Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

Substance Use and Addiction Conference; Washington DC; 2018

Program by Day for Monday, November 19, 2018


 

Special Event #1
Opening Remarks
Monday, November 19, 2018
8:15 AM–8:30 AM
Independence Hall A
Chair: Mark Galizio (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Opening remarks provided by Program Committee Chair, Mark Galizio.
 
 
Invited Paper Session #2
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/NASP/AAHCPAD/NAADAC
Basic Behavioral Processes: Delay Discounting
Monday, November 19, 2018
8:30 AM–11:00 AM
Independence Hall A
Domain: Service Delivery
Instruction Level: Basic
CE Instructor: Mark Galizio, Ph.D.
Chair: Mark Galizio (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Discussant: Leonard Green (Washington University)
 

Experimental Manipulations of Delay Discounting

GREGORY J. MADDEN (Utah State University)
Gregory J. Madden received his Ph.D. from West Virginia University and currently holds the position of professor at Utah State University, having previously held faculty positions at the University of Kansas and the University of Wisconsin–Eau Claire. Dr. Madden’s program of research has been aimed at understanding the basic mechanisms of reinforcement in humans and other animals, a topic of broad conceptual and applied significance in the field of psychology. He is an internationally known researcher in the field of behavioral economics, with special emphases on impulsive choice in gambling and drug addiction. Collectively, his work has merited more than $3 million of federal funding, and his peer-reviewed papers have been cited more than 3,500 times. Since 2010 he has been active in translational efforts, particularly in applications of behavioral economics to influencing childhood dietary decision-making. Dr. Madden has held several key editorial positions, and has served in leadership roles in professional societies and organizations, including the Executive Council of ABAI, Division 25 (Behavior Analysis) of the American Psychological Association (APA), and the Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior (SEAB). Especially noteworthy was his appointment as editor in chief of the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. Dr. Madden has also co-edited two important and influential books, Impulsivity: The Behavioral and Neurological Science of Discounting and the APA Handbook of Behavior Analysis, Volumes I and II, both published by APA.
Abstract:

Many behaviors posing significant risks to public health are characterized by repeated decisions to forego better long-term outcomes for immediate temptations. This steep discounting of delayed outcomes is correlated with addictions (e.g., substance abuse, obesity) and impactful behaviors such as seatbelt use and early sexual activity. As evidence accumulates that steep delay discounting plays a causal role in these maladaptive behaviors, researchers have begun identifying experimental methods for reducing discounting. This presentation will provide a systematic review of this literature, highlighting successes and areas in which further research is needed.

 

Delay Discounting and Genetics of Impulsivity

SUZANNE H. MITCHELL (Oregon Health & Science University)
Suzanne H. Mitchell, Ph.D., is a Professor at Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU) in the Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, with secondary appointments in Psychiatry and in the Oregon Institute for Occupational health Science. She obtained her B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees at the University of Hull, England and her Ph.D. at SUNY-Stony Brook, USA. Her dissertation focused on the economics of foraging behavior of rats, examining the role of the energetic costs and benefits in feeding. Her committee was chaired by Howard Rachlin, whose influence made her sensitive to the role of temporal costs as well as energetic costs in determining the value of food rewards. During a post-doctoral fellowship at the University of Chicago, Dr. Mitchell worked with Harriet de Wit, Ph.D. using behavioral economics as an explanation for use of alcohol, nicotine/cigarettes, and amphetamine in humans. During that time she also began collaborating with Jerry Richards, Ph.D. on delay discounting studies with rats. Following her postdoctoral work, Dr. Mitchell was an assistant professor at the University of New Hampshire, where she continued to explore recreational drug use using behavioral economic models. She moved her lab to OHSU in 2001 from the University of New Hampshire to devote more time to research, particularly looking into why drug users tend to be more impulsive than non-drug users using human and animal models. Most recently she has returned to her earlier interests in energetic costs and her research has increased its scope to include effort-related decision-making in clinical populations. She has received funding from various NIH institutes (NHLBI, NIAAA, NIDA and NIH), has served on several study sections as a member and as an ad hoc participant, and has received awards for education and mentoring.
Abstract:

