Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

36th Annual Convention; San Antonio, TX; 2010

Program by Day for Tuesday, June 1, 2010


Manage My Personal Schedule

 

Business Meeting #486
Practitioner Issues in Behavior Analysis Special Interest Group
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
8:00 AM–8:50 AM
216B (CC)
Chair: Joseph D. Cautilli (Behavior Analysis and Therapy Partners)
Presenting Authors:
As applied behavior analysis forms into a profession it is logically developing interest and difficulties uniquely related to the practice of behavior analysis in the criminal justice system, school system, mental health system, and developmental disabilities system. This SIG is dedicated to the establishment of behavior analysis as a unique clinical practice. We serve both master and doctoral behavior analysts who work in all areas of therapy or consultation. This is our annual buisness meeting and our membership will be voting on leadership positions, as well as discussing the successes over the last year. If you have an interest in clinical or consulting work and have practice issues, please attend our meeting.
 
 
Business Meeting #487
Association for Behavior Analysis of India Meeting
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
8:00 AM–8:50 AM
212B (CC)
Chair: Smita Awasthi (Association for Behavior Analysis of India)
Presenting Authors:
The purpose of this meeting is to coordinate with professionals traveling to India to work in the field of autism, seek joint ventures with organization involved in organizational behavior management, identify universities for joint collaborations for applied behavior analysis (ABA) courses in India, meet professionals working with educators and neurologically typical children, network with Indians living abroad, and encourage professionals to participate in First South East Asian ABA Conference hosted by the Association for Behavior Analysis of India in December 2010.
 
 
Business Meeting #488
New York State Association for Behavior Analysis
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
8:00 AM–8:50 AM
215 (CC)
Chair: Vicki Madaus Knapp (Summit Educational Resources)
Presenting Authors:
This is the New York State Assocation for Behavior Analysis business meeting.
 
 
Business Meeting #489
Behavior Analysis in Practice Business Meeting for Authors, Prospective Authors, and Board Members
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
8:00 AM–8:50 AM
216A (CC)
Chair: Gregory P. Hanley (Western New England College)
Presenting Authors:
The annual report of the new practitioner-oriented journal, Behavior Analysis in Practice, will be presented and followed by a discussion of journal policies and content. Board members and prospective authors are encouraged to attend.
 
 
Business Meeting #490
Hawai'i Association for Behavior Analysis
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
8:00 AM–8:50 AM
213A (CC)
Chair: Jessie Mitchell (Behavioral Counseling and Research Center)
Presenting Authors:
Ho'olaule'a O HABA, Members and Friends of Hawai'i Association for Behavior Analysis are invited to celebrate the growth of applied behavior analysis practitioners in Hawai'i and a short chapter business meeting will occur to discuss the 2010 conference and chapter projects. E komo mai.
 
 
Invited Tutorial #491
CE Offered: BACB
Incorporating Elements of the Derived Stimulus Relations Research Program Into Educational Curricula for Learners With Autism and Other Disabilities
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
Ballroom A (CC)
Area: AUT/VRB; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
BACB CE Offered. CE Instructor: Gregory Hanley, Ph.D.PhD
Chair: Dorothea C. Lerman (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
Presenting Author: RUTH ANNE REHFELDT (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract: Basic laboratory research on derived stimulus relations has far outnumbered applied investigations on the topic, but incorporating elements of the derived stimulus relations research program into educational curricula for learners with autism and other developmental disabilities may be an economic and efficient means of expanding basic language repertoires. Moreover, such an approach may be consistent with best practices in education articulated by Skinner (2003), as well as be particularly appropriate in light of current school legislation. The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the aspects of the derived stimulus relations research program that are relevant for inclusion into educational curricula. I will focus on how practitioners might program for the emergence of relational repertoires within the framework of other curricular approaches, and how such a technology may be used to construct basic language, reading, spelling, and other relational repertoires. The tutorial will include practitioner strategies and recommendations that are presented in Derived Relational Responding: Applications for Learners with Autism and other Developmental Disabilities: A Progressive Guide to Change.
 
RUTH ANNE REHFELDT (Southern Illinois University)
Dr. Ruth Anne Rehfeldt is a Professor in the Rehabilitation Services undergraduate program and an affiliated faculty in the Behavior Analysis and Therapy program. She holds a Ph.D. (1998) and M.A. (1995) from the Behavior Analysis Program (in Psychology) at the University of Nevada, and a B.A. (1993) in psychology from the University of Puget Sound. She is also a Board Certified Behavior Analyst. Dr. Rehfeldt currently teaches courses in single-subject research design, behavioral assessment and observation methods and Radical Behaviorism. Dr. Rehfeldt has authored over 60 articles and book chapters, primarily in the areas of stimulus equivalence and verbal relations, autism, developmental disabilities and verbal behavior. Dr. Rehfeldt is currently the Editor of The Psychological Record and an editorial board member for the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behaviour, the Behavior Analyst and Education and Treatment of Children. Dr. Rehfeldt's book, co-edited with Yvonne Barnes-Holmes, is entitled Derived Relational Responding: Applications for Learners with Autism and other Developmental Disabilities: A Progressive Guide to Change. New Harbinger: Oakland, CA, 2009.
 
 
Symposium #492
Mindfulness for Two Revisited: Further Investigations into the Therapeutic Relationship
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
Crockett A/B (Grand Hyatt)
Area: CBM/VRB; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Carrie Ambrose (University of Mississippi)
Discussant: Emily Kennison Sandoz (University of Mississippi)
Abstract: Researchers have long been interested in different factors relevant to the process and outcome of therapy (Smith & Glass, 1977). This symposium will present findings from a series of studies involving an analogue of a first therapy session. In each of these studies, particular therapeutic variables that are theoretically important to the practice of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy were manipulated (Wilson & DuFrene, 2009). Some of the variables included manipulations on the therapist interaction, conversational differences, and room set-up. These variables include: personal disclosure, asking for permission to discuss something difficult, a brief mindfulness exercise prior to the session, a brief values exercise prior to session, chair placement, and use of clipboard for information gathering. Data were collected and scored from a videotape recording of the session. Self-report data were collected post-interview from both interviewers and interviewees using measures of therapeutic alliance and personal experiences, such as positive/negative mood and physical sensations.
 
Mindfulness for Two Revisited: Manipulating the Therapist
CARRIE AMBROSE (University of Mississippi), Charles Peterson (University of Mississippi), Brittany A. Carstens (University of Mississippi), Regan M. Slater (University of Mississippi), Kelly G. Wilson (University of Mississippi), Kate Kellum (University of Mississippi)
Abstract: Two studies examined how manipulating the interviewer’s behavior during the interview affects a number of different process variables believed to be relevant to the practice of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (Wilson & DuFrene, 2009). In the first study, the interviewer participated in a mindfulness exercise prior to the session. In the second study, the interviewer was instructed to disclose personal information to the interviewee. Next, the interviewer was instructed to ask the interviewee about a disagreement they had with someone who is important to them. Data were collected and scored from a videotape recording of the session. Self-report data were collected post-interview from both interviewers and interviewees using measures of therapeutic alliance and personal experiences, such as positive/negative mood and physical sensations.
 
Mindfulness for Two Revisited: Manipulating the Conversation
NICKI JEANE (University of Mississippi), Charles Peterson (University of Mississippi), Brittany A. Carstens (University of Mississippi), Regan M. Slater (University of Mississippi), Kelly G. Wilson (University of Mississippi), Kate Kellum (University of Mississippi)
Abstract: Two studies examined how manipulating conversational variables during the interview affects a number of different process variables believed to be relevant to the practice of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (Wilson & DuFrene, 2009). In the first study, the interviewer asked the interviewee for permission to discuss something difficult. In the second study, the interviewee completed a brief values exercise prior to session. Next, the interviewer was instructed to ask the interviewee about a disagreement they had with someone who is important to them. Data were collected and scored from a videotape recording of the session. Self-report data were collected post-interview from both interviewers and interviewees using measures of therapeutic alliance and personal experiences, such as positive/negative mood and physical sensations.
 
Mindfulness for Two Revisited: Manipulating the Room
SUMMER KING (University of Mississippi), Charles Peterson (University of Mississippi), Brittany A. Carstens (University of Mississippi), Regan M. Slater (University of Mississippi), Kelly G. Wilson (University of Mississippi), Kate Kellum (University of Mississippi)
Abstract: Two studies examined how manipulating variables within the therapy room during the interview affects a number of different process variables believed to be relevant to the practice of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (Wilson & DuFrene, 2009). In the first study, the interviewer used a clipboard for information gathering during the session. In the second study, the interviewer and interviewee chairs were placed face to face, rather than at an angle. Next, the interviewer was instructed to ask the interviewee about a disagreement they had with someone who is important to them. Data were collected and scored from a videotape recording of the session. Self-report data were collected post-interview from both interviewers and interviewees using measures of therapeutic alliance and personal experiences, such as positive/negative mood and physical sensations.
 
 
Paper Session #493
Changing Challenging Behavior
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
Crockett C/D (Grand Hyatt)
Area: CBM
Chair: David A. Coleman, Jr. (Private Practice)
 
Behavior Analytic Treatment of Bipolar Disorder
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
DAVID A. COLEMAN, JR. (Private Practice)
 
Abstract: Bipolar disorder has long been believed to be resistant to traditional clinical treatment (outside of medication management). However, recent literature has demonstrated the effectiveness of dialectical behavior therapy and other cogntive-behavioral interventions for such difficult-to-treat conditions as bipolar disorder, personality disorders, posttraumatic stress disorder, etc. The present paper presents cogntive-behavioral strategies that have repeatedly been shown to work in both research studies and general clinical practice. Case studies, including outcome data, from the presenter's practice, will be included. Issues related to brain function, medication management, genetic patterns, and implications for family and social functioning will be discussed. Treatment complications, e.g. comorbid conditions, resistance to change, environmental influences, etc., and strategies for resolving them, will be reviewed. Intervention strategies that appear most necessary to successful outcomes will be highlighted. Intervention strategies and outcomes will be described in terms of the behavioral principals which account for production and maintenance of behavioral change.
 
Is Child Therapy an Exercise in Futility?
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
ANDREE FLEMING-HOLLAND (Universidad Veracruzana)
 
Abstract: After twenty years of practicing therapy with children and adolescents, there remains the question of whether therapy with children is profitable for the child. Children arrive at therapy because their parents perceive some problem; children do not arrive at therapy on their own, and usually have to be convinced that spending time away from friends or computer games really is in their best self-interest. This author has attended a large population of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children and adolescents using a cognitive behavior therapy framework. Although success rates have been over 90% in the short-term, there have been long-term relapse problems with this population. Noting this relapse problem from follow-ups, the author began to do mixed individual and family therapy with ADHD cases. As expected, working with parents beyond an informational level proved to be highly successful in preventing future relapses. In conclusion, families need to know how to keep the behavioral gains made in therapy for children, especially ADHD children, and to continue using the strategies learned in therapy and not derail due to a diffuse attentional focus or new environmental contingencies at school or at home.
 
 
 
Paper Session #494
Dementia Patients
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
Travis A/B (Grand Hyatt)
Area: DEV
Chair: Javier Virues-Ortega (CIBERNED, Carlos III Institute of Health)
 
The Reinforcing Effect of Edible, Leisure, and Social Stimuli in Patients With Dementia
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CELIA NOGALES-GONZALEZ (Association for Behavior Analysis Spain), Javier Virues-Ortega (CIBERNED, Carlos III Institute of Health)
 
Abstract: Alzheimer’s dementia is a neurodegenerative disease that involves a number of behavioral features that have not yet been studied. A basic step into that aim is to study how reinforcement works in this population. The present study explores systematically through a series of four experiments the following aspects of reinforcement in dementia: (a) forms of stimuli that are more frequently preferred by dementia patients, (b) dependence between preference and reinforcement among dementia patients, and (c) reinforcing effect of preferred stimuli in already acquired tasks and newly acquired tasks. In Experiment 1 an adapted version of the Fisher pair-wise preference protocol in 15 participants using edible and leisure stimuli. In Experiment 2 four participants were reinforced contingently upon engagement in tasks already in the individuals’ repertoire. Highly preferred items as identified in Experiment 1 were used as reinforcers. Experiment 3 replicated Experiment 2 with newly acquired tasks. Experiment 4 finally, replicated results in Experiments 2 and 3 controlling for the effect of social stimuli which was combined with leisure and edible items in Experiments 2 and 3. The present study may help establish the basis for the applied use of reinforcement in dementia patients.
 
CANCELLED Rule-Governed Versus Contingency-Shaped Behavior Among Dementia Patients
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
JAVIER VIRUES-ORTEGA (CIBERNED, Carlos III Institute of Health)
 
Abstract: A key factor in the development of behavior analysis entails the exploration of the behavioral operating features of specific diseases. Dementia is a neurodegenerative diseases that may have an impact on basic behavioral processes, although little research has been conducted from a behavioral perspective in this population. The present studies aims to identify the separate effects and the interaction of direct contingencies and contingencies posed verbally in the form of verbal instructions in the behavior pattern of dementia patients. Cumulative response rates were compared systematically over four conditions in which coincident and non-coincident verbal instructions and actual contingencies were paired: Condition 1, instruction described the actual schedule; Condition 2, instruction described a schedule different to the schedule actually operating; Condition 3, schedule only, no instruction; Condition 4, instruction only, no actual schedule. Results are discussed in the context of recent verbal behavior research and also in terms of the progressive deterioration of verbal behavior in patients with dementing disorders.
 
 
 
B. F. Skinner Lecture Series Paper Session #495
Cognitive Fire: Language as a Cultural Tool
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
103AB (CC)
Area: VRB; Domain: Theory
Chair: Matthew P. Normand (University of the Pacific)
DANIEL EVERETT (Illinois State University)
Daniel L. Everett currently serves as Chair of the Department of Languages, Literatures, and Cultures at Illinois State University in Normal, Illinois. He previously taught at the University of Manchester and is former Chair of the Linguistics Department of the University of Pittsburgh. His interests include the interaction and evolution of culture and grammar and the philosophy of language, the mind, and linguistics.
Abstract: This talk makes the case that language is not innate, that there is no language instinct, and that talk of universal grammar or a language organ doesn't match up well with the evidence from evolution, language development, or data from the world's languages. The points of this talk will be illustrated by means of personal experiences of mine and others in Mexico, Brazil, and elsewhere. I survey research by psychologists, computer scientists, primatologists, anthropologists, linguists, philosophers and others to make the case that language is an elaborate tool for our brains, the basis for other tools like math and music. Probably language was invented just once in human history, but evolves in all societies such that the form of language (grammar) comes to match the needs of its containing culture. Language was originally developed by someone like the guy on the GEICO commercials. That is, language most likely derives from the brains and efforts of normal hominins, rather than resulting from a sudden evolutionary saltation. Or to aphorize, it comes from cavemen, not X-men.
 
 
Symposium #496
Promoting Parent Training and Education in Autism Treatment
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
205 (CC)
Area: AUT/CSE; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Matt Mcalear (Easter Seals Bay Area)
Discussant: Matt Mcalear (Easter Seals Bay Area)
Abstract: Parent involvement in the education of children with autism is considered best-practice (National Research Council, 2001). Learning and development are enhanced when parents develop skills in facilitating interactions and managing behaviors. Parent education results in significant developmental gains in the areas of communication, behavior, adaptive skills, and generalization of previously learned skills (Koegel et. al, 1984). Caregivers also benefit from parent education through reduced parent stress and depression, enhanced parent-child interaction, increased positive parent affect, and increased time for leisure and recreational activities (Bristol, et. al, 1993). In the current political and economic climate, parent involvement is both a best practice approach and an efficacious component of applied behavior analytic intervention for children with autism. Participants in this symposium will learn the components of empirically based parent education programs designed to meet best practice guidelines. The first presentation discusses inclusion and integration of parents during in-home ABA programming. Culturally competent parent education and support services are the focus of the second presentation. The third presentation discusses parent coaching as a consultative service to in home programming. These topics represent a conceptual framework of integrated service provision. The synthesis of the programs will be discussed at the conclusion of the symposium.
 
Partners in Education: Integration of Parents in Home Based Programming
MICHELLE FICCAGLIA (Easter Seals Bay Area)
Abstract: When parents are active participants in their child’s intervention developmental and family outcomes are improved (Schriebman & Koegel, 2005). This presentation discusses a joint parent-provider model of in home applied behavior analytic intervention. The philosophical basis of this approach assumes the goal of intervention is not only to teach skills in isolated therapy sessions, but also to promote skill development with others in the child’s life, most especially families and caregivers. This model emphasizes the role of caregivers in providing generalization opportunities for their children’s skills and serving as pivotal members of their child’s educational team. When participating in services using this model, caregivers are expected to take an active role in their child’s intervention within the context of everyday routines and activities. To ensure that parents are able to make informed choices and generalize treatment goals outside of sessions a systematic parent education and training component is integrated in to all aspects of the program.
 
Improving Culturally Competent Practice: A Beginning Framework
PETER PALLARES-TORRES (Easter Seals Bay Area)
Abstract: The population of the United States is one of the most culturally diverse groups of the world. As a consequence, behavior therapists encounter clients/families from various cultural backgrounds daily. Evidence-based practices are clear about the importance of developing rapport and trust with clients (McPhatter 1997). However, our efforts at rapport building can be significantly compromised by breakdowns caused by differences between parent and provider cultural perspective. Dana et al (1992) describe cultural competence as “an ability to provide services that are perceived as legitimate for problems experienced by culturally diverse persons”. This presentation analyzes the literature on effective ways to achieve cross-cultural parent training, specifically examining the rituals of parenting considering cultural factors such as language, moral values, rules and laws, beliefs, and traditions (Christianens, Baccker, Baerheim et al. 2004). Additional family characteristics which can influence parent-provider relationships will also be presented including: education, social status, occupation and income.
 
Ancillary Support for an Autism Intervention Program: A Parent Coaching Model
ANDREW SHAHAN (Easter Seals Bay Area)
Abstract: The State of California has mandated group based parent training prior to the authorization of in home behavioral support services. This presentation describes a family education program designed to teach primary caregivers about critical features of behavior management and child development. The program is based on the belief that parents and family members with whom children with autism interact every day are in the best position to help their children learn to communicate and interact more successfully. The family education program is designed to be a short term, intensive training program implemented through dynamic teaching techniques involving presentations, hands-on learning opportunities, and video demonstrations. With effective coaching, families can learn to understand their child’s behavior, respond with appropriate best practice techniques, become active participants in analyzing their child’s behavior, assist to develop an intervention plan, and implement the plan. Parents should also become more familiar with the language and concepts of intervention used by professionals, empowering them to make informed decisions about their child’s education.
 
 
Symposium #497
CE Offered: BACB
Examining Prompting Strategies for Teaching Verbal Behavior
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
202AB (CC)
Area: AUT/VRB; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Kathleen M. Clark (New England Center For Children)
CE Instructor: James Johnston, Ph.D.
Abstract: Effective instructional techniques for establishing verbal behavior with children with autism spectrum disorders or related disabilities have been receiving increased attention over the past decade. The purpose of this symposium is to examine prompting procedures for teaching verbal behavior. Four papers will be delivered in this symposium chaired by Kathy Clark of the New England Center for Children. The first paper, presented by Tiffany Cook of the New England Center for Children, compares echoic and textual prompting for teaching intraverbal behavior. The second paper, presented by Einar Ingvarsson of the University of North Texas, examines echoic, tact, and textual prompts for teaching intraverbal responding as well as assessing participant preference across the prompting techniques. The third paper, presented by Patrick Romani of the University of Iowa, examines the effect of prompt density and the modality of mand for establishing manding for individuals with severe communicative impairments. The last paper, presented by Sean Peterson of Texas Christian University, examines the effects of identity matching and echoic prompting on the acquisition of auditory-visual conditional discriminations.
 
Echoic Prompts Are as Good as or Better Than Textual Prompts for Teaching Intraverbal Behavior
TIFFANY COOK (The New England Center for Children), Lynn Keenan (Loudoun County Public Schools), William H. Ahearn (The New England Center for Children), Caio F. Miguel (California State University, Sacramento)
Abstract: Finkel and Williams (2001) found that textual prompts were more effective than echoic prompts for teaching intraverbal responses to a child with an ASD. The current study examined whether this finding would be replicated. Six children with an ASD diagnosis were taught to answer social questions using both prompting procedures. A multiple probe design was used. Observers measured the number of trials to criteria during acquisition and correct answers to the target questions during probes. These measures were assessed during acquisition as well as during post-training, and generalization probes, and in a 3-week follow-up probe. The results showed that, for all participants, with the exception of the last set of questions for one participant, echoic prompts were more or equally effective relative to textual prompts for teaching intraverbal behavior. Probe session data showed that, after training was implemented, responding increased across all participants with the exception of during the textual prompts probe for one participant for question set 1. Responding was maintained throughout follow-up for all participants. These data indicate that, contrary to the findings of Finkel and Williams, children with autism may be more likely to learn to answer questions more rapidly when taught with echoic prompting.
 
The Effectiveness of and Preference for Echoic, Tact, and Textual Prompts for Establishing Intraverbal Responding in Children With Autism
EINAR T. INGVARSSON (University of North Texas), Duy Dang Le (Child Study Center), Kellyn Joi Johnson (University of North Texas)
Abstract: We conducted a systematic replication of a study by Ingvarsson and Hollobaugh (submitted for publication). The results of this study indicated that in teaching intraverbal responding (question-answering) to 3 boys with autism, tact prompts resulted in fewer trials to criterion than echoic prompts. Four boys with autism participated in the current study; echoic and tact prompts were compared with three participants, and echoic, tact, and textual prompts with one participant. We also evaluated repeated acquisition with different question sets, and included a concurrent-chains arrangement, in which initial link selections determined which prompting procedure occurred in the terminal link. All the prompting procedures were effective in establishing intraverbal responding, but echoic prompting resulted in the fewest trials to criterion for 3 of the 4 participants. The difference in results between the two studies may have been due to the fact that the participants in the current study had greater history with the use of echoic prompts than the participants in the previous study. Two out of four participants showed quicker acquisition with a second set of questions. The concurrent chains arrangement revealed a clear preference for tact prompts for one participant, and a moderate tact-prompt preference for another.
 
An Evaluation of the Interactive Effects of Prompt Density, Mand Modality, and Functional Reinforcers Within Functional Communication Training
PATRICK ROMANI (University of Iowa), Joel Eric Ringdahl (University of Iowa), Kelly M. Vinquist (University of Iowa), Anuradha Salil Kumar Dutt (University of Iowa), Maliha Zaman (University of Iowa), Haley Whittington (University of Iowa)
Abstract: In the present study, we present data from two participants diagnosed with developmental disability who have a history of using several communicative modalities. Specifically, we evaluated the interactive effect of prompt rate, mand modality, and functional reinforcer using concurrent and single reinforcement schedules arrangements. A functional analysis of mands was conducted to identify positive reinforcers maintaining communication. Next, the rate of prompt presentation was varied for each participant to evaluate this variables’ affect on manding for functional reinforcers. During dense prompt schedules, the participants were prompted every 30-seconds to use a particular mand modality. During lean prompt schedules, the participants were only prompted at the outset of the session to use the relevant mand modality. Appropriate manding resulted in 30-second access to a tangible item or attention, depending on the condition. Inter-observer agreement was collected across 30% of all conditions conducted and averaged above 90%. Results indicated that an interaction existed between prompt density, mand modality, and manding for functional reinforcers. The data will be discussed in terms of their clinical relevance.
 
Effects of Identity-Matching and Echoic Prompts on the Acquisition of Auditory-Visual Conditional Discriminations
SEAN PETERSON (Texas Christian University), Charlotte Lynn Carp (Texas Christian University), Anna I. Petursdottir (Texas Christian University), Einar T. Ingvarsson (University of North Texas)
Abstract: Embedding an identity matching (IM) prompt in a least-to-most prompting hierarchy has shown to be more effective than least-to-most prompting alone for teaching auditory-visual conditional discriminations (Fisher, Kodak, & Moore, 2007). IM may function as a differential observing response (DOR) that increases attention to relevant aspects of comparison stimuli. In the present study, Experiment 1 was designed to replicate previous research in 2 children diagnosed with autism. Three conditions were evaluated in a multielement design: (a) IM prompt embedded in a least-to-most prompting hierarchy, (b) a traditional least-to-most prompting hierarchy, and (c) a trial-and-error control condition. The IM condition was shown to be more effective than other conditions for 1 participant; however, no acquisition was seen for the other participant in any condition, and an alternative evaluation of IM prompts is in progress. Experiment 2 evaluated the effects of a DOR to the auditory sample, by replacing the IM prompt with an echoic prompt. An effect of the echoic condition was seen for 1 participant with autism, and additional data collection is in progress. Results suggest that embedding a DOR in a least-to-most prompting hierarchy is more effective than using least-to-most prompting alone.
 
 
Symposium #498
CE Offered: BACB
Center for Autism and Related Disorder Shaping Knowledge Through Individualized Life Learning System: A Comprehensive Web-Based Assessment, Curriculum, Training Package, and Progress-Monitoring System
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
204AB (CC)
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Adel C. Najdowski (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
CE Instructor: Nathan Call, Ph.D.
Abstract: CARD SKILLS is a comprehensive web-based environment with four main components: (1) an eLearning tool for training behavioral therapists, (2) an assessment for identifying mastered and unmastered skills in children with autism, (3) a curriculum linked directly from targets identified in the assessment, and (4) a tracking system which graphically depicts the child’s progress during behavioral intervention. This symposium presents four papers on the various components of CARD SKILLS. The first presentation provides an outline and demonstration of the CARD SKILLS website with glimpses into the assessment, curriculum, and progress-tracking components of the program. The second presentation provides a demonstration of an empirically validated eLearning tool that is used to train individuals to provide behavioral intervention to children with autism. Data from a follow-up field evaluation of this tool is also presented. The third presentation demonstrates outcomes of children receiving behavioral intervention using the CARD SKILLS curriculum for one to two years. The symposium concludes with a description of outcome variables associated with a field evaluation of the CARD SKILLS program.
 
An Outline and Demonstration of the Components of the Center for Autism and Related Disorders Shaping Knowledge Through Individualized Life Learning Systems
Doreen Granpeesheh (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), ADEL C. NAJDOWSKI (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Dennis Dixon (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Abstract: Shaping Knowledge Through Individualized Life Learning Systems, also known as CARD SKILLS, is a web-based environment for the assessment and treatment of autism spectrum disorders. It has many features that help users achieve the highest possible results for their students, while keeping information organized and accessible to relevant stakeholders (parents, ABA providers, insurance carriers, teachers, speech language pathologists, etc). It is designed to be the home-base for all those who contribute intervention components to the student’s program. The primary components of SKILLS include: (1) an eLearning tool for training behavioral therapists, (2) an assessment for identifying mastered and unmastered skills in children with autism, (3) a curriculum linked directly from targets identified in the assessment, and (4) a tracking system which graphically depicts the child’s progress during behavioral intervention. This presentation provides glimpses into the CARD SKILLS website and each of these components (excluding the eLearning, which will be covered in a separate presentation).
 
