUS)
Discussant: Lindsey Audrey Marie Dennis (Missouri State University)
Abstract:

Achieving independence in functional living skills is an important aspect for people safety and dignity. The purpose of this study has been teaching to independently initiate and complete nighttime routines to an adolescent with Autism Spectrum Disorder. A chain composed of brushing his teeth, using the bidet, wearing the pajamas, managing independently his clothes, checking them and putting the dirty ones in the laundry basket was taught using task analysis, most to least prompt fading and positive conditioned reinforcer. The chain was initially evoked with a Whatsapp video message asking to “get ready for the night”, in combination with gestural and verbal prompt and its completion was reinforced with a previously chosen conditioned reinforcer. An intervention has been implemented to transfer the control of the chain to a telephone reminder, set one hour before the bedtime. Data showed rapid acquisition of the nighttime routines, generalization when the participant was alone with his parents and maintenance after 2-months follow up.

 
105.

Midsession Reversal Learning to Examine Behavioral Flexibility With Individuals Diagnosed With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
CAROLYN RITCHEY (Auburn University), Corina Jimenez-Gomez (Auburn University), Christopher A. Podlesnik (Auburn University)
Discussant: Lindsey Audrey Marie Dennis (Missouri State University)
Abstract:

Restricted and repetitive behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are associated with neurocognitive deficits in flexible choice behavior. Probabilistic reversal learning tasks can be used to evaluate behavioral flexibility by examining individual differences in anticipatory, perseverative, and regressive errors. The present series of experiments conducted via crowdsourcing examined performance in a midsession reversal-learning task to assess error patterns. In two experiments with typically developing participants, we found that responding on the first ‘correct’ pattern rapidly approached the arranged probability of reinforcement. In a separate experiment with individuals with and without ASD, we found that the number of regressive errors was positively correlated with scores on The Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ), which measures the degree of traits associated with ASD. We also found that individuals with ASD made more perseverative errors initially, but there was little difference between groups in the total number of perseverative errors. The current set of procedures could be used to assess behavioral (in)flexibility and adaptability in learning in individuals with ASD.

 
106. A Systematic Review of Severe Behavior Admissions
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
HEATHER ANDERSON (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute), Billie Retzlaff (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute), Jessie Weber (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute), Andrew Sodawasser (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Discussant: Lindsey Audrey Marie Dennis (Missouri State University)
Abstract: Intensive applied behavior analytic services can reduce severe destructive behavior. However, relatively little information regarding the characteristics (e.g., the typical length of intensive services) of these services is available. We reviewed 271 admissions to a university-based severe behavior program over a ten year period to consider length of admissions and other characteristics that may relate to admission length. The median length of admission for intensive services was 13.6 weeks, and the distribution was skewed to the left (M = 17.2 weeks). We discuss the findings with regards to variables that may contribute to admission length (i.e., referral topography, behavioral function(s), and caregiver involvement), and consider how this information may be useful for clinicians working in intensive settings focusing on the assessment and treatment of severe destructive behavior.
 
107.

The Comparative Effects of Modified Communication Programs on Requesting for a Child With Autism and Visual Impairments

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MALLORIE CARADINE (University of Memphis), James Nicholson Meindl (The University of Memphis), Laura Baylot Casey (University of Memphis), Diana M. Delgado (University of Memphis), Susan Elswick (University of Memphis)
Discussant: Lindsey Audrey Marie Dennis (Missouri State University)
Abstract:

The present study used a multiple probe across behaviors design, with an embedded alternating treatments design to compare the acquisition rates and efficacy of two modified communication programs, the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) and a speech generating device (SGD), to teach requesting to a child with multiple disabilities, including autism and visual impairments (VI). Instruction in each intervention phase were adapted from the first three phases in the PECS Manual (Frost & Bondy, 2002) and modified to accommodate the participant’s VI by adding textures and providing a verbal prompt in all three phases. During baseline conditions, the participant demonstrated little to no communicative responding. With intervention, the participant’s communicative responding increased in all three phases (simple request, distance and persistence, and discrimination) to proficient levels for both communication options, however, the PECS program yielded noticeably faster results in the distance and persistence phase. Participant preference and treatment acceptability for each option were also assessed. The participant showed preference for the PECS option. Parents found both procedures to be acceptable, however, the PECS option was also the parents’ preference. The importance of participant and parent preference for using one communication option over another is discussed.

 
108.

Systematic Review of Video Activity Schedules to Teach Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Area: AUT; Domain: Theory
REMINGTON SWENSSON (Baylor University), Marie Kirkpatrick (Baylor University), Jessica Akers (Baylor University), Tonya Nichole Davis (Baylor University), Nicole OGuinn (Baylor University), Suzannah Avery (Baylor University )
Discussant: Lindsey Audrey Marie Dennis (Missouri State University)
Abstract:

Activity schedules have been used to teach individuals with ASD a variety of skills. Video activity schedules are an evolution of traditional activity schedules in that video models replace the static pictures within the schedule and is delivered on a device rather than a binder. While research has demonstrated that traditional activity schedules are effective at teaching new skills to individuals with ASD, less is known about video activity schedules. The systematic search and predetermined inclusion criteria identified 72 articles, which was a total of 306 unique applications of video activity schedules, for this review. Most of the participants were adolescent and adult aged males. Nearly 50% of the participants had daily living or adaptive skills targeted. Nearly all of the individual cases completed a single task rather than multiple tasks using the video activity schedule. Seventy-one percent of studies were conducted in the school with most of those studies being conducted in special education classrooms. The identified gaps in the literature included a lack of studies conducted in general education classrooms, use with younger participants, and use to teach academic or play skills. Assessment of the quality and outcomes of the included studies will also be discussed.

 
109.

A Telehealth-Delivered Duration-Shaping Procedure to Teach Children With Autism to Wear Cloth Face Masks

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Sandra Gomes (Somerset Hills Learning Institute), Priya P Patil (Somerset Hills Learning Institute), JESSICA LAMB (Somerset Hills Learning Institute), Renata Ribeiro (Somerset Hills Learning Institute), Amber Trinidad (Somerset Hills Learning Institute), Caroline Grace Reilly (Somerset Hills Learning Institute), Emily Gallant (Somerset Hills Learning Institute), Kevin J. Brothers (Somerset Hills Learning Institute)
Discussant: Lindsey Audrey Marie Dennis (Missouri State University)
Abstract:

Learners with autism may experience more challenges tolerating certain tactile sensations than learners who do not have autism. Per CDC, NJDOE, and NJDOH guidelines, it was necessary to ensure students with autism could tolerate wearing cloth face coverings for as long as possible in anticipation of returning to in-person instruction (i.e., a 6-hour school day). This was especially critical for students whose instruction necessitated that instructors spent extended periods of time less than six feet away from them. We found that two such students with autism initially tolerated wearing cloth face coverings for very limited durations (i.e., less than 60 seconds), and another did so inconsistently during 5-minute observations. This was complicated by a state-mandated school closures, meaning that needed teaching could not be delivered in person. Instruction was initially delivered via live videoconferencing with instructors providing coaching to parents regarding reinforcement and error-correction procedures. Mask-wearing durations were shaped using a changing-criterion design in which durations changed both within sessions (for one learner) and target durations (or ranges changed across conditions (for all three leaners). Ultimately, all three learners were able to wear cloth face masks for the entire school day upon return to in-person instruction.

 
110.

An Analysis of the Effect of the Demand Component in Response Interruption and Redirection on Vocal Stereotypy in an Adult With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ANDREW CHEN (St. Cloud State University), Michele R. Traub (St. Cloud State University)
Discussant: Lee L Mason (Cook Children's Health Care System)
Abstract:

Research has indicated that RIRD often results in the reduction in level of vocal stereotypy in children and adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder. However, only one previous study has evaluated the efficacy of RIRD on vocal stereotypy for participants older than 18 years old. Furthermore, though some studies point to punishment as the mechanism by which RIRD produces its effects (Ahearn et al., 2007; Aherns et al., 2011), it is still described as a redirection procedure with unclear contingencies (Cassella et al., 2011). This study used the uninterrupted data collection procedures described by Carroll and Kodak (2014) and Wunderlich and Vollmer (2015) which have been shown to provide a more accurate analysis compared to the interrupted technique. Additionally, this study replicated and expanded upon Wunderlich and Vollmer (2015) by introducing a component analysis of the effects of RIRD on an adult participant. The results showed that motor RIRD was effective in reducing the vocal stereotypy, that random talking may be an establishing operation for vocal stereotypy, and that levels of appropriate vocalizations, while initially suppressed for 12 sessions, did not change meaningfully throughout the study.

 
111.

Using Size Fading to Teach Pill-Swallowing to Adolescents With Autism

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Kevin Brothers (Somerset Hills Learning Institute), SAMANTHA SANTOMO (Somerset Hills Learning Institute), Gayathiri Ramadoss (Somerset Hills Learning Institute), Paul Shreiber (Somerset Hills Learning Institute), Sandra R. Gomes (Somerset Hills Learning Institute), Jessica Lamb (Somerset Hills Learning Institute), Emily Gallant (Somerset Hills Learning Institute)
Discussant: Lee L Mason (Cook Children's Health Care System)
Abstract:

Prior to intervention, neither Audrey nor Paulina, both 14-year-old girls with autism, consumed medications in pill form. Though many medications available in tablet/capsule form are also available in liquid, chewable, dissolvable, or sprinkle- capsule forms, one learner only accepted one of these, some medications are available in none of these forms, and in some emergency settings a non-pill form may not be available. Along with parents’ wishes, this prompted us to implement an intervention package to teach both learners to swallow pills. This consisted of individualized positive reinforcement systems and stimulus shaping sequences. For Audrey, initial efforts to shape swallowing edible placebo items identical in size to desired medications or vitamins using a pill-swallowing cup were unsuccessful. Success was ultimately achieved using a 12-step size-fading procedure incorporating a variety of dried pulses (e.g., split peas, lentils) and several sizes of sugar-filled gelatin capsules, delivered in a spoonful of yogurt. For Paulina, similar gains were accomplished in 5 size-fading steps; reinforcement thinning is ongoing, and an additional size-fading step may be implemented. Audrey now consumes placebo items of the desired size in the absence of tangible reinforcement. Additional generalization data will be added for Paulina at the time of presentation.

 
Diversity submission 112.