High levels of impulsivity (delay discounting [DD], relative preference for smaller but immediate rewards over larger but delayed rewards) are associated with various psychopathologies including alcohol use disorder. Data indicate that there are genetic influences on DD and on the development of alcohol use disorder, but the genetic relationships amongst DD and alcohol consumption and other heritable features of alcohol response are unclear. This presentation will describe several techniques used to examine the role of genetics in behavior in animal models and a series of studies using them to examine the genetically-based co-relationships between excessive alcohol use and steep delay discounting. In these studies, male mice were exposed to the adjusting amount procedure (Richards et al. 1997, J Exp Anal Behav, 67, 353-366). This procedures requires mice to choose between a small, immediate sucrose-solution reward and a larger sucrose-solution reward that is delayed 0, 2, 4, 8 or 12 s on different sessions. In one study, behavior for 11 inbred strains was assessed, and genetic correlations with ethanol-associated endophenotypes derived. Other studies assessed DD in lines selected for differing levels of ethanol withdrawal symptomatology or ethanol consumption, and correlations between DD and responses to passively administered ethanol in a heterogeneous mouse stock to identify novel phenotypic targets. Data suggest that DD has a heritable component in mice, and is genetically associated with chronic withdrawal and consumption, but that effect sizes are small. Implications for human alcohol use and delay discounting will be discussed and knowledge gaps identified.

 
Target Audience:

Board certified behavior analysts; licensed psychologists; graduate students.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) discuss the delay discounting process; (2) understand how delay discounting may underlie decisions leading to addictions; (3) list at least 3 interventions that have proven successful in reducing delay discounting; (4) describe two procedures used in basic research to demonstrate the role of genetics in behavior; (5) explain the difference between a genotype, phenotype, and endophenotype; (6) discuss the data indicating that an individual’s level of delay discounting can be classified as an endophenotype; (7) describe behavioral procedures to assess alcohol-related phenotypes in mice; (8) assess the genetic-basis of the relationship between delay discounting and the potential for alcohol abuse.
 
 
Invited Paper Session #3
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/NASP/AAHCPAD/NAADAC
Models of Addiction and Treatment
Monday, November 19, 2018
12:30 PM–3:00 PM
Independence Hall A
Domain: Applied
Instruction Level: Intermediate
CE Instructor: Mark Galizio, Ph.D.
Chair: Mark Galizio (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Discussant: Amy Odum (Utah State University)
 