Follow-Up Field Evaluation of an Empirically Validated eLearning Training Program for Behavioral Therapists
Doreen Granpeesheh (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), CATHERINE PETERS (Center For Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Jonathan J. Tarbox (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Dennis Dixon (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Kathy Thompson (Center For Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Amy Kenzer (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Abstract: Effective training of behavioral therapists is an integral part of top-quality treatment programs in applied behavior analysis (ABA). However, training programs are often time-consuming and costly to operate. In addition, global dissemination of training is limited as it requires direct instruction on the principles and procedures of ABA from professionals within the field. The development of electronic training programs (sometimes referred to as “eLearning” or “self-instructional computer based training”) extends the accessibility of training to rural areas and proffers an alternative or supplement to traditional in-person training. A demonstration of an empirically validated (Granpeesheh, Tarbox, Dixon, Peters, Thompson, & Kenzer, 2009) eLearning training tool is provided during this presentation. Additionally, follow-up data are presented on the evaluation of whether professionals trained in this manner were able to perform sufficiently under hands-on, real-world conditions. The field performance of these therapists was compared to a group of therapists who received traditional in-person training on the same topics. No significant difference between the groups was found, suggesting that therapists trained through an eLearning format can perform satisfactorily, given the proper hands-on experience. Implications related to the need for decreasing the costs of training in the developing world and global access to training in behavioral principles and procedures are discussed.
 
Outcome of Behavioral Intervention for Young Children With Autism
AMY KENZER (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Doreen Granpeesheh (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Jonathan Tarbox (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Abstract: Early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) has been established as an effective treatment for autism, resulting in an increase in the number of EIBI programs for young children with autism. As these services rise in popularity, multiple approaches to comprehensive behavioral intervention have emerged but virtually no research has evaluated the effectiveness of any one given approach. The current paper will present an evaluation of the CARD model of EIBI for children with autism following one to years of intervention. The differential effects of low (8-15 therapy hours per week) and high (25+ therapy hours per week) intensity treatment for 50 children will be presented. Additionally, data from a subset of 16 participants whose treatment programs were funded through a state grant will be presented with particular emphasis placed on providing a detailed account of treatment variables, social validity measures, and impact on public policy at the state level. For all participants, a comprehensive battery of assessments was conducted prior to treatment and at yearly intervals. Measures included tests of adaptive behavior, language, IQ, social skills, and executive function, in addition to the ADOS.
 
Field Evaluation of the Center for Autism and Related Disorders Shaping Knowledge Through Individualized Life Learning Systems Program
DENNIS DIXON (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Doreen Granpeesheh (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Adel C. Najdowski (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Jonathan J. Tarbox (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Abstract: Recently the CARD SKILLS program has been developed as an online tool for the assessment, treatment, and progress monitoring of early intensive behavioral interventions (EIBI) for children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The CARD SKILLS program has recently been evaluated in a large sample (over 300) of children with ASD receiving EIBI services over a 6-month period, across a large region of the United States (several states). Data will be presented regarding the initial outcome variables.
 
 
Symposium #499
CE Offered: BACB
Behavioral Intervention for "Executive Function" in Children With Autism
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
203AB (CC)
Area: AUT/TPC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Jonathan J. Tarbox (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Discussant: Nicholas M. Berens (University of Nevada, Reno)
CE Instructor: Gerald Harris, Ph.D.
Abstract: Behavior analysis was intended as a comprehensive science of psychology, since its inception (Skinner, 1938, 1945). All actions of organisms are putatively included as the subject matter of behavior analysis, but much of complex human behavior remains virtually untouched. One such area is “executive function.” Executive function is a term with many non-scientific and mentalistic meanings and generally refers to invented mental or neural hypothetical constructs, such as attention, “working memory,” planning, self-monitoring, and inhibition. However, to the extent that these constructs refer situations which include the behavior of organisms, these behaviors fall within the purview of behavior analysis and the behaviors must be accounted for in terms of behavior/environment relations, not hypothetical constructs. This symposium presents four papers that address “executive function” in children with autism. The first paper is an introduction to the symposium and lays the conceptual and practical groundwork for how “executive functions” may be addressed behaviorally. The subsequent three presentations describe results of three experiments across three participants each, each addressing different behaviors labeled as “working memory” by the general psychology community. All three experiments produced generalization. These studies represent a programmatic line of research examining whether behavioral procedures can affect performance on tasks which the general community refers to as “executive function.” This line of research is the first substantial application of behavioral intervention procedures to “executive function” deficits in autism. The results further reinforce the notion that supposed “executive function” involves behavioral repertoires which are subject to control and improvement by environmental manipulations.
 
The Practical and Conceptual Groundwork for Addressing Executive Function Deficits in Autism From a Purely Behavior Analytic Perspective
JONATHAN J. TARBOX (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Dennis Dixon (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Doreen Granpeesheh (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Abstract: A significant amount of research has documented executive function deficits in individuals with autism and other disorders. Executive function is a term that has many non-scientific and mentalistic meanings and generally refers to invented mental or neural hypothetical explanatory fictions, such as attention, “working memory,” planning, self-monitoring, and inhibition. However, in tasks that putatively measure executive function, the person in question is indeed doing something in response to events in the environment. That is, while the explanatory constructs of executive function are all but fiction, people do indeed engage in behaviors which are labeled by the general psychology community as “executive function,” and these behaviors are often critical to a person’s ability to succeed in their daily lives. Children with autism are no exception and a significant amount of research has documented that children with autism often have deficits in these skills. This presentation describes a conceptual and practical groundwork upon which to address these deficits. Supposed executive function deficits must be analyzed in terms of the behaviors occurring, the environmental antecedents and consequences present, and the resulting implications for treatment. This presentation gives an overview of how to do this generally, and serves to set up the subsequent two presentations which describe experiments using this approach.
 
Teaching Children With Autism a Vocal Rehearsal Strategy for Improving Performance on a “Working Memory” Motor Task
Emily Barnoy (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Adel C. Najdowski (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Jonathan J. Tarbox (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), RYAN BERGSTROM (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Abstract: Emitting sequences of motor behavior in response to vocal instructions is often examined in “working memory” tasks. This study improved performance on a “working memory” task that involves the teacher stating a sequence of motor behaviors and the student then emitting those behaviors in backwards order. The intervention procedure used modeling and reinforcement to teach a vocal rehearsal repertoire, resulting in improved performance on the “working memory” task for all participants. Three children with autism participated in the study and a multiple baseline design across participants was used to evaluate experimental control. Generalization to novel actions and action sequences was obtained. Interobserver agreement was assessed across more than 20% of sessions and averaged higher than 80%. Implications for a behavioral analysis of executive functions are discussed.
 
Improving Performance on a “Working Memory” Tasks Involving Naming, Categorization, and Counting in Children With Autism
LISA BALTRUSCHAT (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Hasselhorn Marcus (Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt), Jonathan J. Tarbox (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Abstract: This study consists of two experiments that examined whether behavioral teaching procedures could affect performance on tasks that are said to measure the “working memory” in children with autism. In the first task, children were presented with a sequence of visual stimuli and for each stimulus, were asked to emit a classification response according to the function of the object (e.g., “Can you eat it?”). At the end of the sequence of stimuli, the children were then asked to state the names of the stimuli in the order in which they were presented. In the second experiment, the task involved the presentation of a series of visual stimuli consisting of quantities of shapes. Participants were required to count and state aloud the quantity when each stimulus was presented. When the sequence was complete, the task required participants to state the quantities counted earlier, in the order they were counted. In both experiments, the multiople exemplar training intervention procedure progressed from simpler to more complex by starting with only positive reinforcement for correct responding and then progressing to prompting and reinforcement of a rehearsal behavior, if needed. A multiple baseline across three children with autism was conducted in each experiment. Large improvements in performance were obtained for all participants, as was maintenance and generalization to untrained stimuli and untrained responses. Interobserver agreement was assessed for more than 30% of sessions and averaged higher than 85%. Results suggest that basic behavioral intervention procedures can be successful in improving performance on complex behaviors labeled as “working memory” by the general community.
 
 
Paper Session #500
Challenges in Staff and Caregiver Training
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
206AB (CC)
Area: AUT
Chair: Clarissa S. Barnes (Southern Illinois University)
 
An Evaluation of Behavioral Skills Training on the Implementation and Use of the Picture Exchange Communication System in the Natural Environment
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CLARISSA S. BARNES (Southern Illinois University), Ruth Anne Rehfeldt (Southern Illinois University), Sadie L Lovett (Southern Illinois University), John M. Guercio (TouchPoint Autism Services)
 
Abstract: The picture exchange communication system (PECS) is a functional communication system frequently used with individuals diagnosed with autism (Frost & Bondy, 2002). Few empirical investigations have evaluated staff training procedures to train staff how to teach consumers to use PECS, and none have been published to date on training staff to promote the use of PECS outside of the training environment. There is also limited data evaluating the outcome of corollary social communicative behaviors. Using a multiple baseline design the current investigation evaluates staff training procedures for teaching phases 1-3 of PECS to adults diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders, with direct care staff. Following staff training on teaching procedures, the effects of staff training on promoting the use of PECS outside of the training environment were examined. Consumer social communicative behaviors, types of verbal operants, and challenging behaviors were also evaluated during staff training of promoting PECS use in the natural environment.
 
Effects of Mother-Implemented Picture Exchange Communication System Training on Spontaneous Communicative Behaviors of Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
JU HEE PARK (The Ohio State University), Sheila R. Alber-Morgan (The Ohio State University), Helen Malone (The Ohio State University), Courtney Fleming (The Ohio State University)
 
Abstract: This study examined whether mothers could be taught to implement PECS training for their child and investigated the effects of mother-implemented PECS training on spontaneous communicative behaviors of young children with autism spectrum disorder. Three mothers were trained to teach their child Phase 1 through Phase 3B of PECS and subsequently were asked to train their child to use PECS. Results on mother’s accuracy of implementing PECS training showed that all of the mother participants taught their child PECS with high integrity. A changing criterion design was used to demonstrate the effects of mother-implemented PECS training on children. All three of the child participants successfully acquired independent picture exchanges along with mother-implemented PECS training. Moreover, not only did all of the children generalize PECS skills to an untrained communication partner, they also maintained the acquired skills over one month after mastering Phase 3B. For word vocalizations, an immediate improvement occurred following Phase 3B training for one child, while no or limited improvement was observed for the other two children. These findings extend the existing evidence on PECS by training mothers as primary implementers of PECS training and provide practitioners with insight into the plausibility and necessity of parent-implemented PECS training.
 
The Continuing Effects of a Supervision Monitoring System on Written Supervisory Feedback
Domain: Service Delivery
CHRISTIAN A. BENAVIDES (BEACON Services), Robert K. Ross (BEACON Services)
 
Abstract: The delivery of consistent, high-quality educational and behavioral services to children with autism presents a formidable challenge. This challenge may be exacerbated by providing those services in home-based rather than clinic or school settings. Home-based service delivery places distance between staff supervisors, limiting the potential for collaboration. This reality may be a threat to treatment fidelity when considering staff working in different regions, trained by supervisors who rarely speak to each other. Reliable tools which evaluate staff performance are necessary to prevent potential inconsistencies across staff and supervisors. The current study describes the implementation of such an evaluation tool and the changes in staff behavior associated with implementation. Specifically, the presentation will review the data on supervision feedback provided via the form. Overall, implementation of the system has been associated with higher levels of “behavior specific feedback” delivered. The relationship between feedback delivery and ratings of staff performance are examined as well.
 
Parents of Children With Autism Choosing to Implement an Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention Program
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
PAGONA TZANAKAKI (Bangor University), Corinna F. Grindle (Bangor University), Richard P. Hastings (Bangor University), J. Carl Hughes (Bangor University), Hanna Kovshoff (University of Southampton), Bob Remington (University of Southampton)
 
Abstract: Although children with autism have been known to receive early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) for decades, little is known about the process parents go through before deciding to implement such a program. We interviewed 30 mothers whose children had been on an EIBI home program for approximately 2 years about their sources of information regarding the intervention, the reason for choosing to implement it, their initial expectations and the procedure of accessing EIBI services. Interviews were analyzed using content analysis procedures. Mothers were informed about EIBI mostly through other parents, books and the internet. Evidence of effectiveness was the most common reason for choosing the intervention. Expectations ranged from the child being cured from autism and indistinguishable from peers to not knowing what to expect. Accessing services and funding was relatively easy for some participants whose programs were supported by the local educational authorities (lEAs), whereas others had to pay for part or the whole program, or received funding after a dispute with the LEAs. The implications of the findings for professionals involved with young children with autism and their families are discussed.
 
 
 
Paper Session #501
Evaluations of Applied Behavior Analysis Programming
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
207AB (CC)
Area: AUT
Chair: Bobby Newman (Full Inclusion Living and Learning Unitarian Unive)
 
The St. Amant School-Age Applied Behavior Analysis Program 2010: Characteristics, Outcomes, and Challenges
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
KIRSTEN M. WIRTH (St. Amant Research Centre, the University of Manitoba)
 
Abstract: ABA service models for preschool children with autism are well-established, while similar services for school-aged children with autism have only recently entered the spotlight. This presentation will provide a review of the behaviour analysis literature in schools with typical students and students with autism. This presentation will also provide characteristics of a publicly funded ABA program for school-age children through the St. Amant ABA program in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. In a unique model recently approved by government partners, this program provides a 3-year ABA service to both school and home, including extensive training and programming to all teams working with each child. Further, changes in program development, definition of services, and staff roles within both settings will be shared. Data will be presented for 69 children participating in the ABA program in the 2009-2010 school year on skill acquisition and comparisons of acquisition at school versus home. Challenges with working in school and home settings such as difficulties with staff and parent training, working around extracurricular activities, misconceptions of behaviour analysis, and lack of effect on normative test outcomes will be discussed. Finally, strategies used that have been successful in breaking into the education system will be shared.
 
Full Inclusion of People With Developmental Disabilities in Faith-Based Communities: What Applied Behavior Analysis has to Offer
Domain: Service Delivery
BOBBY NEWMAN (Room to Grow)
 
Abstract: If ever there were an area where one would expect unconditional acceptance, it would be within faith-based communities. Sadly, this is often not the case, however. The behaviours displayed by some individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders often lead to their exclusion from faith-based communities. This puts further stress and removes a source of support for families. The paper will describe efforts and tools necessary to help individuals who demonstrate challenging behaviour to become functioning and accepted members of faith-based communities.
 
CANCELLED Home-Based Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders: Results of 2010 Parent Survey
Domain: Service Delivery
JACK SCOTT (Florida Atlantic University), Kyle Bennett (Florida Atlantic University), Bairbre Flood (Florida Atlantic University), Linda Peirce (Florida Atlantic University)
 
Abstract: This paper shares results of the 2010 survey of parents who are conducting home-based early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) programs for their young children with ASD. Parents will typically hire a behavior analyst with expertise in EIBI to develop and then supervise the program. Most families also hire several teaching assistants to increase the total number of intervention hours delivered each week. We contacted parents through bulletins and ads placed in autism publications and through autism services agencies. Parents replied directly via an Internet survey on Survey Monkey. Questions focused on costs associated with the program, source of funding (insurance, government financed or self-pay), training for staff and hours of professional supervision and total program hours. A series of questions explored issues with professional services and parent willingness to pay for board certified behavior analysts. The end of the survey provided the parents with free response opportunities. These are qualitatively analyzed. This survey, with refinements, has been conducted each year since 2001 and now yields a rich source of information on trends in home-based behavioral intervention. Results from this survey will be compared with those of previous surveys to consider trends in this intervention format.
 
 
 
Symposium #502
Behavior Analysis Involved in Four Psychological Areas
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Texas Ballroom Salon C (Grand Hyatt)
Area: CBM/TPC; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Donald K. Pumroy (University of Maryland)
Abstract: Behavior Analysis, now over 60 years old, has been increasingly applied to variety of problems that have confronted our society, with some success and some failure. The purpose of this symposium is to review four such problem areas in which Behavior analysis has been applied. A central topic for each of the presenters will be: Clinical Psychology (Leopold Walder), Parenting (Roger McIntire), School Psychology (Donald Pumroy) and Gerontology (Judy Blumenthal). Each presenter has had considerable experience in at least one of these areas and, in some cases, have been involved in helping to advance Behavior Analysis in that area. Each presenter will expand to associated or related topics and will discuss the changes that have taken place over the years and to describe the strategies and efforts followed to bring about such changes. Each will also note where there have been strategies and efforts followed to bring about changes which were ineffective and how the problem might have been approached in a different manner. Also each presenter will make an assessment of the future of Behavior Analysis in each area.
 
Gerontology and Behavior Analysis: Past Present Future
JUDY G. BLUMENTHAL (Association for Behavior Change)
Abstract: This author has studied gerontology for approximately 20 years, has worked with aging individuals since the 1990s, and has interacted with health care providers to the aging since the early 2000s. The author teaches gerontology undergraduate courses at the University of Maryland and is currently working closely with a few elders to assist them in aging-in-place successfully. This paper will present an historical overview of how behavior analysis was applied to the study of gerontology, how behavior analysis is currently sued, and suggestions for the future. The study of gerontology, itself, began around the 1970s when studies primarily addressed psychiatric issues and studies were performed in institutionalized settings. The 1980s saw the application of behavioral analysis to gerontology, but these studies were primarily stimulus control issues and basic activities of daily life such as eating and social behaviors, and popular psychiatric studies such as Alzheimer's Disease. The 1990s saw the onset of the study of biological issues in gerontology and this was emphasized by the establishment of the American Medical Association Diplomate in Geriatrics. By 2000, the study of gerontology broadened to functional issues and, in the last couple of years, emphasis has been placed on "aging-in-place." But throughout all of this development, the application of behavior principles to the study of aging is largely omitted. Drugs and longevity continue to be very reinforcing in our country, and this reinforcement overrides the development of behavioral programs or behavioral intervention programs for the aging. The application of behavioral principles to healthy longevity is not only cost effective for individual but provides an economic relief to local, state, and federal governments. In addition, the application of behavioral principles to longevity enhances perceptions of the quality of life, thus increasing feelings of competence and control in the aging person. In turn, emotional familial issues becoming lessened, if not resolved. The end result, again, points to a reduction of an economic burden all parties involved, with, most likely, an increase in positive feelings towards self and others.
 
The Lessons of Keeping the Behavioral Goal on Target
ROGER W. MCINTIRE (University of Maryland)
Abstract: Papers in this symposium have demonstrated that principles in therapeutic intervention, gerontology and school environments have, on occasion, been off target. This presentation will briefly describe some additional disappointments for the list and then propose four specific procedures that could add to our list of successes. A brief history of research concerning the following questions: What should a government prison program do? Court sentences have not been particularly successful in improving behavior and punishment has remained weakly supported by behavior analysts. A positive goal of "career change" has been more effective for behavior analysts. What should a school program do? Tutoring programs have provided effective learning experiences for both tutor and student to be tutored - even at very young ages. Even third graders have benefited from tutoring younger students. What should an environmental program do? Response cost effects deserve more attention in changing the behaviors that contribute to climate change. A review of research of conservation behaviors shows clearly that convenience and response cost measures most often determine success. What parenting skills can be taught? The notion that parenting skills com "naturally" has stunted the growth and distribution of parenting skills that behavior analysts have so effectively demonstrated.
 
Behavior Analysis and School Psychology
DONALD K. PUMROY (University of Maryland)
Abstract: My topic is the involvement of Behavior Analysis in the field of School Psychology. I served as the Director of the School Psychology Program at the University of Maryland from 1961 to 1991. During that time I was active in Division 16 (School Psychology) in APA and in the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP). Also during my tenure as Director I was active in the Maryland School Psychologists' Association (I served as president) and spent considerable time in the Maryland schools. While serving as Director I taught Behavior Analysis to my students and teachers. I had gotten my doctorate at the University of Washington and had worked with, and did my dissertation under, Sidney Bijou; he became the Director of campus nursery school and conducted research there. From his early work he showed that teacher's attention served as a powerful reinforcer for the children. This knowledge has lead to much research and is most important in helping teachers. School Psychology has gradually over the years adopted more and more from Behavior Analysis including Function Behavioral Assessment, Response To Intervention (RTI), and a greater focus on positive behavior. These and other developments will be presented as well as a look at the future.
 
My 59 Years as a Behavioristic Clinical Psychologist: Past Triumphs, Current Challenges, and Future Opportunities
LEOPOLD O. WALDER (Behavior Service Consultants, Inc.)
Abstract: I am a behaviorist who has been studying, researching, teaching and practicing clinical psychology since 1951. Issues over these 59 years have included the triumph of behaviorism and then the resurgence of the mentalists in the guise of "cognitive behavior therapy" (with the mentalists viewing "cognitive" being more than just verbal behaviors, albeit often very important verbal behaviors). We strict behaviorists have shown that with functional analyses of symptomatic behaviors there is no scientific or clinical utility for such concepts as "mental illness" since there is no mind to become sick. The mind as a concept is the biggest distraction for those working to assess and ameliorate behavioral symptoms. This presenter has seen other mentalistic concepts (such as the mind, free will and free choice, intentional behaviors, and hallucinations and other behaviors called "psychotic" all collapse as useful ideas in the face of strict application of functional analyses to these clinical symptoms. However, in spite of its power and utility, behaviorism is not popular among providers. My surveys of self descriptions by providers show that a small minority describe their clinical approach as behavioral. My ongoing surveys indicate that roughly only 3 out of 11 listings include the word "behavior" or its variants in their self descriptions. Current challenges to build a stronger and therefore a more widely accepted behavioristic clinical psychology include continuing to subject symptoms to more behavioral analsyses and to sell this approach to the clinical community of teachers, researchers, providers and consumers.
 
 
Symposium #503
CE Offered: BACB
Behavioral Principles Applied to System Issues: The Role of Good Science in Building Good Relationships
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Seguin (Grand Hyatt)
Area: CSE; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: John Young (University of Mississippi)
CE Instructor: Peishi Wang, Ph.D.
Abstract: This series of talks addresses the role of behavioral principles in organizational settings – namely schools and associated networks of administration. The first talk addresses models for public and research partnerships, including examples of how these models have been applied to generate local clinical practicum training for graduate students enrolled in a behaviorally-oriented doctoral program. The two following talks address the utilization of these reciprocal, positively reinforcing relationships to engage in research beneficial to all entities involved. This includes a comparison of teachers’ views on best practices for mental health with what is noted in the scientific literature, as well as development of baseline norms for behaviors noted to frequently appear as targets in locally generated Functional Behavioral Analyses. Finally, a broad mental health screening process will be described in terms of these same partnership models and behavioral principles. This project, the Behavioral Vital Signs, provides a foundation upon which much of the partnerships and mutually beneficial research projects described above rests. Discussion will emphasize system factors and detail methods by which similarly inclined behavioral researchers, clinicians, or administrators could replicate these efforts in novel settings.
 
Exploring the Collaborative Impact Between Science and Practice in a Community Behavioral Health Partnership
REGAN M. SLATER (University of Mississippi), John Young (University of Mississippi)
Abstract: Recent overviews of models for community-based research have articulated the need for further collaboration among behavioral and mental health specialists and those whom they serve (e.g., Chorpita & Mueller, 2008; Garland, Plemmons, & Koontz, 2009). Cooperation and motivation toward greater understanding and goal achievement for all interested parties is emphasized, as are behavioral principles related to both domains benefiting from professional interactions. In this talk, we will examine a collaborative partnership of doctoral level clinical psychology students and a local public school district through the filter of the models cited. We will present information on this partnership, which was established as a practicum placement for university students to work as child behavioral health specialists in the primary and secondary educational settings. The bidirectional impact between science and practice, scientific behavioral principles, evidence-based service delivery, and opportunities for integrating applied behavior analysis into administrative policy will be examined. We will also discuss goals for maximizing collaboration, service delivery, and ongoing research as we involve all parties with a stake in the partnership, including the school faculty and staff, administration, parents, children, graduate students, and University faculty supervisors.
 
Teacher Perceptions of Appropriate Mental Health Practice
REBECCA J. HAMBLIN (University of Mississippi), Corinn Johnson (University of Mississippi), Regan M. Slater (University of Mississippi), John Young (University of Mississippi)
Abstract: This purpose of this study is to offer a qualitative, thematic description of teachers’ perceptions of strategies for ameliorating students’ psychopathological behaviors. The framework of the study follows prominent system researchers’ call for more qualitative understanding of systemic factors related to evidence-based service implementation (Garland, Plemmons, & Koontz, 2009). Sampled teachers in the local school system described throughout this presentation will participate in semi-structured interviews asking them to detail what interventions they think would be most helpful in response to several vignettes depicting high base-rate pathologies (i.e., ADHD, Depression, Anxiety, Autism, and behavioral disturbance). Teacher responses will be audio recorded, and coded via standard procedures for thematic analysis (Miles & Huberman, 1994). Themes will be further distilled into component parts to create a profile of practice elements (Chorpita, Daleiden, & Weisz, 2005) reflected in teachers’ responses. These profiles will be compared to similar practice element profiles derived from distillation of practices described in randomized controlled trials (Chorpita & Daleiden, 2009). This project will offer knowledge regarding what teachers think should be done to address mental health needs and outline how this maps onto the evidence base, both of which may inform further efforts to infused behavioral science into these settings.
 
Assessing Normative Rates of Prevalent Target Behaviors in School-Based Functional Behavioral Analyses
GILBERTE BASTIEN (University of Mississippi), John Young (University of Mississippi)
Abstract: Over the last few decades, applied behavior analysis in school settings has increased. Mental health professionals are often called upon to conduct functional behavioral analyses (FBAs) and develop comprehensive behavior plans for the purpose of changing challenging behaviors. Despite a national, systemic integration of FBAs into school-based mental health very few empirical studies have provided a “normal” indexing of prevalent FBA target behaviors. This lack of base rates regarding challenging behaviors in non-referred children can present service delivery challenges and perhaps may overly pathologize referred individuals. The present project seeks to provide a normative index for commonly arising FBA targets by assessing the frequency of such in a non-referred school sample. The data collected will serve as the foundation for dissemination efforts in schools and a more individualized approach to implementing behaviorally-oriented classroom management strategies. In particular, an understanding of “normal” levels of behavior will underscore a dimensional and functional approach to understanding challenging behaviors that are disruptive to the educational environment. This information, when communicated repeatedly to teachers and administrators in the context of implementing scientifically sound recommendations, may serve to shape the knowledge and practice of the school system in terms of mental health issues.
 
Behavioral Vital Signs: Research and Policy as Reinforcement
JOHN YOUNG (University of Mississippi)
Abstract: This talk continues the theme of the other presentations in this symposium by emphasizing the role of behavioral principles in conducting research in community-based settings (in this case schools). The Behavioral Vital Signs (BVS) project to be discussed is an effort to offer mental health screening to entire schools. It involves self-reports of anxiety, depression, loneliness, bullying, peer support, and risky/illicit behaviors such as drug use. To date approximately 20,000 ethnically and socioeconomically diverse children and adolescents across the state of Mississippi have been screened through BVS. This presentation will focus less on the results of screening per se and more on the process of establishing broad partnerships between the University and schools. Specifically, there will be a discussion of marketing geared toward providing a service to schools (rather than conducting research studies) and provision of timely feedback to administrations, teachers, and parents. Behavioral principles that were useful in setting up the BVS are outlined throughout, and models for similar work elsewhere will be discussed. Additionally, future goals leveraging successful collaborations with schools will be detailed, including practicum training sites for graduate students and eventual influence on public policy in the state.
 
