Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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45th Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2019

Program by B. F. Skinner Lecture Series Events: Sunday, May 26, 2019


 

B. F. Skinner Lecture Series Paper Session #245
CE Offered: PSY/BACB

The Public Lives of Animal Behavior

Sunday, May 26, 2019
11:00 AM–11:50 AM
Hyatt Regency East, Ballroom Level, Grand Ballroom AB
Area: PCH; Domain: Theory
Instruction Level: Basic
CE Instructor: Darlene E. Crone-Todd, Ph.D.
Chair: Darlene E. Crone-Todd (Salem State University)
MICHAEL PETTIT (York University)

Michael Pettit is an associate professor of psychology at York University in Toronto, CA where he teaches in their unique Historical, Theoretical, and Critical Studies of Psychology program. He is the author of The Science of Deception (University of Chicago Press, 2013) and over a dozen articles on the history of the social and behavioral sciences.

Abstract:

The behavior of nonhuman animals continues to elicit considerable interest not only from scientists, but from a wide range of publics. This fascination means studies of animal behavior often have a double life, a source of a scientific knowledge while also providing edifying entertainment. For this reason, students of animal behavior have had to grapple with an array of (both wanted and unwanted) audiences for their research. In this talk, I will offer examples from the history of psychology, with a particular focus on the controversies over animal sexuality and cognition, to illustrate the ways in which scientific knowledge has been consumed and contested.

Target Audience:

The audience includes those interested in the history and theory of psychology and the behavioral sciences.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) describe important episodes in the history of animal behavior; (2) challenge the diffusionist model of the public understanding of science; (3) put contemporary concerns into historical perspective.
 
 
B. F. Skinner Lecture Series Paper Session #246
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/NASP

How to Leverage Behavioral and Pharmacological Sciences to Impact the Opioid Crisis

Sunday, May 26, 2019
11:00 AM–11:50 AM
Swissôtel, Concourse Level, Zurich D
Area: SCI; Domain: Applied Research
Instruction Level: Intermediate
CE Instructor: William Stoops, Ph.D.
Chair: William Stoops (University of Kentucky)
SHARON WALSH (University of Kentucky)
Dr. Sharon Walsh is a Professor of Behavioral Science and Psychiatry, and Director of the Center on Drug and Alcohol Research at the University of Kentucky. Dr. Walsh's clinical research has focused on pharmacological issues in opioid and cocaine dependence. She has conducted pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic studies of licit and illicit opioids and opioid treatment agents, including buprenorphine, methadone and LAAM. She has conducted abuse liability evaluations of opioid compounds in humans. She has evaluated potential pharmacotherapies for efficacy and safety in the treatment of cocaine dependence employing both inpatient drug interaction studies and outpatient clinical trials. Her work has been supported through continuous funding from the National Institute on Drug Abuse along with funding from private foundations and industry. She has provided expert advice to the FDA, NIH, legal representatives and the pharmaceutical industry.
Abstract:

This presentation will provide an overview of the origins of the present opioid crisis, now in its second decade, in the United States. This year alone it is estimated that approximately 50,000 lives will be lost to opioid overdose with innumerable others suffering other consequences of the disorder. Effective interventions must span the continuum from prevention (both through education and improved opioid prescribing practices), expansion of evidence-based treatment and increasing additional harm reduction approaches to decrease the health risks associated with opioid use and injection drug use. The basis for the use of pharmacotherapies for the treatment of opioid use disorder are grounded in the principles of behavioral pharmacology, and the empirical evidence for the efficacy of our pharmacological armamentarium will be reviewed. The utility of additional behavioral approaches to augment the effectiveness of pharmacotherapeutics will be discussed. Finally, innovative programs that are having significant impact on the crisis will be discussed.

Target Audience:

Board certified behavior analysts; licensed psychologists; graduate students. 