A Preliminary Evaluation of a Telehealth Approach to Acceptance and Commitment Training for Enhancing Behavioral Parent Training for Chinese Parents

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ZHEN LIN (University of Southern California), Qiongqiong Lin (University of Southern California), Xiyan Xu (University of Southern California), Yuehan Jin (University of Southern California), Jonathan J. Tarbox (University of Southern California; FirstSteps for Kids)
Discussant: Lee L Mason (Cook Children's Health Care System)
Abstract:

Previous research has shown that behavioral parent training (BPT) is one of the most effective methods to improve parenting skills and promote meaningful parent-child interactions. A few attempts of preliminary research demonstrate the enhancement effect of Acceptance and Commitment Training (ACT). However, most of the BPT studies and one previous preliminary study of BPT with a subsequent ACT intervention occur through face to face instruction. The purpose of the present research is to a) extend BPT training through telehealth, b) use ACT to enhance the effectiveness of BPT for parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and 3) extend research on BPT and ACT for parents in China. The effects of the training are being evaluated by direct observation of parent-child interaction via telehealth. The study is still underway but preliminary results have shown that all of the participants show improvements in implementing behavioral procedures in their parent-child interactions.

 
113.

Increasing Compliance With a Blood Draw Procedure for Two Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
Annalisa Galeone (Associazione ALBA Onlus - Pescara), DANIELE RIZZI (Associazione ALBA Onlus - Pescara), Cristina Pavone (Associazione ALBA Onlus - Pescara), Mathilde Bourdil (Associazione ALBA Onlus - Pescara), Laura D'Amico (Associazione ALBA Onlus - Pescara), Romina Tarquinio (Associazione ALBA Onlus - Pescara), Mirko Massa (Associazione ALBA Onlus - Pescara), Maria Rosa Marsico (Associazione ALBA Onlus - Pescara)
Discussant: Lee L Mason (Cook Children's Health Care System)
Abstract:

Noncompliance with medical procedures may represent a serious issue for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). In this study we applied graduated exposure, shaping and stimulus distraction to teach two adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to tolerate a blood draw. Both participants showed low level of compliance and high level of signs of anxiety and distress during baseline, consisting in a simulated blood draw. During the intervention phase participants were gradually exposed to a blood draw procedure while approximations to the target behavior were reinforced. Results, shown in a non concurrent multiple baseline design, demonstrated that the treatment was effective in obtaining blood samples during an actual blood draw, with significantly lower levels for both participants of signs of anxiety and distress respect to baseline.

 
114. An Evaluation of Video Modeling to Teach Chaining Procedures to Parents
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Kaylee Engelder (Easter Seals), Maria Lynn Kessler (Oregon Institute of Technology), DAWN ALLISON BAILEY (Oregon Institute of Technology)
Discussant: Lee L Mason (Cook Children's Health Care System)
Abstract: We evaluated the efficacy of a video training package- and when needed, “bug-in-ear” (BIE) prompting and feedback- to teach parents backward chaining. Two parent-child dyads participated, and sessions took place via telehealth. Parents demonstrated backward chaining while teaching their children shoe tying. Child participants had an autism diagnosis and received applied behavior analysis (ABA) services. Data were collected on percentage of steps correct from the parents and percentage of independent shoe tying steps from the children. Results indicated the video training was effective for one parent participant to reach mastery criteria. The other parent participant met mastery criteria during the BIE prompting plus feedback condition. Percentage of independent steps increased for both children. Factors that may have contributed to participant performance and considerations for future research are discussed.
 
115. Identifying Idiosyncratic Variables Maintaining Problem Behavior Through a Modified Functional Analysis
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MEAGAN GRASLEY (Utah Valley University), Sydney Jensen (Utah Valley University), Caleb Stanley (Utah Valley University)
Discussant: Lee L Mason (Cook Children's Health Care System)
Abstract: Previous research has shown that identifying specific idiosyncratic variables can significantly impact the results of functional analyses (FA). Although numerous research articles have been published supporting this, a recent review suggests that further research is needed regarding the use of modified FAs to address behaviors maintained by idiosyncratic variables. The current study aims to extend on the previous literature by demonstrating the utility of a standard FA along with a modified FA to determine the function of a multiply-controlled hair pulling behavior in a client with autism. The modified FA was implemented similar to that of a traditional FA, however, the conditions were modified to include conditions for idiosyncratic automatic reinforcement in the form of an audible sound. The traditional FA showed the behavior was partially controlled by escape, however, the modified FA showed an equal number of behaviors occurring in the escape from a sound condition and the access to a new sound condition. Further analyses confirmed that access to a new sound was the maintaining function of the problem behavior. The data add to a growing body of literature supporting the use of modified FAs as a method for identifying the function of idiosyncratic variables controlling problem behavior.
 
116.

Using a Differential Observation Response to Teach Auditory-Visual Conditional Discrimination to Children With Autism

Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
GABRIELLE STONES (University of Missouri Saint Louis), Andresa De Souza (University of Missouri St. Louis), Catherine Veatch (PENDING)
Discussant: Lee L Mason (Cook Children's Health Care System)
Abstract:

Auditory-visual discrimination can be difficult to establish in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and minimal verbal and pre-academic repertoire. It is common for children who have not mastered tasks involving conditional discrimination, to demonstrate restricted stimulus control during these types of tasks. One strategy to overcome errors related to restricted stimulus control is by using a differential observing response (DOR). DORs are responses that when presented before or with the antecedent stimulus, facilitate the child’s sensory contact with the relevant aspect of the stimulus. The purpose of the current study was to replicated Fisher et al. (2019)’s by incorporating a DOR during an auditory-visual conditional discrimination task with children with ASD. A multiple-baseline design across target sets was used to evaluate the effects of the intervention on the levels of correct selection responses. We also conducted probe of tact responses before the implementation of the intervention and after mastery of target sets. Results were similar of Fisher et al. study in that participants demonstrated the acquisition of target sets and emergence of novel, untrained tacts.

 
117.

Investigation on COVID-19-Related Health Skills Among Children Diagnosed With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ZHIHUI YI (Univeristy of Illinois at Chicago), Mark R. Dixon (University of Illinois at Chicago), Jessica M Hinman (University of Illinois at Chicago)
Discussant: Lee L Mason (Cook Children's Health Care System)
Abstract:

Individuals diagnosed with autism are at a higher risk for COVID due to developmental delays and deficits in health-related life skills. However, the extent to which these deficits exist is unclear, as existed assessments for life skills are not specific enough to capture various skills needed during the COVID-19 pandemic, such as keeping the mask on for extended periods of time, following social distancing rules, maintaining social interaction with peers remotely, etc. The current study examines the COVID-related health skills among children diagnosed with ASD. A caregiver assessment was developed, and a total of 36 skills were identified following recommendations from the CDC to promote children’s physical and mental health. Six skills were identified in each category: Personal Protection Equipment, Symptom Identification, Social Distancing, Hygiene, Daily Routine, and Health and Well-being. Forty caregivers completed the indirect assessment, and results show that children diagnosed with autism often demonstrate deficits in COVID-related health skills. The distribution of skills did not show a clear pattern across different age-groups, suggesting that the developmental approach failed to account for these life skills. Preliminary psychometric properties of the assessment were reported, and implications and recommendations for practitioners were discussed.

 
118.

Telehealth for Facilitating Conversation in Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
YUKI NISHIYAMA (Keio University), Miho Higashi (Keio University), Jun'ichi Yamamoto (Keio University)
Discussant: Lee L Mason (Cook Children's Health Care System)
Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a visual cue (arrow) for specifying a “speaker” in conversation for students with autism spectrum disorder using online telehealth situation. Two elementary school students with autism spectrum disorder participated in the present study. They could talk about their favorite things such as trains, however had weakness in conversation with other people. At first, the therapist set the topic of conversation and evaluated the spontaneous talking and numbers of turn-taking. Telehealth method was used with Zoom. In Student-Student Condition, two students sat facing each other in computer display and made online conversation. In Student-Therapist Condition, each student sat facing with adult therapist and was provided with “arrow” on computer display to specify the speaker implying “your turn for talking”. For both students, numbers of turn-taking were very few in Student-Student Condition. In Student-Therapist condition, Student A showed drastic increase in numbers of turn-taking. The result suggests that the “arrow” functioned as visual indicator for specifying “speaker” in naturalistic conversation.

 
119. A Review of Autism Treatment via Virtual Reality Technology and Suggestions for Future Research and Development
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KAIWEN ZHU (Research Associate at Beijing INGCare), Ziwei Xu (Academic Director at Institute for Accessibility Development at Tsinghua University, Beijing INGCare), Weizhi Liang (Director for Research and Development at Beijing INGCare)
Discussant: Lee L Mason (Cook Children's Health Care System)
Abstract: Autism therapists and researchers have started to use Virtual-Reality (VR) since 1990s. The technology was often deployed to create virtual environments to help individuals with autism prepare for certain encounters or situations that could be stressful. In this poster, we will review recent empirical studies that evaluated the effectiveness of VR in autism treatment. Specifically, we will focus on the skill domains that were targeted (e.g., social emotional skills or daily-life skills), participants (e.g., pre-requisite skills for VR technology), dependent measures (e.g., the study deployed direct or indirect measurement for target behavior), and results (e.g., the extent to which the effects generalize to real-life situations). Lastly, we will discuss implications for future research and technology development (e.g., real-time data display to enable decision makings), as well as the huge role the VR industry will be playing in shifting how to use technology to help support those with autism to connect, communicate, and navigate.
 
120. Evaluating a Sequential Model for Assessment and Treatment of Automatically Reinforced Stereotypy
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
PIERCE TAYLOR (Rollins College), Kara L. Wunderlich (Rollins College), Ronni Hemstreet (Rollins College), Lauren Best (University of Georgia)
Discussant: Lee L Mason (Cook Children's Health Care System)
Abstract: Behaviors maintained by automatic reinforcement can be notably difficult to reduce. There are a number of function-based and non-function-based interventions with demonstrated efficacy in reducing automatically reinforced behavior; however, practitioners are often unsure of which intervention is most likely to be effective with each specific client. Further, BACB ethical guidelines require that least-restrictive and reinforcement-based procedures be implemented and evaluated before relying on punishment-based procedures to reduce problem behavior. The current study replicated the assessment and treatment model evaluated by Berg et al. (2016) with automatically reinforced self-injury by applying the sequential process to new topographies of automatically reinforced behavior: motor or vocal stereotypy. The results indicated potential success in using noncontingent reinforcement for stereotypy classified as Pattern 1; however, Pattern 2 or Pattern 3 responding (as determined by the results of a functional analysis and subsequent concurrent operants assessment) did not successfully respond to treatment indicated by the model.
 