 
Symposium #504
Delay Discounting: Does the Procedure and/or Experience Matter?
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Republic C (Grand Hyatt)
Area: EAB/BPH; Domain: Experimental Analysis
Chair: Christine E. Hughes (University of North Carolina, Wilmington)
Abstract: Delay-discounting research has increased dramatically over the last decade. A lot of research has involved nonhumans responding on a typical self-control/impulsivity task in which subjects are given choices between smaller-sooner and larger-later reinforcers. Typically, the delays are varied either within or across session, often in a regular order, and delay-discount functions are obtained. In this symposium, the four presenters will discuss research in which aspects of the procedure or living environment are varied. The reliability of the delay-discount functions is assessed, and the usefulness of these functions as baselines for assessing drug effects or species differences is discussed. Could delay-discount functions obtained via the typical methods be controlled by variables other than delay? If so, what does that say about conclusions about self-control and impulsivity made based on data obtained from these procedures?
 
Within-Session Discount Functions in Rats Using Randomly Ordered and Ascending Delays
ELIZABETH WATTERSON (University of North Carolina, Wilmington), A. Scott Handford (University of North Carolina, Wilmington), Carla Pruitt (California State University, Long Beach), Raymond C. Pitts (University of North Carolina, Wilmington), Christine E. Hughes (University of North Carolina, Wilmington)
Abstract: Seven Sprague-Dawley rats responded in a “self-control” experiment. Sessions included five, 12-trial blocks. Within each block, there were six forced-choice and six free-choice trials. Responses on one retractable lever produced 0.02 ml of sugar water immediately (i.e., the small reinforcer) whereas responses on the other retractable lever produced 0.08 ml of sugar water after a delay (i.e., the large reinforcer). In the first half of the study, delays to the larger reinforcer ranged between 0 and 40 s and were presented randomly across blocks within a session. After substantial exposure to the random-delay sequence all rats showed stable delay-discount functions. In the second half of the study delays to the larger reinforcer increased across blocks of trials. Stable discount-curves were again established. In both portions of the study administration of saline and d-amphetamine followed stability of discount-functions. Results show that ascending delays lead to a slightly steeper curve than randomly-ordered delays. Further examination of the data revealed that when delays were randomly presented larger reinforcer choices decreased across blocks regardless of the order in which the delays were arranged. This suggests larger reinforcer choice is at least partially controlled by time spent in the session.
 
Housing Enrichment Decreases Impulsive Choice in Spontaneously Hypertensive, but Not Sprague-Dawley Rats
DENNIS J. HAND (Central Michigan University), Jim I. Gerhart (Central Michigan University), Mark P. Reilly (Central Michigan University)
Abstract: Variables outside an experimental context, such as housing conditions, can influence dependent measures. The present study examined how enriched and impoverished housing conditions change impulsive choice in two rat strains, Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRs), a model of impulsive behavior, and Sprague-Dawley (SD). Rats were presented with two reinforcer alternatives in a discrete-trials format. A single press on one lever produced one food pellet immediately while another lever produced three food pellets following a signaled delay which increased within each session. Choice data were gathered first with the rats housed individually in hanging wire cages (impoverished condition), second with the rats housed in a group of six (strains not mixed) in a large cage with bedding and three toys that were changed daily (enriched condition), and finally back in the individual wire cages. The SHRs chose the large, delayed alternative more often in the enriched condition than the impoverished condition. Choice by the SDs was unchanged by any housing condition. These results suggest that housing conditions can affect impulsive choice, however the reasons for the lack of an enrichment effect in the SD rats is at present unknown.
 
Inter-Trial Interval Duration Modulates Impulsivity in Rats and Pigeons During an Intertemporal Choice Procedure
JACK SMETHELLS (Central Michigan University), Mark P. Reilly (Central Michigan University)
Abstract: Impulsivity can be defined as a preference for small-immediate reinforcers over larger-delayed ones. Various discrete-trials intertemporal choice procedures have been developed to investigate variables that modulate impulsivity. Within these procedures, choice trials are usually separated by a compensating intertrial interval (ITI) that maintains a consistent trial presentation rate irrespective of the alternative chosen. Previous research has indicated that the length of the ITI can affect risky choice (Kaminski & Ator, 2001), however, research has yet to establish how it may impact impulsivity in an intertemporal choice procedure. The present experiment employed rats and pigeons responding in an intertemporal choice procedure that employed either 45-s or 10-s compensating ITI and delays of 3 s (pigeons) or 3 and 6 s (rats). Preference for the small-immediate reinforcer increased (impulsivity increased) at all delay values when the ITI was reduced from 45 s to 10 s. Research has shown that increased exposure to a reinforcer has generally resulted in increased impulsivity (Grosh & Neuringer, 1981), which could be one of several possible mechanisms underlying the ITI effect seen in the present study.
 
Experience With a Novel Task Reverses Differences in Impulsivity between Lewis and Fischer 344 Rats
CARLOS F. APARICIO (The Aurora School), Carla Pruitt (California State University, Long Beach), Christine E. Hughes (University of North Carolina, Wilmington), Raymond C. Pitts (University of North Carolina, Wilmington)
Abstract: Often, Lewis rats show steeper delay-discount functions than Fischer 344 rats in impulsivity tasks. But does an extended experience with the impulsivity task reverse this difference between Lewis and Fischer 344? In this experiment, 8 Lewis and 8 Fischer 344 rats’ lever pressing was maintained by a concurrent-chains procedure. Trials began by turning on the light above a back-wall-lever, pressing that lever started the initial-link by inserting two front-levers into the chamber. Pressing these levers gave access to the terminal-link according to a random interval schedule 10 s. The left lever provided 1 food-pellet according to a fixed interval (FI) schedule 5 s. The right lever provided 4 food-pellets according to either an FI 5-, 10-, 20-, 40, or 80-s across blocks of the session. The delays were presented randomly. Each pair of FIs was in effect for 10 food deliveries. Each food-delivery retracted the corresponding front-lever, signaling the end of the trial. When training began, Lewis rats were more impulsive than Fischer 344 rats. But with experience in the task, Fischer 344 rats became more impulse than Lewis rats. We will discuss the implications of these results with respect to differences between Lewis and Fischer 344 rats.
 
 
Symposium #505
Rational and Irrational Decision Making: Is the Subject Always Right?
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Republic A (Grand Hyatt)
Area: EAB/TPC; Domain: Experimental Analysis
Chair: Jennifer Rusak (University of Florida)
Abstract: Research in human decision making has identified systematic deviations from rational choice predictions. The current symposium will present experiments relating to four domains in this research: the sunk cost fallacy, framing and loss aversion, the prisoner's dilemma, and hyperbolic discounting of delayed outcomes. Macaskill will discuss the conditions under which pigeons and humans make choices based on past investment rather than future outcomes. Rusak will present data indicating the extent to which pigeons' choices between gains and losses are influenced by the framing of alternatives. Locey will show that pigeons learned to cooperate in an iterated prisoner's dilemma game despite higher local rates of reinforcement for defection. Myerson will demonstrate that hyberboloid functions obtained from pigeons in a probability discounting procedure were comparable to those obtained using delay discounting procedures. Each of these papers contributes to the broader literature on decision making by extending the methods used to study it and describing conditions under which relevant phenomena are observed. In addition, cross-species analyses have the potential to clarify whether deviations from rational choice predictions result from fundamental behavioral processes, or whether they are unique to humans (and perhaps reflect verbal mediation).
 
Contingency Sensitivity and the Sunk-Cost Fallacy in Humans and Pigeons
ANNE C. MACASKILL (University of Florida), Timothy D. Hackenberg (Reed College)
Abstract: The sunk cost effect occurs when non-optimal persistence is controlled by past investments. The current study investigated this fallacy, and related decisions about persistence, using a laboratory model with pigeons and humans. On each trial, one of four (unsignaled) ratios was in effect; subjects could either continue working on the current ratio, or make a reset response and draw a new ratio. Ratio sizes, the probability at which they occurred, and therefore the relative pay-offs of persisting and resetting varied across conditions. This allowed an assessment of the features of this contingency arrangement that controlled behavior. Both pigeons and humans behaved most optimally (in terms of unit price) when the contingencies strongly favored either persisting or resetting; however when payoffs only slightly favored resetting they often committed the sunk cost error. Humans were more likely to make the reverse error and reset when persisting was optimal.
 
An Evaluation of Framing Effects and Loss Aversion in Pigeons
JENNIFER RUSAK (University of Florida), Timothy D. Hackenberg (Reed College)
Abstract: Research in human decision-making has identified systematic deviations from rational choice predictions. For example, it has been shown that individuals tend to avoid losses, even when alternatives differ only in whether they are framed as a gain or loss. Little is known about the generality of framing effects and loss aversion with non-human animals. The purpose of the present investigation was to parametrically examine framing effects and loss aversion. Four pigeons made repeated choices between gain or loss alternatives in which tokens were probabilistically added or subtracted from a starting amount such that average payoffs for each alternative either differed or were equated across condition. In another phase, choices were made between an alternative with a fixed number of tokens or one in which some number of tokens was subtracted with certainty. Data indicate that for all subjects, choices were sensitive to token amount manipulations, but less systematic results were observed in critical conditions in which average payoffs were equivalent across alternative. The results of this investigation provide preliminary data on the generality of framing effects and loss aversion seen with human subjects to non-human subjects, and illustrate promising methods for examining framing and loss aversion in the animal laboratory.
 
Pigeons as Prisoners in a Prisoner’s Dilemma Game: A Molar Versus Molecular Analysis of Choice
MATT LOCEY (Stony Brook University), Howard Rachlin (Stony Brook University)
Abstract: Research in various domains of the experimental analysis of behavior has addressed the issue of whether behavior is controlled by immediate or global consequences. The prisoner’s dilemma game, a classic problem in game theory, can been used to address this same issue. In a prisoner’s dilemma, two subjects are paired together and given the opportunity to “cooperate” or “defect”. The immediate consequences of each choice always favor defecting over cooperating (at least, for the individual that is defecting). However, if both players defect, the consequences are worse (for both) than if both cooperated. In the present experiment, four pigeons were paired together to participate in an iterated prisoner’s dilemma game. Each pigeon chose between cooperating on an FR 23 and defecting on an FR 15. Each cooperation response reduced the ratio requirements for the other pigeon. Under these conditions, all 4 pigeons eventually learned to cooperate despite the higher local rate of reinforcement for defection.
 
Pigeons’ Discounting of Probabilistic and Delayed Reinforcers
Amanda L. Calvert (Washington University in St. Louis), Leonard Green (Washington University), JOEL MYERSON (Washington University)
Abstract: Pigeons’ discounting of probabilistic and delayed food rewards was studied using adjusting-amount procedures. In the probability discounting conditions, pigeons chose between an adjusting number of food pellets contingent on a single key peck and a larger, fixed number of pellets contingent on completion of variable-ratio schedules, which represent repeated gambles. In the delay discounting conditions, pigeons chose between an adjusting number of pellets delivered immediately and a larger, fixed number of pellets delivered after a delay. The major finding of the present study is that probability discounting (as a function of the odds against reinforcement) was typically as well described by a hyperboloid function as was delay discounting (as a function of the time until reinforcement), although the exponents for fits to the probability discounting data were lower than the exponents for fits to the delay discounting data, a result similar to that observed with humans. For five of the eight pigeons, the hyperboloid function that best fit the data from the delay discounting task also described the subjective values of probabilistic reinforcers as a function of the geometric means of the delays to those reinforcers. We consider the implication of these findings for Rachlin, Logue, Gibbon, and Frankel’s (1986) hypothesis that the discounting of probabilistic rewards on repeated gambles is controlled by the average time until a win.
 
 
Symposium #506
A Relational Frame Analysis of Transformation of Functions and Hierarchical and Analogical Responding
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Bonham B (Grand Hyatt)
Area: EAB/VRB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
Chair: Tomas Quirosa-Moreno (Behaviour Analysis Group of University of Almeria)
Abstract: Relational Frame Theory (Hayes, Barnes-Holmes, & Roche, 2001) is a contextual theory that tries to explain human language and cognition. The current symposium presents four research studies about complex human behavior. The first paper aims to do an analog study for deriving verbally experienced contingencies with eating-relevant behavior. Specifically, the impact of a computer procedure training pseudofood word contingencies will be tested in the behavior outside de laboratory. The second presentation discusses the nature of hierarchical relational responding and presents the advances to extend the model presented by Griffee & Dougher (2002) to arbitrarily related stimuli and categorization under the control of contextual cues for hierarchical relational responding. The third presentation provides further evidence of the transformation of functions through hierarchical relations. Participants were trained to respond to arbitrary stimuli as several relational contexts and then a complex relational network was formed. Functions were given to some stimuli and the transformation of functions was observed according with the specific relational context. Finally, the last presentation analyzes the features of relational networks that facilitate the derivation of analogical relations. Concretely, this study tries to find out if analogies with common functions and physical properties are easier to derive than abstract analogies.
 
An Analog Study for Deriving Verbally Experienced Contingencies With Eating-Relevant Behavior
PRISCILLA ALMADA (San Jose State University), Michael Bordieri (University of Mississippi), Kelly G. Wilson (University of Mississippi), Kate Kellum (University of Mississipi), Jennifer A. Gregg (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: Eating behavior is learned through directly experienced contingencies (e.g., taste, texture, sensations of satiety), and through verbally experienced contingencies. Once verbally experienced contingencies are learned, they frequently lead to behavioral rigidity. While several laboratory preparations have illustrated the process of learning verbally experienced contingencies, little research has been done to investigate whether this process occurs in other contexts with eating-relevant behavior. The present study will utilize an analog paradigm to investigate whether a brief computer procedure training pseudofood word contingencies, will influence actual eating behavior outside of the lab. After completing training, undergraduate students will receive a transparent bag of candies, all individually labeled with either one of two trained pseudofood words or one novel pseudofood word. Participants will be instructed to keep the bags with them for 24 hours with no explicit eating instructions and will return their bags after the 24 hour post computer task period. Data to be collected. Results will be analyzed in an attempt to gain clinical insight into verbally experienced contingencies and how they map onto eating behavior.
 
Hierarchical Categorization: Testing and Training Unidirectional Inclusiveness
BRIAN WILLIAM SLATTERY (National University of Ireland, Galway), Ian T. Stewart (National University of Ireland, Galway), Denis P. O'Hora (National University of Ireland, Galway)
Abstract: The present study aimed to extend previous work by Griffee & Dougher (2002) which attempted to model hierarchical relational responding as contextually controlled conditional discriminative responding towards a group of stimuli (triangles) that differed along a physical continuum. This was a useful initial model of the phenomenon but arguably omitted certain features of the phenomenon of interest. One such feature is unidirectional inclusiveness. For example, a rabbit is a type of mammal and therefore all rabbits are mammals but the reverse is not true in that not all mammals are rabbits. While the data provided by the Griffee and Dougher (2002) study showed some limited evidence of a unidirectional inclusiveness pattern they did not provide a sufficiently robust test for this element. The aim of the experiments presented in this talk was to provide a more robust test for unidirectional inclusiveness and to explore methods for training this element in its absence.
 
Transformation of Functions According to a Complex Hierarchical Relational Network
ENRIQUE GIL GONZÁLEZ (Universidad de Almer�a), Carmen Luciano Soriano (Universidad de Almer&íacute;a), Francisco Jose Ruiz-Jimenez (Universidad de Almeria)
Abstract: In relational frame theory (RFT), the published evidence concerning the conditions that give rise to the transformation of functions in accordance with the relational frame of hierarchy is absent. In a previous study (Gil, Luciano, Ruiz, and Sánchez, unpublished), adult participants showed transformation of functions in accordance with the relational frame of hierarchy. However, in this study, the hierarchical relational networks were relatively simple because there were involved only coordination, distinction and hierarchical relations. The aim of the present study is to replicate previous findings with a more complex hierarchical relational network that involves coordination, comparison, opposition, distinction and hierarchical relations. Participants were involved in several phases where they learned to respond to arbitrary stimuli as the relational context of hierarchy, opposition, comparison and same. After that they were trained to acquire three-three member equivalence classes. Then a relational network of hierarchy among new stimuli and the stimuli of the equivalence classes were established. Subsequently one function was given to a stimulus of the hierarchical network and finally testing proceeded to see if the response would emerge in accordance with the derived relations of hierarchy, opposition, distinction, comparison and coordination.
 
Analysis of the Conditions That Facilitate the Derivation of Analogies and Metaphors
FRANCISCO JOSE RUIZ-JIMENEZ (Universidad de Almeria), Carmen Luciano Soriano (Universidad de Almer&íacute;a), Dermot Barnes-Holmes (National University of Ireland, Maynooth)
Abstract: In the last 10 years, a number of studies in Relational Frame Theroy (RFT) have studied analogies as relating derived relations. However, there is little research concerning the features of relational networks that facilitate the derivation of analogies. The current study aims to advance in this track analyzing the role of common functions and physical properties in the derivation of analogical relations between different relational networks. Concretely, a series of experiments were designed to analyze if common functions and physical properties can work as relational context (Crel) for deriving analogies, and thus, facilitating the derivation of analogical relations. The results showed that participants choose analogies with common functions and physical properties as better than abstract analogies. Moreover, these types of analogies are easier to derive, in terms of accuracy and latency of response, than abstract ones. Results are discussed highlighting the applied implications of these findings in clinical and educational settings.
 
 
Symposium #507
Resurgence: Controlling Variables and Implications for the Analysis of Behavior
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Bonham C (Grand Hyatt)
Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
Chair: Carlos Cancado (West Virginia University)
Abstract: Although extensively used in interpretations of complex behavior, the controlling variables of resurgence have seldom been systematically analyzed. Studies in which this was the main focus will be presented. Cançado and Lattal studied the resurgence of complex operants, defined as temporal patterns of responding, in two experiments with pigeons. Resurgence of temporal patterns of responding was consistently observed when patterns were directly reinforced or not. Pyszczynski and Shahan report experiments in which the resurgence of alcohol-maintained responding by rats was assessed after non-drug reinforcers were discontinued on an alternative context. Their results suggest that the resurgence procedure may provide a novel model of drug relapse in which loss of context-specific, alternative non-drug reinforcers precipitates relapse to drug seeking in another context. Banta, Cançado, Carpenter, and Lattal analyzed the resurgence of pigeons’ time allocation to different stimulus conditions. Results are discussed in terms of the effects of behavioral history on choice during transitions and of continuous measures of behavior. Finally, Villas-Bôas, Endemann and Tomanari present studies with humans, showing the resurgence of eye movements along the acquisition of a series of visual simultaneous discriminations, and with rats, assessing how resurgence may be affected by the previous extinction of the resurgent behavior.
 
Resurgence of Temporal Patterns of Responding
CARLOS CANCADO (West Virginia University), Kennon A. Lattal (West Virginia University)
Abstract: The resurgence of temporal patterns of responding was assessed in two experiments with pigeons. In Experiment 1, positively accelerated and linear patterns of responding were established under each component of a multiple fixed-interval (FI) – variable-interval (VI) schedule of reinforcement. Subsequently, alternative forms of responding produced reinforcers according to a VI schedule. When extinction was in effect, positively accelerated and linear patterns of responding occurred in the presence of the stimuli previously correlated with, respectively, the FI and VI components of the multiple schedule. These results suggest that the patterns, although not directly reinforced, were selected as behavioral units. In Experiment 2, resurgence was assessed after positively accelerated patterns of responding were directly reinforced. Reinforcers were produced if the obtained patterns approximated a model specifying a constant rate of change in rate of key pecking within trials. Resurgence of previously reinforced patterns was consistently observed for all pigeons. Individual patterns that were most frequent when directly reinforced occurred at higher relative frequency during extinction. These results have implications for the study of resurgence of complex operants, and will be discussed as they contribute to the understanding of the selection and recurrence of complex behavioral units.
 
Discontinuation of Food Reinforcers in One Context Produces Recovery of Extinguished Alcohol-Maintained Responding in a Separate Context
ADAM PYSZCZYNSKI (Utah State University), Timothy A. Shahan (Utah State University)
Abstract: Extinguished alcohol-maintained responding has been shown to relapse in a resurgence preparation when food-reinforced responding is extinguished within the same context. However, drug and alternative non-drug reinforcers are often available in different contexts. Accordingly, we asked whether loss of a non-drug reinforcer in one context could produce relapse to drug seeking in a separate context. In one experiment, rats made topographically different responses for food or alcohol in alternating components of a multiple schedule. Both reinforcers were delivered during baseline, responding for alcohol was placed on extinction during the second phase of the experiment, and finally both responses were extinguished during the final phase. Extinguished alcohol-maintained responding increased for all rats upon discontinuation of food deliveries, but may have increased due to similarity between the final experimental phase and initial training. In a second experiment, the training phase complicating interpretation of our first experiment was eliminated altogether. Alcohol seeking again recovered upon discontinuation of food, suggesting that loss of a non-drug reinforcer in one context can produce relapse to drug seeking in another. This procedure may provide a novel model of drug relapse in which loss of context-specific, alternative non-drug reinforcers precipitates relapse to drug seeking in another context.
 
Resurgence of Time Allocation
ELIZABETH A. BANTA (West Virginia University), Carlos Cancado (West Virginia University), Harold K. Carpenter (West Virginia University), Kennon A. Lattal (West Virginia University)
Abstract: Resurgence of pigeons’ time allocation to different stimulus conditions was assessed in three experiments. Reinforcers were delivered according to interdependent variable-time schedules, and probabilities of reinforcement initially correlated with each of two keylight colors were reversed before extinction was in effect. Key pecking changed the keylight color and the reinforcement probabilities in effect (0.75 and 0.25 in Experiments 1 and 3; 1.0 and 0.0 in Experiment 2). Resurgence of previously obtained time allocation was observed in two out of three pigeons and three out of four pigeons in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Changeover response rates were systematically reduced during extinction, which prevented clear interpretations of obtained time allocation as resurgence or as due to the absence of changeover responding due to extended exposure to extinction. This was addressed in Experiment 3 by changing the keylight colors correlated with each reinforcement probability, after every 30-s, to a keylight in the presence of which reinforcers were not delivered. Resurgence of time allocation was consistently observed, and its measurement was not confounded with the direct effects of extinction in reducing responding. Results are discussed in terms of the effects of behavioral history on choice during transitions and of continuous measures of behavior.
 
Behavioral Resurgence: Conceptual Construction Upon Experimental Foundations
Alessandra Villas-Bôas (University of São Paulo), Peter Endemann (University of São Paulo), GERSON YUKIO TOMANARI (University of Sao Paulo)
Abstract: In a given situation, when a recently reinforced behavior is no more reinforced, behaviors that were previously reinforced under similar circumstances tend to re-occur. Those behaviors have been analyzed within the scope of Behavioral Resurgence. In this symposium, we will initially present empirical data showing the resurgence of eye movements along the acquisition of a series of visual simultaneous discriminations. Following, based on a couple of experiments that employed rats as subjects, we will show how resurgence may be affected by the previous extinction of the resurgent behavior. That is, behaviors previously exposed to extinction may not resurge, or may resurge much less than behaviors not exposed to extinction. Finally, we will discuss the concept of resurgence in contrast to apparently inter-related phenomenon such as the behavioral variation that typically follows an extinction process. By doing that, we aim to identify the behavioral specificities the concept of resurgence may represent.
 
 
Paper Session #508
Relational Frame Theory: Theory, Research, and Application
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
214C (CC)
Area: VRB
Chair: Mitch Fryling (The Chicago School, Los Angeles)
 
CANCELLED What is Learned in Relational Frame Theory Experiments?
Domain: Experimental Analysis
RICARDO PÉREZ ALMONACID (Instituto de Psicolog&íacute;a y Educación - Universidad Veracruzana)
 
Abstract: The Relational Frame Theory (RFT) have proposed that relational frames can be derived from a pretraining of non-arbitrary relational responding under contextual control. The cues that control such responding, are supposed to indicate relations of coordination, difference, opposition, distinction, etc., so is predicated that individuals derive that relational frames families. However, a series of studies being carried out with university students, suggest that the functions acquired by that contextual cues, is not precisely the supposed by RFT, for example, when is asked to subjects to respond in new domains according to such cues o when asked that relates to each other. Additional data to be collected. The main aim is to discuss what is then learned in RFT experiments.
 
Responding in Relational Frame Theory: Modality Matters
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
GINGER KELSO (Stepen F. Austin State University), Timothy A. Slocum (Utah State University)
 
Abstract: While derived relational responding has been taught using many different materials, relations, and responses, it is still unclear how the modality of response may affect the participants’ success at acquiring relational responses. We will explore the effects of modality of response on past and original research in derived relational responding. Children may show mastery of relational skills through several types of responses such as pointing, saying, writing, or performing an action. Using both relational frame theory and the naming theory we will examine whether relative effectiveness of training intended to produce derived relational responding may be partially explained by the modality of response required of the participants. In the current study, children were taught name and category relations for a set of stimuli in one of two response formats. Half of the children responded through pointing while the other half responded through saying. Each child was then tested for derived performance on names and categories in both formats – pointing and saying. We found that the pointing response, which requires visual discrimination, is more likely to suggest successful learning of relational responses when compared to a spoken response. Therefore, modality introduces important differences in accuracy of responding. Assumptions that relational responses transfer across modalities are not warranted.
 
Interbehavioral Foundations for Relational Responding
Domain: Theory
MITCH FRYLING (The Chicago School, Los Angeles)
 
Abstract: Relational Frame Theory (RFT) is a popular approach to complex language and cognition in behavior analysis. This paper examines the conceptual foundations of RFT, and describes some alternatives based upon J. R. Kantor’s philosophy of Interbehaviorism and scientific system of Interbehavioral Psychology. It is argued that these foundations might be considered complimentary rather than incompatible with the goals of RFT. The relevance of Interbehaviorism toward understanding relational responding is highlighted.
 
 
 
Symposium #509
CE Offered: BACB
Assessing and Treating Noncompliance of Young Children
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
9:30 AM–10:50 AM
Texas Ballroom Salon A (Grand Hyatt)
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Amanda Karsten (Western New England College)
CE Instructor: Mandy Rispoli, Ph.D.
Abstract: Educators and caregivers have an ongoing need for assessment and treatment strategies appropriate to the task of increasing compliance of young children. Data-based papers presented in this symposium will examine strategies for addressing noncompliance of children ranging from 7 months to 6 years of age. The first paper examines the effects of continuous access to preferred stimuli on infant compliance during a tummy time exercise. The second paper evaluates the relation between targeted precursor behavior (i.e., appropriate response to name) and compliance with teacher instructions. The third paper describes functional analysis outcomes and subsequent changes in compliance when treatment components including extinction, reinforcement, and provision of caregiver "rationale" statements are manipulated. The final paper describes a method for rapidly comparing treatments for noncompliance during brief outpatient therapy. Parent-reported treatment preferences and procedural fidelity for caregiver implementation of intervention procedures will also be reported.
 