Reinforcer Pathology: A Conceptual Model of Addiction
WARREN K. BICKEL (Addiction Recovery Research Center, Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute )
Dr. Bickel joined the Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute in 2011 and serves as Director for the Addiction Recovery Research Center and Co-Director of the Center for Transformative Research on Health Behaviors. He has appointments as professor in the Department of Psychology at Virginia Tech; professor in the Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine; and Virginia Tech Faculty of Health Sciences. In recognition of his extraordinary contributions to research and scholarship achievements, Dr. Bickel recently was awarded the Virginia Tech Carilion Behavioral Health Research Endowed Professorship. He received his Ph.D. in developmental and child psychology from the University of Kansas and completed post doctoral training at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. Dr. Bickel then joined the faculty at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine where he taught and led a research program. He next relocated to the University of Vermont where he became a Professor in the Departments of Psychiatry and Psychology and Interim-Chair of the Department of Psychiatry. While in Vermont, he contributed to the public debate about treating opioid-dependent individuals and was the Founding Director of the first methadone treatment program in the State of Vermont. Dr. Bickel’s next appointment was at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS). While at UAMS, he held the Wilbur D. Mills Chair of Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Prevention and was the Director of the Center for Addiction Research. He also served as Director of the College of Public Health’s Center for the Study of Tobacco Addiction and was the Associate Director of the Psychiatric Research Institute. Dr. Bickel is an accomplished scholar and researcher whose accolades include being named a 2014 Fellow in the Academy of Behavioral Medicine Research; the 2012 Brady-Schuster Award for Outstanding Behavioral Science Research in Psychopharmacology and Substance Abuse, Division 28 of the American Psychological Association (APA); and the 2011 APA International Don Hake Translational Research Distinguished Contributions to Basic Research Award. In 2012, he was selected by the APA Science Directorate and Board of Scientific Affairs as a Distinguished Scientist Lecturer. Dr. Bickel was honored to be the recipient of the 2016 Nathan B. Eddy Award from the College on Problems of Drug Dependence. Additionally, he has received an NIH MERIT Award from NIDA and NIH has funded Dr. Bickel’s work continuously since 1987. He has served as President of CPDD, President of APA Division 28 - Psychopharmacology and Substance Abuse, and President of APA Division 50 - Society of Addiction Psychology. Dr. Bickel was Editor of the journal, Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, has co-edited five books, and has published over 340 papers and chapters. Dr. Bickel’s work frequently is cited and receives national and international recognition.
Abstract: Reinforcer pathology, a recent development in the field of behavioral economics, specifies that (1) reinforcers are integrated over time, (2) that length of the window of integration can vary, and, in turn, (3) alter the valuation of different reinforcers. Short temporal windows of integration will tend to increase the value of intense, reliable and brief reinforcers such as drugs while leading to a decline in the value of reinforcers that are less intense, variable and accrue value over longer time frames such as prosocial reinforcers. Conversely, long temporal windows of integration should result in a reversal in the valuation of drug and prosocial reinforcers. Importantly, reinforcer pathology provides an understanding of the "anhedonia" that often occurs in the development of addiction and suggests a novel approach to treatment; namely, to increase the length of the temporal integration window. In this presentation, this model and data supporting it will be reviewed.
 
Self-Sustaining Treatments for Drug Addiction and Incubation of Craving Leading to Relapse
MARILYN CARROLL (University of Minnesota)
Dr. Marilyn Carroll received her BS in Psychology and BA in Pre-Law from Penn State University in 1968. After working in Washington DC for 3 years on government research projects with the Office of Economic Opportunity, she completed her Ph.D. in Psychobiology and Neuroscience from Florida State University from 1971–75 with Dr. James C. Smith as her mentor on a T32 Psychobiology training fellowship. From 1975–76 she taught Psychology and Statistics courses at Macalester College in St. Paul, and from 1976–1980 she conducted postdoctoral research at the University of Minnesota with Dr. Richard A. Meisch under a T31 training fellowship from NIDA on animal models of addiction using rats and rhesus monkeys. She continued on in the Psychiatry Department in Minnesota in 1980 as an Assistant Professor, Associate Professor, and since 1993 has been Professor in Psychiatry and Neuroscience, and adjunct Professor in Psychology. Dr. Carroll’s research interests have been focused on biological factors in drug addiction (Sex and hormonal, impulsivity, sweet preference, and stress) and behavioral economic factors. Currently she focuses on treatments for addiction that are sex-specific, sensitive to hormonal influences, novel, environmentally enriching, self-sustaining over long periods that cover craving during abstinence (e.g., exercise, vaccines), target underlying behaviors (anxiety, impulsivity), and combination therapies.
Abstract: The goal of my research is to model various forms of human drug addiction in animals, taking into account factors that increase or decrease addiction potential and severity such as sex, hormonal factors, impulsivity, sweet preference, and other genetic factors. My students, colleagues, and I have also developed self-sustaining treatments to reduce or eliminate incubation of craving and subsequent drug-seeking over long periods of time. My research has been involved in the development of novel methods of modeling drug addiction in rats and nonhuman primates, with self-administration of opioids, stimulants, alcohol, and with several routes of self-administration used by humans, such as intravenous, drinking (oral), and smoking. Behavioral economic methods and analyses of demand for drug self-administration and behavioral patterns have been compared in humans and nonhuman animals to better understand factors that increase and treatments that reduce demand for drugs. Recent work has focused on self-motivated novel treatments for drug addiction such offering concurrent, nondrug rewards like physical exercise that reduce initiation, acceleration of drug use, and prevent relapse. Self-motivated alternative behaviors, such as physical exercise, also reduce long-term drug craving. That is important because animal models indicate that craving continues for months after standard treatments end. Current studies are also extending these findings to prevention models and to models of binge eating and food addiction in animals.
 