121. Using Acceptance and Commitment Training to Increase Parental Adherence in an Online Caregiver Training Program
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
Zhihui Yi (Univeristy of Illinois at Chicago), Mark R. Dixon (University of Illinois at Chicago), RENE J NIESSNER (University of Illinois at Chicago)
Discussant: Yaniz C. Padilla Dalmau (Seattle Children's Hospital)
Abstract: The field of behavior analysis has seen a rapid adaptation in telehealth models, and practitioners conducting parent training online may face unique challenges. The current study examines the effect of using Acceptance and Commitment Training (ACT) to increase parental adherence in an online caregiver training program. Thirteen families enrolled in an online caregiver training program were randomly assigned to the control group or the ACT group. Participants in the ACT group received the same caregiver training curriculum, with the addition of a 30min brief ACT session during the intake. They also received weekly ACT messages via text. Results show that participants in the ACT group progressed faster during the program (t = 2.36, p = .038) and were less likely to withdraw (χ2 = 6.96, p = .008). Implications for practitioners will be discussed.
 
122. Evaluation of a New Assessment and Treatment Model for Automatically Reinforced Stereotypy
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
RONNI HEMSTREET (Rollins College), Kara L. Wunderlich (Rollins College), Ashley Matter (Interventions Unlimited)
Discussant: Yaniz C. Padilla Dalmau (Seattle Children's Hospital)
Abstract: Wunderlich et al. (in prep) replicated the assessment and treatment model evaluated in Berg et al. (2016) with automatically reinforced stereotypy. The results of that study indicated that the Berg flowchart can be useful if there is clear differentiation in a functional analysis. However, if there is not clear differentiation in functional analysis data, previously proposed treatment models are less successful in predicting effective interventions. Further, ethical behavior analytic practice requires an emphasis on reinforcement-based procedures prior to the introduction of punishment (e.g., response blocking). In order to better represent the various treatment goals of individuals who exhibit problematic stereotypy and provide a more ethical approach to the systematic selection of intervention, we proposed and empirically evaluated a new assessment and intervention model. Results indicate that this sequential assessment and treatment model is effective and efficient in reducing problematic automatically reinforced stereotypy.
 
123. Treating Ritualistic Behavior Using Functional Communication Training and Schedule Thinning
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CHARLES BRAMBLE (Bancroft), Kelly Trucksess (Bancroft), Gabriel Lopergolo (Bancroft)
Discussant: Yaniz C. Padilla Dalmau (Seattle Children's Hospital)
Abstract: Insistence on sameness, or ritualized patterns are part of the diagnostic criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). These behaviors can interfere with multiple aspects of daily living. In addition, other more dangerous challenging behavior, such as aggression, may be maintained through access to these rituals. Multiple studies have demonstrated that functional communication training (FCT) has effectively treated both ritualistic behavior and co-occurring challenging behavior. The participant within the present study is an 18 year-old male diagnosed with ASD and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) living in a residential treatment facility. A functional analysis was conducted which included an idiosyncratic condition designed to identify the role of ritualistic behavior in maintaining aggressive behavior. The functional communication response (FCR) to gain access to ritualistic behavior was acquired on a continuous schedule of reinforcement. A multiple schedule was then used to thin this schedule, however was unsuccessful when utilizing a visual signal. Instead, the therapist’s vocal response was utilized to signal what component schedule would be contacted. This study replicates the findings of Kuhn et al. (2009) in which the therapist’s verbal response was used to signal the availability of reinforcement within a multiple schedule.
 
124. High-Probability Instructional Sequence: A Review on Current Procedural Variations
Area: AUT; Domain: Theory
AMALIX FLORES (University of South Florida), Catia Cividini-Motta Cividini (University of South Florida)
Discussant: Yaniz C. Padilla Dalmau (Seattle Children's Hospital)
Abstract: To summarize current literature on procedural variations of the High-Probability Instructional Sequence (HPIS), a systematic review of the published literature between 2010 to 2019 was completed and yielded a total of 17 articles. Each of these articles was reviewed and data were extracted on: (a) participant characteristics (i.e., sex, age, diagnosis, and target behavior), (b) procedural variations related to the HPIS implementation (i.e., high-probability to low-probability instructions ratios, inter-instruction intervals, and programed consequences for compliance and noncompliance to the instructions), and (c) results (i.e., percentage of data sets for which HPIS was effective). Thirty-four individuals were included in these studies, some of whom were exposed to multiple iterations of HPIS, resulting in 114 data sets. Across studies HPIS was effective at increasing target behavior (e.g., compliance to instructions, task completion, vocal imitation, and food acceptance and/or consumption) in 50.88% of data sets. Furthermore, the type of consequences delivered for compliance to high-probability and low-probability instructions (e.g., combined social and edible stimuli), and noncompliance to the High-P instructions (e.g., terminate instruction, provide a break, and present next instruction in the sequence) appears to impact the efficacy of HPIS. Conceptual and clinical implications, and areas for future research are discussed.
 
125.

More Time? Sometimes: Successful Schedule Thinning of a More Time Functionally Equivalent, Communication Response

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Adrianna Whitman (Bancroft ), ANTONELLA PILARAS (Bancroft)
Discussant: Yaniz C. Padilla Dalmau (Seattle Children's Hospital)
Abstract:

Challenging behavior maintained by multiple sources of environmental control presents unique challenges during treatment. Often, reduction of these behaviors involves interventions that target each source of reinforcement individually. Following acquisition of multiple functional communicative responses (FCR’s) and reduction of the target challenging behavior, the dense schedule of reinforcement used during functional communication training (FCT) still needs to be thinned for the FCR to generalize successfully across settings and time. Multiple schedules have been used successfully following FCT teaching FCR’s for single functions. The current study, involving two residents of a residential treatment facility, investigates the thinning of a “More Time” request utilizing a multiple schedule. Following successful acquisition of the FCR, schedule thinning consisted of signaling availability of reinforcement of the response with a visual stimulus. Throughout schedule thinning, the work requirement was systematically increased following emission of the FCR until the terminal schedule was reached. Both individuals demonstrated high levels of independence with the FCR and low rates of challenging behavior throughout schedule thinning.

 
126. Is This Poster Trash? Utilizing Discrimination Training and Differential Reinforcement to Reduce Hoarding
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
HAILEE PEREZ (Bancroft), Antonella Pilaras (Bancroft)
Discussant: Yaniz C. Padilla Dalmau (Seattle Children's Hospital)
Abstract: Some individuals with developmental disabilities engage in OCD-like behaviors such as hoarding, keeping a surplus of items regardless of their value or displaying an inability to willingly discard items. These behaviors can lead to unhygienic and unsanitary living conditions for these individuals and their families. Historically, most treatments to reduce these behaviors have utilized cognitive-based therapies or medication aimed to reduce behaviors associated with OCD. However, a function-based treatment approach to the reduction of these behaviors may be more appropriate in cases, like those involving individuals with developmental disabilities, when accurate self-report of internal states is difficult or even impossible. Seen functionally, continued access to tangible items is the maintaining contingency for hoarding. In these cases, the schedule of reinforcement for acquiring and maintaining these items may need to be greatly reduced to achieve reductions in challenging behaviors associated with hoarding. This study utilized a behavioral intervention for two individuals who engage in aggressive behaviors maintained by access to hoarding items. These behavioral interventions utilized discrimination training and differential reinforcement of incompatable behaviors, and were effective in decreasing both aggressive and hoarding behaviors.
 
127. Replacement Skills Training to Address Inappropriate Climbing Behavior During Transitions
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
JOHN CHRISTOPHER SCULLY (The Center for Discovery, Harris, NY)
Discussant: Yaniz C. Padilla Dalmau (Seattle Children's Hospital)
Abstract: “Billy” is an adolescent with autism spectrum disorder that may climb on various pieces of furniture throughout the day such as classroom chairs, couches, and cabinets. These behaviors most frequently occur during transitions from sitting to standing, but may also occur if he were left alone. This is an automatically reinforcing behavior which would be difficult to reduce the frequency without providing an appropriate alternative. An intervention that uses non-contingent access to an appropriate climbing (step-ups platform) and functional communication training to teach the student to request “to climb” using the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) was initiated to reduce instances of inappropriate climbing and introduce an appropriate alternative behavior of climbing. In the non-contingent access phase, a social story and prompt fading procedures were utilized to encourage the student to independently use the appropriate alternative during transitions. In the functional communication training phase, prompt fading procedures were utilized to encourage the student to independently request to climb during transitions. The student had increased requests to climb on the appropriate alternative to 100% in three consecutive sessions prior to the school building shutting down due to COVID-19 restrictions.
 
128. Hurry Up and Wait! Utilizing a Terminal Delay to Increase the Efficiency of Schedule Thinning
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
DAVID ANDREW SULLIVAN (Bancroft), Nicole Schwartz (Bancroft), Kaitlyn Connaughton (Bancroft)
Discussant: Yaniz C. Padilla Dalmau (Seattle Children's Hospital)
Abstract: Functional communication training (FCT) is a specific form of differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) in which the alternative behavior, a functional communication response (FCR) is functionally equivalent to the challenging behavior. It is the most widely reported successful intervention for decreasing challenging behavior (Drifke et al., 2020). Acquisition of the FCR typically occurs on a continuous schedule of reinforcement, however delays are commonly progressively increased to better reflect schedules of reinforcement typical of non-teaching environments. When these delays to reinforcement become too large or increase too quickly, they can lead to resurgence of problem behavior and increase the need for extensive session time. Tiger et. al., (2015) found that providing functionally-inequivalent stimuli during a terminal delay period was more efficient in decreasing challenging behavior than utilizing a progressive delay schedule. In the present study, challenging behavior of a 14-year old individual with multiply-maintained challenging behavior was decreased to near zero levels during a terminal delay of ten minutes in under 25 sessions utilizing this method.
 
129. A Comparison of Virtual and In-Person Learning on the Observation of Puzzle Manipulation Among Neurotypical and Neurodiverse Children
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KATRINA VERHAGEN (Southern Illinois University), Natalia Baires (Southern Illinois University)
Discussant: Yaniz C. Padilla Dalmau (Seattle Children's Hospital)
Abstract: Virtual learning has been used long before the COVID-19 pandemic for mental health care or acute conditions but was rarely used as a replacement for in-person visits. Additionally, virtual learning was primarily used for those earning graduate and undergraduate degrees. Virtual learning for individuals younger than eighteen is not typically researched, as it has not been a subject of importance or seen as a replacement for in-person learning. The current study will look to work with individuals under the age of eighteen, both neurotypical and neurodiverse populations. Participants will be paired into dyads to assess learning done both virtually and in-person when presented with a brainteaser puzzle using a multiple baseline across participants design. All participants will take part in both treatment conditions and assessment of on task behavior as well as percentage of correctly completed steps of the brainteaser puzzle will be assessed. Implications regarding results of using virtual and in-person learning with neurotypical and neurodiverse populations will be further discussed.
 