The Effects of Continuous Access to Preferred Stimuli on Infant Behavior During Tummy Time
HEATHER J. KADEY (SUNY Upstate Medical University), Henry S. Roane (State University of New York, Upstate Medical University)
Abstract: Placement of infants on their backs during sleep has been credited with decreasing episodes of SIDS; nevertheless, this positioning may be associated with a range of undesirable side effects, including plagiocephaly and negative effects on muscle tone. Positioning infants in a prone position for “tummy time” is a common recommendation to ensure appropriate infant development and to combat the effects associated with infants spending extended periods of time in a supine position. However, tummy time may be associated with inappropriate infant behavior such as crying and noncompliance. In the current investigation, we provided continuous access to a preferred stimulus within the context of a reversal design to decrease negative vocalizations and increase the duration of a 7-month-old infant’s head being elevated during tummy time. Interobserver agreement data were collected on over 30% of sessions and averaged over 90% for both dependent variables. The results will be discussed in terms of using preferred stimuli to reduce the aversive qualities of tummy time for typically developing infants.
 
Improving Compliance by Teaching Preschoolers to Respond Effectively to Their Name
LAUREN BEAULIEU (Western New England College), Gregory P. Hanley (Western New England College), Kevin C. Luczynski (Western New England College), Aleasha A. Roberson (Western New England College)
Abstract: We evaluated the effects of teaching preschool children to respond effectively to their name (i.e., stopping their activity, looking up towards the teacher, and saying “yes”), on their compliance with a variety of typical instructions provided by classroom teachers. We used a multiple baseline across groups with 12 preschoolers of typical development to determine the effects of teaching these precursors on classroom compliance. We also used a between-subjects design to determine the extent to which gains in compliance maintained for the children who received precursor training. Interobserver agreement was collected for more than 60% of observations, and averaged 92% across all measures. Results showed that compliance increased as a function of teaching precursors for all children. Data also showed that the effects maintained to some extent. Implications for promoting preschooler compliance in the classroom will be discussed as well as the next set of evaluations necessary to develop a curriculum to prevent the development of intractable noncompliance in young children.
 
Further Evaluation of Antecedent Interventions on Compliance: The Effects of "Rationales" to Increase Compliance Among Preschoolers
KATIE A. NICHOLSON (Florida Institute of Technology), David A. Wilder (Florida Institute of Technology), Janelle Allison (Florida Institute of Technology), Oneina E. Abellon (Florida Institute of Technology), Renee Saulnier (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: Functional analyses were conducted to identify reinforcers for noncompliance exhibited by six young children. Next, the effects of rationales, or statements describing why a child should comply with a caregiver-delivered instruction, were evaluated. In experiment 1, three participants received the rationales immediately after the therapist’s instruction. In experiment 2, three additional participants received rationales immediately before the therapist’s instruction. The results indicate that rationales were ineffective for all six children. Extinction increased compliance for one child; contingent access to preferred items with or without response cost increased compliance for the other participants. Although levels of problem behavior varied within and across participants, they were generally higher in the rationale and extinction conditions.
 
A Rapid Treatment Analysis of Compliance in Young Children
SORAYA SHANUN KUNNAVATANA (University of the Pacific), Matthew P. Normand (University of the Pacific)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to use an alternating treatment design to rapidly determine the most effective treatment for noncompliance in five children (ages 3-6 years) and to train caregivers to implement the treatment during a 90-minute outpatient meeting. Three treatments were assessed: fixed-time delivery of attention, high-probability instruction sequence, and a three-step guided compliance procedure. The sessions took place in a university clinic and the parents acted as therapists during assessment and treatment. Three follow-up sessions were conducted in the child’s home to further assess the effectiveness of the prescribed treatment and to evaluate the level of treatment integrity evidenced by the parents. Parents also were asked to choose the treatment they preferred following the multi-element analysis and again following a review of the data from the analysis and report treatment satisfaction during follow up sessions. Data indicate that the rapid treatment analysis produced differentiated levels of compliance for four of the participants. Overall, compliance increased following the analysis and parents implemented the treatments with integrity. Parent-reported preferences for treatment changed following review of the multi-element analysis data for two participants and overall satisfaction with the prescribed treatments was high.
 
 
Panel #510
Professional Development Series: Issues and Implications From Graduate Program Directors, Service Providers, and BACB Personnel
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
9:30 AM–10:50 AM
Texas Ballroom Salon E (Grand Hyatt)
Area: EDC/TBA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Tom Sharpe (Educational Consulting, Inc.)
TOM SHARPE (Educational Consulting, Inc.)
RICHARD W. MALOTT (Western Michigan University)
JOSE A. MARTINEZ-DIAZ (Florida Institute of Technology)
CHRISTINE L. RATCLIFF (Behavior Analyst Certification Board)
Abstract: The importance of kind and type of graduate training in ABA programs is receiving greater attention in relation to the dual purposes of training scholars and training service providers. Ongoing development and growing influence of BACB certification designed to ensure quality control of professional caregiving provides additional challenge. This panel discussion brings together graduate program directors, service delivery providers, and BACB personnel to discuss postsecondary training practices across the functionally related competency areas of (a) research activity to further a foundational knowledge base, (b) postsecondary teaching and outreach, and (c) applied professional service delivery. Discussion is focused on additional postsecondary training issues in relation to the growing ABAI and BACB emphases in the areas of: characteristics of effective behavior service delivery, form and function of required residency-based training experiences, and the related changes in emphases across required coursework progressions core to those training activities. Currently, a range of university-based undergraduate, Masters, and Doctoral granting programs, and independent corporate organizations largely engaged in internet-based education, are all involving in the growing arena of professional service delivery training in concert with professional BCBA Certification activity. Recommendations for these programmatic initiatives, and the many different pedagogical procedures implemented are discussed.
 
 
Symposium #511
The First Learning Centre in Italy: Applied Behavior Analysis in the Country of Teaching as an Art
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
9:30 AM–10:50 AM
Texas Ballroom Salon B (Grand Hyatt)
Area: EDC; Domain: Experimental Analysis
Chair: Silvia Perini (Università di Parma)
Abstract: Precision Teaching as a scientific methodology for instructional design in e-learning: history, techniques and experimental researches of applications in the classroom and in the workplace
 
Syllables or Words? A Comparison Between Common Words and Common Syllables Fluency-Based Trainings to Improve Early Reading Skills
FRANCESCA CAVALLINI (University of Parma), Federica Berardo (Tice Learning Center), Sara Andolfi (Tice Learning Center)
Abstract: This study describes and compares the effectiveness of two brief intervention trainings (word recognition and syllable recognition) aimed at increasing the readings rates of four pupils referred to our facility (The Tice Learning Centre) for learning problems. The two programs used frequency-building procedures aimed at increasing reading rates for either common words (2 children) or common syllables (2 children). Both programs used precision teaching (PT) to monitor intervention effectiveness. The four children in the syllable/word treatments also received speed reading support during the same period. Results showed that the two word-recognition training participants made significant gains in overall reading skills and the two children receiving syllable recognition treatment did not improve on any of the measures. This study suggests the importance of teaching common words recognition during the early reading teaching process and provides additional evidence for the effectiveness of PT and frequency-building procedures.
 
Centro Tice: The First Learning Centre in Italy
SILVIA PERINI (Università di Parma), Francesca Cavallini (University of Parma), Fabiola Casarini (University of Parma)
Abstract: Tice learning centers are innovative and unique community service centers that have served the educational and social needs of children and families in Piacenza and Pavia (Italy) since 2006. As co-Directors, dr. Cavallini and dr. Casarini use Applied Behavior Analysis educational procedures to promote the implementation of a variety of individualized and social programs. By promoting scientific method and data-driven educational procedures, the social impact of the centre has recently been recognized by the local authorities and moved to a turning point: the Quartiere Roma and CABAS® schools project s. The projects are designed to address the needs of preschoolers with disability and older children with and without disability living in sub urban areas of Piacenza. We will describe the programs of the Tice learning centers and the behavioral philosophy that guided the organization’s development. We will also present our future project in an attempt to spread and supervise the use of the science of behavior in regular and special education contexts. Professor Silvia Perini will discuss the role that principles of behavior have had in the development of the Tice organization programs along with applications of its principles to educational and social issues in urban and suburban communities.
 
Comprehensive Application of Behavior Analysis to Schooling in Italy: The Pilot Project
FABIOLA CASARINI (University of Parma), Roberto Cattivelli (Tice Learning Center), Francesca Cavallini (University of Parma)
Abstract: A systematic replication of a CABAS® classroom in Italy has been, since 2007, the goal to reach for a group of Parma University’s Phd students and researchers looking for a scientific model of education to implement in their country. Historically, Italian school system is based on public schools and the public schools’ representatives have chosen full inclusion as the national “signature” mean to provide special need students with education. Unfortunately the public system is failing in providing all students with individualized education and it’s particularly ineffective in teaching children with multiple disabilities and autism diagnosis. The CABAS® model provided us with a modern, effective and research-driven opportunity to help our educational system. A Pilot Project was started in 2009 and the first data suggest the Italian classroom can successfully replicate the American outcomes. We will discuss the significance of the project in terms of how this data can affect Italian special education and re-think the full inclusion as an educational objective instead of a starting tool.
 
The Effects of an Intensive Tact Intervention on the Emission of Spontaneous Speech in Two Students With Multiple Disabilities: A Replication of CABAS Procedures in Italy
FABIOLA CASARINI (University of Parma), Francesca Cavallini (University of Parma), Federica Berardo (Tice Learning Center)
Abstract: We tested the effects of using the CABAS® procedure for Intensive Tact instruction on the emission of vocal verbal operant’s in non-instructional settings (NIS). The Participants were two students receiving individual instruction in a learning centre in Italy. The dependent variable measured in this study was the number of vocal verbal operant’s emitted by participants during non-instructional time. A delayed multiple probe design was used to compare the number of vocal verbal operant’s emitted in NIS before and after the mastery of each set of tacts. The data showed a significant increase in the number of appropriate “spontaneous speech” intervals emitted by both participants and suggested that CABAS® practices can be effective in Italian educational contexts and successfully implemented in 1:1 instructional settings.
 
 
Symposium #512
Research on Writer Immersion: Developing Functional, Structural, and Aesthetic Writing in Elementary Age Students
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
9:30 AM–10:50 AM
Texas Ballroom Salon D (Grand Hyatt)
Area: EDC/EAB; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: JoAnn Pereira Delgado (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Discussant: Nirvana Pistoljevic (The Fred S Keller School and Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract: In this symposium three papers will be presented that utilized the tactic writer immersion in a general education setting. Writer immersion is a motivating operation that involves students communicating only in written form for a designated period of time either with a peer or teacher. Research has shown that writer immersion creates the “need to write”, in which students learn both structural and functional components of writing because they must write until they affect the behavior of the reader. In the first paper, the writer immersion procedure was tested in two studies with third and fifth grade students. During the writer immersion procedure, students who were editors were paired with students who were not editors. Structural and functional components were measured for both groups of students. In the second paper, writer immersion was tested on fourth grade students’ functional, technical and aesthetic writing. Peer graders were used during the writer immersion procedure. In the final paper, a yoked writer immersion procedure was implemented to increase the rate of correct responses to math word problems emitted by second grade students. Results will be discussed in terms of the effects of the writer immersion procedure as a motivating operation to improve students’ writing.
 
The Effects of a Writer Immersion Procedure on Functional and Structural Components of Writing
JoAnn Pereira Delgado (Teachers College, Columbia University), JOANNE M. HILL (Teachers College, Columbia University), Jessica Adele VanDerhoef (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract: We conducted two studies with participants who were selected from an Accelerated Independent Learner classrooms that implemented the CABAS® model of instruction. The participants in the first study were six fifth grade students. Three of the participants served as the editors who were paired with respective writers who were non-editors. A delayed multiple probe design was implemented, in which during pre and post-probe sessions, all students were given a series of descriptive topics to write about. The treatment phase consisted of writer immersion, in which the participants were instructed to communicate only in written form on novel topics from the probe sessions for a pre-determined amount of time each day. Data were collected on the number of accurate structural components written during probe sessions, as well as the functional component of the participants’ writing. In the second study, we tested the effects of writer immersion on third grade students’ writing using a similar procedure. The results of both studies will be discussed in terms of writer immersion as a motivating operation to teach structural and functional writing across both groups of students.
 
The Effects of Writing Tactics on the Functional, Technical, and Aesthetic Writing of Fourth Grade Students
PETRA WIEHE (Teachers College, Columbia University), R. Douglas Greer (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract: Two studies were conducted on student writing. The participants in both studies were fourth grade students from a behavior analytic inclusion model classroom. The purpose of the first study was to test the effects of peer grading on the technical and aesthetic writing of peer graders. The dependent variable was writing probes conducted pre and post intervention for the peer graders. Prior to the intervention peer grader writing samples showed that they did not have the target behaviors in their repertoire. Return to baseline results showed an increase in technical and aesthetic writing across participants. The purpose of the second study was to test the effects of writer immersion on functional and technical writing. The dependent variable was the effect the student writing had on the behavior of readers who were blind to the purpose of the study. Results for the study showed an increase in functional and technical writing across participants.
 
The Effects of a Yoked-Writer Immersion Protocol on Math Problem Solving
JOAN A. BROTO (Teachers College, Columbia University), R. Douglas Greer (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract: This study tested the effects of multiple exemplars and a yoked-writer immersion protocol on the number of correct and incorrect responses per minute to math word problems. The participants in this study were eight 2nd-grade students who were enrolled in a regular education classroom. The participants were randomly assigned into two groups, writers and peer readers. Participants were then placed in matched pairs based upon the similarities of verbal capabilities in their repertoire. A delayed multiple probe design using matched pairs across participants was implemented. The dependent variables were the number of correct and incorrect responses per minute on 4 types of word problems, 2 problems from each type with 8 problems total. The independent variables were learn unit instruction using multiple exemplars and a yoked- writer immersion protocol. The 4 writers were taught how to solve word problems using multiple exemplars and then they were paired with their peer readers. The writers wrote algorithms on how to solve word problems and the peer readers followed the written algorithms. If the peer readers solved the word problems correctly, reinforcement was delivered to the pair. If the peer reader did not solve the word problems correctly, the writer had to made corrections in their written algorithm until the peer reader was able to solve the word problem.
 
 
Invited Tutorial #514
Naming Relations and Complex Human Behaviour
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
Ballroom A (CC)
Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Gary D. Novak (California State University, Stanislaus)
Presenting Author: J. CARL HUGHES (Bangor University)
Abstract: Horne and Lowe (1996) outlined an account of how a typically developing child may learn to name objects and events. Their account of naming relations was built largely on Skinner’s (1957) Verbal Behavior. Horne and Lowe also defined naming relations as higher-order behavioural relations, which has implications for accounts of complex human behaviours, such as categorisation, generativity, and incidental language learning. Skinner’s account of verbal operants was based on the basic principles of behaviour, including the role of motivating operations as controlling variables. The concept of motivating operations has proved central to a more complete description of the principles of behaviour, and has had clear applied implications for teaching verbal behaviour. In the tutorial I will introduce some of the basic verbal operants and explain how they may interact in the developmental progression from pre-verbal behaviours to symbolic naming, including the role of motivating operations. I will discuss how naming can be described as verbally controlled behaviour that has both behaviour-altering and value-altering functions. I will also discuss some of the recent experimental and applied research that has been conducted into the development of naming capabilities in children with and without intellectual disability.
 
J. CARL HUGHES (Bangor University)
Dr. Carl Hughes, BCBA-D, is Consultant Behaviour Analyst at the School of Psychology, Bangor University, Wales, and Director of the MSc in Applied Behaviour Analysis. He studied for his BSc in Psychology in 1993 and obtained his PhD in behaviour analysis and verbal behaviour in 2000, following which he took a Teaching Fellowship at the School of Psychology teaching behaviour analysis to psychology students. In 2003 he and colleagues started the first BCBA accredited MSc in Applied Behaviour Analysis programme in Europe. The programme now enrols approximately 35 students each year. In 1998 Dr. Hughes took over the organisation of the Experimental Analysis of Behaviour Group, UK and Europe (EABG), the longest standing organisation devoted to behaviour analysis in Europe. Dr. Hughes is a founder and active member of the European Association of Behaviour Analysis, an organisation that aims to promote the dissemination and training in behaviour analysis across Europe. He has lectured internationally at universities in Spain, Ireland, Italy, and Norway. Dr. Hughes has published in several journals including the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior (JEAB), European Journal of Behavior Analysis (EJOBA), The American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, Behavior Modification, and the Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology.
 
 
Invited Paper Session #515
Experimental Analysis of Human Behavior Special Interest Group Career Award: Can We All Get Along? A Case for Blended Autism Interventions
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
103AB (CC)
Domain: Theory
Chair: Timothy D. Hackenberg (Reed College)
TRAVIS THOMPSON (University of Minnesota)
Travis Thompson received his PhD in psychology at University of Minnesota. He has conducted research, clinical practice and teaching at the University of Minnesota, Vanderbilt University's John F. Kennedy Center and the University of Kansas Medical Center. He is currently Supervising Psychologist at the Minnesota Early Autism Project in Maple Grove, MN, an Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention home-based therapy program. He has been an invited speaker in 47 states throughout the US and 14 foreign countries. He has published 230 articles and chapters and 30 books. His most recent books, Making Sense of Autism (2007), Straight Talk About Autism (2008) and Freedom from Meltdowns: Dr. Thompson's Solutions for Children with Autism are published by Paul H. Brookes. He is Fellow in ABAI and past-president of APA Division of Psychopharmacology and Substance Abuse and Division of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities. He received the Research Award (AAIDD), Distinguished Research Award, (ARC US), the Academy of Mental Retardation, Career Scientist Award, the Edgar Doll Award and the Ernest Hilgard Award (APA), and Society for Advancement of Behavior Analysis's "Impact of Science on Application Award." He is grandparent of a 12 year-old grandson with an autism spectrum disorder.
Abstract: Behavior analysts and Constructivist developmental psychologists continue to compete on the autism playing field. The roots of the discord can be traced to the metatheoretical writings of Piaget, Vygotsky, Errickson and Bowlby on one side, and Skinner on the other. Constructivist theory is generally inconsistent with the autism empirical literature, such as the assumed importance of learning by observation, the role of intrinsic motivation and role of maternal attachment. However, some aspects of Constructivist observations, as opposed to theoretical interpretations, provide fruit for thought. Constructivists emphasize the importance of learning in context, a notion behavior analysts have often minimized. Research on Incidental Teaching, Milieu Language learning, Pivotal Response Training and relational learning suggest we may have underestimated the importance of context in conducting our interventions. The presentation will conclude with an example of blended autism early intervention incorporating contextual elements within an overall behavior analytic autism early intervention strategy, raising the question, “Can we all get along?”
 
 
Symposium #516
CE Offered: BACB
Patterns and Processes of Change in Behavior Therapy for Youth Depression
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
10:00 AM–11:20 AM
Crockett A/B (Grand Hyatt)
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Daniel William Maitland (Western Michigan University)
CE Instructor: Susan Friedman, Ph.D.U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Abstract: Clinical behavior analysis involves the application of strategies derived from behavioral concepts and principles to traditional (outpatient) psychotherapy settings and populations. When a particular behavioral technique alters a well-specified target behavior whose function has been experimentally demonstrated, the cause of the change is relatively apparent. However, in settings where functional analyses are interpretive, intervention based on verbal exchanges between therapist and client, and outcome measured according to multi-dimensional, client-reported indices of functioning, understanding the change process is complicated. In this symposium we focus on our attempts to understand the course of change and the variables responsible for it during behavioral interventions for youth who present with the array of features commonly identified by the summary label depression.
 
The Time-Course of Change in Youth Depression Treatment: Evidence and Implications
SCOTT T. GAYNOR (Western Michigan University), Sarah N. VerLee (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: A better understanding of the pattern of change during effective treatment may help in determining the (therapeutic and behavioral) processes responsible for producing that change. The present paper reviews the existing single-case and group design literature to examine the time-course of change during treatment for youth depression. Replicating results from a seminal review in the adult depression literature (Ilardi & Craighead, 1994), group-level results from multiple large scale efficacy trials suggest a substantial amount of the overall change occurs in the early stages of the treatment process. Individual-level analyses further suggest this pattern applies to a substantial percentage of participants. These data have implications for how the field goes about trying to determine the mechanisms of action by which therapy works and determine how best to structure interventions, topics which are addressed in detail in the subsequent papers.
 
Single-Participant Assessment of Treatment Mediators During Behavioral Activation for Depressed Youth
ANDREW R. RILEY (Western Michigan University), Amanda M. Harris (Oglethorpe), Scott T. Gaynor (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: It is desirable to understand the mechanisms by which effective psychotherapy works. Assessment of treatment mediators in single-participant design research provides valuable information about the potential causal variables in behavior change. Such analysis requires documenting, for each participant, the receipt of treatment, change on the mediator and relevant clinical outcome measures, and that the change on the mediator happened at the expected time and preceded significant change on the dependent variable. Procedures used in single-participant assessment of mediators will be described, and example data from a behavioral activation intervention with four depressed youths who demonstrated remission following treatment will be presented. For two participants, increased activation appeared to be a mediator, whereas decreased dysfunctional thinking never emerged as a plausible mediator. It is concluded that single-participant assessment of mediators of treatment outcome offers a useful additional tool for determining possible mechanisms of action in effective psychotherapy.
 
A Stepped Behavioral Care Approach for Youth Depression: Assessment, Rationale, and Clinical Illustrations
LUCAS A. BROTEN (Western Michigan University), Scott T. Gaynor (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: This presentation will focus on clinical implementation of the stepped behavior therapy approach for depressed adolescents. The rationale will be explicated for a sequence consisting of 1) Watchful Waiting (WW), 2) Behavioral Activation (BA), and 3) Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). In short, because a substantial number of youth appear to respond to therapeutic support we implemented WW as the first step. A lack of response led to treatment with BA , which was selected for the second step based on the existing efficacy data with adults and its more straightforward implementation. The final step was ACT, which was reserved for cases that failed to respond to steps 1 and 2 (see Kanter, Baruch, and Gaynor, 2006). The presentation will also outline the decision-rule used to determine step progression and will provide clinical material from sessions with youth receiving each of the steps to illustrate what these treatments looked like when being implemented with depressed adolescents.
 
A Stepped Behavioral Care Approach for Youth Depression: Times-Series Data
LUCAS A. BROTEN (Western Michigan University), Scott T. Gaynor (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: The purpose of this presentation is to examine data collected using a stepped -treatment sequence involving WW, BA, and ACT for depressed adolescents. The experiment used a single participant A/B/C design where exposure to the next level of the independent variable in the sequence was based on treatment response at the prior level. That is, a clinically significant response to A precluded exposure to B, and a clinically significant response to B precluded exposure to C. The goal was to begin to develop a behavioral treatment algorithm wherein more intensive and specialized treatment was implemented for those who demonstrated need. Time series data from six depressed youth will be presented. The clinical outcome across steps as well as potential mediators of treatment response (as outlined in Riley et al. above) will be emphasized.
 
 
Paper Session #517
Advances in Functional Analysis
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
10:30 AM–11:20 AM
Texas Ballroom Salon C (Grand Hyatt)
Area: CBM
Chair: Annette Griffith (University of Nebraska-Lincoln)
 
Development of the Questions About Behavioral Function—Adolescent Version
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
ANNETTE GRIFFITH (University of Nebraska-Lincoln), Johnny L. Matson (Lousiana State University), Michael H. Epstein (University of Nebraska-Lincoln), Nirbhay N. Singh (ONE Research Institute)
 
Abstract: Research has indicated that interventions tailored to address behavioral function lead to greater improvements in behavior than those that do not address function. As a result, functional analyses have become a key step in the intervention-development process. While a variety of methods to conduct functional analyses have been developed and numerous resources are available, it is not always possible for them to be carried out in real-world settings. When functional analyses are not possible or are not convenient to conduct, other methods are needed. The Questions About Behavioral Function (QABF) is a brief, 25-item measure that was developed to identify behavioral function for adults with developmental disabilities. Studies have indicated that the QABF demonstrates good psychometric properties when used with this population and has been useful in treatment planning and program development. This paper will discuss the modification made to the QABF to make it applicable for use with an adolescent population. We will discuss how the Questions About Behavioral Function – Adolescent Version (QABF-AV) was developed and will examine preliminary data examining the reliability and validity of the measure for use with adolescents in out-of-home settings.
 
Sleep: A Missing Variable in Behavioral Assessments of Day-Time Behavior
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
KIMBERLY A. SCHRECK (The Pennsylvania State University, Harrisburg)
 
Abstract: Although behavior analysts assess and develop treatments for a wide variety of childhood behavior categories from autism to depression to anxiety, childhood sleep problems as a variable influencing day-time behavior remain widely ignored. This may be due to a lack of exposure to childhood sleep issues. This paper identifies some of the more common childhood sleep problems and the data behavior analysts need to collect and assess to treat and make referral decisions for sleep problems.
 
 
 
Panel #518
CE Offered: BACB
Arizona and Behavior Analysis: Mandated Applied Behavior Analysis Insurance Coverage, BCBA Licensure, and Service Delivery in the Desert
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
207AB (CC)
Area: AUT/CBM; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CE Instructor: Amanda Karsten, Ph.D.
Chair: Joseph Gentry (Gentry Pediatric Behavioral Services)
DANIEL P. DAVIDSON (Northern Arizona University)
BRYAN J. DAVEY (ACCEL)
JOSEPH GENTRY (Gentry Pediatric Behavioral Services)
DONALD M. STENHOFF (BISTÅ Autism Center)
Abstract: The past two years have been exciting ones for behavior analysts in Arizona. With the recent conception of the Four Corners Association for Behavior Analysis, behavior analysts have been coming together to get things accomplished for our clients across all of Arizona. With the help of well versed parents and supportive legislators, Arizona law makers passed “Steven’s Law,” which mandates insurance providers to pay for ABA services for individuals on the autism spectrum. Arizona behavior analysts were also successful in getting another bill passed in the Arizona legislature that will soon allow BCBA’s to be licensed providers in the state. This panel discussion will share up-to-date information regarding how these laws are being implemented and how they are impacting service delivery across the state. Participants will be able to learn more about how Arizonians worked to get these laws passed and how they may be able to pass similar laws in their states. Panelists represent a wide range of practice areas, ncluding a University Professor, Director of Behavioral Services, Psychologist in Private Practice, and Director of a Private Non-Profit Center.
 
 
Symposium #519
CE Offered: BACB
Changes in Student Performance: Case Studies in Verbal Behavior Within a Large Scale Public School Project
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
204AB (CC)
Area: AUT/VRB; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Michael Miklos (Pennsylvania Training and Technical Assistance Network)
Discussant: Mark L. Sundberg (Sundberg and Associates)
CE Instructor: Charlotte Fudge, M.S.
Abstract: The Pennsylvania Verbal Behavior Project provides applied behavior analytic services to students with autism in over 100 classes within the Commonwealth. Language instruction within the Project is guided by the analysis of verbal behavior and includes both intensive teaching through a discrete trial format as well as natural environment teaching. Symposium content will review case studies presenting outcome data accumulated in the PA VB Project in various formats including a video media presentation, results of VB-MAPP assessments, and student progress within individual instructional programs. A description of Project training processes, fidelity measures, and data calibration will be included. Procedural integrity will be discussed in relation to a mixed and varied presentation of discrete trials and errorless procedures. Case study data will be referenced to measures of implementation of instructional methods within participating classrooms. The main goal of these presentations will be to provide priliminary demonstrations of positive changes in student functioning along dimensions of behavior associated with autism.
 