Target Audience:

Board certified behavior analysts; licensed psychologists; graduate students.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants with be able to: (1) describe two procedures used in basic research to demonstrate the role of genetics in behavior; (2) explain the difference between a genotype, phenotype, and endophenotype; (3) discuss the data indicating that an individual�s level of delay discounting can be classified as an endophenotype; (4) describe behavioral procedures to assess alcohol-related phenotypes in mice; (5) assess the genetic-basis of the relationship between delay discounting and the potential for alcohol abuse.
 
 
Invited Paper Session #4
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/NASP/AAHCPAD/NAADAC
Contingency Management for Drug Problems
Monday, November 19, 2018
3:30 PM–6:00 PM
Independence Hall A
Domain: Service Delivery
Instruction Level: Basic
CE Instructor: Mark Galizio, Ph.D.
Chair: Mark Galizio (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Discussant: Maxine Stitzer (Behavioral Pharmacology Research Unit)
 

An Overview of Contingency Management Interventions in Substance Abuse Treatment: With Whom is it Effective and Where is it Applied?

CARLA J. RASH (UConn Health)
Carla Rash earned a Ph.D. in clinical psychology from Louisiana State University in 2007. She is currently an assistant professor in the Department of Medicine at UConn Health. Her research interests focus on extending and evaluating addictions treatments, including contingency management interventions, in underserved and health disparity populations. Her work is funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, and by a career development award from the Connecticut Institute for Clinical and Translational Science.
Abstract:

Contingency management (CM) interventions are efficacious options for substance abuse treatments, but they are rarely implemented in clinical, non-research settings. In this presentation, we briefly review the evidence support for CM and introduce prize-based CM. We will highlight work that supports CM’s generalizability across diverse patient characteristics and settings. We will conclude with a discussion of potential implementation barriers and examples of real-world implementation efforts.

 

Contingency Management in the 21st Century: Technology and the Future

JESSE DALLERY (University of Florida)
Jesse is a Professor in the Department of Psychology at the University of Florida, a Licensed Psychologist in the state of Florida, and Deputy Director of the Treatment Development and Implementation Core at the Center for Technology and Behavioral Health at Dartmouth. Jesse received his Ph.D. in Clinical Psychology at Emory University, and completed a postdoctoral fellowship at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Behavioral Pharmacology. Jesse’s research focuses on integrating information technologies with behavioral interventions for cigarette smoking and other health-related behavior (e.g., physical activity, medication adherence). Jesse also conducts translational research on choice and decision making in the human laboratory, with a special emphasis on quantitative models of operant behavior. He has published over eighty articles in a diverse range of peer-reviewed journals, and he has received grant support from the National Institutes of Health and from the National Science Foundation. He is co-editor of the book Behavioral Health Care and Technology: Using Science-Based Innovations to Transform Practice. Jesse is a former Associate Editor for The Behavior Analyst and Behavioural Processes, and Special Topics Associate Editor (substance abuse) for the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. In 2014, Dr. Dallery was named a Teacher of the Year in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences.
Abstract:

Contingency management is one of the most efficacious interventions to promote drug abstinence. Traditionally, contingency management has been delivered in person so that clinicians can confirm drug abstinence and provide access to additional therapeutic services. Now, new technologies not only permit remote confirmation of abstinence, but also remote delivery of incentives. I will discuss several technology-based tools to assess substance use, and new ways to deliver contingency management to promote tobacco and alcohol abstinence. These new tools have the potential to dramatically increase access while maintaining high levels of treatment fidelity. They also allow new ways of arranging contingencies that harness natural, online communities and consequences. Overall, there are unprecedented opportunities to link technology with contingency management to promote drug abstinence.