130. Treatment of Aggression Related to Staff Preference: Effects on Behavior and Electrodermal Activity
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
COREY OLVERA (The Center for Discovery), Tania Villavicencio (The Center for Discovery), Johanna F Lantz (The Center for Discovery)
Discussant: Yaniz C. Padilla Dalmau (Seattle Children's Hospital)
Abstract: When comparing treatments, the differences in responses indicates the respective efficacy of each treatment condition. Changes in electrodermal activity (EDA), an index of physiological arousal often operationalized as stress or anxiety, can offer a measure of treatment efficacy. This study investigated the differential effects of two treatments on functional communication responses (FCR), problem behavior and EDA for an adolescent with autism spectrum disorder and aggression often provoked by staff changes. Functional communication training (FCT) to request a preferred staff as well as noncontingent access to the preferred staff (FCT+NCR) were compared with FCT intervention without NCR (FCT Only). Rates of aggression were lower and FCR higher compared to baseline in both conditions. The FCT + NCR condition yielded lower rates of aggression and higher rates of FCR compared to FCT Only; however, this condition was associated with increased EDA. This could suggest increased stress or anxiety associated with the NCR procedure, possibly due to uncertainty of when the staff may return. A decrease in the FCR was noted over the course of treatment. Prior to intervention, the participant worked exclusively with his preferred staff. It appears that he grew more comfortable working with other classroom staff following increased exposure.
 
 
 
Symposium #267
CE Offered: BACB
Diversity submission Derived Relational Responding is Pervasive in Addressing Disability, Autonomy, and Stigma
Sunday, May 30, 2021
3:00 PM–3:50 PM EDT
Online
Area: CBM/AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Lindsey Audrey Marie Dennis (Missouri State University)
CE Instructor: Lindsey Audrey Marie Dennis, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Disabilities are pervasive within the broader life context of impacted individuals, including challenges associated with stigmatization, disability progression, autonomy, and self-advocacy. This symposium will address these topics representing a next frontier in the evolution of behavior analytic service within person-centered care. The first talk will review stigmatization of persons with disabilities from within a derived relational responding framework, as well as how to predict and influence stigmatizing verbal relations. The second talk will describe a systematic intervention to address cognitive decline in the progression of dementia within the life-course of aging populations. The third talk will provide a translational model exploring the use of equivalence-based instruction to teach facts about medications that are necessary for ensuring autonomy and consent. Together, these talks go beyond addressing behavior challenges – to addressing skills that participate within the broader context of living with physical, intellectual, and developmental disabilities from a behavior analytic framework.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Autonomy, Disability, Relational Frames, Self-advocacy
Target Audience:

BCBAs

Learning Objectives: (1) assess and influence stigma related to disabilities; (2) understand the relationship between dementia and relational responding; (3) evaluate medication knowledge from an equivalence model
 
Diversity submission 

Frames of Error: Three Behavioral Approaches to Reducing Stigma and Increasing Positive Perceptions Towards People With Disabilities

ROCCO G CATRONE (SIU-Carbondale), Darwin S Koch (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract:

What makes a person disabled is a much-debated topic with some focusing on the individual’s impairments (putting the onus of disability on the individual) while others focus on how the environment (both architectural and social) exacerbates an individual’s impairments and creates the conceptualization of disability (putting the onus of disability on society). No matter how a person with a disability (PWD) is categorized, they are met with healthcare, education, and work disparities that are perpetuated both unintentionally and intentionally. This paper examines the various ways disability and subsequently stigma arises from a variety of viewpoints both within and outside the tradition of behaviorism. Given an overview of behavioral research, much of which is line with non-behavioral conceptualizations track well on to, the author points to how Relational Frame Theory (RFT) and Contextual Behavioral Science (CBS) may offer potential applications for the reduction of stigma towards PWDs. Three studies were detailed across relevant relational frames and their potential roles in the formation and defusion of stigma thereby extending the prior behavioral research on utility for potential, computer-based societal interventions.

 
Diversity submission 

Evaluating the Relationship Between Dementia Symptomology, Memory, and Derived Relational Responding in Older Adults

AYLA SCHMICK (Southern Illinois University), Mark R. Dixon (University of Illinois at Chicago)
Abstract:

With the aging of the Baby Boomer generation there will be an influx of older adults in the years to come that has never been witnessed before. While a longer life brings with it many opportunities, they are dependent on one thing: the individual’s health. Alzheimer’s Disease and related dementias are of most concern since they are defined by decline in cognitive functions that lead to loss of independence. Interventions are needed to help aid in the wide-ranging impact dementia will have. One area of promise is the use of language training procedures such as Relational Frame Theory (RFT), a contemporary behavior-analytic account of complex human language and cognition. The current study examined the relationship between dementia symptomology, memory, and derived relational responding in 42 older adults, ages ranging 65-97. Moderate to strong correlations were found between the Mini-Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Exam, Wechsler Memory Scale, and the PEAK Comprehensive Assessment- Transformation. Results of this study suggest that participants with higher scores of dementia symptomology showed lower scores of memory and derived relational responding. The results of expand the current literature by evaluating all relational frame families and their relationship to memory and dementia symptomology. Implications, limitations, and future research will be discussed.

 
Diversity submission Derived Stimulus Relations in Training Medication Knowledge
Erin Walker (Brock University), Albert Malkin (Southern Illinois University / Western University), KARL GUNNARSSON (University of Iceland), Mark R. Dixon (University of Illinois at Chicago), Jordan Belisle (Missouri State University), Ryan C. Speelman (Pittsburg State University)
Abstract: This study made use instructional methods based on derived stimulus relations to train foundational medication knowledge to 7 graduate students, in a multiple baseline across participants research design. Baseline accuracy was assessed on target relations; participants were subsequently taught coordination relations between generic names, brand names, typical uses, and vignettes. Test trials of transformations of stimulus function entailed vignettes in accordance with frames of comparison, distinction, and opposition. Participants all demonstrated the ability to obtain novel relations and stimulus functions amongst the targets aforementioned. These results demonstrate the pedagogical utility of derived stimulus relations in training skills of social importance and the efficiency of these methods; given that only coordination relations were directly trained, and many novel relations were derived.
 
 
Symposium #269
CE Offered: BACB — 
Ethics
Diversity submission Diversity, Inclusion, and Equity in Research and Practice: Where are We Now and How Do We Move Forward?
Sunday, May 30, 2021
3:00 PM–3:50 PM EDT
Online
Area: CSS/PCH; Domain: Translational
Chair: Pooja Panesar (Kaizora Centre for Neurodevelopmental Therapies)
CE Instructor: Noor Younus Syed, Ph.D.
Abstract: Following the incredibly tragic deaths of Mr. George Floyd and others, it became clear that the world as a whole needed to face and address the prevalence of systemic racism in our institutions. While we have begun to discuss compassion and cultural humility conceptually, a significant need remains to investigate the topography of culturally humble behaviors in both our scholarly and applied work. The heartbreaking murders served as an impetus for the behavior analytic community to address systems change and engage in self-reflection to better understand where we have erred in addressing systemic inequality, so that we may forge a path towards equity, inclusion, and diversity in our research, our body of clinicians, and the clients we serve. In the first talk, we will focus on assessing trends in demographic variables to identify gaps in targeted populations for recently published articles in OBM literature. The second presentation will analyze disparities and potential barriers in the access of therapy as related to demographic variables for children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. The final talk will review understanding of inclusive terminology, analyze organizational responses addressing systemic racism, and explore stakeholder feedback on methods to increase diversity within the field of behavior analysis.
Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): Demographics, Disparity, Diversity-equity-inclusion, Systemic racism
Target Audience: None
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: 1) Describe trends in the reporting of demographic variables for recently published articles in the Journal of Organizational Behavior Management and the Journal of Applied Psychology 2) Identify disparities as related to demographic variables in accessing therapeutic services for children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder 3) Identify methods to increase diversity and equity within the field of behavior analysis at individual and organizational levels that are based on stakeholder input
 
Diversity submission 

Reporting of Demographic Variables in the Journal of Organizational Behavior Management and the Journal of Applied Psychology

(Theory)
JESSICA NASTASI (University of Florida), Andrew Smith (University of Florida), Nicole Gravina (University of Florida), Alyssa Lynn Crowe (University of Florida)
Abstract:

Data on participant demographics (e.g., gender, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status) can be used to evaluate the existence of treatment disparities and other correlations between the impact of an intervention and sociopolitical location, yet these data are seldom reported in behavior-analytic studies. To date, no review has been conducted evaluating the reporting of demographic variables within the subfield of organizational behavior management (OBM). OBM interventions often involve multiple participants across levels of an organization, posing unique considerations for reporting demographic variables and potentially identifiable information in accordance with an organization’s preference for disclosure and human resource policies. Interventions in industrial/organizational psychology may encounter similar barriers to reporting demographic variables. Therefore, we reviewed articles published in the Journal of Organizational Behavior Management (JOBM) and the Journal of Applied Psychology from 2015 to 2019 to evaluate recent trends in the reporting of demographic variables. All articles that included participants and presented data (i.e., both applied and laboratory research; N = 79) were included for review and were coded based on the setting, design, and reported demographic variables. The value of reporting demographic variables in OBM and suggestions for future reporting will be discussed.

 
Diversity submission 

Identifying Possible Disparities in Autism Services Via Clinical File Review

(Service Delivery)
JANELLE KIRSTIE BACOTTI (University of Florida), Ann-Marie Orlando (University of Florida), Timothy R. Vollmer (University of Florida), Iser Guillermo DeLeon (University of Florida), Tracy Argueta (University of Florida)
Abstract:

Early diagnosis and treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are critical to maximizing early development (Brasher & Stapel-Wax, 2020). Prior evidence suggests that some communities within the ASD population are underserved and experience reduced access and quality of services (Bishop-Fitzpatrick & Kind, 2017). The purpose of the current study was to complete a retrospective clinical file review to identify possible disparities in access to therapeutic services. We scored demographic variables (e.g., age at time of initial contact, sex, race/ethnicity) and reported access to therapy services (e.g., applied behavior analysis, speech language pathology). We conducted visual and statistical analyses to determine correlations between demographic variables and reported access to therapy services. We discuss our findings and possible future directions for evaluating disparities to accessing therapy services in the ASD community.