Media Presentation of Case Studies Within the Pennsylvania Verbal Behavior Project: A Video Presentation of Student Progress for Training and Public Awareness
WILLIAM A. GALBRAITH (Pennsylvania Training and Technical Assistance Network)
Abstract: This session will include a brief overview of the structure and demographics of efforts within the PA VB Project. Processes of training, monitoring implementation, general instructional procedures and data systems will be discussed. Descriptive data for each variable will be followed by a presentation of case studies in a video documentary format. The video will include parent and teacher reports, footage of behavior change, and supportive data. Programming and organization of four PA VB Project classrooms will be highlighted. Classrooms reviewed are public school autism support classes including a preschool age level class, two elementary school classes, and an intermediate school class. Video footage of individual students will include examples of various instructional strategies and the progress of the individual students across a single school year.
 
Repeated Demonstrations of Student Progress on the Verbal Behavior Milestones Assessment and Placement Program From Within a Single School Year
MICHAEL MIKLOS (Pennsylvania Training and Technical Assistance Network)
Abstract: A series of case studies of student progress documented through protocol analysis of assessment outcomes on the Verbal Behavior-Milestones Assessment and Placement Program will be presented. Individual student case studies derived from various participating sites in the PA VB Project will be presented and include relevant descriptions of systematic staff training procedures, measures of degree of protocol implementation and fidelity measures. Descriptions of student characteristics in relation to diagnosis for each case study will be provided. Case studies will suggest support for a systematic application of behavioral programs focusing language instruction derived from a conceptual analysis of verbal behavior. The primary mode of data presentation will be VB-MAPP grids completed at two points, fall and spring, within a single school year. Outcomes will be discussed in relation to meaningful changes in student functioning related to teaching mands, tacts, intraverbals, listener responding, echoics, social skills, and other skill domains.
 
Verbal Behavior Programming and Resultant Changes in Performance for Skill Acquisition and the Reduction of Problem Behavior
AMIRIS DIPUGLIA (PaTTAN/ PA Verbal Behavior Project)
Abstract: A series of brief case studies derived from public school classes within the PA VB Project will illustrate skill acquisition for students with autism across specific instructional programs addressing the acquisition of mands, tacts, listener responding, imitation, intraverbals, match to sample and other skills. For certain students, data tracking the reduction of problem behavior will also be presented in relation to verbal skill acquisition. These case studies will provide further demonstration of changes in meaningful skill acquisition and adaptive functioning for students with autism in relation to specific instructional protocols associated with the verbal behavior approach including errorless teaching, interspersing task presentation, natural environment training, and consideration of motivative variables. Each case study will be brief, but multiple examples of changes in meaningful skill acquisition across a number of students will be presented. The cases studies will be derived from a variety of classes and students with autism of various chronological ages.
 
 
Symposium #520
Interventions to Increase Food Acceptance With Children With Autism
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
202AB (CC)
Area: AUT/EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Maria Saville (Bangor University)
Discussant: Neil T. Martin (European Association for Behaviour Analysis)
Abstract: Feeding disorders are prevalent amongst individuals with Autism. Feeding problems impact the child’s health, growth, and development as well as presenting difficulties for carers. Study one examines the use of positive reinforcement and escape extinction in an ABA school setting aimed at increasing acceptance of foods. The study used a changing criterion design and preferred foods as contingent consequence for acceptance of non-preferred foods. Study two investigated the use of a shaping procedure, combined with escape extinction without the use of physical guidance. The purpose of study three was to contribute to existing research by investigating the possibility of using non-intrusive interventions for food refusal. Participants were initially reinforced for imitating food-associated responses (e.g. licking), and these were strengthened through the use of positive reinforcement in a hierarchical procedure.
 
Treatment of Pediatric Feeding Disorders: A Review of Single-Subject Research
DAVID L. JAQUESS (Marcus Autism Center), William G. Sharp (The Marcus Autism Center), Jane Morton (Louisiana DHH-OCDD), Caitlin V. Herzinger (Marcus Autism Center)
Abstract: Eating is an essential activity--necessary to sustain life--but up to 40% of toddlers and early school-age children experience mealtime difficulties with ensuing stress for caregivers (Manikam & Perman, 2000). Ten percent of children develop severe or chronic feeding issues, which are called “feeding disorders” and which may lead to severe medical complications and long-standing social disruptions (Chatoor, 2002). Feeding disorders of this magnitude involve the complex influence of organic, socio-familial, developmental and behavioral factors, and they often require structured, intensive intervention. The frequently malignant course of feeding disorders creates a pressing need to identify evidence-based treatments. A stringent review of the literature revealed 41 single-subject studies involving behavioral intervention (e.g., escape extinction, differential reinforcement) published between 1970 and 2009 reporting outcomes on 82 participants. Results were pooled and analyzed via the meta-analytic technique of percentage of nonoverlapping data between baseline and treatment (PND; Scruggs & Mastropieri, 1998). Outcomes reflected effective to highly effective treatment outcomes with high PND values on each dependent variable: percent accepted (86.6%), percent swallowed (77.89%), and volume consumed (96.2%). Findings were confirmed (p<.01) with Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, providing non-parametric effect-size estimates. Implications for selecting treatment, research limitations and future directions are also discussed.
 
CANCELLED Use of Differential Reinforcement to Increase Food Consumption
SUSAN OWENS (Saplings Ltd, Ireland), Wendi M. McDermott (Saplings Ltd, Ireland), J. Carl Hughes (Bangor University)
Abstract: The effects of a shaping procedure, combined with escape extinction, in increasing food consumption were examined. Four children (6yrs – 9yrs) with an Autistic Spectrum Disorder diagnosis participated in the study. Results are reported where differential reinforcement of the response classes within the complex behaviour chain of consumption was used to shape the behaviour towards the terminal behaviour of food consumption. Edible and token reinforcement was delivered contingent on completion of the desired response class. The aims of the study were to extend the literature on food refusal with individuals with different severity of feeding disorders in an applied clinical setting. Results showed that all participants exhibited closer approximations of the terminal behaviour, food consumption, suggesting that the implementation of a shaping procedure, combined with escape extinction without the use of physical guidance, may have positive effects on food consumption. Findings are discussed in the context of developing a shaping procedure combined with escape extinction as an effective procedure for increasing food consumption.
 
CANCELLED Positive Reinforcement and Escape Extinction Procedures to Increase Food Acceptance in Children With Autism
ALISON A. FINN (Saplings Ltd, Ireland), Carrie McMillan (Saplings Ltd, Ireland), J. Carl Hughes (Bangor University)
Abstract: The combined effects of positive reinforcement and escape extinction procedures in increasing food acceptance were examined. Two children (5yrs – 8.5yrs) with Autistic Spectrum Disorder participated in the study. Results are reported for two subject AB design with a changing criterion element was utilised where preferred foods were delivered contingent on acceptance of non-preferred foods. The dependent variable measured was: food acceptance. The aims of the study were: to extend the behavioural literature on food refusal and to investigate the use of behaviour analytical procedures in seeking an effective intervention for feeding disorders in an applied clinical setting. Results show acceptance increased for both subjects across identified food groups and positive effects of combining positive reinforcement and escape extinction without the use of physical guidance. Findings are discussed in the context of developing procedures in finding a suitable intervention in increasing food acceptance, and the use of positive reinforcement and escape extinction procedures.
 
Increasing Food Acceptance in Children With Autism Using Positive Reinforcement Procedures
MARIA SAVILLE (Bangor University), J. Carl Hughes (Bangor University), Corinna F. Grindle (Bangor University), Julie M. O. Maynard (Msc in ABA, Bangor University, Wales), Sandra Winkel (Msc in ABA, Bangor University, Wales), Richard P. Hastings (Bangor University)
Abstract: Feeding disorders are prevalent amongst individuals with Autism. Feeding problems impact the child’s health, growth, and development as well as presenting difficulties for carers. The purpose of the current research was to contribute to existing research by investigating the possibility of using non-intrusive interventions for food refusal. Most previous research has indicated that escape extinction is an important element in treatment; however, in school settings in the UK this is difficult to implement. Participants were initially expected to imitate food-associated responses that were not acceptance or ingestion (e.g. licking). These responses were strengthened through the use of positive reinforcement. In a hierarchical procedure, once a food response was consistent, reinforcement was faded, and then reinforcement was contingent on the participants imitating a closer response to the terminal response of ingestion. Results indicate that, in contrast to baseline levels, both participants now exhibit a variety of food responses (touch, pick up, lick, smell, and bite) across five foods. Crucially, both participants will also place each food item into their mouths (acceptance). Results are discussed in the context of developing feeding procedures that do not require intrusive methods.
 
 
Paper Session #521
Teaching Language Skills to Young Learners With Autism
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
203AB (CC)
Area: AUT
Chair: Joshua Plavnick (Michigan State University)
 
Teaching Initial Verbal Repertoires Using Function-Based Communication Training
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
JOSHUA PLAVNICK (Michigan State University), Summer Ferreri (Michigan State University)
 
Abstract: Many children with autism also demonstrate severe communication impairment and require intensive intervention to acquire a verbal repertoire. At the same time, these children often rely upon unconventional prelinguistic behavior to convey basic needs and wants. The present investigation examined an experimental analysis methodology for identifying the functional properties of an individual’s prelinguistic behaviors and the effectiveness of function-based interventions for children with autism who were reliant on prelinguistic behavior to convey basic needs and wants. During the first experiment, an experimental analysis methodology was examined to identify the function of each participant’s prelinguistic behavior. Results suggested this methodology could be used to develop effective and efficient communication training procedures for children with autism and severe communication impairment. During the second experiment, function-based interventions were examined to validate the assessment procedure and to determine the effectiveness of these interventions for increasing a child’s communicative repertoire. Results will be discussed in terms of the effectiveness of the assessment methodology to identify functional relationships between prelinguistic behavior and environmental variables, the degree to which participants demonstrated an increase in desired communicative behavior, and the extent to which participants demonstrated a decrease in problematic communicative behavior.
 
A Comparison of the Effects of Discrete Trial Teaching Versus Discrete Trial Teaching With Fluency Training on Retention of Newly Acquired Picture Labels
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
RAY CEPEDA (ABAskills, LLC), Allison Schear (Effective Interventions)
 
Abstract: The purpose of this research was to compare the retention of newly acquired picture labels in three children with autism that were mastered with discrete trial teaching and then taught to fluency versus picture labels learned with discrete trial teaching alone. Fluency based instruction was conducted to increase the participant's rate of expressive responding for acquired picture labels. Discrete trial teaching (i.e., a three-part teaching unit that is a specific behavioral sequence used to maximize learning) was used to teach the picture labels for discrete trial teaching to mastery and discrete trial teaching followed by fluency. Once the picture labels were mastered in the discrete trial only sets, weekly retention probes were conducted. Once the discrete trial with fluency training sets met criteria they were also placed on a weekly retention probe schedule. This paper will discuss which of the two teaching procedures promoted retention in the three participants with autism.
 
The Role of Peer Tutoring on the Acquisition of Verbal Operants
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CHRISTINE O'ROURKE LANG (Mercy College), Sudha Ramaswamy (Mercy College)
 
Abstract: The limited repertoire of social communicative behaviors of children with Autism may interfere with academic and social skills development and identifying effective interventions that improve social proficiency is an important goal. The present study is a systematic replication of the Ramaswamy study (2007) wherein she tested whether peer tutoring with typically developing peers can function as a procedure to teach children with Autism to emit verbal operants with peers in play settings using a multiple baseline across participants design. Two students from elementary level general education classes participated in the experiment as tutors along with three participants who were diagnosed with Autism. The dependent variable consisted of the number of verbal operants emitted between peers in play settings. The results showed a change in level of the emission of verbal operants in comparing baseline to treatment sessions across three participants across all operants measured. The study adds to existing literature documenting the benefits of peer tutoring as well as provides a method for teaching communicative behaviors to children with Autism.
 
 
 
Paper Session #522
Describing Programs for Individuals With Disabilities
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
205 (CC)
Area: AUT
Chair: Dennis Crowley (Macon County Mental Health Board)
 
An Applied Behavior Analysis Summer Program in the Natural Environment: Factors That Affect Program Development
Domain: Service Delivery
DENNIS CROWLEY (Macon County Mental Health Board), Kristen Deeanne Braun (Macon County Mental Health Board), Debbie Floyd (Macon County Mental Health Board), Amy Shymansky (Washington Park District)
 
Abstract: This project examined the evolution of programming and some of the factors that affect program effectiveness and participant progress across multiple summer sessions for two participants. The two participants were served during four consecutive summer sessions, beginning in 2006. A county-based community mental health board funded and designed short-term services for children with clinical diagnoses of autism spectrum disorders, other developmental disabilities, or co-morbid conditions and utilized applied behavior analysis (ABA) as the treatment of choice (service delivery model presented in Jacksonville, 2009; Phoenix, 2009). Thirty-eight total participants have been served across the four summer sessions in their natural environments (e.g., home, daycare). Inspection of the children’s individual programming illuminates how factors, such as participant skill level, in-home tutor characteristics, and number of service hours per week, affect programming decisions and participant progress. The two participants received services in different settings (i.e., home versus daycare), which is discussed relative to program efficacy. Interobserver percentage agreement is discussed, ranging from 75% to 100%. Qualitative parent and staff reports are also presented. Performance data and qualitative report suggest that tutor characteristics tended to be a salient factor affecting participant progress.
 
An Applied Behavior Analysis Summer Program in the Natural Environment: Assessment, Programming, and Outcomes
Domain: Service Delivery
DENNIS CROWLEY (Macon County Mental Health Board), Kristen Deeanne Braun (Macon County Mental Health Board), Amy Shymansky (Washington Park District), Debbie Floyd (Macon County Mental Health Board)
 
Abstract: A county-based community mental health board funded and designed short-term services for children with clinical diagnoses of autism spectrum disorders, other developmental disabilities, or co-morbid conditions and utilized applied behavior analysis (ABA) as the treatment of choice (service delivery model presented in Jacksonville, 2009; Phoenix, 2009). Thirty-eight participants were served across four summers in their natural environments, with twenty participants served in 2009. Participants range in age from 2 to 14 years. This project examined the types of programming, how the participants’ programs were developed, and the efficacy of the summer program. Assessment procedures, which included a home visit, interview, behavioral observation, testing, served as the basis for the individual children’s program development. The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale data were collected in 2009 and also utilized during the assessment process. Generally, programming focused on increasing social skills, academic knowledge, and adaptive functioning skills. In addition, several children required adjunctive programming to decrease problematic behaviors. Outcome data were collected for each participant relative to the individual’s targeted objectives and program. Qualitative parent and staff report were also collected for each individual. Preliminary examination of the summer 2009 data suggests that all children showed gains across the eight to ten week session.
 
CANCELLED Scarab Behavioral Health Services: A Mulitidisciplinary Approach
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
AMBER WATERMAN (Scarab Behavioral Health Services)
 
Abstract: Scarab Behavioral Health Services is a company in middle and eastern TN that strives to deliver a multidisciplinary approach to applied behavior analysis services. This paper will address the company’s policy in a multidisciplinary approach and provide an analysis on the positive and negative aspects of this approach in the clinical perspective.
 
Demonstrating Program Effectiveness in a Parent-Mediated Infant Toddler Program Using the Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills-Revised
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
JAMIE HUGHES (Summit Autism Services), Karen E. Flotkoetter (Summit Autism Services)
 
Abstract: Research indicates that empirically derived interventions, such as applied behavior analysis (ABA), during a child’s early development (0-3 years) may: 1) prevent or reduce the long term impact of a child’s developmental disability on his ongoing growth and development, 2) increase the probability he will be able to participate in typical developmental, academic and social activities in natural environments, and 3) improve the likelihood he will no longer require specialized services. A parent-mediated infant toddler program (e.g., Toddler Parent Training Program) was developed to better meet the needs of infants and toddlers diagnosed with autism or at risk for autism, receiving services through several early childhood intervention service (ECI) programs in south Texas. This program placed a heavy emphasis on the development of play and functional communication skills, parent training in reducing problematic behaviors, and generalization of acquired skills across caregivers in the child’s natural environment. The Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills-Revised (Partington, 2008) is a criterion-referenced assessment, curriculum guide, and skills tracking system for children with language delays. The ABLLS-R was administered to each child enrolled in the parent-mediated program. Outcome data demonstrate significant positive results for at risk infants and toddlers with an increase in overall independence across all skill areas and an increase in the likelihood of placement into a less restrictive environment upon transition out of the ECI program. The program design and data collection methods will be presented to illustrate the usefulness of a parent-mediated intervention.
 
 
 
Paper Session #523
Service Delivery Issues in Community-Based Applications of Applied Behavior Analysis
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
Seguin (Grand Hyatt)
Area: CSE
Chair: Kimberly Crosland (University of South Florida)
 
Implementation and Access of Applied Behavior Analysis Services in Managed Mental Health and Community-Based Care
Domain: Service Delivery
NORÁN DOLLARD (University of South Florida), Kimberly Crosland (University of South Florida), Robert Paulson (University of South Florida), Carol MacKinnon-Lewis (University of South Florida), Bryon R. Neff (University of South Florida)
 
Abstract: This study was undertaken at the request of the Agency for Healthcare Administration to better understand the use of behavior analysis services by Community-Based Care lead agencies (CBC’s) in Florida. The study used stakeholder interviews with CBC and mental health provider administrators to obtain a statewide view of the use of behavior analytic services. To better understand workforce issues related to applied behavior analysis, interviews were also conducted with dedicated programs that lead to certification as a Board Certified Behavior Analyst. These interviews were augmented by an on-line survey of program directors with programs that include behavior analysis and which may lead to certification. The specific aims of the study were to identify facilitators and barriers to implementation that exist in integrating behavior analysis services within Managed Care, Mental Health and Community Based Care services and to understand accessibility of behavior analysis services by public sector organizations. Results of the study will be presented which showed that a variety of barriers and limitations exist to providing ABA services such as inadequate reimbursement rates, a limited pool of Certified Behavior Analysts, a relative lack of familiarity with behavior analysis, and theoretical differences.
 
Promoting Community Health in Poor and Rural Communities
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
ANDREE FLEMING-HOLLAND (Universidad Veracruzana)
 
Abstract: Mexico, a developing country, has also suffered from the world-wide recession. As in other nations, the result has been an ever-widening chasm between the haves and have-nots. With the help of senior psychology students at the University of Veracruz, two programs were implemented in two different communities to offset diagnosed health problems. First, students worked under teacher supervision with two groups of adult diabetics also diagnosed with high blood pressure. In weekly meetings over a four-month period, they instructed the group on diet, exercise and mood control. At the end of four months, evaluations showed a drop in blood sugar as well as blood pressure in the majority of group members. A second group of supervised students worked in a rural middle school where there had been a number of suicides previously. Weekly meetings were directed at learning effective communication strategies with parents and peers, mood control and goal-setting. Results after four months showed more emotional stability, results which held up in follow-up contacts. Programs such as these are good experiences for students and advantageous for populations with little or no access to mental health clinics, and could be included in undergraduate or graduate curriculums in other countries as well.
 
Why Behavior Analysts Are at Risk for Getting Sued: A Case for Better Ethical Training
Domain: Service Delivery
TAMARA L. PAWICH-PERRY (Eastern Michigan University), James T. Todd (Eastern Michigan University), Flora Hoodin (Eastern Michigan University)
 
Abstract: Applied behavior analysis has a strong foundation in providing services within natural settings for a variety of problem behaviors and client populations. Delivering such services in the natural environment promotes maintenance and generalization of meaningful change, yet ethical dilemmas often emerge when sessions are held outside of an office setting. While behavior analysts are expected to uphold a high standard of ethics to protect the best interest of all consumers, little focus of training is on how to manage difficult ethical situations and resolve ethical principles when they conflict. Although Bailey and Burch (2005) wrote a much-needed resource that should be a required reading for all graduate programs in behavior analysis, this book should serve only as a catalyst for more advanced graduate training in ethical and professional behavior. Practicing in an ethical manner increasingly has become a legal issue for clinicians who provide services in the community as these individuals are at higher risk for being sued for malpractice. Given these reasons, more training is needed to address the current gaps in our education. Recommendations will provided about: identifying APA and BACB ethical principles that are particularly relevant for community work, using systematic decision-making strategies, and improving graduate training.
 
Examining the Effectiveness and Efficiency of Two Delivery Models to Teach Children Abduction Prevention Skills
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
KIMBERLY E. BANCROFT (Western Michigan University), R. Wayne Fuqua (Western Michigan University)
 
Abstract: Over 58,000 children are the victims of nonfamily abductions in the United States annually and many suffer from acute and chronic psychological and behavioral disorders following the assault (Boney-McCoy & Finkelhor, 1996; Sedlak, Finkelhor, Hammer & Schultz, 2002). Traditional education programs to teach children abduction prevention skills are limited in many ways, including a lack of empirical investigation to support their effectiveness, great variability in program content and presentation, and developmentally inappropriate teaching approach for young children (Bromberg & Johnson, 1997). Behavioral Skills Training (BST) has been found to be a highly effective strategy to teach children abduction prevention skills. This training model, however, is constricted by financial, human and time costs associated with it. These limitations may be restricting the widespread adoption of this effective teaching model. This current investigation seeks to examine the use of a computer-simulated BST delivery model to teach young children abduction prevention skills and to compare its effectiveness and efficiency against the gold-standard of live BST training. Pilot data found that the computer program was as effective in teaching children the target safety skills and learners’ safety behaviors generalized to community settings and maintained over a 1-month period. Additional data shall be collected.
 
 
 
Symposium #524
Matching-to-Sample Procedure in Children With and Without Developmental Disabilities
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
Republic A (Grand Hyatt)
Area: EAB/AUT; Domain: Experimental Analysis
Chair: Vinca Riviere (Universite de Charles de Gaulle - Lille 3)
Discussant: William V. Dube (University of Maryland Medical System)
Abstract: A conditional discrimination is a second order discrimination in which a response to a discriminative stimulus is reinforced only if another (conditional) stimulus is present. Conditional discrimination is often studied with a two-choice arbitrary matching-to-sample (MTS) procedure (Saunders & Spradlin, 1989). MTS procedure is widely used in applied and in fundamental settings in order to teach stimulus-stimulus relations among words, objects or pictures. In our studies, we conducted researches with children with and without developmental disabilities using MTS procedure, to test for the emergence of equivalence classes, to discriminate among facial expressions or to teach quantity discrimination. As pointed out in the literature, MTS baselines are difficult to teach with these populations. We encountered some methodological issues and sometimes subjects failed to acquire conditional discrimination. So we implemented specific learning procedures to facilitate baselines acquisition. This symposium is seen as an occasion to show our data and to discuss about the use of MTS with young children and to improve training outcomes.
 
Equivalence Relations and Matching-to-Sample in Children and Children With Developmental Disabilities
NORA GIEZEK (Universite de Charles de Gaulle - Lille 3), Vinca Riviere (Universite de Charles de Gaulle - Lille 3), Jean-Claude Darcheville (Universite de Charles de Gaulle - Lille 3)
Abstract: This experiment was built to exhibit emergence of Equivalence relation using a Matching To Sample (MTS) procedure in typical children and in children with developmental disabilities (autism). Two sets of stimuli were used (A1, B1, C1 and A2, B2, C2). One sample and two comparisons were presented in a trial. Four baseline relations had to be learned (A1B1, B1C1, A2B2 and B2C2).All experimental sessions were computerized. In order to facilitate learning, sets of stimuli were firstly presented separately. Then participants faced the two sets of stimuli mixed together following the same design: first A-B relations, then B-C and at last all four relations mixed together. Symmetry (B-A, C-B also C-A) and transitivity (A-C) were tested. Typical children (3 and 6 years old) had high accuracy on unreinforced test trials for both classes whereas the 7 children with developmental disabilities (4 to 14 years old) showed either difficulties in training phases or no emergent properties at all. Performances in testing for two 4 year participants with autism were either 100% correct for one set of stimuli or below chance level for the other. These data could be analyzed in terms of overselectivity and resistance to change.
 
Facial Expression Discrimination Using Matching-to-Sample Procedure in Children With and Without Developmental Disabilities
STEPHANIE COUSIN (Universite de Charles de Gaulle - Lille 3), Vinca Riviere (Universite de Charles de Gaulle - Lille 3), Alan Chauvin ( University Of Grenoble), Jean-Claude Darcheville (Universite de Charles de Gaulle - Lille 3)
Abstract: People with autism show impaired face discrimination, along with atypical eye gazes to the face. However, only few studies describe precisely how children with autism process social cues from faces. The goal of our research was to determine which parts of the face are used by children with or without developmental disabilities to discriminate a happy and a fearful expression, using the Bubbles technique (Gosselin & Schyns, 2001). First, a computerized matching to sample (MTS) training was implemented in order to obtain a differential response for each facial expression. Subjects were first taught to select a stimulus A (for example, a happy face) in presence of a stimulus B, then to select C in presence of D. Once the accuracy criterion was reached for both tasks separately, the two tasks were mixed. For the test phase, the procedure was identical but the samples were faces partially revealed by randomly located holes, the bubbles. During the MTS training, conditional discrimination failed to appear without explicit instructions. In order to test children without verbal skills, we designed a new MTS procedure where the symmetrical relations are reinforced. Results regarding this procedure and the test phase will be discussed.
 
Children's Concept Formation: Successive and Simultaneous Discrimination Task Acquisition
VIRGINIE HUS (Universite de Lille Charles de Gaulle), Vinca Riviere (Universite de Charles de Gaulle - Lille 3), Jean-Claude Darcheville (Universite de Charles de Gaulle - Lille 3)
Abstract: In a previous research, children without numersity were trained with two procedures, sequential and simultaneous discrimination tasks. The results showed that they were able to discriminate the stimulus numerosities not only when the samples were presented simultaneously but also in the sequential discrimination task, but significantly more important in the simultaneous task. How explain these results? How make the children to discriminate the quantities? What controls their behavior in such kind of tasks? We know that the number is always expressed in sequential; it is the sequences of behavior which make the quantity. Data indicating less accurate matching-to-sample with fixed interval as compared to fixed-ratio schedules (Dews, 1963; Ferster, 1960) suggested that the differential reinforcement of all responses could be an important factor in controlling the distribution of responses to the stimuli. That’s why we reproduce a Mintz and Al’s experiment done in 1968 where Fixe ratio schedules are compared. Children were maintained on a fixed ratio (FR) schedule of reinforcement for correct matching-to-sample responses. Included in the test situation was a horizontal array of lights, illuminated in relation to the successive steps of the fixed ratio.
 
 
Symposium #525
Extinction-Induced Resurgence: Some New Findings
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
Bonham C (Grand Hyatt)
Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
Chair: Adam H. Doughty (College of Charleston)
Abstract: The concept of resurgence refers to the recovery of previously extinguished responding when a recently reinforced response is extinguished. The concept provide behavior analysts with a more descriptive means of understanding findings sometimes attributed to Freud’s concept of regression. It has been argued that resurgence deserves empirical and theoretical interest by both basic and applied behavior analysts because of its relevance to a variety of topics including behavioral history, drug relapse, severe problem behavior, communication disorders, and problem solving. In this symposium, the importance of investigating resurgence is demonstrated by considering several issues. Holloway, Kastner, and Doughty first describe some challenges and successes of studying resurgence in the human operant laboratory. Next, da Silva will discuss how the impact of procedural factors can contribute in significant ways to our understanding of the necessary and sufficient variables controlling resurgence. Lieving next will present results from a series of experiments with rats that bear on an understanding of discriminative stimulus control over resurgence, a topic he relates to applied behavior analytic work. Finally, Quick, Pyszczynski, Colston, and Shahan will discuss their recent investigations involving how resurgence relates to drug relapse, specifically to the recovery of responses that previously produced cocaine delivery.
 