Learning Objectives: PENDING
 
 
B. F. Skinner Lecture Series Paper Session #259
CE Offered: BACB/PSY/QABA

The Effects of Human-Animal Interaction on Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Sunday, May 26, 2019
12:00 PM–12:50 PM
Swissôtel, Concourse Level, Zurich D
Area: AAB; Domain: Basic Research
Instruction Level: Intermediate
CE Instructor: Valeri Farmer-Dougan, Ph.D.
Chair: Valeri Farmer-Dougan (Illinois State University)
MARGUERITE O'HAIRE (Purdue University)

Dr. Marguerite (Maggie) O’Haire is an internationally recognized Fulbright Scholar who is currently an Associate Professor of Human-Animal Interaction in the Center for the Human-Animal Bond at Purdue University. She earned her BA in Psychology from Vassar College in New York and her Ph.D. in Psychology from The University of Queensland in Australia. Her research program focuses on the unique and pervasive ways that humans interact with animals. From research with household pets to highly trained service animals, her findings have been instrumental in evaluating the value of the human-animal bond. She has received funding from three different NIH institutes to fund her human-animal interaction research, including an NICHD-funded trial of animal-assisted intervention for autism. In addition to her peer-reviewed publications and textbook chapters, her work has also been highlighted in over 1,000 media stories around the globe, including NPR, the Wall Street Journal, and the New York Times. For more information, see www.humananimalinteraction.org.

Abstract:

The field of human-animal interaction encompasses the unique and pervasive relationships between humans and animals. These relationships can influence human health, well-being, and development. An emerging body of research has begun to systematically evaluate these effects across a broad range of populations and settings. One population that has received growing attention is children with autism spectrum disorder. This talk will review the evidence base for this practice as well as provide concrete examples of research with various animal species, including guinea pigs in inclusion classroom settings and therapy dogs in a specialized psychiatric hospital program.

Target Audience:

Board certified behavior analysts; licensed psychologists; graduate students.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) identify different types of animal-assisted intervention; (2) describe outcomes of animal-assisted intervention for autism spectrum disorder; (3) list behavioral changes from animal presence.
 
 
B. F. Skinner Lecture Series Paper Session #301
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/NASP
The Science of Why We're Socially Awkward and Why That's Awesome
Sunday, May 26, 2019
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
Hyatt Regency East, Ballroom Level, Grand Ballroom AB
Area: SCI; Domain: Theory
Instruction Level: Intermediate
CE Instructor: William Stoops, Ph.D.
Chair: William Stoops (University of Kentucky)
TY TASHIRO (Independent Author)
Ty Tashiro is the author of Awkward: The Science of Why We’re Socially Awkward and Why That’s Awesome and The Science of Happily Ever After. His work has been featured at the New York Times, Time.com, TheAtlantic.com, and National Public Radio. He received his Ph.D. in Psychology from the University of Minnesota, has been an award-winning professor at the University of Maryland and University of Colorado.
Abstract:

The presentation will share research findings from psychology, neuroscience, and sociology to explain why roughly 15% of people are socially awkward. It will also review how awkward people view the complex social world, show how tailored behavioral activation components can help awkward people build their social skill, explore why awkwardness is associated with giftedness. The talk revolves around a welcome, counterintuitive message: the same characteristics that make people socially clumsy can be harnessed to produce remarkable achievements.

Target Audience:

The talk should be useful for both researchers and practitioners with a social science Ph.D.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) discuss psychological and sociological research relevant to the etiology of social awkwardness; (2) discuss data that helps us understand the distinction between autism spectrum disorders and social awkwardness; (3) discuss behavioral strategies for helping awkward individuals gain insight into their interpersonal struggles and encourage their unique potential.
 