 
Target Audience:

Board certified behavior analysts; licensed psychologists; graduate students.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) summarize the efficacy literature related to CM interventions for the treatment of substance use disorders; (2) describe the populations and settings appropriate for CM interventions; (3) list potential barriers to dissemination; (4) describe real-world implementation efforts; (5) describe how sensors can be used to obtain objective evidence of at least two different drugs of abuse; (6) describe how information technology can be used to deliver immediate incentives for abstinence; (7) describe how social networks have been used to promote smoking cessation using information technology.
 
 
Poster Session #5
Poster Session
Monday, November 19, 2018
8:00 PM–10:00 PM
Independence Hall B-E
 
1.

Variability as a Determinant of Food and Cocaine Choice in Rhesus Monkeys

Domain: Basic Research
SALLY L. HUSKINSON (University of Mississippi Medical Center), James K. Rowlett (University of Mississippi Medical Center; Tulane National Primate Research Center), Kevin B. Freeman (University of Mississippi Medical Center)
Abstract:

Relative to nondrug reinforcers, illicit drugs may be variable in terms of their availability, quality, price, and time and effort to obtain. Thus, variability may be an important aspect that differs for illicit drugs relative to nondrug alternatives. Given our knowledge that (in the laboratory) reinforcers available under variable schedules tend to be chosen over reinforcers available under fixed schedules, variable access to illicit drugs like cocaine (in the natural environment) may more effectively compete with more predictable, nondrug alternatives. Conversely, cocaine choice may be more effectively reduced by making nondrug reinforcers available under variable schedules. In the current study, male and female rhesus monkeys chose between fixed and variable schedules of cocaine or food. In control conditions, both schedules were a fixed-ratio (FR) 50 or 100. In test conditions, the schedule of cocaine or food delivery was a mixed-ratio (MR) 50 or 100 on one lever and an FR 50 or 100 on the opposite lever. At sufficiently large values, choice of cocaine or food under an MR schedule was greater than choice of the same reinforcer under an FR schedule. However, there were individual differences in the degree to which the MR schedule was chosen across different schedule values. These findings suggest that unpredictable availability could contribute to excessive allocation of behavior toward procuring illicit drugs at the expense of more predictable, nondrug alternatives. Conversely, unpredictable delivery of nondrug reinforcers may more effectively decrease cocaine choice, which could inform modifications to therapies like prize-based contingency management.