Examination of Resurgence in College Students
CHRISEY HOLLOWAY (College of Charleston), Rebecca M Kastner (College of Charleston), Adam H. Doughty (College of Charleston)
Abstract: In the animal operant laboratory over the past few years, there has been an increased interest in extinction-induced resurgence. There also have been, along with these animal studies, conceptual extrapolations to human behavior outside the laboratory. Despite this aforementioned work, there have been minimal empirical investigations of resurgence involving human participants. Consequently, our recent work in the human operant laboratory involving extinction-induced resurgence is described here. Our goal has been not only to search for procedures to produce resurgence reliably in human participants but to study the variables that produce differential resurgence. We first report results involving the resurgence of derived relations. We also report results showing differential resurgence as a function of training history. We conclude by noting our future research directions.
 
Concurrent Resurgence of Nose Poking in Rats
STEPHANIE P. DA SILVA (Columbus State University)
Abstract: Two experiments were conducted to replicate prior reports that the relative resurgence rates of concurrent operants is proportionate to the relative response rates produced by prior reinforcement contingencies for those operants (da Silva, Maxwell, and Lattal, 2008). In both experiments of the present study, rats first were exposed to concurrent VI VI schedules for nose poking. Then, in the second condition, nose poking was extinguished while lever pressing was reinforced. After lever pressing was established, it too was placed on extinction and the resurgence of nose poking was measured. The two experiments differed in the location of the lever within the chamber, which was altered because of a failure to obtain any resurgence during the first experiment. The role and impact of experimental procedures in/on our examination and understanding of resurgence will be discussed.
 
Antecedent Stimulus Control of Resurgence
GREGORY A. LIEVING (West Virginia University Institute of Technology)
Abstract: The contribution of antecedent stimulus control over the extinction-induced recovery (i.e. resurgence) of lever pressing was examined with six rats. Lever pressing first was established with food reinforcement in a two-lever operant chamber. In a second condition, responding on the previously-unused lever was reinforced with food reinforcement and the previous response was extinguished concurrently. Extinction then was implemented with (Experiment 1), without (Experiment 2), or with a variation of (Experiment 3) the discriminative stimuli present during reinforcement conditions. The results indicated that the resurgence effect is modulated by the discriminative control exerted over the operant that was reinforced historically. The results are discussed in relation to previous research in behavioral history, and their implications for applied behavior analysis.
 
Resurgence of Cocaine Seeking by Removal of a Non-Drug Alternative Reinforcer
STACEY QUICK (Utah State University), Adam Pyszczynski (Utah State University), Kelli A. Colston (Utah State University), Timothy A. Shahan (Utah State University)
Abstract: Previous research using the resurgence model of drug relapse has demonstrated that removal of a non-drug reinforcer for an alternative response produces increased alcohol seeking. The present experiment assessed the extent to which cocaine seeking increased as a result of removing food deliveries for an alternative response. Rats were first trained to press a lever for intravenous infusions of cocaine. Following a stable baseline of cocaine self-administration, cocaine deliveries were omitted and food pellets were provided for an alternative nose-poke response. Once lever pressing had decreased to less than 10% of baseline, food pellets for the alternative response were also omitted. Cocaine seeking increased when the non-drug alternative reinforcer was omitted despite continued extinction of previously reinforced cocaine-maintained behavior. These results provide further evidence that removal of an alternative source of reinforcement may induce a resurgence of drug seeking. Subsequent research will address pharmacological treatments that may reduce the resurgence of cocaine seeking by omission of a non-drug alternative reinforcer.
 
 
Symposium #526
From Concept to Data: An Experimental Analysis of Metacontingencies
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
Bonham B (Grand Hyatt)
Area: EAB/TPC; Domain: Experimental Analysis
Chair: Zachary H. Morford (University of North Texas)
Discussant: Emmanuel Z. Tourinho (Universidade Federal do Pará)
Abstract: The field of behavior is, in general, a science of individual behavior; however, we still have yet to firmly establish a science capable of teasing apart the intricacies of organizations of people, often labeled as “culture.” Glenn (1986) coined the term “metacontingency” which describes another level of selection that may regulate human behavior. With the concept of metacontingencies it may be possible to formulate a rigorous science of culture in tandem with our understanding of individual behavior. The presentations in this symposium exhibit several experiments conducted in order to test how the behavior of multiple individuals can be controlled by cultural (group) consequences. Together, the data demonstrate that interlocking behavioral contingencies (IBCs) can be selected through the presentation of a group consequence in CRF and intermittent schedules. A second finding is that verbal behavior is necessary for the transmission of IBCs, however further research is necessary. Ultimately, these preparations and findings will help point us towards a procedure that may serve as the cultural “lever press” that simplifies and standardizes the study of cultural phenomena.
 
Experimental Analogs of Metacontingencies: Preliminary Results of Various Manipulations
MARIA AMALIA ANDERY (Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Sao Paulo), Paula Barcelos (Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Sao Paulo), Rodrigo Caldas (Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Sao Paulo), Ligia Oda (Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Sao Paulo)
Abstract: Three experiments are described. At each trial one participant typed 4 numbers on a computer immediatley below 4 numbers presented at the computer screen. If the sum on each column was an odd number, participants earned points. Once the behavior stabilized, a second participant was introduced and another contingency was added without any instructions: if the sum of numbers typed by one particpant was higher than the sum genetared by the other both participants were awarded a bonus. IBCs were selected by the bonus contingent on the aggregate product of the participants’ behaviors. Participants were systematically substituted as a check of the cultural transmission of such IBCs. Experiment 1 showed selection of IBCs and their aggregate product and transmission through several generations of participants and indications that the withdrawal of bonus contingent to the aggeragte product had effects on the selecred IBCs. Experiment 2 results’ showed that selection of metacontingencies could be reached with groups of up to 4 participants working simultaneously. Experiment 3 showed that the aggregate product was not sistematically produced without the cultural consequence after 9 generations of participants. The analysis of the verbal interactions showed that participants instructed new members, promoting the selection of IBCs.
 
Effects of Exposure to Macrocontingencies and Metacontingencies in the Production of Ethical Self-Management Responses
AECIO BORBA (Universidade Federal do Para), Emmanuel Z. Tourinho (Universidade Federal do Pará), Sigrid S. Glenn (University of North Texas)
Abstract: Ethical self-management is an important matter in modern societies, as a condition for complex cultural environments. Behavior-analytic literature on ethical self-management emphasizes individual behavior, but not cultural processes. The present study investigates the role of metacontingencies and macrocontingencies on the production of ethical self-management. Participants were exposed to a task which is an analog of conflicting contingencies between the individual gains and the group gains. Participants had to choose a row in an 8x8 matrix in black and white. Choices produced money that was deposited in one of two banks: an individual bank, collected by the players at the end of the session; and a collective bank, divided by the players a week after the session. Choices in black or white rows produced different amounts of money to be deposited in the collective or individual bank. Preliminary results provide some evidence that macrocontingencies were/were not effective to produce ethical self-management. Metacontingencies were/were not effective to produce ethical self-management. Additional data must be collected.
 
Intermittent Cultural Consequences Maintaining a Cultural Practice in a Laboratory Microculture
CHRISTIAN VICHI (University of North Texas), Emmanuel Z. Tourinho (Universidade Federal do Pará), Sigrid S. Glenn (University of North Texas)
Abstract: It has been demonstrated before that cultural consequences contingent upon aggregated products related to certain Interlocking Behavioral Contingencies (IBCs) can select these products and IBCs. In this study, three undergraduate students were asked to bet tokens and choose a row in a 8x8 matrix with plus signals and blank cells at the intersecting point. The experimenter chose a column after the participants’ choice of a row. Participants either received double the bet, or lost the tokens bet, depending on the signals in the selected cell. An experimental metacontingency was applied and selected equal (condition A) or unequal (B) divisions of the received tokens, that pattern was also maintained by an intermittent application of the cultural consequences (conditions B2 and B3). The results showed that, as in operant behavior, intermittent cultural consequences can maintain and perhaps select the aggregated product and its IBCs.
 
 
Paper Session #527
Delay Discounting
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
Republic C (Grand Hyatt)
Area: EAB
Chair: Matthew W. Johnson (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
 
Revisiting the Hypothetical Versus Real Rewards Issue in Discounting Research: A Procedural Extension
Domain: Experimental Analysis
STEVEN R. LAWYER (Idaho State University)
 
Abstract: Delay and probability discounting procedures provide behavioral measures of impulsive choice and have increased understanding of the behavioral processes that underlie a number of socially-relevant outcomes (e.g. substance abuse). Research to date (Johnson & Bickel, 2002; Madden, et al., 2003) suggests that hypothetical discounting choices generate data that are similar to those for (potentially) real outcomes, but these studies used relatively few participants, focused only on delay discounting, and did not measure the frequency of nonsystematic response patterns (Johnson & Bickel, 2008) that could result from using hypothetical outcomes. In the present study, community-recruited participants (n = 75) completed discounting tasks for hypothetical and potentially real (they received three randomly selected outcomes) outcomes. Preliminary analyses for 35 participants suggest that discounting patterns for hypothetical and potentially real outcomes are similar, though there is a trend (p < .01) toward steeper discounting rates for potentially real outcomes. Hypothetical and potentially real outcomes generated similar rates of nonsystematic response patterns, but delay discounting procedures are more likely to generate nonsystematic response patterns than are probability discounting procedures (p < .05). These findings have important implications regarding the use of discounting procedures in laboratory behavioral research.
 
The Effect of Caffeine Abstinence on Monetary and Caffeine Delay Discounting
Domain: Experimental Analysis
Stephen Provost (Southern Cross University), Allison Kingston (Southern Cross University), LEWIS A. BIZO (The University of Waikato)
 
Abstract: Delay discounting refers to an individual’s preference for smaller immediate reinforcement rather than larger delayed reinforcement, and has been shown to be influenced by deprivation state in smokers and opiate users. The effect of caffeine withdrawal has not yet been examined in a delay discounting procedure, however, despite its status as the most widely used stimulant drug. Caffeine consumers (n = 24) completed a monetary and a caffeine delay discounting task following normal caffeine consumption on one occasion, and following 12h caffeine abstinence on another occasion, counterbalanced across participants. In line with the results of such studies relating to other drugs, delayed monetary and caffeine rewards were discounted at a significantly higher rate when participants had abstained from caffeine consumption. Discounting rates of non-abstinent caffeine consumers was indistinguishable from that of eight participants who did not consume caffeine products. The implications of this result for an understanding of impulsive behaviour and drug-taking, as well as its ramifications for decision-making behaviour in the real world, will be discussed.
 
An Efficient Operant Choice Procedure for Assessing Delay Discounting in Humans
Domain: Experimental Analysis
MATTHEW W. JOHNSON (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
 
Abstract: Delay discounting refers to the observation that a consequence’s control over behavior declines as a function of delay until the consequence. Many studies now suggest that delay discounting may be a fundamental behavioral process in drug dependence and other behavioral disorders. Human delay discounting studies have usually relied on hypothetical choices or questionnaires. Some human tasks have attempted to measure delay discounting using operant procedures with contingent consequences provided during the task, as in nonhuman delay discounting studies. However, these tasks have had limitations such as long duration (limiting use in experimental contexts such as drug administration), indeterminate (non-operationally defined) data, or the potential confounding of delayed reinforcement with probabilistic reinforcement. An ongoing study in cocaine dependent volunteers (current N=8) is assessing a novel operant delay discounting procedure that provides real-time monetary reinforcement, and requires approximately 12 minutes to complete. Preliminary analyses have shown generally systematic effects of delay, and that a hyperbolic function provides a significantly better fit to the data than an exponential function, consistent with previous delay discounting findings. Data (based on a larger N) will be presented, including a within-subject comparison of the novel task with previously used delay discounting tasks that are also being administered.
 
 
 
Paper Session #528
Naming Research With Children
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
214C (CC)
Area: VRB
Chair: Vera Costa (Bangor University)
 
Naming and Categorization at Different Levels in Young Children, I.: Transfer of Function
Domain: Experimental Analysis
MARLEEN T. ADEMA (Bangor University), J. Carl Hughes (Bangor University, Wales), Pauline Horne (Bangor University)
 
Abstract: According to Horne and Lowe (1996), learning the same name for disparate stimuli may establish category relations between these stimuli, which can be demonstrated through, for example, transfer of function. Three typically developing 4- to 5-year-old children were trained to tact eight different “alien” animals as hibs, febs, tors, or lups (two-member common name categories). Intraverbal training linked these lower-level names with potential higher-level names (zaag, and noom). In the present studies, novel behaviors (two different gestures) were then trained, one to a zaag, one to a noom, followed by transfer tests for the other zaags and nooms. One child showed full lower- and higher-level transfer, another child showed partial transfer. Next, transfer of animal cries was investigated in one child who showed partial transfer. Listener behavior was also in place for both gestures and cries. These studies were replicated in other children but with pre-training using familiar stimuli. The results were similar: one child showed full transfer, and one child partial transfer for the gestures. For the animal cries, two children showed partial transfer in retests, and listener behaviour was in place for the gestures and cries involved in novel behavior training, but only partially for the other aliens. These findings show that lower-level tact training and intraverbal training can bring about lower- and higher-level category relations. Added pre-training did not affect the results.
 
Naming and Categorization at Different Levels in Young Children, II.: Category Sorting
Domain: Experimental Analysis
MARLEEN T. ADEMA (Bangor University), J. Carl Hughes (Bangor University), Pauline Horne (Bangor University)
 
Abstract: Apart from transfer of function, the functional properties of name relations are demonstrated through category sorting (e.g., Horne & Lowe, 1996; Lowe, Horne & Hughes, 2005). In this study, one typically developing boy of four years and nine months old who had learned to tact eight different aliens at a lower name level (hib, feb, tor, lup), and who had shown appropriate listener behavior for them at the higher name level (zaag, noom), was given a category match-to-sample test. When presented with one alien per trial as sample and all others as comparisons, he correctly sorted all stimuli into lower- and higher-level categories. The study was replicated with added pre-training with another child. This boy sorted stimuli correctly into lower-, but not higher-level categories. These results show that for one boy, but not for another (who had pre-training), lower-level tact training and intraverbal training had established nested category relations (i.e., lower-level categories nested in higher-level categories).
 
Can Naming of Component Arm Movements Improve Imitation Accuracy in 2- to 3-Year-Old Children?
Domain: Experimental Analysis
VERA COSTA (Bangor University), Mihela Erjavec (University of Wales Bangor), Pauline Horne (University of Wales Bangor)
 
Abstract: The role of naming of two arm movements on matching of hand-to-body touches that incorporate these movements was investigated in three 2- to 3-year-old children. In blocks of generalized imitation tests, children were presented with modeling of four trained ipsilateral hand-to-body baseline responses, interspersed with four novel untrained and unreinforced contralateral targets. Repeated exposure to modeling, staggered over children, evoked consistent matching of baseline behaviors but did not evoke generalized imitation of target behaviors. Next, the children were trained to label the two component actions performed by the experimenter (“across” and “to the side”) in a multiple-baseline-across-behaviors procedure. Training was administered in a series of steps, each followed by generalized imitation test blocks. Speaker training of the component actions in the absence of modeling increased the rates of children’s matching of some, but not all, target behaviors in the subsequent tests. For one child naming training was sufficient for the emergence of generalized imitation. The remaining two children were next given mixed matching training of the target behaviors and subsequently they matched their targets without reinforcement in the final generalized imitation tests. These results give further evidence that naming is one of the determinants of imitation in young children.
 
 
 
Invited Paper Session #529
CANCELED: Improving Practitioners' Access to and Experience With the Research Literature
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
11:00 AM–11:50 AM
103AB (CC)
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Joel Eric Ringdahl (University of Iowa)
JAMES E. CARR (Auburn University)
James E. Carr, Ph.D., BCBA-D is an associate professor of psychology at Auburn University and co-director of its applied behavior analysis graduate program. His current research and clinical interests include the behavioral treatment of developmental disabilities (including autism spectrum disorders and mental retardation), verbal behavior, and practitioner training. Dr. Carr currently serves on the Board of Directors of the Behavior Analyst Certification Board. He received his Ph.D. in 1996 from Florida State University and previously served on the psychology faculties at University of Nevada-Reno (1996-1999) and Western Michigan University (1999-2008).
Abstract: The profession of applied behavior analysis has undergone a number of exciting changes in recent years. The demand for our services, growth of the certification program, and development of new graduate programs have all combined to increase the number of new behavior-analytic practitioners. In fact, there are currently over 7,000 individuals who hold certification in behavior analysis, an increase of several thousand from just a few years ago. Despite historical and ethical obligations to base behavior-analytic practice on peer-reviewed evidence, a number of barriers sometimes make this difficult. For example, a number of clinically relevant experimental questions have not yet been answered in the literature. In addition, although the behavioral literature is replete with examples of effective treatment, there is a paucity of peer-reviewed published guidance on how to select these treatments given specific clinical circumstances. Finally, although graduate students in behavior analysis often receive training on how to critically consuming the research literature, there are a number of obstacles to their access to the literature after graduation. In this presentation, I will describe several scholarly mechanisms through which behavioral scientists and senior clinicians can influence the behavior of new practitioners. Examples will be provided in the areas of (a) documenting common clinical practices, (b) developing clinical decision-making guidelines, and (c) assisting practitioners in accessing the research literature.
 
 
Invited Tutorial #530
CE Offered: BACB
Considering Behavioral Function Prior to the Complaint: A Tutorial on Preventing the Development of Problem Behavior by Preschoolers
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
11:00 AM–11:50 AM
Ballroom A (CC)
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
BACB CE Offered. CE Instructor: Robert Ross, Ed.D.
Chair: Jennifer L. Austin (University of Glamorgan)
Presenting Author: GREGORY P. HANLEY (Western New England College)
Abstract: A class-wide, skills-based curriculum aimed at minimizing existing problem behavior of preschoolers and preventing the development of more severe behavior problems during the early elementary school years will be described. Because the class-wide procedures do not result in acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of all skills for all children, individualized and small group tactics for promoting these skills will also be described.
 
GREGORY P. HANLEY (Western New England College)
Gregory Hanley, Ph.D., BCBA, has over 19 years experience applying the principles of learning to improve socially important behaviors of children and adults with and without disabilities. Dr. Hanley is currently an Associate Professor of Psychology and Director of the Behavior Analysis Doctoral Program at Western New England College. Dr. Hanley has published over 50 articles in peer-reviewed journals in areas such as the assessment and prevention of problem behavior, teaching tactics for young children, and evidence-based values. Dr. Hanley is a Senior Associate Editor for Behavior Analysis in Practice and its next Editor, and a past Associate Editor of The Behavior Analyst and of the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. He was the 2006 recipient of the B.F. Skinner New Researcher Award by Division 25 (Behavior Analysis) of the American Psychological Association and was appointed a Fellow of the Association in 2007.
 
 
Panel #531
CE Offered: BACB
United Archipelego or Separate Tables: Evolutionary Theory as Consilient Theory or Parallel View
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
11:00 AM–12:20 PM
Travis A/B (Grand Hyatt)
Area: DEV; Domain: Theory
CE Instructor: Janet Montgomery, M.S.
Chair: Edward K. Morris (Kansas University)
DAVID SLOAN WILSON (Binghamton University)
EDWARD K. MORRIS (Kansas University)
JACOB L. GEWIRTZ (Florida International University)
GARY D. NOVAK (California State University, Stanislaus)
Abstract: This is a follow-up to the B.F. Skinner Lecture by David Wilson Sloan entitled: Behaviorism and the United Ivory Archipelago. Wilson argues: The Ivory Tower is more aptly called the Ivory Archipelago--many islands of thought with little communication among islands. Each field (=island) within psychology has its own history and special assumptions. One island's commonplace is another's heresy. The fields of evolutionary psychology and behavior analysis provide an especially strong contrast. The ideas associated with Skinner are central to behavior analysis but rejected by evolutionary psychology as part of the "standard social science model (SSSM)". There is an urgent need to achieve a more consilient theoretical framework for psychology--to turn the Ivory Archipelago into the United Ivory Archipelago. I will argue that evolutionary theory provides the consilient framework for psychology, as it does for the biological sciences, but that it must go beyond the current field of evolutionary psychology and include a healthy measure of behaviorism. The consilient theory must do justice to both elaborate genetic innateness and impressive open-ended behavioral and cultural flexibility.
 
 
Panel #532
What's New? Cognitive Behavior Cigarette Cessation Programs With Special Populations
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
11:30 AM–12:50 PM
Texas Ballroom Salon C (Grand Hyatt)
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Sherman Yen (Asian American Anti-Smoking Foundation)
RICHARD COOK (The Pennsylvania State University)
DEBORAH KITE (The Chicago School for Professional Psychology)
ALLISON Y. LORD (Tobacco Outreach Technology)
Abstract: The purposes of the discussion session are to heighten the most recent development, using cognitive behavioral technologies, when working with smokers in special target populations. These populations include female addicts to both nicotine and other drugs, Asian Americans, the general population, and college students. Throughout the session we will discuss the goal of treatment (total absenteeism versus smoking two or three cigarettes a day). We will also discuss different procedures including the use of a hand held computer that would create a personalized, gradual smoking reduction program and other types of nicotine replacement therapies (NRT). The differences between the reinforcers will also be mentioned, including some ethnic NRT reinforcers such as the Tiger Bomb and the CO test as an adjust treatment method. Concurrently with target populations, the four panelists who have more than twenty years in treatment experience. We have an Asian female panelist, a physician who practices family medicine, and a college student. In order to widen the influences beyond the session, 15 units of Quitkeys (a handheld computer) worth $900,000 will be given away for free.
 
 
Invited Tutorial #533
CE Offered: BACB
Meditation and Mindfulness
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
12:00 PM–12:50 PM
Ballroom A (CC)
Area: CBM/TPC; Domain: Service Delivery
BACB CE Offered. CE Instructor: Thomas Zane, Ph.D.
Chair: Jonathan W. Kanter (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee)
Presenting Author: ROBERT J. KOHLENBERG (University of Washington)
Abstract: Meditation and mindfulness techniques are becoming increasingly popular for both self-improvement and as part of mainstream behavioral treatment (e.g., mindfulness based cognitive therapy, dialectical behaviour therapy, mindfulness based relapse prevention). Correspondingly, these methods have garnered increased attention by behavior analysts, particularly from an acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) perspective. Stereotypically, meditation involves sitting quietly, in silence, either in group or alone and attending to one’s own immediate experience. There are, however, some variations that do not fit this image and instead explicitly incorporate a more interpersonal context (e.g. Kelly Wilson’s “Mindfulness for Two”). Whether done in an explicitly “alone” or “interpersonal” context, therapeutic benefits are intended to extend into relational realms and thus address the interpersonal issues that are implicated in most clinical problems. This tutorial will involve a hands-on experience with two prototypical meditation and mindfulness preparations. The first is a modified version of an explicit “alone” method based on Herbert Benson’s “Relaxation Response.” The second incorporates an explicit interpersonal context that is derived from a less well known Buddhist method “insight dialogue.” We will discuss the potential mechanisms of action, benefits, and risks of these methods from a behavior analytic and functional analytic psychotherapy viewpoint.
 
ROBERT J. KOHLENBERG (University of Washington)
Dr. Bob Kohlenberg received his doctorate under Ivar Lovaas at UCLA and is a Professor of Psychology at the University of Washington where he was the Director of Clinical Training from 1997 to 2004. He is certified by the American Board of Professional Psychology and received the Washington State Psychological Association’s Distinguished Psychologist Award. He uses behavior analysis to help understand, teach, and do research on the curative role of a close and intense therapist-client relationship as well as a broad range of clinical phenomena. The approach is represented by the 1991 book Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (known as FAP) by him and Mavis Tsai. Using this approach he and his colleagues (who are often first authors) have done research and published papers on electrical energy conservation, migraine, PTSD, marital counseling, OCD, depression, previously undocumented psychological side effects of anti-depressant medication, DBT, CBT, BPD, acceptance, personality, the self, DSM IV Axis II diagnosis, co-morbidity, the integration of psychotherapies, and the parallels between implanted memories and the therapy rationales presented to clients by behavior therapists. He has also contributed radical behavioral genetic material to help produce his daughter, Dr. Barbara Kohlenberg, a distinguished behavior analyst, talented clinician, teacher, researcher, and co-author.
 
 
Invited Paper Session #534
The Tyranny of Small Decisions: Behavior, Biology, Culture, and the Fate of Our Society
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
12:00 PM–12:50 PM
103AB (CC)
Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
Chair: Raymond C. Pitts (University of North Carolina, Wilmington)
WARREN K. BICKEL (University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences)
Warren Bickel is Professor at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) in the College of Medicine and College of Public Health (COPH) and holds the Wilbur D. Mills Chair of Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Prevention. He serves as Director of the UAMS Center for Addiction Research and as Director of COPH’s Center for the Study of Tobacco Addiction at UAMS. In these roles, he oversees the development of research addressing addiction and tobacco dependence. Dr. Bickel received his Ph.D. in developmental and child psychology in 1983 from the University of Kansas, completed post doctoral training at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in 1985, and then joined the faculty of the Albert Einstein College of Medicine. In 1987, he relocated to the University of Vermont where he became a Professor in the Departments of Psychiatry and Psychology and Interim-Chair of the Department of Psychiatry. He serves as Principal Investigator on several NIDA grants. His recent research includes the application of behavioral economics to drug dependence with an emphasis on the discounting of the future and the use of information technologies to deliver science-based prevention and treatment. Dr. Bickel is the recipient of numerous awards and honors including the Joseph Cochin Young Investigator Award from the College on Problems of Drug Dependence (CPDD), the Young Psychopharmacologist Award from the Division of Psychopharmacology and Substance Abuse of the American Psychological Association, and a NIH Merit Award from NIDA. He served as President of the Division of Psychopharmacology and Substance Abuse, American Psychological Association and as President of CPDD. Dr. Bickel was Editor of the journal, Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, has co-edited three books, and published over 200 papers.
Abstract: Over the past 40 years there has been unprecedented increases in a wide range of challenges and problems for humanity including increasing addiction not only to drugs, but to gambling, internet, and videos games. This has escalated debt, global climate change, and ever expanding problems of obesity. Traditionally, our scientific approaches to these and other related problems have considered each problem to be distinct and separate phenomena requiring its own solution. In contrast, in this talk I make a strong case that these diverse challenges are in fact the results of common processes. The process is the inability to value future events. Individuals who can value the future can work for future outcomes and consequences. When this process is inadequate or fails to operate, individuals only value the immediate option be it getting high, eating food, playing videogames, purchasing items to satisfy today’s needs, or consuming energy at ever increasing rates. The ability to consider the future or to ignore it derives from our biology, our evolutionary history, our developmental trajectory, and are strongly influenced by our culture and our local environments. Fundamentally, this talk suggests that human history and our collective future is about whether we consider the future or will only consider the present and in doing so be trapped by the tyranny of small decisions. This talk will provide a new framework for evaluating our human problems and suggest new ways to redress them.
 