 
B. F. Skinner Lecture Series Paper Session #319
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/NASP

Embodied Cognition in Theory and Practice: How Behavior Becomes Thought

Sunday, May 26, 2019
4:00 PM–4:50 PM
Hyatt Regency East, Ballroom Level, Grand Ballroom AB
Area: EAB; Domain: Theory
Instruction Level: Intermediate
CE Instructor: Peter R. Killeen, Ph.D.
Chair: Peter R. Killeen (Arizona State University)
ARTHUR GLENBERG (Arizona State University)

Arthur Glenberg is a professor in the Department of Psychology at Arizona State University, an emeritus professor at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, and a member of INICO at the Univeridad de Salamanca. He does basic research in cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience with a focus on developing theories of embodied cognition in the areas of language, education, and social processes. In addition, he and his colleagues at ASU have developed an embodied reading comprehension intervention (EMBRACE) for English language learning children in the early elementary grades (see: http://resourcecenters2015.videohall.com/presentations/565.) His work has been funded by NIH, IES, and NSF. Dr. Glenberg has authored a textbook (in its third edition), an edited volume, and over 100 peer-reviewed articles. As of October 2018, these publications have been cited almost 20,000 times with an h-index of 61.

Abstract:

A basic principle of embodied cognition is that all cognitive processes depend on behavioral and neural systems of action (goal-directed behavior such as operant responding), perception, and emotion. I will illustrate this principle with demonstrations and data from fields of perception, developmental psychology, social psychology, and cognitive psychology. After developing the case for cognition being embodied, I will discuss applications in teaching reading comprehension, second language learning, physics, and mathematics. In each domain, substantial improvements in learning occur when the body is appropriately engaged.

Target Audience:

Board certified behavior analysts; licensed psychologists; graduate students.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) describe the basic principle of embodied cognition; (2) describe two or more illustrations of this principle; (3) describe applications of this principle to enhance learning; (4) generate novel applications of this principle.
 
 
B. F. Skinner Lecture Series Paper Session #333
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/NASP

The Neuroeconomics of Reinforcement and Choice: From Dopamine to Decision-Making

Sunday, May 26, 2019
5:00 PM–5:50 PM
Hyatt Regency East, Ballroom Level, Grand Ballroom AB
Area: BPN; Domain: Applied Research
Instruction Level: Intermediate
CE Instructor: Carla H. Lagorio, Ph.D.
Chair: Carla H. Lagorio (University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire)
PAUL GLIMCHER (New York University)
My post-doctoral training was with in oculomotor physiology. Working with Prof. David Sparks researching the brainstem and mesencephalic nuclei that control eye rotations, I uncovered evidence that structures participating in the execution of saccadic eye movements might be involved in planning those movements as well. Evidence of this type has been accumulating throughout the neuraxis, but few signals have been associated with any one of the covert processes postulated to intervene between sensation and action. As a result, over the past decade my laboratory has focused on the identification and characterization of signals that intervene between the neural processes that engage in sensory encoding and the neural processes that engage movement generations. These are the signals which must, in principle, underlie decision-making. My students and post-docs study these processes using a variety of tools that are drawn from the fields of neuroscience, economics and psychology. Our methodologies thus range from single neuron electrophysiology to fMRI to game theory. In a similar way, the members of my laboratory include scientists with primary training in neurobiology, economics, and psychology. One set of ongoing projects seek to understand how humans and animals make choices in time, a process usually called delay discounting. A second set of projects seeks to understand the contribution of midbrain dopamine systems to the process of valuing alternative courses of actions. A third set of ongoing related projects seeks to understand the role of the basal ganglia in choice. A fourth set of projects seeks to understand the structure of cortical areas involved in action selection both in the face of risk and in the face of ambiguity. The long-term goal of my research is to describe the neural events that underlie behavioral decision-making employing an interdisciplinary approach that is coming to be called "neuroeconomics". Our approach to this problem consolidates mathematical economic approaches to decision-making with traditional neurobiological tools. By using these tools in our physiological analyses we hope to develop a coherent view of how the brain makes decisions
Abstract:

Over the last decade cognitive neuroscientists have revealed the basic mechanisms of both operant and pavlovian conditioning in the mammalian brain. The dopaminergic neurons of the midbrain have been shown to compute a reward prediction error almost exactly as predicted by the psychologists of the 1970s had supposed. These signals implement a precise value computation in which reinforcement gives rise to a stored synaptic representation of the precise value of stimuli and actions. More recently, neuroeconomists have shown how these values are stored, accessed, and compared when humans and animals choose amongst actions. These new insights have validated many of the core tenets to learning theory, while broadly extending our notion of the response to include more representational mechanisms than had been previously supposed.