 
Diversity submission 

The ABA Field Responds to Calls for Increased Diversity and Equity: An Analysis of Our Current Standing and the Path Forward

(Theory)
NOOR YOUNUS SYED (SUNY Empire State College; Endicott College; Global Autism Project), David J. Cox (Behavioral Health Center of Excellence; Endicott College), Ronnie Detrich (Utah State University)
Abstract:

As recent outcry emerged upon the murder of George Floyd, following Ahmaud Arberry, Breonna Taylor, and countless others, it became apparent that the world needed to significantly analyze core values and principles to address issues of systemic racism. The field of behavior analysis is no exception. While some major behavior analytic organizations have previously developed diversity policies, most chose to release statements specifically addressing racism and diversity in the wake of Mr. Floyd’s murder. Too, while there is a growing body of literature regarding cultural humility and diversity in behavior analysis, these discussions have not yet been informed by a collection of voices from the field. While the statements and literature are undoubtedly well-intentioned, they may lack actionable items and stakeholder input that research suggests are critical in sustainable development of societal and political processes. The purpose of this study therefore was twofold: to analyze responses from major behavior analytic and psychological institutions, and to analyze survey responses of clinicians and researchers on understanding demographic concepts related to diversity. Finally, an analysis of stakeholder feedback on how to increase diversity within the field of behavior analysis was conducted. We urge the field to use these data to better inform action items we can engage in to increase diversity and equity at all levels.

SUNY Empire State College; Anderson Center International; Endicott College
 
 
Symposium #270
CE Offered: BACB
Diversity submission Burnout and Bias: Assessing Medical Student Well-Being and Patient Care from a Contextual Perspective
Sunday, May 30, 2021
3:00 PM–3:50 PM EDT
Online
Area: CSS; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Ramona Houmanfar (University of Nevada, Reno)
Discussant: Marianne L. Jackson (California State University, Fresno)
CE Instructor: Ramona Houmanfar, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Medical students and healthcare professionals are at an increased risk for experiencing clinically relevant levels of distress (e.g., burnout, depression, and suicidal ideations), compared to the general population. The onset of clinically relevant levels of distress appear to emerge during the first few years of students’ medical education. If symptoms are left unidentified and therefore, untreated – students are likely to continue to practice maladaptive coping strategies during residency. These patterns of maladaptive coping are likely to recur throughout one’s career, which impacts the quality of patient care provided to diverse patient populations. Individuals are more likely to engage in brief immediate relational responding (BIRRs) under conditions of time pressure and stress. Without evidence-based approaches for managing BIRRs (i.e., implicit bias), medical providers are ill equipped to meet the needs of patients’ diverse cultural nuances, which contributes to the prevalence of healthcare disparities. This symposium will provide an overview of ways in which contextual behavioral scientists can measure, report, and teach about burnout and well-being with the medical student and healthcare provider populations – to help providers not only manage their biases towards themselves (i.e., self-stigmatization) but to also manage their biases toward their patients (i.e., implicit bias).

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): burnout, implicit bias, medical education, well-being
 
Diversity submission Assessment of Medical Student Burnout: Toward an Implicit Measure to Address Current Issues
GREGORY SCOTT SMITH (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology; University of Nevada, Reno School of Medicine), Ramona Houmanfar (University of Nevada, Reno), Nicole Jacobs (University of Nevada School of Medicine), Mary Froehlich (University of Nevada Reno School of Medicine), Alison Szarko (University of Nevada, Reno), Brooke M. Smith (Western Michigan University), Timothy Baker (University of Nevada School of Medicine), Melissa Patricia Piasecki (University of Nevada Reno School of Medicine)
Abstract: The feasibility of implicitly assessing medical student burnout was explored, using the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP), to measure longitudinal student burnout over the first two years of medical school and directly compare it with an existing explicit measure of burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory; MBI). Three successive cohorts of medical students completed both implicit and explicit measures of burnout at several time points during their first two years of medical school. Both assessments were conducted via the internet within a one-week period during the first week of medical school, the end of the first year of medical school, and the end of the second year, though not all cohorts were able to complete the assessments at all time points. Mixed effects models were used to compare the two measures directly, as well as to evaluate changes over time in each measure separately. Minimal correspondence was observed between the implicit and explicit measures of burnout on a within-subject basis. However, when analyzed separately, all sub-scales of both measures detected significant change over time in the direction of greater levels of burnout, particularly during the first year of medical school. Results suggest the IRAP is able to assess implicit attitudes related to burnout among medical students. The IRAP detected consistent improvements in positive implicit attitudes toward medical training during students’ second year, which was not detected by the MBI. The finding indicates a unique aspect of the burnout construct is captured by IRAP.
 
Diversity submission The Impact of Acceptance and Commitment Training on Well-Being in Medical Education
ALISON SZARKO (University of Nevada, Reno), Ramona Houmanfar (University of Nevada, Reno), Gregory Scott Smith (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology; University of Nevada, Reno School of Medicine), Nicole Jacobs (University of Nevada School of Medicine), Kian Assemi (University of Nevada, Reno), Brooke M. Smith (Western Michigan University), Timothy Baker (University of Nevada School of Medicine), Melissa Patricia Piasecki (University of Nevada School of Medicine)
Abstract: Medical students are at a disproportionate risk for experiencing clinically significant levels of distress and burnout as a product of their workplace environment (i.e., the healthcare industry). Significant levels of distress and burnout seem to emerge within the first few years of students’ undergraduate medical education. Remediation strategies such as wellness trainings have been recommended and integrated into medical school curricula as a preventative approach. This longitudinal study utilized the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II) and the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) to determine the of impact of Acceptance and Commitment Training (ACT) on the well-being of students across the first two years of medical school. The preliminary results indicate that the overall medical student population maintained their levels of psychological well-being during the first two years of medical school. Additionally, students who were identified as “at-risk” for experiencing significant levels of burnout demonstrated statistically significant improvements in their AAQ-II scores following an ACT for Student Well-Being curriculum. Implications and next steps for this line of research will be discussed.
 
 
Symposium #278
CE Offered: BACB
Diversity submission Diversity submission Acting to Save the World: An Update on Projects of the Behaviorists for Social Responsibility SIG
Sunday, May 30, 2021
3:00 PM–4:50 PM EDT
Online
Area: CSS; Domain: Theory
Chair: Michaela Smith (University of North Texas)
Discussant: Richard F. Rakos (Cleveland State University)
CE Instructor: Traci M. Cihon, Ph.D.
Abstract:

The Behaviorists for Social Responsibility Special Interest Group (BFSR SIG) is interested in addressing B.F. Skinner’s question, “Why are we not acting to save the world?”. The mission of BFSR is to expand applications of behavior analysis and cultural analysis addressing global issues such as social justice, environmental justice, and human rights. The primary focus of BFSR has been on expanding the work of Biglan (1995) and Mattaini (2013), using a matrix analysis to identify the practices that support, oppose, motivate, and select the development and utilization of scientific behavioral systems to address social issues. The work of the Matrix Project has resulted in the identification of 28 societal sectors. Working groups, informed by the larger Matrix Project, further develop these sectors, apply the matrix analyses to important issues, and develop resources to affect change. This symposium will highlight the work of several of these working groups. The first presentation will provide an overview of the BFSR Matrix Project and will describe the development of an online training system to support BFSR Matrix Project volunteers. The remaining presentations will highlight the work that is being conducted by three BFSR working groups: sustainability; education, diversity, equity, and inclusion; and community resilience.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): community resiliance, cultural analysis, diversity, sustainability
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) describe how to apply a matrix analysis to address social issues; (2) explain how a matrix analysis helps to identify the interdependencies among environmental variables that evoke or sustain practices related to social issues; (3) identify at least one action step that they can take as a behavior analyst to become involved in addressing social issues.
 
Diversity submission Diversity submission An Introduction and Brief Overview of the Behaviorists for Social Responsibility Special Interest Group’s Matrix Project
MICHAELA SMITH (University of North Texas)
Abstract: The matrix analysis, adapted from Kurt Lewin’s (1951) force field analysis methodology, was expanded by Biglan (1995) and Mattaini (2013) to consider large, complex societal issues and examples of nonviolent struggles, respectively. Their work focused on adding the environmental variables that evoke and sustain the actions of key actors and sectors and the interdependencies among them. Mattaini and Luke (2014) built upon this work and initiated the BFSR Matrix Project. The aim of which is to increase the application of culturo-behavioral systems science to critical societal sectors and to increase the number of behavior analysts interested in culturo-behavioral systems science as applied to social issues. Since 2014, BFSR volunteers have identified 28 critical sectors, and have formed several topic-specific working groups that span multiple sectors. The working groups are responsible for systematically analyzing the sector or issue, developing and arranging environmental variables that promote and sustain desired practices, considering the resulting shifts, and revising the sector/issue as determined by the data. The purpose of this presentation is to provide a summary of the BFSR Matrix Project, give an overview of the current working groups, and briefly introduce a newly developed online training for future BFSR Matrix Project volunteers.
 
Diversity submission Diversity submission It Takes a Village: Working Together to Address a Super Wicked Problem
HOLLY SENIUK (Behavior Analyst Certification Board), Traci M. Cihon (University of North Texas), Molli Luke (Behavior Analyst Certification Board), Molly Benson (Bershire Association for Behavior Analysis and Therapy), Jonathan W. Kimball (Behavior Development Solutions), Julia H. Fiebig (Ball State University; Applied Global Initiatives LLC), Sarah Lichtenberger (Behavior Analyst Certification Board)
Abstract: Climate change has been identified as a “super wicked problem” and is the most pressing issue facing humanity today. The sustainability working group of the Behaviorists for Social Responsibility Special Interest Group (BFSR SIG) is focused on applying the matrix analysis to facilitate the growth of behavior analysts working in the area of sustainability. The sustainability working group has created resources to help behavior analysts connect with the sustainability literature and identify action steps to begin work in this area (e.g., bibliography, interviews). The working group is currently working collaboratively with the Behavior Analysis for Sustainable Societies (BASS) SIG using the matrix analysis to identify the practices that ABAI SIGs can engage in to support practices that encourage behavior analysts to address sustainability within their selected special interest areas. The primary goal is to identify several immediately feasible and some more challenging but doable practices and to then create the resources necessary to support these practices. This presentation will highlight the work of the sustainability working group, describe the resources created, and share the future goals of the working group.
 