 
Panel #535
CE Offered: BACB
Association of Professional Behavior Analysts Update
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
12:00 PM–12:50 PM
216A (CC)
Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Daniel Shabani, Ph.D.
Chair: Stephen R. Anderson (Summit Educational Resources)
STEPHEN R. ANDERSON (Summit Educational Resources)
ALLYSON MOORE (The Kendall School)
GINA GREEN (Association of Professional Behavior Analysts)
Abstract: The Association of Professional Behavior Analysts (APBA) is dedicated exclusively to serving the needs of professional practitioners of applied behavior analysis. In its first full year of existence, APBA has successfully advocated for public policies to protect and enhance the practice of ABA; developed extensive resources for practitioners, consumers, and policymakers; issued position statements on issues of importance to ABA practitioners and consumers; and engaged in various other educational and professional development activities. This session will provide a forum for describing APBA's activities and engaging practitioners in discussion about their concerns and needs.
 
 
Symposium #536
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Functional Analysis, Intervention, and Generalization Strategies for Challenging Behavior in Young Children With Autism
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
12:00 PM–1:20 PM
207AB (CC)
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Amanda L. Little (The Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk)
CE Instructor: Amanda Little, Ph.D.
Abstract: Children with autism present unique challenges to parents, caregivers, and teachers in regards to their behavior. This symposium will present research conducted with children with autism in the areas of assessment, functional analysis, and intervention with a focus on generalization of skills. Participants will learn the methodology and results of research conducted with young children with autism who exhibit challenging behavior in a variety of settings (i.e., community, childcare, and the home).
 
Modifying Functional Analysis Protocol to Assess Challenging Behavior in Children With Autistic Disorder
Mark F. O'Reilly (The Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk), Christina Fragale (The Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk), PAMELA WHITE (The Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk), Jeannie Marie Aguilar (The Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk), Soyeon Kang (Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk)
Abstract: Children with autism are more likely to engage in challenging behavior than children with other developmental disabilities. The nature of their challenging behavior may be different from other developmental disabilities groups with an emphasis on stereotyped or automatic responding (American Psychiatric Association, 2000; Reese et. al., 2003, 2005). This study will include five elementary school-aged children, each diagnosed with autism. Functional analyses, using five sessions of each assessment condition will be conducted (Iwata et. al., 1982,1994). Additional sessions of the tangible conditions will also be conducted. Percentage of intervals of challenging behavior will be measured. In addition, we will measure the percentage of intervals with stereotyped engagement with the tangible object. This behavior will be analyzed using a non-concurrent multiple baseline design. We hypothesize that the tangible condition may, in fact, be measuring interference with stereotyped behavior and other challenging behavior exhibited by the child when the item is removed might better be interpreted as challenging behavior in order to gain access to stereotyped behavior (see Murphy et. al., 2000, Fisher et. al., Falcomata et. al., in press).
 
Parent Conducted Assessment and Intervention for Children With Autism During Problematic Family Routines
AMANDA L. LITTLE (The Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk)
Abstract: Though the display of challenging behavior is not an uncommon occurrence in young children, some children exhibit behaviors that may develop into more serious behavior problems impeding the child’s learning and the overall family quality of life. The purpose of this study was to investigate how to support parents as the primary interventionists through conducting a functional behavior assessment, intervention planning, and the implementation process to address their children’s challenging behaviors. A multiple-probe design across three family routines was utilized for one young children diagnosed with autism. The mother was taught to successfully implement interventions that resulted in a decrease in the child’s challenging behavior. The mother increased her use of targeted strategies across all routines after collaborative planning (e.g., average of 24% during baseline and 83% during intervention). A reduction in child challenging behaviors across all targeted routines was observed (e.g., average of 59% during baseline and 19% during intervention). A fourth non-trained routine was assessed to see if the mother applied the techniques without additional consultation from the professional. Finally, positive changes in the quality of life of the family were noted as demonstrated through increased satisfaction ratings on items related to child and family quality of life.
 
The Influence of Motivating Operations on Generalization for Students With Autism
CHRISTINA FRAGALE (The Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk), Jeannie Marie Aguilar (The Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk), Nigel Pierce (The Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk), Mark F. O'Reilly (The Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk)
Abstract: Individuals with autism are thought to have a difficult time generalizing skills without explicit programming to do so. Generalization, in this case, reflects an outcome of behaviors that occur outside of the conditions of the original training stimuli and remains a fundamental notion for therapists and educators to attend towards true behavior change. Additionally, behavioral researchers have had a steady interest in examining both the functional properties and clinical applications of establishing (motivating) operations. Motivating operations have been shown to be critical variables when developing and interpreting behavioral assessments (e.g. preference assessments), intervening on challenging behavior, and examining the interaction between various biological conditions (e.g., health variables, genetic syndromes) and operant behavior. This study adds to the motivating operation literature by evaluating the influence of motivating operation on the generalization of skills. Three students with autism who received discrete trial training targeting communication skills participated in this study. Generalization of communication was evaluated across settings and implementers while under the influence of different putative motivating operations in an alternating treatment design. Results suggest that motivating operations may influence the acquisition of novel behaviors and should be considered when designing and implementing instructional programs.
 
Evaluation of the Rate of Challenging Behavior Maintained by Different Functions Across Preference Assessments
SOYEON KANG (Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk), Mark F. O'Reilly (The Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk), Christina Fragale (The Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk), Jeannie Marie Aguilar (The Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk)
Abstract: Preference assessments yield valuable information regarding preferred items or activities that subsequently serve as reinforcers. But if any variable (i.e., implementation method) during the assessment conflicts with specific participant characteristics (i.e., challenging behavior) the assessment results may be affected, thereby leading to inaccurate conclusions. We examined the occurrence of challenging behavior maintained by attention, tangible or demand functions across preference assessments (i.e., paired-stimulus, multiple-stimulus without replacement, and free-operant). The experimenter administered each preference format times in a random order for children with developmental disabilities whose challenging behavior was maintained by attention, tangible or demand functions. Results demonstrate that challenging behavior maintained by a particular function occurred differently across the preference assessment formats, which presented a different relevant condition, evoking the challenging behavior (i.e., deprivation of attention, withdrawal of preferred items, or presentation of demand). The results suggest that there may be a relation between functions of challenging behavior and preference assessment formats. Implications for practitioners are discussed with regard to administration of preference assessment for individuals with developmental disabilities who exhibit challenging behavior.
 
 
Symposium #537
Delivering Effective Services for Students With Autism in Public and Private Schools: A Model for Building Local Capacity in Rural Areas
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
12:00 PM–1:20 PM
202AB (CC)
Area: AUT/TBA; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: H. Todd Eachus (Commonwealth Autism Service)
Abstract: According to a 2001 report by the National Research Council, local school districts should offer "on-going and hands-on" professional development opportunities for staff responsible for educating students with autism. Access to this type of staff development is difficult for many school districts to obtain, especially those in rural areas. The first session will address a unique model of private/public partnership for building local capacity to meet the needs of students with autism in rural areas of Virginia. This model “embeds” behavior analysts directly into the service provider’s environment and involves an on-going strategic planning process (i.e., formal needs assessment, action-plan development and staff training in the use of evidence-based practices). The second and third sessions will address different formats (e.g., web-based and classroom) of delivering staff training despite limited resources (e.g., time and staffing). In the final session, a model will be discussed to disseminate behavior analytic coursework and supervision to school staff. Lord, C., and McGee, J.P. (Eds.). (2001). Educating Children With Autism. Committee on Educational Interventions for Children With Autism (p.8), Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council. Washington DC: National Academy Press.
 
Partnership for Capacity Development in Schools
JESSICA G. PHILIPS (Commonwealth Autism Service), John A. Toscano (Commonwealth Autism Service), Judy Sorrell (Shenandoah Valley Regional Program), Meredith W. Geier (Commonwealth Autism Service)
Abstract: According to a 2001 report by the National Research Council, local school districts should offer "ongoing and hands-on" professional development opportunities for staff responsible for educating students with autism. Access to this type of staff development is difficult for many school districts to obtain, especially those in rural areas. The first session will address a unique model of private/public partnership for building local capacity to meet the needs of students with autism in rural areas of Virginia. This model “embeds” behavior analysts directly into the service provider’s environment and involves an on-going strategic planning process (i.e., formal needs assessment, action-plan development and staff training in the use of evidence-based practices). Within this model, members of the educational team also have the opportunity to pursue coursework in behavior analysis through a partnership with a public university. Embedded behavior analysts are able to deliver some of the coursework and provide the on-site supervision to prepare school staff to sit for the certification exam. This model has resulted in 12 behavior analysts embedded across 28 school districts. Lord, C., and McGee, J.P. (Eds.). (2001). Educating Children With Autism. Committee on Educational Interventions for Children With Autism (p.8), Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council. Washington DC: National Academy Press.
 
Use of Web-based Modules to Assist in the Delivery of Staff Training in Autism
STEVEN PAUL CELMER (Commonwealth Autism Service)
Abstract: According to a 2001 National Research Council report, personnel preparation is often inadequate for staff supporting children with autism. School districts including those in rural areas face barriers to delivering staff development opportunities. These barriers include the distribution of the information to everyone that could benefit as well as limits on resources needed to deliver the training (e.g., access to individuals who are skilled to provide this type of training, time etc.) Because information is increasingly distributed via the internet, training experiences have the opportunity to reach all staff and parents without the necessity of extensive travel or disruption of work or family schedules thus increasing quality and quantity of a single training experience. This presentation will discuss the design and use of internet-based learning modules by a behavior analyst embedded within a school district. Data will be presented on the use of this technology to provide training opportunities for school personnel and parents interested in the use of best practices for students with autism. Data will be collected. Lord, C., and McGee, J.P. (Eds.). (2001). Educating Children With Autism. Committee on Educational Interventions for Children With Autism (p.225), Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council. Washington DC: National Academy Press.
 
Use of Classroom Zones to Facilitate Staff Training and Use of Limited Resources
KATHERINE C. MASINCUP (Commonwealth Autism Services)
Abstract: Special educators are becoming increasingly aware of the need to utilize evidence based practices for students with autism regardless of the barriers that are associated with this (e.g, opportunities for staff development outside of the workday, low staffing ratios, etc.). This presentation will address the use of classroom zones to facilitate training opportunities for staff. Each classroom was divided into 3 zones which students would rotate between throughout the day (i.e., independent work, supervised leisure, 1:1 instruction). The ratio of students to staff was 6:3. After receiving didactic training on the evidence based practices to be utilized in a zone, data were collected on staff performance using an integrity checklist. Staff members were required to meet specified criteria for a zone before proceeding to the next training. Data collected demonstrate success with this training model as the majority of staff met criteria for at least one training zone. This model addresses a systematic method of providing staff training on evidence based practices to special educators despite limited resources.
 
A Model for Disseminating Behavior Analytic Coursework and Supervision to Public and Private Schools
CHRISTINE M. BERMAN (Commonwealth Autism Service), H. Nicole Myers (University of Mary Washington), Jessica G. Philips (Commonwealth Autism Service), John A. Toscano (Commonwealth Autism Service)
Abstract: Many school districts struggle with the implementation of evidence-based practices for students with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). A recent study of autism services in the Commonwealth of Virginia indicated that “schools, consistently identified gaps in professional development and access to outside experts as key barriers to their ability to serve students with ASDs”, (JLARC, 2009). This session will address a model for disseminating behavior analytic coursework and supervision in public and private schools across Virginia. Commonwealth Autism Service and The University of Mary Washington developed a 3-course sequence that meets the coursework requirement for a Board Certified Assistant Behavior Analysis (BCaBA) and can be delivered through a variety of formats (e.g., in person, through video conferencing etc.). Supervision hours needed to sit for the certification exam are provided by behavior analysts embedded within the school district. This session will address a comprehensive model to build capacity within schools across the Commonwealth of Virginia. Joint Legislative Audit and Review Commision. (2009). Assessment of Services for Virginians with Autism Spectrum Disorders (House Document No.8). Commonwealth of Virginia.
 
 
Symposium #538
CE Offered: BACB
Teaching Practical Money Management and Budgeting Skills to Teenagers and Young Adults With Autism
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
12:00 PM–1:20 PM
206AB (CC)
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Elizabeth Martineau (Nashoba Learning Group)
CE Instructor: Elizabeth Martineau, Ed.S.
Abstract: Money Management Skills are critical to the independent functioning of adults with developmental disabilities with at least one study identifying the presence of money management skills as the critical differentiator of whether people with developmental disabilities were successful in community placement. Teenagers with Autism at Nashoba Learning Group who have been engaged in intensive ABA programming for a number of years are often able to develop sufficient prerequisite skills to learn money management, budgeting and related daily living skills in preparation for adulthood. However, because these teenagers are still challenged learners, skills must be taught using lessons designed specifically for their needs. These skills must also be closely tied to Vocational programming so that students learn the relationship between work and funds available. NLG has developed a series of linked skill building programs to teach practical money management, budgeting and related daily living skills. Symposium will review teaching methods and procedures and data on student skill acquisition.
 
Overview of Nashoba Learning Group Money Management Curriculum
ELIZABETH MARTINEAU (Nashoba Learning Group)
Abstract: Money Management Skills are critical to the independent functioning of adults with developmental disabilities with at least one study identifying the presence of money management skills as the critical differentiator of whether people with developmental disabilities were successful in community placement. There has been some research on procedures for teaching specific sub skills to adults with autism. However, no research has appeared on teaching an integrated set of money management skills to teenagers or adults with autism. This presentation provides a profile of Nashoba Learning Group and our population of learners; the rationale for teaching money management skills to teenagers with Autism; the specific skill prerequisites required for students to learn money management skills; and, an overview of NLG's Practical Money Management curriculum. Skills included in each major category of Job Skills, Holding a Job, Banking, Budgeting and shopping are outlined.
 
Training Students With Autism in Job skills and Time Recording Skills
HEATHER M. REGO (Nashoba Learning Group)
Abstract: In order to be productive adults, students with autism must learn job skills before the age of 22, when the intensive teaching they require is available through their educational placement. Nashoba Learning Group has developed a Vocational Training Curriculum that provides job skills training in simulated and actual work sites for our teenage and young adult students. In this presentation, we first provide an overview of our Vocational Training Program. Next, we describe teaching procedures for the skills of recording time worked and calculating pay owed. Next, case studies and data on student skill acquisition of these skills is presented. These skills provide a critical linkage between Vocational Training and NLG's Practical Money Management curriculum as students link earning money with the ability to purchase items and services they need. The presentation leads into the next in the symposium.
 
Teaching teenagers With Autism Banking and Budgeting Skills
HEATHER M. REGO (Nashoba Learning Group)
Abstract: Banking and Budgeting are critical life skills that allow adults with autism to gain autonomy and increased independence. Teenagers with Autism at Nashoba Learning Group who have been engaged in intensive ABA programming for a number of years are often able to develop sufficient prerequisite skills to learn banking and budgeting skills in preparation for adulthood. In this presentation, specific skill requirements and teaching procedures are presented including adaptations to account for differences in degree of impairment between students. Task analysis primed with verbal description of task requirements and then with verbal or textual prompts for specific steps are used. Prompts are faded and then supervision is faded systematically. Case studies and data on successful skill acquisition by 2 teenage students is presented.
 
Managing a Budget- Teaching Shopping and Budgeting Skills to Teenagers With Autism
CHANELLE HUME (Nashoba Learning Group)
Abstract: Shopping and budgeting are critical life skills for adults with autism. These skills must be taught before age 22 while individuals have access to intensive educational services. Teenagers with Autism at Nashoba Learning Group who have been engaged in intensive ABA programming for a number of years are often able to develop sufficient prerequisite skills to learn shopping and budgeting and related daily living skills in preparation for adulthood. In this presentation, teaching procedures are detailed , including adaptations required to accommodate more impaired learners. Students are provided with a verbal and textual overview of task requirements and components. Then, task analyzed teaching using prompts that are systematically faded is used to teach the steps involved in each skill. The scope of activity is also gradually increased as the student demonstrates independence at each level. Data is presented on 2 teenagers with autism who have mastered shopping and budgetting skills for vocational "pay" received with the scope encompassing a set of items and activities purchased each week at school.
 
 
Symposium #539
Applications of Exposure-Based Treatment Approaches for Common Problems in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
12:00 PM–1:20 PM
204AB (CC)
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Julia Barnes (Binghamton University)
Abstract: Children with autism spectrum disorders frequently avoid particular stimuli and situations (Evans, Canavera, Kleinpeter, Maccubbin & Taga, 2005). Many avoid particular types of food, or refuse to have their hair cut, for example. They may also avoid or resist changes in particular routines or rituals. There is a large base of empirical support for using exposure-based methods to treat maladaptive behavioral avoidance (Gillis, Hammond-Natof, Lockshin & Romanczyk, 2009). The aim of this symposium is to review relevant empirical literature on exposure-based treatment methods and to illustrate how these methods can be applied to a range of problem behaviors. Discussion will focus on the considerations involved in formulating conceptualizations of behavioral avoidance and in implementing treatment of such avoidance. This symposium is intended to provide instructional guidelines on exposure-based treatment for professionals treating children with ASD within the context of a supervised intervention setting. Cautions against attempts to employ the intervention techniques that will be presented without appropriate training and supervision will be emphasized.
 
Perspectives on Conceptualization and Treatment of Avoidance Behaviors in Children
LAURA B. TURNER (Binghamton University), Raymond G. Romanczyk (Institute for Child Development, Binghamton University)
Abstract: Models of maladaptive behavioral avoidance were first developed over 60 years ago (e.g. Mowrer, 1947). Since that time, these well-established models have been used to explain patterns of behavioral avoidance observed in individuals with a variety of disorders. To date, both associative and operant learning are implicated as primary contributors to the development of avoidance behaviors. Exposure techniques that utilize associative and operant procedures have been shown to be effective in treating various forms of maladaptive behavioral avoidance. Habituation to aversive stimuli that typically trigger avoidance behavior is also an important component of successful treatment for maladaptive behavioral avoidance. The aim of this presentation is to discuss both historical and current perspectives on conceptualizations of behavioral avoidance, focusing on theories regarding the development and maintenance of maladaptive avoidance behaviors. An additional aim of this presentation is to discuss current perspectives on treatment of maladaptive avoidance in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders, focusing on exposure-based interventions.
 
Using Graduated Exposure for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders Who Avoid and Resist Hygiene Procedures
LAUREN BETH FISHBEIN (Binghamton University), Raymond G. Romanczyk (Institute for Child Development, Binghamton University)
Abstract: Many children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) exhibit fears and phobias that result in behavioral avoidance (Luscre & Center, 1996). Among the fears commonly exhibited among children with ASD are fears of undergoing hygiene procedures such as hair cutting or washing, tooth brushing and nail clipping. Due to behavioral avoidance or resistance children may exhibit in the face of stimuli associated with certain hygiene procedures, parents may struggle with performing basic procedures that are necessary to maintain their child’s hygiene. Maintaining appropriate hygiene is important to social integration and acceptance among typically developing peers, especially as children age into adolescence and adulthood. Consequently, targeting fears of hygiene procedures during childhood is often a priority for parents of children with ASD. The aim of this presentation is to review the relevant literature on behavioral avoidance of hygiene procedures in children with ASD. Several case examples will be drawn upon to provide a description of how avoidance of hygiene procedures can be conceptualized and how graduated exposure techniques can be applied to fear of hygiene procedures. Emphasis will be placed on the importance of appropriate training for implementing these techniques in applied settings.
 
Treatment of Disruptive Rituals and Resistance to Change in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders Using Exposure-Based Methods
JULIA BARNES (Binghamton University), Raymond G. Romanczyk (Institute for Child Development, Binghamton University)
Abstract: The apparent inflexible adherence to specific, nonfunctional routines or rituals that are characteristic of some individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) often presents impediments to daily functioning for these individuals and their families. Ritualistic behavior and resistance to changes in routines may limit the range of activities in which individuals with ASD will participate. Often family activities in the community and even within the home are also restricted due to the routines or rituals of a family member with ASD. Exposure with response prevention has been shown to be a highly effective treatment for treating the obsessions and compulsions characteristic of obsessive-compulsive disorder (Foa & Kozak, 1996). As the rituals observed in ASD may be conceptualized in certain cases as being similar to compulsive behavior, utilizing exposure with response prevention techniques can also be effective for treating ritualistic behavior. The aim of this presentation is to illustrate application of exposure-based methods to treat rituals and resistance to change in children with ASD. Case examples will be used to illustrate case conceptualization and exposure-based treatment development.
 
Utilizing Exposure to Treat Feeding Problems in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders
COURTNEY A. POOLER (Binghamton University), Raymond G. Romanczyk (Institute for Child Development, Binghamton University)
Abstract: Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are at an increased risk for feeding problems when compared to typically developing children. Seventy-two percent of parents of children with autistic disorder or PDD-NOS report their child consumes a narrow variety of foods (Shreck, Williams, & Smith, 2004). In addition, they are reported to eat fewer foods in each food category than typically developing children, and are more likely to eat foods of low texture (Shreck, Williams, & Smith, 2004). A fundamental component of treatment of food selectivity is repeated exposure to non-preferred foods. In addition, treatments also often include differential reinforcement for consuming non-preferred foods, and escape extinction (Ledford & Gast, 2006). This presentation will outline exposure-based treatments for food selectivity, from careful individualized assessment to treatment implementation and revision. Case examples will be used to illustrate the principles discussed. Cautions against implementation of feeding treatment without sufficient training or supervision will be discussed.
 
 
Panel #540
Professional Development Series: Starting a Home-Based Applied Behavior Analysis Business
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
12:00 PM–1:20 PM
205 (CC)
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Tiffany A. Hammer Baker (Sam Houston State University)
BARBARA A. METZGER (Sam Houston State University)
ALISON L. MOORS (Moors and Associates Consulting, INC)
ANGELA L. POLETTI (Willamette Education Service District)
JANIS HENDRIXSON (Behavioral and Communication Services)
Abstract: Home-based programs for children with autism have a long history in the practice of applied behavior analysis. Currently, practitioners who have home-based businesses can be found across the country as well as abroad. This panel will discuss the advantages and the disadvantages of starting a business practicing applied behavior analysis in the client’s home. Additionally, the panel will discuss the planning that must happen prior to taking your first client, what to do now that you have a client, and how to run an organized and well - managed business. Ethical and legal issues will also be discussed. The purpose of this panel is to provide information to other practitioners who are already in a home-based business as well as considerations for those who are contemplating starting a home-based program.
 
 
Panel #541
Persuing Insurance Coverage for Behavior Analytic Services
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
12:00 PM–1:20 PM
203AB (CC)
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: David B. Hatfield (Developmental Behavioral Health, Inc.)
DAVID B. HATFIELD (Developmental Behavioral Health, Inc.)
HALINA DZIEWOLSKA (Behavior Analysis and Therapy Partners)
CORRINE R. DONLEY (Private practice)
JIM BOUDER (The Vista School)
Abstract: Over the last four years, many states are in the process of persuing insurence coverage for applied behavior analysis services for children with autism. This panel discusses several states and the factors involved in the persuit of covarage in those states.
 
 
Symposium #542
CE Offered: BACB
Health, Safety and the Environment
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
12:00 PM–1:20 PM
Seguin (Grand Hyatt)
Area: CSE/OBM; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Jeanine Plowman Stratton (Furman University)
Discussant: Ron Van Houten (Western Michigan University)
CE Instructor: Siri Ming, M.A.
Abstract: Issues of recent socially significant concerns in our society reflect efforts to improve health, safety, and environmental conservation. This symposium addresses each of these areas by presenting student-generated data and evidence of improved social impact using the science of behavior analysis. Discussions will include further elaboration of such efforts for promoting the utility of the science to solve such practical, real-world problems for employees in the workplace to citizens in our local communities, such as university campuses. The first presentation discusses the value of understanding response cost on health safety performances. The latter two presentations discuss the impact of antecedent interventions on recycling behavior on University campuses, one investigating the proximity of waste receptacles, and the other varying message type to measure disposal choices of participants. By utilizing community-based programming and understanding fundamental principles of human behavior, this symposium will shed light on what we may consider “common sense” behaviors that we observe to be difficult to engage in without the proper environmental arrangement for the user.
 
The Effects of Response Effort on Safe Performance by Therapists at an Autism Treatment Facility
SARAH E. CASELLA (Western Michigan University), David A. Wilder (Florida Institute of Technology), Pamela L. Neidert (University of Kansas), Catalina Rey (Florida Institute of Technology), Megan Compton (Florida Institute of Technology), Ivy M. Chong (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: The effects of response effort on safe behaviors (i.e., glove wearing, hand sanitizing, and electrical outlet replacement) exhibited by therapists at an autism treatment center were examined. Participants were exposed to two or three levels of effort (i.e., high, medium, low) for each dependent variable. Results showed increased safe performance during the low effort conditions relative to other conditions across all dependent variables. After the response effort manipulation, performance feedback was added to increase and maintain safe performance. Results are discussed in terms of the practical utility of manipulating response effort to increase safety in human service settings.
 
An Investigation of Low-Cost Antecedent Modifications to Increase Plastic Recycling at a University
RYAN T O'CONNOR (University of Houston-Clear Lake), Dorothea C. Lerman (University of Houston-Clear Lake), Jennifer N. Fritz (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
Abstract: Successful recycling interventions have focused on decreasing the response effort necessary to recycle (Brothers, Krantz, & McClannahan, 1994; Ludwig, Gray, & Rowell, 1998). In particular, changing the location of recycling receptacles so that they are closer to the point of consumption has been shown to increase recycling behavior. Nonetheless, previous experimenters did not control for the number of recycling receptacles available across conditions, and the intervention was typically paired with other antecedent manipulations (e.g., signs or memos). Thus, it is unclear whether a mere increase in the number of bins, regardless of location, or the location of the bins, in the absence of additional prompts, would have similar effects. The current study extended previous research by controlling the number of recycling receptacles across conditions and by examining receptacle location without the use of posted signs. The proportion of plastic bottles that were placed in appropriate recycling receptacles versus trash bins was examined across three buildings on a university campus. Manipulating the appearance or number of recycling bins in common areas did not increase recycling. Recycling increased to high levels when the recycling bins were simply placed in classrooms.
 
Norm-Based Message Type on Recycling Behavior Among University Students
Jeanine Plowman Stratton (Furman University), Michelle Horhota (Furman University), JENNIFER ASMAN (Furman University), Patrick Berg (Furman University), Angela Halfacre (Furman University)
Abstract: Consumer behavior research is expanding to areas of broad-based sustainability, particularly environmental consumption. Conservation of environmental resources is a growing social concern. Social norm-based messages promoting conservation behaviors have been studied to see the impact of environmental conservation, rather than consumption (Cialdini, 2009). By presenting two different antecedent based media messages to two groups, including a control group with no message, the present study examined the impact of the different messaging types on the recycling behavior of University freshman students entering campus. Participants were given fliers at the end of each media messaging session and researchers observed their choice of disposal for the flier. Our findings indicate messages that contain isolation of individual responsibility rather than general social norms were more effective at producing recycling behavior, and either message was more effective than no message. Practical implications, discussion of proenvironmental conservation efforts, and areas for future research on consumption behavior will be presented.
 