 
2. Reinforcing Effects of Benzodiazepines and Neuroactive Steroids Alone and in Combination: A Behavioral Economic Analysis
Domain: Basic Research
MEAGAN ELIZABETH FOLLETT (University Of Mississippi Medical Center), James K. Rowlett (University of Mississippi Medical Center ; 2. Tulane National Primate Research Center)
Abstract: Neuroactive steroids and benzodiazepines share behavioral effects, such as reinforcing properties, which may be modulated differentially when these drugs are combined. Under a progressive-ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement, combinations of the short-acting benzodiazepine, triazolam, and neuroactive steroid, pregnanolone, resulted in infra-additive reinforcing effects in male rhesus monkeys. We are currently evaluating if results from these PR studies generalize to a behavioral economic evaluation where we would expect the drug combination to be more elastic (e.g., proportional decreases in consumption are large relative to changes in price) relative to either drug alone. For these studies, four male rhesus monkeys were trained to self-administer the benzodiazepine, midazolam under a fixed-ratio (FR) 5 (n = 1) or FR 10 (n = 3) schedule of reinforcement. Dose-response functions were then obtained under an FR 5 or 10 schedule for both triazolam (0.00003-0.003 mg/kg/injection), pregnanolone (0.003-0.3 mg/kg/injection), as well as combinations of the two drugs. All drugs functioned as reinforcers under these conditions. Relative potencies were obtained by determining the ratio of the peak doses of triazolam to pregnanolone for each subject, and a minimum of three combinations fitting that ratio were tested. For three subjects, the ratio was 1:100 triazolam to pregnanolone; for one subject, this ratio was 1:300. The peak doses from the triazolam, pregnanolone, and combination dose-response functions for each subject were then selected as the doses to be used for determining demand functions. We are currently determining demand functions for each drug and the combination by systematically increasing the FR value across sessions. For one subject, the elasticity of both triazolam (a = .00013) and pregnanolone (a = .00015) were similar to one another, whereas the combination was significantly more elastic than either drug alone (a = .00057). In other words, there were greater reductions in consumption of the combination with increases in FR value compared to the drugs alone. Demand functions are currently being obtained for the three remaining subjects in order to determine if combining triazolam and pregnanolone results in an overall decrease in essential value of the combination relative to either drug alone.
 
3.

Behavioral Pharmacology in Planarians: Phototaxis Provides a Stable Baseline for Single-Case Experimental Designs.

Domain: Basic Research
BRIANNA SARNO (Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts), Thomas P. Byrne (Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts)
Abstract:

There is a small but growing literature on the use of planarians for both pharmacological and toxicological investigations. Negative phototaxis, which is a tendency to move away from a light source, appears to be a reliable response in planarians that may have utility for measuring the behavioral effects of drugs. Recently, we have investigated the effects of ethanol, caffeine, and sodium chloride in planarians crossing a petri dish from a lighted to a darkened side. We describe a modified multiple-baseline design for documenting dose-dependent effects in individual planarians. Varying dose may be accomplished by either altering the concentration of drug in solution or by modifying the duration of exposure. Planarians have some practical advantages as a model organism. They are inexpensive to acquire and maintain and are not subject to as many welfare regulations as vertebrate models. We also describe an inexpensive though somewhat labor-intensive technique for documenting open-field activity in planarians with the use of tablet applications.

 
4.

Effects of Methylphenidate and Ketamine on an Incrementing Non-Matching to Samples Task in Rats

Domain: Basic Research
THOMAS WAGNER (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Nicole Westrick (University of North Carolina, Wilmington), Sarah Elizabeth Accattato (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Katherine Ely Bruce (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Mark Galizio (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Abstract:

Psychoactive drugs produce multiple effects that may influence their abuse liability—including alterations of learning and remembering. For example, stimulants are widely used in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, whereas drugs, such as NMDA antagonists, are believed to impair remembering. However, stimulants generally fail to enhance remembering in animals on tasks such as delayed matching to sample and NMDA antagonists generally produce non-specific impairments. It has been argued that the delayed matching task, which requires remembering a single stimulus across a delay, is limited as an animal model of more complex human remembering. The present study used an incrementing non-matching to samples procedure (INMTS) which required rats to remember up to 12 different odors during a 45 min session. Six rats were trained to make nose-poke responses to odors presented with a 15 channel olfactometer. When an odor was presented for the first time, responses were reinforced on an FI 5-s schedule, but responses were never reinforced when an odor was repeated. Rats developed high rates of responding to session-novel odors and low rates to repeated odors. Methylphenidate enhanced, and ketamine impaired, discriminative control in most rats, suggesting that the INMTS may provide a valuable procedure to study remembering.

 
5.