Target Audience:

Board certified behavior analysts; licensed psychologists; graduate students. 

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) discuss basic biology of reinforcement learning; (2) explain role of dopmaine in conditioning; (3) describe basic neural circuit for general-purpose decision-making.
 
 
B. F. Skinner Lecture Series Paper Session #360
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/NASP

Direction Dependence Analysis: Testing the Direction of Causation in Non-Experimental Person-Oriented Research

Sunday, May 26, 2019
6:00 PM–6:50 PM
Hyatt Regency East, Ballroom Level, Grand Ballroom AB
Area: DDA; Domain: Basic Research
Instruction Level: Basic
CE Instructor: Eric Boelter, Ph.D.
Chair: Kelly M. Schieltz (University of Iowa)
WOLFGANG WIEDERMANN (University of Missouri)
Wolfgang Wiedermann (Ph.D., Quantitative Psychology, University of Klagenfurt, Austria) is an Assistant Professor in the Educational, School, & Counseling Psychology Department at the University of Missouri. His primary research interests include the development of methods for causal inference, methods to determine the causal direction of effects in non-experimental studies (so-called Direction Dependence Analysis; see www.ddaproject.com), and methods for intensive longitudinal data in the person-oriented research setting. He has published over 60 peer-reviewed articles and book chapters that focus on the theory and application of statistical methods in experimental and non-experimental data settings.
Abstract:

In observational studies, at least three possible explanations exist for the association of two variables x and y: 1) x is the cause of y (i.e., a model of the form x → y), 2) y is the cause of x (y → x), or 3) an unmeasured confounder u is present (x ← u → y). Statistical methods that identify which of the three explanatory models fits best would be a useful adjunct to use of theory alone. The present talk introduces one such statistical method, Direction Dependence Analysis (DDA; Wiedermann & von Eye, 2015; Wiedermann & Li, 2018). DDA assesses the relative plausibility of the three explanatory models using higher moment information of the variables (i.e., skewness and kurtosis). DDA will be discussed in the context of person-oriented (non-experimental) research. Extending DDA principles to so-called (linear) vector autoregressive models (VAR) can be used to empirically evaluate causal theories of multivariate intraindividual development (e.g., which of two longitudinally observed variables is more likely to be the explanatory variable and which one is more likely to reflect the outcome). An illustrative example is provided from a study on the development of experienced mood and alcohol consumption behavior. Specifically, DDA is used to answer questions concerning the causal direction of effect of subjective mood and alcohol consumption behavior from a person-oriented perspective, i.e., whether individual changes in mood are the cause of changes in alcohol consumption (i.e., mood → alcohol reflecting the so-called “tension reduction hypothesis“; Conger, 1956; Young, Oei & Knight, 199) or whether alcohol consumption patterns cause changes in perceived mood (i.e., alcohol → mood reflecting the “hedonic motive hypothesis”; Gendolla, 2000). In the present sample, DDA supported the “tension-reduction hypothesis” suggesting that experienced mood is more likely to cause alcohol intake than vice versa. Data requirements of DDA for best-practice applications are discussed and software implementations in R and SPSS are provided.

Target Audience:

Researchers, practitioners, and graduate students interested in quantitative methods of causal inference.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) list the limitations of standard regression/correlational analysis to discern causality statements in non-experimental data settings; (2) understand statistical principles of direction of dependence; (3) apply DDA in their own research.
 

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