 
Symposium #543
CE Offered: BACB
Evidence-Based Practice Within Educational Settings: Establishing Sustainable Teacher Practices
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
12:00 PM–1:20 PM
Texas Ballroom Salon E (Grand Hyatt)
Area: EDC/AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Mark T. Harvey (Florida Institute of Technology)
Discussant: Amanda M. VanDerHeyden (Education Research and Consulting, Inc.)
CE Instructor: Kathleen Clark, M.S.
Abstract: Effective coaching has become an integral part of preparing educators for the classroom, but less recognized has been the importance of specific performance feedback. This presentation will describe an approach to delivering feedback data critical to the development of efficacious teachers using strategies developed out of the University of Oregon and Utah State University. Several forms of data will be considered including a time-based track of teacher signals, group and individual opportunities to respond, specific and general praise ratios, error correction sequences, and student response accuracy. The use of electronic handhelds for data collection and inter-observer agreement will be discussed as way of collecting efficient and reliable data that can also be used for research. Finally, a study implementing a single subject, multiple baseline design was used to analyze the effectiveness of these strategies with pre-service teachers in preparation for licensure in special education. The results of this analysis along with future directions for research in the area will be discussed in an effort to better support new educators.
 
Comparison of Component Versus Whole Module Evidence-Based Training Packages: Effects on Teacher and Student Behavior
TERRY D. RYAN (Pinnelas County Schools), Mark T. Harvey (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: Special Education (SPED) teachers who work with children with Autism require research-based specialized training to effectively educate students and efficiently sustain behavioral expectations in the classroom. The present study investigated the relative efficacy of two teacher training methods, both of which involved research-based teaching and behavior management techniques. Three teachers were trained on each of eight individual elements using a changing criterion research design; additional elements were added only when a training criterion was met. A second group was trained using a whole module training package, consisting of one 6-hour session, with booster sessions implemented when scores dropped below 50%. A third group received no training and served as an untreated comparison group. Teacher skill acquisition and implementation of identified best practices were monitored as was an acquisition and targeted behavior for a randomly chosen student within each classroom. The repeated measures taken within the self-contained classrooms demonstrated the efficacy of component training over the often used whole module training. Additionally, a functional relation was observed between teacher and student behavior. The present study provides a model for school districts to use to effectively train teachers on the use of research-based methods which produce greater student achievement.
 
Performance Feedback in Preservice Training
SCOTT WARREN ROSS (University of Oregon)
Abstract: Effective coaching has become an integral part of preparing special educators for the classroom, but less recognized has been the importance of specific performance feedback. This presentation will describe an approach to delivering feedback data critical to the development of efficacious teachers out of the University of Oregon and Utah State University, including a time-based track of opportunities to respond, praise, and response accuracy. An analysis of the approach will be provided along with a discussion of potential future directions.
 
Thoughtful Sustainability: What We Know and What We Still Have to Learn
Teri Palmer (Private Practice), RONNIE DETRICH (Wing Institute)
Abstract: In a review of the literature on implementation, Fixsen and colleagues (2005) have detailed the necessary conditions for large-scale implementation to be effective. Fixsen and colleagues (2005) reinforce the point that full scale implementation may take several years. Traditionally, organizations implement programs that rely solely on training using what is sometimes referred to as a ‘train and hope’ approach. However, ”train and hope” (Stokes & Baer, 1977) results in little sustainable change. As Biglan and Ogden (2008) point out, the majority of the research focuses on practices and little focus is placed on implementation and organizational change. Additionally, practice sites are often less than prepared to identify and sustain available research. Krachtowill, Albers, & Shernoff (2004) indicate that practice sites are challenged by cumbersome organization, lack of skills and resources and limited emphasis on prevention. This paper will present a summary of literature focusing on defining sustainability, recommendations for selection and implementation and discuss successes and challenges.
 
 
Panel #544
CE Offered: PSY
Professional Development Series: How to Start and Run Your Own Behavior Analysis Business
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
12:00 PM–1:20 PM
Texas Ballroom Salon B (Grand Hyatt)
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Michelle Garcia-Thomas, Psy.D.
Chair: Molly Halligan (University Nevada, Reno)
KENNETH MACALEESE (Advanced Child Behavior Solutions, LLC)
MICHAEL FABRIZIO (FEAT of Washington)
Abstract: The behavior analytic philosophy differs greatly with mainstream clinical service providers. Therefore, behavior analysts will often develop their own business providing such services based on a behavior analytic perspective. Although these individuals may be highly trained to provide clinical services, most behavior analysts outside of the organizational behavior management sector do not have the explicit training to start and run a business. Most businesses in their infancy, whether behavior analytic or not, fail due to a ineffective system implementation. Given the current political and economic climate, it is important that the entrepreneurs are well prepared. Therefore, the following presenters will discuss their experiences in starting and maintaining a successful business based on behavior analytic principles.
 
 
Symposium #545
Navigating the Spectrum of Verbal Behavior: An Analysis of Stimulus Control from Echolalia to Self-Management
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
12:00 PM–1:20 PM
Texas Ballroom Salon A (Grand Hyatt)
Area: EDC/VRB; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Amoy Kito Hugh-Pennie (Hawthorne Country Day School)
Discussant: Amanda W. Doll (Hawthorne Country Day School)
Abstract: The purpose of this symposium is to discuss teaching tactics and strategies used to address students with varied levels of verbal behavior. The authors tested the effects of auditory stimulation, rapid rate of instruction and a MotivAider on the shift of stimulus control from: pre-listeners who were not under stimulus control for academic antecedents, Listeners for whom a shift in stimulus control from a third party to the individual and Speaker as Own Listeners shift in stimulus control from individual to a verbal audience. Additionally, a systematic replication of Hugh-Pennie, 2006 for which auditory consequences such as: music, the students own voice and a novel stimulus were applied to non-contextual repetitive speech (i.e. delayed echolalia/ palilalia) were further analyzed to test if stimulus control would transfer from the individual to a verbal audience. A MotivAider was used to transfer stimulus control from teacher prompts to the student receiving a reminder through the MotivAider to self manage his/ her own behavior. Rapid rate of instruction was a strategy used to transfer stimulus control from teacher dependent prompting procedures to the academic antecedents. The results of these instructional strategies will be discussed to help administrators and supervisors of behavior analytic schools to provide effective instructional strategies for more effective transfer of stimulus control across students with varied verbal behavior repertoires from third parties to the individual and individual to a verbal audience.
 
The Effects of Auditory Stimulation on Noncontextual Repetitive Speech: Further Analysis
AMOY KITO HUGH-PENNIE (Hawthorne Country Day School)
Abstract: This study was a systematic replication of Hugh-Pennie, 2006 which tested the effects of auditory stimulation on noncontextual repetitive speech/ palilalia of children with autism spectrum disorder and other disabilities. The study is relevant to further determining underlying causes of non-contextual repetitive speech and developing teaching procedures to develop socially appropriate and functional verbal behavior for children who emit palilalia. The effects of auditory consequences were tested on 4 school-aged children; 2 male and 2 female, in a publicly funded private school in New York. The students ranged in ages from 5-10. The students were all diagnosed as children with autism spectrum disorder. All of the students’ emitted non-contextual repetitive speech (i.e. delayed echolalia or palilalia). Baseline data was taken on the number of mands, tacts, intraverbals, vocal stereotypy, and palilalia emmited during 10 minute 1:1, group, and play sessions. The results will help to determine if non-contextual repetitive speech can be shaped into socially appropriate vocalizations through the use of auditory consequences, such as: music, the students own voice, and a novel-stimuli. Finally, the original study found a transfer of stimulus control from self to a verbal audience. A further investigation of this transfer will be discussed. Data collection is ongoing.
 
Why We All Say to Teach It Faster: Replicating Carnine, 1976
RACHEL SGUEGLIA (Hawthorne Country Day School), Amanda W. Doll (Hawthorne Country Day School), Dana Logozio (Hawthorne Country Day School)
Abstract: Since Carnine, 1976, demonstrated that fast rates of teacher presentation were accompanied by reduced off-task behavior and more frequent correct answering, others have also encouraged teachers to present instruction faster. Precision Teachers (Lindsley, 1990; Binder, 1996) focus on fluency in tool skills and on rate goals for student behavior and doubling rates of student performance in particular. Other authors (e.g., Greer, 2002) have encouraged teachers to use rate criteria to ensure learners reach fluency on basic component skills. It has become de regeur in behavioral education to coach teachers to"teach it faster." However, few systematic replications of Carnine's results exist.This study seeks to replicate Carnine, 1976 with multiple learners. Data collection is ongoing.
 
Transfer of Stimulus Control From Third Party to Motivator
TINA MARIE COVINGTON (Hawthorne Country Day School), Julie A. Bates (Hawthorne Country Day School)
Abstract: The percentage of adults with disabilities that are not employed is 54.4%; however, if you are an adult with a severe disability that number increases to 69.3% (www.census.gov/prod/2008pub/pg 70-117). The significance of this statistic is staggering, and the expectation is that schools need to do a better job preparing these students for employment outside of the school setting. One important skill that students need to learn is to manage their own time. The present study will test the effects of using a MotivAider to increase student’s use of a daily schedule. Three high school students with autism will participate in this study. During baseline data will be collected on the student’s ability to correctly follow a daily schedule. During intervention, a MoivAider will be used to test the effects of accurately following the schedule. Results will be discussed.
 
 
Symposium #546
Examining the Effects of Conditioned Reinforcement on Observing Responses
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
12:00 PM–1:20 PM
Texas Ballroom Salon D (Grand Hyatt)
Area: EDC/VRB; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Jessica Singer-Dudek (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract: This symposium will present 4 papers related to the effects of conditioned reinforcement on a variety of observing responses. The first paper will report the effects of a protocol to condition adult voices on the numbers of learn units to criterion across listener programs, observing responses to naturally occurring changes in the environment (e.g., adults entering the room), and intervals of attending to an adult reading a story aloud for preschoolers with disabilities. The second paper will report results of a protocol to condition adult faces as reinforcers and its effect on the learn units to criterion and observing responses for elementary-aged students with ASD. The third paper will present results of an auditory matching protocol on the listener literacy of preschoolers diagnosed with ASD. The fourth paper will present results of measures of stereotypy in the presence of peers in two educational settings. Results showed that rates of stereotypy were low or nonexistent in general education settings and increased in self-contained settings.
 
Conditioning Adults Voices as Reinforcers for Observing Responses for Three Preschool Students Diagnosed With Autism
R. Douglas Greer (Teachers College, Columbia University), Nirvana Pistoljevic (The Fred S Keller School and Teachers College, Columbia University), Claire S. Cahill (Teachers College, Columbia University), LIN DU (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract: We studied the effects of a Voice Conditioning Protocol on the observing responses of three preschoolers diagnosed with autism. The participants were selected for the study because they had high numbers of learn units to criteria across their listener programs and low rates of responding to naturally occurring changes in the environment, measured as observing responses. The dependent variables in the study were the numbers of learn units to criteria across listener programs, choosing to listen to a story being read during unstructured play time, selecting to listen to recorded adult voices reading stories on tape, and observing responses to changes in the environment. The independent variable in this study was the Protocol to condition adult voices as reinforcers through stimulus-stimulus pairing procedure. During the Voice Conditioning Protocol, prosthetic reinforcers were paired with audio recordings of adults reading stories. The results showed a decrease in numbers of learn units required to master objectives across listener programs, an increase in observing responses to changes in the environment, and increase in intervals of attending to an adult reading a story aloud.
 
Testing the Effects of the Looking at Faces Protocol on Learn Units to Criterion, Objectives Met, and Observing Responses
Dolleen-Day Keohane (Teachers College, Columbia University), R. Douglas Greer (Teachers College, Columbia University), JACQUELINE MAFFEI-LEWIS (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract: The experimenters tested the effects of the looking at faces protocol during eye contact programs on changes in learn units to criteria, objectives met, and observing responses. Conjugate reinforcement can be defined as continuous reinforcement contingent upon the target behavior. The design of this study was a multiple probe design with a time delay across children and behaviors. There were four participants of this study who were diagnosed with developmental disabilities. The dependent variables of this study were numbers of learn units to criteria and number of observing responses emitted. The independent variable was the looking at faces protocol using conjugate reinforcement. Two types of reinforcement were delivered: vocal and tactile. The results showed that conjugate reinforcement with vocalizations and tactile touch was an effective procedure to increase eye contact, decease learn units to criteria, and increase observing responses.
 
The Effects of an Auditory Matching Procedure on the Emergence of Listener Literacy With Elementary School Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Jinhyeok Choi (Teachers College, Columbia University), MATTHEW HOWARTH (Teachers College, Columbia University), R. Douglas Greer (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract: The empirical effect of the acquisition of a computer-based generalized auditory word match-to-sample protocol on the emergence of Listener Literacy was examined. Two experiments were conducted with participants who were diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder in a self-contained classroom under the Comprehensive Application of Behavior Analysis to Schooling (CABAS®) model. A time-delayed multiple probe design across participants was used in both experiments. The dependent variables in the study were the number of learn units to criterion prior to and following the implementation of the auditory matching procedure and the number of correct responses to probe vocal antecedents along with non-related body actions. During intervention sessions, participants were taught a discrimination task which required them to match a target sound or word by pressing a button that emitted the correct response from a field that included a rotated non-exemplar. The use of a touch-screen computer technology was used and students progressed through phases consisting of finer discriminations after criterion was met on the previous phase. Results of the study are discussed in terms of the utility of this procedure in inducing listener literacy.
 
Audience Control: The Role of Observation of Peers on the Frequency of Stereotypy for Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder
VICTORIA STERKIN (Teachers College, Columbia University), Jessica Singer-Dudek (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract: Skinner states, “within a given community a speaker will show various degrees of editing in the presence of various special audiences,” (1957, p. 394). In an alternating treatments design, we tested for the presence of audience control on the participants’ frequency of stereotypy in a self-contained special education setting versus a regular-ed setting. Three students with autism, and one student diagnosed with an emotional disability were participants in the study. All students had the capability of observational learning in their repertoires of verbal behavior. Probes were conducted at random across participants and settings, and showed high frequencies of stereotypy in the self-contained setting and low to no instances of stereotypy in the regular-ed setting. The data suggest that audience control may be an important cusp in an individual’s repertoire of verbal behavior to enable successful functioning in a regular-ed setting. Future research is needed to support these findings as well as to investigate how to induce this possible cusp.
 
 
Symposium #547
Interdisciplinary Investigations in Behavior Analysis and Linguistics
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
12:00 PM–1:20 PM
214C (CC)
Area: VRB/TPC; Domain: Theory
Chair: Sakurako Sherry Tanaka (Laurel Behavior Support Services)
Abstract: This symposium presents four papers which move the analysis of verbal behavior closer to, and even into the field of linguistics. The first paper begins with a historical perspective, arguing that a gap between behavior analysis and linguistic studies has developed and widened since the 1960s, but suggesting that in the areas of language acquisition, sociolinguistics and language change, equating language and behavior would produce beneficial results. The second paper takes a close look at Skinner’s concept of the autoclitic, and investigates the linguistic influences that affected his development of the concept. It argues that a better understanding of the autoclitic’s linguistic basis will aid behavior analyst’s research in this area. The third paper also treats the autoclitic, this time in relation to an analysis of articles in English noun phrases. It argues that as an autoclitic, the noun phrase is a functional response class in English. The final paper returns to the broader themes of sociolinguistics and language acquisition raised in the first presentation. It argues that autistic children in multicultural/multilingual environments require a bilingual component of intervention to acquire necessary life skills.
 
Linguistics and Behavior Analysis: Will the Twain Ever Meet?
RAYMOND S. WEITZMAN (California State University, Fresno)
Abstract: During the 1930s and 1940s and even into the 1950s there was considerable interaction between behaviorists and linguistics, especially with the preeminent linguist of the day, Leonard Bloomfield, supporting a behavioral approach to language. But by the late 1950s and early 1960s following the Chomskyan Revolution in linguistics, more mentalistic, cognitive, and nativist approaches began to dominate. Today the gap has widened so much that one wonders whether the twain shall ever meet again. Donald Baer in a commentary of Ernst Moerk’s The Mother of Eve (1983) suggested that all that was needed to get linguists and (behavioral) psychologists to interact was “an equation of language to behavior.” Baer’s comments were in the context of issues concerning language acquisition. This presentation will not only explore further such issues in language acquisition where the joint endeavors of linguists and behaviorists may prove mutually beneficial, but will also look at other issues in such areas as sociolinguistics and language change where constructing “an equation of language to behavior” might prove to be fruitful.
 
Linguistics and the Concept of Autoclitic
MARIA DE LOURDES PASSOS (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro)
Abstract: The autoclitic is the most complex and difficult to understand of the verbal operants formulated by Skinner in Verbal Behavior (1957). Skinner conceived of the autoclitic based not only on his behavior analytical model of the contingency of three terms, but also on several linguistic analyses whose identification and understanding is necessary to the proper comprehension of this operant and to contribute to the design of better technologies for improving speakers’ and listeners’ repertoires. The lack of identification of this linguistic foundation may be one of the reasons why not much work, either theoretical or applied, on this subject matter has been done by behavior analysts. In spite of the fact that Skinner does not refer explicitly to most of his linguistic sources, they can be identified through the examples that he gives, the problems that he raises, and some other bits of information presented in Verbal Behavior and others of his works.
 
Autoclitics as Response Classes: A Study of Articles and Determiners in English Noun Phrases
ROBERT DLOUHY (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Very little work has been done to date using behavior-analytic principles to thoroughly describe and explicate specific syntactic properties of a language. Most behavior-analytic discussions of syntactic phenomena have been conceptual, and discussions of particular phenomena have been fragmentary. This study attempts a more thorough behavior-analytic description of a specific syntactic phenomenon in English, the use of articles and other determiners in noun phrases. The analysis finds that what is traditionally called a noun phrase should be regarded as a generalized autoclitic response class. The English-speaking verbal community is conditioned to respond to the primary verbal stimulus (the noun) in the context of this autoclitic, which provides stimuli allowing listeners to respond appropriately to the noun’s number, abstractness, and relative identifiability, possession, and location. Intraverbal effects from other responses internal and external to this autoclitic, traditionally called grammatical and discourse effects, also influence the emission of articles and determiners. This study shows syntactic structures such as noun phrases can be accounted for as autoclitic response classes within a language, and that multiple sources of stimulus control can be identified. It is concluded that a behavior-analytic approach can provide an interesting and useful analysis of lower-level syntactic phenomena.
 
Bilingual Intervention: Toward an Equation of Language to Behavior
SAKURAKO SHERRY TANAKA (Laurel Behavior Support Services)
Abstract: Limited studies are available on bilingual intervention for children diagnosed with Autism and related developmental disorders, despite the dire need of “contextually fit” ABA service delivery for the multi-lingual population, an increasing characteristic of global society today. On the contrary, in applied linguistics more than 150 bilingualism studies have been conducted in the last four decades, strongly supporting that multilingualism is not only a child’s right but also an integral element of his/her identity. This presentation will shed light on the inconsistency -or world apart - between the two disciplines, linguistics and behavior analysis, culminating in a common misconception by many clinicians and analysts in the latter that “autistic kids cannot learn more than one language; bilingualism is unsuited for them.” Furthermore, linguists have duly neglected to acknowledge the rightful contribution Skinner’s operant conditioning has made to the acquisition of functional communicative behavior beyond “words.” I will argue that for the autistic children functioning in a multilingual household, bilingualism is not a matter of choice but a necessary component of intervention in order for them to acquire communicative, socio-cultural, and pragmatic skills, lack of which characterizes their disorder.
 
 
Invited Tutorial #548
CE Offered: BACB
From Pigeons to People to Pandas, Panthers, and Peccaries: Moving From Conditioning to Teaching Animals
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
1:00 PM–1:50 PM
Ballroom A (CC)
Area: AAB/TPC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
BACB CE Offered. CE Instructor: David Lennox, Ph.D.
Chair: Jennifer L. Sobie (University of Illinois)
Presenting Author: SUSAN G. FRIEDMAN (Utah State University)
Abstract: Six decades of experience with children with special learning needs has honed a sharp edge on the technology of behavior change that is both effective and humane. This technology is currently under-utilized by many animal behavior professionals whose exposure to applied behavior analysis is often limited to four quadrants and simple schedules of reinforcement. The focus of this tutorial is to expand common approaches to behavior-change to include three crux moves fundamental to working with children's behavior and equally essential to working with animals: replacing hypothetical, psychological constructs and diagnostic labels with operational behavioral definitions; functional assessment of behavior-environment relations; and adherence to an ethical hierarchy of procedural choice, organized according to the most positive, least intrusive guideline.
 
SUSAN G. FRIEDMAN (Utah State University)
Susan is a psychology professor at Utah State University. Over the last decade, she has helped pioneer efforts to apply to animals the scientifically sound teaching technology and ethical standard of Applied Behavior Analysis that is so effective with human learners. Susan has given a wide variety of workshops and conference presentations on animal learning and behavior around the world. Students from 22 different countries have participated in her courses, Living and Learning with Animals and Living and Learning with Parrots. Her articles have been translated into 9 languages. Susan is also a core member of the US Fish & Wildlife Service's California Condor Recovery Team and has been nominated for the Media Award, given by the International Association of Behavior Analysis, for her efforts to disseminate to pet owners, veterinarians, animal trainers and zookeepers the essential tools they need to empower and enrich the lives of all learners.
 
 
Paper Session #549
Preference
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
1:00 PM–1:50 PM
Bonham C (Grand Hyatt)
Area: EAB
Chair: Heather L. Peters (The Open Polytechnic of New Zealand)
 
Age, Diffusion and Place Preference Reversal
Domain: Experimental Analysis
JAIME ROBLES (Virginia Commonwealth University), Cristina I. Vargas-Irwin (Fundación Universitaria Konrad Lorenz)
 
Abstract: The diffusion of reward expectations with time is a key problem for quantitative models of spatial search. These models predict a reversal in preference for two rewards as time between reward encounters is varied. This prediction was tested using juvenile and aging rats, and differences between both groups of animals were simulated by systematic exploration of the diffusion parametric space. Differences in model specification, such as initial conditions, parametric variations and optimization algorithms, are discussed as key element in the appropriate modeling of place preference reversal, with the specific aim to provide quantitative modeling of age-induced differences. The parametric representation of spatial learning as a function of age is illustrated.
 
Probabilistic discounting with differing levels of background income
Domain: Experimental Analysis
HEATHER L. PETERS (The Open Polytechnic of New Zealand), Maree J. Hunt (Victoria University of Wellington), David N. Harper (Victoria University of Wellington)
 
Abstract: The tendency to engage in problematic gambling is related to the rate at which individuals discount probabilistic reinforcers. Those that discount probabilistic reinforcers less may be more inclined to maintain gambling behaviour. One possible explanation for individual differences in discounting rates is the value of each outcome relative to a person’s access to other forms of income. Participants in this study were third year psychology students. They played a computer snowboarding game where points were obtained for making jumps on a ski run. The points available for these jumps were used as an analogue of background income. Occasionally additional points were available for ‘special jumps’ that gave participants the opportunity to choose between two outcomes. One guaranteed a certain number of points while the other offered them a chance to gamble for a greater number of points with differing probabilities of winning across trials. Data were well described by hyperbolic and hyperbolic-like functions with probabilistic discounting rates varying as a product of the background income. These are discussed in relation to previous research on the magnitude of outcomes and the energy budget model.
 
 
 
Paper Session #550
Rules and Behavior
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
1:00 PM–1:50 PM
Bonham B (Grand Hyatt)
Area: EAB
Chair: Genevieve M. DeBernardis (University of Nevada, Reno)
 
Monitoring Instruction Following: The Effects Upon Behavioral Sensitivity
Domain: Experimental Analysis
JOSELE ABREU-RODRIGUES (Universidade de Brasília), Andréia Kroger (Universidade do Minho)
 
Abstract: The present study investigated the effect of the presence of the experimenter (monitoring) upon behavioral sensitivity to contingency change. In the Training Phase, college students were exposed to two schedules (DRL and FR), and in the Testing Phase, to an FI schedule. For the Control Group, no instructions were provided across phases; for the No-Observer and With-Observer groups, inaccurate instructions about the schedules were given (“VR”, “FT”, and “DRH”, respectively). For the With-Observer group, the experimenter remained in the experimental room during the Testing Phase. In the Training Phase, all participants showed lower rates during the DRL, and higher rates during the FR, in spite of the presence or absence of instructions. In the Testing Phase, the Control and No-Observer groups showed lower response rates and a more efficient behavioral patterning than the With-Observer Group. These results indicate that behavior was affected by the presence of the experimenter despite of an experimental history of no reinforcement for instruction following, and suggest that instructional control may be strengthened by social contingencies.
 
The Role of Contact Duration and Relational Intimacy in the Acquisition of Perspective-Taking in Typically Developed Children
Domain: Experimental Analysis
GENEVIEVE M. DEBERNARDIS (University of Nevada, Reno), Linda J. Parrott Hayes (University of Nevada, Reno)
 
Abstract: Perspective-taking has been defined as the capacity to infer another’s thoughts, feelings, or internal states of knowledge. This is a particularly complex phenomenon, as the perceiver must take into consideration his or her own past behavior and how another’s behavior may be the same, but also notably different in various circumstances. The demonstration of the most complex form of perspective-taking is when the perceiver accurately predicts another’s behavior in novel situations. This study examines the factors involved in the initial acquisition of this repertoire with young children. It aims to determine if contact duration and relational intimacy are critical factors in the initial acquisition of perspective-taking, as had been seen to be important in the demonstration of this skill in adults.
 
 
 
Invited Paper Session #551
Applied Behavior Analysis and Teaching Children With Autism in the People's Republic of China
Tuesday, June 1, 2010
1:00 PM–1:50 PM
103AB (CC)
Area: TBA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Denise E. Ross (Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
PEISHI WANG (Queens College, The City University of New York)
Dr. Peishi Wang received her Ph.D. in special education from Teachers College, Columbia University in 2005. She joined the faculties in the Graduate Programs in Special Education in the Department of Educational and Community Programs at Queens College, City University of New York in 2006. She has 15 years of experience of working with infants, toddlers, and preschool children with developmental delays and disabilities. Her research focuses on families of young children with developmental delays, language acquisition in young children with special needs, evidence-based social skills interventions for children with autism, and cross-cultural comparison studies in parenting young children with special needs in the U.S. and China.
Abstract: The purpose of this presentation is to provide the audience with an overview of applied behavior analysis (ABA) inspired practices in teaching children with autism in the People’s Republic of China. The first clinical report on autism appeared in the Chinese Journal of Medical Science in 1982. Researchers estimate that China has approximately 500,000 individuals with autism (Tao, 2000). Due to a severe shortage of trained professionals, education for these children has largely remained parents’ responsibility. Subsequently, to meet the needs of these families and children, private schools are established by parents in large and economically well-developed cities. In the pursuit of effective and evidence-based practices, there is a growing trend that more and more families in China are requesting programs based on principles of ABA. This talk will highlight some of these ABA programs.
 

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