Effects of d-Amphetamine and Nicotine on Remembering and Motivation in Pigeons

Domain: Basic Research
ANNIE GALIZIO (Utah State University), Charles Casey Joel Frye (Utah State University), Jeremy Haynes (Utah State University), Jonathan E. Friedel (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health), Amy Odum (Utah State University)
Abstract:

Humans frequently report the use of certain stimulant drugs for general cognitive enhancement. For example, college students sometimes use d-amphetamine and other ADHD medication to perform on exams, and many adult smokers report that nicotine improves everyday cognitive performance. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of these drugs on specific aspects of behavior, remembering and motivation, in an animal model. In Experiment 1, pigeons responded in a titrating delayed matching-to-sample (TDMTS) task. In this task, a DMTS procedure was in place, but the delay between the presentation of the sample stimulus and the comparison stimuli was titrated based on the pigeon’s performance on the task; i.e., correct responses resulted in an increase in delay and incorrect responses resulted in a decrease. In Experiment 2, pigeons responded according to a progressive ratio schedule. In this task, the fixed-ratio (FR) requirement was increased after each food delivery (e.g., FR1, FR2, FR3, etc.). There were no systematic effects of d-amphetamine or nicotine on remembering or motivation at doses that did not produce psychomotor impairment.

 
6.

The Effect of Alcohol on the Ability to Pour a Standard Drink of Beer

Domain: Basic Research
NICOLE SCHULTZ (Auburn University), Emily Junkin (Auburn University), Christopher J. Correia (Auburn University)
Abstract:

Assessing variables that affect behavioral skills training aimed at reducing alcohol-related risk is important to inform prevention and intervention efforts. Participants trained to pour a standard drink of beer received a dose of alcohol or a placebo dose and completed two additional free-pours along the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) curve. Data collected to date (n = 2; both experimental condition) suggest that participants were able to pour a standard drink of beer within the 10% training criteria range after a stimulus fading training procedure (M = 10.91, SD = 0.27). After receiving a dose of alcohol (Mean BrAC = .085), free-pours remained as accurate (M = 11.0, SD = 0.35) as training pours on the ascending limb of the BAC curve, and as well as on the descending limb (M = 11.0, SD = 0.17) of the BAC curve. These preliminary data suggest that free-pouring a standard drink of beer is a trainable skill that persists despite a moderate dose of alcohol. However, additional data are necessary to support these conclusions.

 
7.

Examining ADHD Symptoms and Puff Preferences in Nonusers, Smokers, Electronic Cigarette Users, and Dual Users

Domain: Applied Research
HALEIGH WINBOURNE (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Sydney Batchelder (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Wendy Donlin Washington (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Abstract:

Twenty-one percent of adult smokers have tried an electronic cigarette (e-cig). Those with ADHD are more likely to try and become dependent on traditional cigarettes. We investigated whether this relationship also occurs with e-cig use (vaping). Three hundred participants completed a survey on nicotine use, ADHD, nicotine dependence, and motivation to quit. Participants chose between hypothetical money ($0.01-$5.12) and puffs from either a cigarette or e-cig. Most (66%) believed that vaping is safer than smoking, but more e-cigarette users (83.7%) endorsed this belief. Men (60%) more likely to have tried an e-cig than women (44%). Women (63%) were more likely to be current nonsmokers than men (44%). More dual users (M=2.79, SD=1.50) met ADHD criteria than cigarette-only smokers (M=1.75, SD=1.73). Cigarette smokers were more likely to have higher dependence than dual users. Dual users had higher dependence on e-cigarettes than cigarettes. Cigarette users (M=2.03, SD=2.04) valued cigarette puffs more than dual users (M=.90, SD=1.37).