Diversity submission Diversity submission Expanding Behavioral Systems Work Among Behavior Analysts: Diversity, Equity, Inclusion and Education Working Group
TEMPLE S LOVELACE (Duquesne University), Jovonnie L. Esquierdo-Leal (University of Nevada, Reno), Nahoma Maytal Presberg (Behaviorists for Social Responsibility), Holly Seniuk (Behavior Analyst Certification Board), Traci M. Cihon (University of North Texas), Valdeep Saini (Brock University)
Abstract: In the midst of a new social movement, there is a clarion call for educational efforts and actions that address age-old social issues such as systemic racism, poverty, environmental justice, and more. To begin developing content pertaining to these issues, members of the Behaviorists for Social Responsibility Special Interest Group (BFSR SIG) of ABAI initiated the Matrix Project. Within this effort, members identified specific practices that contribute to expanding and promoting behavioral systems work among 28 societal sectors, including behavior analysis programs, students, and faculty. The Education Diversity Equity and Inclusion working group of BFSR has used the matrix analysis to identify resources that serve as antecedents for practices to train students and professionals in social and environmental issues such as sample course units on sustainability. This presentation will focus on the findings of a recent needs assessment administered by the DEI working group to inform the development of resources that behavior analysis faculty and practitioners can use to integrate social issue topics into their current practice. Implications of the findings as well as future initiatives will be discussed.
 
Diversity submission Diversity submission Pathways to Recovery: Community Resilience
KHADIJAH AL-FARAJ (National University, Elk Grove Unified School District ), Jose Ardila (University of Nevada)
Abstract: System level factors are key to understanding major structural issues facing current communities, including climate change, violence, racial and gender discrimination, and global refugee crises. Human communities also face increasing threats to their cultural survival from weather and social disasters, demanding immediate and long-term action plans. Intervening on community practices to address these issues is challenging, especially when urgent action is needed to recover from immediate disasters (e.g., hurricanes, mass shootings).There are at least three necessary “behavioral-system kernels” in the pathway to community recovery: preparedness plans (prepare), reactive measures (react), and resilient actions (recover).The goals pursued by the community resilience subcommittee, therefore, are (a) assemble resources to make it easier for behavior analysts and students of behavior analysis to study systemic factors associated with community resilience and (b) build assessment tools to evaluate community resilience. An overview of the notion of community resilience in behavior analysis and subcommittee efforts in this area will be explained in this presentation.
 
 
Symposium #279
CE Offered: BACB
Diversity submission A Behavior Analysis of Social Injustice and Gender Discrimination: Relational Frames, Psychological Flexibility, and Discounting
Sunday, May 30, 2021
3:00 PM–4:50 PM EDT
Online
Area: CSS/VRB; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Taylor Marie Lauer (Missouri State University)
Discussant: Dana Paliliunas (Missouri State University)
CE Instructor: Dana Paliliunas, Ph.D.
Abstract:

The year 2020 marked social upheaval not seen since the civil rights movement and the women’s rights movements of the 1950s through the 1970s. Two major events included the #MeToo movement and the murder of George Floyd by police in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Behavior analysis did not exist as a singular field early in this struggle but may provide a research strategy that can participate within a broader scientific movement to understand social injustice and discrimination. The first talk will explore how relational frames and psychological flexibility are related to attitudes about social justice issues that exist today. The next three talks will explore challenges specific to women as a function of gender discrimination and social norms. First, we will explore how motherhood can lead to increased probability discounting with implications for employment and promotion of women in the workplace. Second, we will evaluate gender stereotyping may emerge and self-organize within relational density theory and the role of gender non-conforming exemplars in the development of a psychologically flexible view of gender. Finally, we will explore how modest and revealing clothing may impact the believability of sexual harassment claims by women in private and public contexts. These studies will be situated within a broader strategy to addressing social injustice and gender discrimination within Westernized cultures.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Civil rights, Gender discrimination, Relational frames, Social justice
Target Audience:

BCBAs

Learning Objectives: (1) Identify the relationships between psychological flexibility and attitudes about social justice; (2) Describe the relationship between discounting and motherhood; (3) Discuss the role of relational frames within a nested model of sexism
 
Diversity submission 

Looking Beyond Political Perspectives: Examining Flexibility Related to Social Justice Issues from a Behavior Analytic and Relational Approach

JESSICA M HINMAN (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale), Zhihui Yi (Univeristy of Illinois at Chicago), Mark R. Dixon (University of Illinois at Chicago)
Abstract:

The current presentation will present data examining the relationship between derived relational responding, psychological flexibility, and perceived importance of various social justice issues. Participants from across the United States with differing self-identified political beliefs were asked to complete an online version of the PEAK Compressive Assessment Transformation-Expressive (PCA-T-E) module and a series of psychological flexibility questionnaires. Next, participants completed an online, paired choice preference assessment which presented them with twelve different social justice issues including racism, climate change, national security, and health care, and they were instructed to indicate which one they found more important. Based on their preference assessment results and self-reported political identity, participants were categorized as rigid or flexible based on how their ranked social justice issues aligned with their political views. Results suggest that individuals with flexible political views outperform individuals with rigid political views on the PCA-T-E assessment but show little differentiation in psychological flexibility, suggesting a relationship between language and political rigidity. Implications for further assessment and intervention aimed to expand flexibility are discussed.

 
Diversity submission Experimental Evaluation of Risk Aversion in Mothers in a Hypothetical Parenting and Discounting Task
JESSICA M VENEGONI (Missouri State University ), Elana Keissa Sickman (Missouri State University), Brittany A Sellers (Missouri State University ), Lindsey Audrey Marie Dennis (Missouri State University), Jordan Belisle (Missouri State University)
Abstract: Prior research over multiple generations has shown lower levels of risk-taking in females compared to males, and lower risk taking in mothers compared to non-mothers (Abbott-Chapman et al., 2007). Risk can be defined behaviorally within a choice-making framework where choices confer a probabilistic gain that co-occurs with a probabilistic loss. Low levels of risk-taking can be advantageous in some contexts but harmful in others. For example, Ekelund et al. (2005) showed that individuals who demonstrated high risk aversion were less likely to become independent entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship may be considered risky because, although the financial potential is high, so too are social, financial, and temporal loses. In the present study, we evaluated the relationship between a shared experience of mothers – parenting – on probability discounting as a behavioral model of risk and risk aversion. Participants completed three probability discounting tasks. The first was the standard discounting task. In the second task, the participants imagined that they had a young child and were required to actively interact with this scenario before completing the discounting task. In the third task, the participants imagined the child had a chronic illness that necessitated lengthy hospitalization. Results showed that the least risky (i.e., lowest discounting rates) were observed in the condition with the sick child, and the most risky (i.e., highest discounting rates) were observed in the baseline condition. These results suggest that contextual factors associated with parenting may mediate risk-taking in mothers with implications for employment, advancement, and entrepreneurship.
 
Diversity submission 

Relational Density Theory: Evaluating Relational Frames Within Gender Stereotyping

ELANA KEISSA SICKMAN (Missouri State University), Jordan Belisle (Missouri State University), Ashley Payne (Missouri State University ), Erin Travis (Missouri State University)
Abstract:

Discrimination against women in Western cultures is evident within educational and professional experiences of women, as well as pay and promotion disadvantages experienced by women. Relational frames may contribute to implicit biases that operate within nested contingency systems. The present study attempts to explore the apparent self-organization of gendered relational frames from within a Relational Density Theory framework. We first modelled gendered frames within a two-dimensional geometric space. In a second phase, gender consistent and gender inconsistent information was provided for four hypothetical non-gendered people. We then modelled the gendered frames again along with the inclusion of the hypothetical people to see if gender consistent frames exerted gravity on unstated relations about the hypothetical people. Finally, participants were divided into two groups and were given gender information that either cohered or failed to cohere with the stereotypic gendered frames. Results show differences in the formation and erosion of stereotypic frames as shown within the geometric space. Results have implications for understanding the innermost layer of the nested model.

 
Diversity submission 

Implicit Bias Within a Nested Model of Sexism

CHYNNA BRIANNE FRIZELL (Misssouri State University ), Sara Johnson (Missouri State University), Crystal Tracy (Missouri State University), Dana Paliliunas (Missouri State University)
Abstract:

Sexism and biases related to women are important areas of empirical attention in the United States due to social issues involving prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination on the basis of sex. The study of implicit biases related to sex or gender has garnered interest, with contributions from behaviorally oriented researchers present within the past several years. We suggest that implicit bias is one relevant component of a model of sexism consistent with another proposed model of racial bias as described by Belisle, Payne, & Paliliunas (under review). First, peer-reviewed research related to implicit bias and sex will be reviewed in terms of this proposed model, additionally utilizing the theory-to-impact model described by Dixon, Belisle, Rehfeldt, & Root (2018) to evaluate the literature in the areas of theory, basic/translational, and applied research. Second, two empirical investigations measuring potential biases related to sex or gender using the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) and evaluation of relational responding will be reviewed and discussed in terms of implications for future research, highlighting the need for applied, intervention-focused research in this area.

 
 
Symposium #294
CE Offered: BACB/QABA
Diversity submission Lessons Learned by Behavior Analysts From Areas Working on Fully Implementing an ABA Medicaid Benefit
Sunday, May 30, 2021
4:00 PM–5:50 PM EDT
Online
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Gordon Bourland (Trinity Behavioral Associates and TxABA Public Policy Committee)
Discussant: Katherine Miriam Johnson-Patagoc (Texana Center and TxABA Public Policy Group)
CE Instructor: Katherine Miriam Johnson-Patagoc, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Many people who could benefit greatly from ABA services cannot gain access to them due to lack of financial resources and insurance. Medicaid funding of ABA services is one mechanism to enable financially and socially disadvantaged people to benefit from ABA services. The session will involve discussions by behavior analysts from 4 areas of the United States regarding how behavior analysts have and could address public policy issues related to Medicaid programs funding ABA services. The activities and contributions of behavior analysts in 3 states and the Washington DCs will be presented. The sequences of events in each jurisdiction differ, but some general strategy recommendations will be addressed along with suggestions regarding with issues unique to a jurisdiction. Audience participation will be encouraged.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Medicaid coverage, public policy, social disadvantage
Target Audience:

Attendees will be most likely to benefit from the presentations if they are not only knowledge regarding behavior analysis principle, ABA services, but also have some exposure to and/ or experience regarding public policy, Medicaid funding if possible.

Learning Objectives: The attendee will: 1. State the importance of Medicaid funding for behavior analysis services, 2. State the importance of having qualified professionals provide ABA services in state funded waiver programs, 3. State why behavior analysts should participate in the process of educating fellow professionals about the value of their services in the context of a team approach, 4. Identify at least 2 barriers that have arisen with Mediciad funding of ABA services, 5. Identify the importance of collaboration across stakeholders 6. Identify advocacy strategy for overcoming barriers to services 7. Identify strategies for navigating complex legislative landscapes
 
Diversity submission Illinois Medicaid for Applied Behavior Analysis Services
JOHN M. GUERCIO (Benchmark Human Services)
Abstract: This talk will detail the recent changes that have transpired with regard to the Illinois Association for Behavior Analysis (ABAI) and efforts to obtain Medicaid funding through the Department of Human Services in the state of Illinois. This talk will detail that sometimes arduous task of securing the appropriate professional qualifications to deliver ABA services in the Medicaid system. The many different service categories will be detailed along with how each service provider can sure that they are providing the appropriate services. The presentation will also detail the importance of active involvement by Behavior Analysts in the development of services at the state level. Suggestions will be provided related to the appropriate advocacy behavior for behavior analysts to engage in related to educating state lawmakers about the importance of ABA services and ensuring that the providers of these services have the appropriate credentials.
 
Diversity submission Texas’ Journey to Full Implementation of the Medicaid Funding for ABA Autism Services
BERENICE DE LA CRUZ (Texas A&M University-San Antonio and TxABA Public Policy Group), Jeffrey E. Dillen (Texana Center and TxABA Public Policy Group), Rany Thommen (ABA Today and TxABA Public Policy Group), Mariel C. Fernandez (Blue Sprig Pediatrics and TxABA Public Policy Group), Duy D. Le (Child Study Center Cook Children's and TxABA Public Policy Group), Gordon Bourland (Trinity Behavioral Associates and TxABA Public Policy Group), Katherine Miriam Johnson-Patagoc (Texana Center and TxABA Public Policy Group)
Abstract: The TxABA Public Policy Group will share information on the journey towards full implementation of the Medicaid coverage of Autism Services through Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnostic, and Treatment. On July 15, 2019, Texas became the 43rd state to have Medicaid coverage of ABA therapy. The signing of House Bill 1, including Rider 32, by Governor Greg Abbott authorized ABA as a benefit for people with Autism Spectrum Disorder under the age of 21. Behavior analysts from Texas will share barriers, solutions, and lessons learned. The integral goal of partnerships with local, state, and national organizations and the inclusion of parents and self-advocates will be examined. The vital role of a paid advocate and how fees were covered will be shared. Behavior analysts learned how to educate legislators at district and capitol offices, advocate for the needs of the community, become resources for legislators. The role of visibility and mutual benefit will be highlighted. Lastly, challenges in fully implementing the Medicaid benefit in Texas will be discussed.
 
Diversity submission Advocating for Medicaid in a Complicated Legislative Space
AMANDA P. LAPRIME (University of Rochester Medical Center ), Maureen O'Grady (NYSABA Legislative Co-Chair and New Alternatives for Children), Deborah A. Napolitano (NYSABA Legislative Chair, Daemen College Department of Applied Behavior Analysis, and Golisano Institute for Developmental Disabilities Nursing at St. John Fisher College )
Abstract: The presenter will describe the complicated legislative landscape in New York as context for the fight for Medicaid funding of applied behavior analysis services for individuals with autism. The history of insurance-based services for individuals with autism and the current challenges faced by practicing behavior analysts in NY State will be described. The speakers will identify and define the barriers to implementation of Medicaid reimbursed ABA services and share problem solving approaches. The intensive collaboration across stakeholders will be highlighted, including NYSABA, medical/clinical providers, Autism Speaks, Community Based Organizations, and several lobbying firms. A model will be presented for translating the unique service tiers of insurance funded behavior analytic services for evaluation by state legislative and regulatory bodies. In addition, speakers will explain why this approach is a necessary step to overcoming the barriers of service delivery in NY State. Speakers will further identify the components of a large scale needs assessment, with a focus on the identification, operationalization, and remediation of barriers across multiple systems.
 
Diversity submission 

ABA Service Provision and Medicaid in the District of Columbia

MARY CARUSO-ANDERSON (DC ABA), Lera Joyce Johnson (DC ABA; George Mason University), Cynthia Escobar (J &C Behavioral Therapy, LLC), Keven M. Schock (Aveanna ), Elena Zaklis (Rutgers University), Jacqueline Landa Jackson (DC ABA), Colleen Williams (BACB), Flor De Amelia Lizette Hoffman (DC ABA)
Abstract:

Medicaid is an important source of funding for medically-necessary services for children with autism. Although State Medicaid programs vary in their reimbursement practices, children receive a variety of services that address core deficits and behavioral challenges in autism, some of which may not be covered under commercial insurance plans due to benefit exclusions or other limits under private insurance. Data from 2005 showed that only 29 states provided Medicaid reimbursement for applied behavior analysis (ABA). The District of Columbia was excluded from this study due to poor quality data. Therefore, the purpose of this talk is to examine the process by which ABA services are obtained and reimbursed through Medicaid in the District of Columbia. The impact of this process on service providers will be evaluated to help identify barriers to obtaining ABA-based treatments through Medicaid in the District. Finally, we will explore the relationship between state licensure of BCBAs and Medicaid reimbursement.

 
 
Symposium #296
CE Offered: BACB
Diversity submission Recent Developments in Verbal Behavior Research: Updates from the Verbal Behavior Special Interest Group
Sunday, May 30, 2021
4:00 PM–5:50 PM EDT
Online
Area: VRB/AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Lauren Schnell (Hunter College, City of New York)
Discussant: David C. Palmer (Smith College)
CE Instructor: David C. Palmer, Ph.D.
Abstract:

This symposium includes four studies related to verbal behavior in individuals with varying repertoires. The first study investigated the effects of a speaker immersion protocol on the number of speaker responses (tacts and mands) emitted by 3 preschool students under naturalistic, not directly targeted, conditions. The second study investigated a method of teaching individuals to report the intensity of the non-painful tactile sensations rough and tight. The third study investigated the effects of female and male audiences on gender-biased verbal behavior using an online chat environment analog. The fourth study investigated the use of verbal behavior in the formation of comparative relations. Collectively, these studies will share the most up to date research on expanding the verbal behavior of those individuals with and without disabilities. Following the presentations, David Palmer will provide discussant comments.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Autism, Verbal Behavior
Target Audience:

Audience members should have a basic understanding of verbal behavior.

Learning Objectives: 1. At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to arrange interventions to teach individuals with autism to tact sensations. 2. At the conclusion of the presentation, the participants will be able to use a speaker immersion protocol to increase speaker responses in preschool children. 3. At the conclusion of the presentation, the participants will be able to use a MET plus problem-solving procedure to establish comparative relations and pass emergent relations tests in college learners.
 
Diversity submission Generalized Verbal Behavior Increases Following a Speaker Immersion Intervention
APARNA NARESH (Teachers College, Columbia University), Mary Kathleen Short (Teachers College, Columbia University), Daniel Mark Fienup (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract: A goal of behavior analytic interventions is to produce behavior that is maintained under naturalistic conditions. In this experiment, we studied the effects of a speaker immersion protocol (SIP) on the number of speaker responses (tacts and mands) emitted by 3 preschool students under naturalistic, not directly targeted, conditions. During the SIP, the researchers provided 100 daily opportunities for the participants to emit mands using the target mand form by contriving establishing operations throughout the school day. The effects of the intervention were evaluated using a multiple probe design and by measuring target mands during establishing operations (EO) probe sessions and the number of mands and tacts emitted during noninstructional settings (NIS) probe sessions. The researchers found that the SIP produced increases in both targeted and generalized verbal behavior.
 
Diversity submission Teaching Individuals to Tact Intensity of Sensations Based on Public Accompaniments
SANDHYA RAJAGOPAL (Florida Institute of Technology), Katie Nicholson (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: Individuals with autism often have difficulty learning to report sensations. Healthcare professionals frequently ask individuals to use numerical rating scales to rate their pain intensity; therefore, reporting the intensity of uniquely experienced sensations is an important skill. The present study used a multiple baseline design across stimulus sets to investigate a method of teaching individuals to report the intensity of the non-painful tactile sensations rough and tight. The first participant was a typically developing adult. The stimuli were hidden from the participant’s view throughout the study. In the teaching phase, during prompt sessions, the experimenter stated the intensity level during each trial; during probe sessions, the experimenter asked the participant to tact each intensity and provided feedback. The participant mastered the taught intensity tacts and generalized the tacts to a novel body part for both sensations, but he did not demonstrate consistent generalization to novel intensities and novel stimuli. This study will include 2 additional adults, 3 typically developing children, and 1 child with autism. Findings will be discussed in terms of teaching children with autism to tact private events.
 
Diversity submission 

An Experimental Analysis of Gender-Biased Verbal Behavior and Self-Editing Using an Online Analog

FERNANDA SUEMI ODA (The University of Kansas), Sarah A. Lechago (University of Houston-Clear Lake), Bruno Eneas da Silva (KMM Engenharia de Software), Justin Hunt (Endeavor Behavioral)
Abstract:

Intolerance, discrimination, and violence are examples of gender-related problems women experience worldwide. One common form of gender-biased behavior is verbal behavior (e.g., interrupting, sexual harassment, sexist jokes). Despite its ubiquity, however, the effects of audience gender on gender-biased verbal behavior have not been experimentally investigated within the field of behavior analysis. The current study employed a multi-element design to investigate the effects of female and male audiences on gender-biased verbal behavior using an online chat environment analog. The chat analog allowed access to self-editing behaviors, which are frequently covert, thus providing additional information about verbal episodes. Participants were 28 typically developing adults. Both overt and covert responses were recorded for the following behaviors: self-editing, disagreeing, interrupting, and pressuring. Differentiated responding across genders for disagreeing, interrupting, and pressuring was observed. Covert disagreeing occurred more frequently in the presence of male confederates, and covert pressuring occurred more frequently in the presence of female confederates.

 
Diversity submission Investigating the Effects of Verbal Behavior on Emergent Comparative Relations
SHANNON LUOMA (California State University, Sacramento), Caio F. Miguel (California State University, Sacramento), Vanessa N Lee (California State University, Sacramento)
Abstract: This study investigated the use of verbal behavior in the formation of comparative relations. We used a talk-aloud procedure to assess emission of tacts and/or intraverbals during matching-to-sample tasks using a nonconcurrent multiple baseline design. During multiple exemplar training (MET), participants learned to select the smallest or biggest comparison in the presence of abstract samples. Next, participants learned to select arbitrary comparisons in the presence of both contextual cues, to establish a size ranking among comparisons. To assess participants’ verbal behavior during the mutual and combinatorial entailment tests, they were instructed to talk out loud. Results replicate our previous data suggesting that MET alone does not seem sufficient to establish comparative relations, and that college students may need to engage in problem solving strategies to pass emergent relations tests. Additional participants will be exposed to the procedure to assess for the generality of these findings.
 
 
Symposium #315
CE Offered: BACB
Diversity submission Evaluations of Telehealth-Delivered, Culturally Adapted, and Caregiver-Implemented Functional Analysis and Functional Communication Training Around the World
Sunday, May 30, 2021
6:00 PM–6:50 PM EDT
Online
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Yaniz C. Padilla Dalmau (Seattle Children's Hospital)
CE Instructor: Yaniz C. Padilla Dalmau, Ph.D.
Abstract:

With the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic, most behavior analysts have become more familiar with utilizing telehealth technology to deliver services to their local clients. The research teams presenting in today’s symposium have been leveraging telehealth service delivery models long before the pandemic to evaluate and deliver culturally-adapted services across areas in the world that have lower access to trained behavior analysts. The first presentation will describe a two-part study conducted in Africa via telehealth which includes a needs assessment of caregivers of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), didactic instruction for caregivers, and individualized parent training in functional analysis (FA) and functional communication training (FCT). The second presentation will describe caregiver training of FA and FCT delivered via telehealth to families in South Asia with a focus on procedural integrity and generalization. The third presentation will illustrate an evaluation of culturally-adapted versus standard caregiver training during telehealth delivered FA and FCT for six families in India. All presentations will highlight effectiveness of interventions, social acceptability, in addition to cultural considerations in the delivery of telehealth caregiver-delivered FA and FCT across cultures.

Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): caregiver training, FCT, functional analysis, telehealth
Target Audience:

Practitioners and researchers interested in implementing and evaluating behavioral assessment and intervention via telehealth specifically to diverse populations across the world.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) Describe methodologies for implementing caregiver-implemented functional analysis (FA) and functional communication training (FCT) through telehealth and some of the supporting research evidence; (2) Describe the cultural considerations and modifications made by the authors when delivering caregiver-conducted FA and FCT across cultures; (3) Describe changes the participant can make to their own practice to deliver FA and FCT via telehealth effectively across cultures.
 
Diversity submission A Telehealth Model for Delivering Behavior Analytic Services to Families in Africa
LOUKIA TSAMI (University of Houston, Clear Lake), Bertilde U Kamana (The May Institute ), Margaret Uwayo (Michigan State University; By Your Side Autism Services), Dorothea C. Lerman (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
Abstract: Just 30 Board Certified Behavior Analysts (BCBAs) reside in Africa even though the continent’s population is four times larger than that of the United States (BACB Certificant Registry, n.d.). In this two-part study, caregivers of children with autism from 24 African countries completed an online needs assessment. Survey results indicated that (a) children with autism do not have access to free public education, (b) misconceptions about autism are common in many communities, and (c) parents have few opportunities to receive training on how to treat problem behavior. Following the survey, BCBAs located in the United States provided educational presentations for caregivers and professionals in various African countries and selected three families of children to receive individualized parent training services. The BCBA coached the caregivers via telehealth to conduct functional analyses and functional communication training with their children, who engaged in high levels of problem behavior at home. The intervention was effective for all children, and the caregivers reported satisfaction with the procedures and training modality. These findings replicate those of prior research indicating that this telehealth model is effective for providing behavior analytic services to families in underserved countries (e.g., Tsami et al., 2019).
 
Diversity submission Training Caregivers in South Asia via Telehealth to Implement Function-Based Treatments for Problem Behavior
NAOMI ALPHONSO (University of Houston, Clear Lake), Loukia Tsami (University of Houston, Clear Lake), Dorothea C. Lerman (University of Houston-Clear Lake), Marissa Matteucci (University of Houston, Clear Lake)
Abstract: Recent research has indicated that training caregivers to conduct functional analyses (FA) and functional communication training (FCT) via remote coaching is a highly efficient and socially valid procedure (Wacker et al., 2013, Tsami, Lerman, & Toper-Korkmaz, 2019). In the evaluation of the telehealth approach, one area that has not been examined is the amount of prompting caregivers need to implement FCT sessions with high fidelity and the generalization of their skills to areas outside of trained situations. With three participants from South Asia, the current study evaluated caregivers’ procedural integrity in the absence of the primary therapist and in various settings with novel preferred items as a measure of generalization. Caregivers from two countries implemented the FCT protocols with high integrity which was successful in reducing problem behaviors for three of the four children diagnosed with autism. High rates of procedural fidelity were maintained in the absence of the primary therapist and with the caregivers using novel stimuli in different locations. All caregivers rated the procedures as acceptable and were satisfied with the results. These findings indicate that after receiving remote coaching, caregivers can independently generalize the behavioral procedures to various locations with sustained high integrity.
 
Diversity submission One Size Fits One: Cultural Adaptations in the Remote Training of Care Providers
Rima Hamawe (Family Model Behavior Therapy, LLC), Amanda Rose Garcia (Family Model Behavior Therapy, LLC), Maithri Sivaraman (Ghent University), TARA FAHMIE (California State University, Northridge)
Abstract: Autism intervention is in its infancy with regards to considering cultural factors while describing best practices for recruitment, assessment, and treatment of individuals with autism. The drastic changes that have occurred world-wide in response to COVID-19 have led to an increased demand for evidence-based telehealth programming. Accompanying this is the demand for remote training, particularly in areas such as India where few certified behavior analysts exist. The purpose of this study was to closely examine the role that culture plays in remote parent coaching. We used either standard or culturally-adapted telehealth technologies to train six caregivers in India to implement functional analyses and functional communication training with their children with ASD. We evaluated culturally adapted training vs. standard caregiver training on acquisition of new skills, reductions in problem behavior, and social validity in our participants. We also compared the efficacy of our treatment using number of sessions to meet criterion, and number of session cancellations, and a direct measure of preference. Results showed no difference in the effectiveness and efficacy of both treatments but caregivers demonstrated higher preference for culturally-adapted treatment. These outcomes will be discussed in their relation to cultural competency and the proliferation of telehealth technologies worldwide.
 
 
Panel #322
CE Offered: BACB — 
Ethics
Diversity submission Hindsight’s 2020: Missteps, Mistakes, and Lessons Learned for the Future of Ethics in Behavior Analysis
Sunday, May 30, 2021
6:00 PM–6:50 PM EDT
Online
Area: PCH/TBA; Domain: Theory
CE Instructor: Darren Sush, Psy.D.
Chair: Darren Sush (Cigna; Pepperdine University)
SARA GERSHFELD LITVAK (Behavioral Health Center of Excellence)
SHANE T. SPIKER (Positive Behavior Supports, Corp.)
IVY M CHONG (May Institute)
Abstract: While the field of applied behavior analysis (ABA) is full of monumental accomplishments and noteworthy achievements, today’s behavior analysts must also acknowledge the ethical challenges that contributed to the shaping of our discipline. Just as we review the behaviors of our predecessors, with the benefit of hindsight and context, it is imperative that we continue to monitor our current practice and anticipate how the choices we make as a field will be viewed and interpreted by future behavior analysts 5-, 10- and 20-years from now. Panelists will discuss ethical dilemmas in relation to the Professional and Ethical Compliance Code for Behavior Analysts (BACB, 2014), and what the behavior analysts of the future will learn from our successes and mistakes, with particular emphasis on the field’s response and reaction to the events surrounding COVID-19.
Instruction Level: Basic
Target Audience: The target audience is those currently practicing or conducting research in applied behavior analysis. Those who are teaching, or participating in graduate programs studying behavior analysis, particularly in the areas of ethics in ABA, will also benefit from this discussion.
Learning Objectives: 1. Attendees will gain knowledge into understanding ethical challenges when they occur to reduce risk, as well as insight into identifying potential ethically precarious situations before they become problematic. 2. Attendees will become familiar with ethical challenges that contributed to the development and maintenance of the Professional and Ethical Compliance Code for Behavior Analysts. 3. Attendees will gain insight into current ethical issues that are relevant to today's behavior analytic practices, and how these challenges may shape the future ethical practice of the field of ABA.
Keyword(s): "Ethics Code", "Ethics", BACB Code"
 
 
B. F. Skinner Lecture Series Paper Session #325
CE Offered: BACB
Diversity submission Promoting Equity in Assessment and Intervention With Young Dual-Language Learners
Sunday, May 30, 2021
6:00 PM–6:50 PM EDT
Online
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Sarah A. Lechago (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
CE Instructor: Sarah A. Lechago, Ph.D.
Presenting Author: LILLIAN DURÁN (University of Oregon)
Abstract:

Participants will learn key strategies and evidence-based practices to improve the services delivered to young dual language learners (DLLs) and their families. DLLs are an important and growing demographic in the US and this presentation will focus on practices that improve the accuracy of language assessment with children who are bilingual or multilingual and intervention approaches that can maximize language development. This presentation will focus on the need to provide services that promote equity in educational outcomes and validate the cultural and linguistic identity of the children and families we serve.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Practitioners, administrators, researchers

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) describe approaches to language assessment with dual language learners that improve accuracy and reduce bias; (2) discuss evidence-based language intervention practices and strategies for incorporating a child’s home language into intervention; (3) discuss basic fundamentals of bilingual development and how these principals of bilingual development should be incorporated into assessment and intervention; (4) reflect on their current service delivery with DLLs and identify areas for improvement.
 
LILLIAN DURÁN (University of Oregon)

Lillian Durán has a Ph.D. in Educational Psychology from the University of Minnesota and is currently an Associate Professor in the Department of Special Education and Clinical Sciences at the University of Oregon. She holds a B.A. in Elementary Education from Antioch College and a M.A. in Education and Human Development from the George Washington University. Her research is focused on improving instructional and assessment practices with preschool-aged dual language learners (DLLs). She is currently a Co-Principal Investigator on an IES measurement grant to develop a Spanish version of the Individual Growth and Development Indicators (S-IGDIs), a preschool language and literacy general outcome measure designed for screening and progress monitoring. Dr. Durán frequently delivers presentations nationally on the topic of recommended practices in assessment and intervention with young DLLs with and without identified disabilities. Dr. Durán also has experience with higher education curriculum development and she began a graduate Early Childhood Special Education licensure program at Minnesota State Mankato. Additionally, she has served on multiple equity and diversity councils including the National Association for Young Children and the Division for Early Childhood. Prior to Dr. Durán’s work in higher education she worked for 9 years as an early childhood special education teacher both in Prince George’s County, Maryland and in rural Minnesota.

 

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