 
8. Modeling the Effects of Stress on Vaping Lapse Behavior
Domain: Applied Research
IRENE PERICOT-VALVERDE (University of Vermont), Morgan Tromblee (University of Vermont), Valeria Diaz (University of Vermont), Riley Nesheim-Case (University of Vermont), Thomas Gallagher (University of Vermont), Ethan Rogers (University of Vermont), Diann Gaalema (University of Vermont), Stephen T. Higgins (University of Vermont)
Abstract: Aims: The main objective of this study was to examine the effects of an acute psychological stress in vaping lapse behavior. A secondary aim was to explore changes in craving and stress. Methods: Participants were 25 e-cigarette users using on average 3.9 ml per day of e-liquid containing nicotine. Participants attended two laboratory sessions under acute abstinence in which they were exposed to the Trier Social Stress Test or a non-stress control condition. Subsequently, they were engaged in a two-part behavioral task modeling relapse behavior. Results: Participants chose to vape sooner and bought more uses during the choice task in response to the exposure to the acute psychological stressor compared to the control task. Results also showed that participants experienced higher levels of craving and stress after the psychological stressor compared to the control task. Conclusions: These findings evidence that stress, as with other addictive behaviors, facilitate vaping lapse. These findings also demonstrated that this task previously developed to model smoking lapse behavior is an adequate task for mimicking vaping lapse behavior, and support the use of this model to investigate lapse behavior among e-cigarette users
 
9.

The Effects of Episodic Future Thinking on Cigarette Purchasing in the Experimental Tobacco Marketplace

Domain: Basic Research
WILLIAM DEHART (Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute), Lexie Mellis (Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute), Liqa Athamneh (Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute), Warren K. Bickel (Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute and Department of Psychology, Virginia Tech)
Abstract:

The temporal window over which reinforcers are integrated is a principle contributor to the acquisition and maintenance of maladaptive behaviors. A short temporal window is characterized by a reinforcer pathology or choosing overvalued and immediate, maladaptive reinforcers over delayed, prosocial reinforcers. One recently developed method for intervening on reinforcer pathology is Episodic Future Thinking (EFT). In EFT, individuals are asked to create cues of future events that aim to expand their temporal window. 160 cigarette smokers recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk generated a series of future-focused (EFT) cues or cues related to recent events that were then displayed as the participant completed a cigarette purchase task, a monetary delay-discounting task, and the Experimental Tobacco Marketplace (ETM). In the ETM, participants were given a budget based on their 5-day tobacco product consumption and then allowed to purchase a variety of hypothetical nicotine products. Across trials, the price of conventional cigarettes increased while the prices of the alternative nicotine products remained constant. EFT was effective at reducing demand for cigarettes and in some conditions, increasing the substitutability of electronic cigarettes. EFT also reduced delay discounting. We conclude that EFT is effective at increasing the temporal window and intervening on reinforcer pathologies.

 
10.

Discounting, Stress, and Risk for Cardiovascular Disease Among African Americans Living in Poor Urban Neighborhoods

Domain: Applied Research
CARISSA VAN DEN BERK-CLARK (Saint Louis University School of Medicine), Leonard Green (Washington University), Joel Myerson (Washington University), Richard Grucza (Washington University)
Abstract:

African Americans are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease include high body mass index (BMI) and smoking. Studies show associations between discounting, BMI, and smoking in primarily Caucasian populations. Meanwhile, there are inconsistent findings related to discounting and stress. Our objective is to determine whether: (1) stressors lead to steeper discounting of delayed gains in African Americans; (2) stressors lead to higher BMI and smoking; (3) delay discounting mediates the relation between stressors, smoking, and BMI. The Life Stressor Checklist was used to determine stress levels among African Americans living in high poverty neighborhoods. Structural Equation Models were used to assess potential pathways in two different models. Preliminary results revealed four main pathways. First, higher numbers of life stressors lead to steeper discounting (ß=-0.02, z=-4.79, 95%CI -0.03, -0.01), higher smoking (ß=0.06, z=9.22, 95%CI 0.05, 0.08), but lower BMI (ß=-0.27, z=-2.46, 95%CI -0.48, -0.05). Steeper discounting, in turn, leads to smoking (ß =-0.23, z=-3.36, p<.001), but not higher BMI. Discounting of delayed gains appears to be a more important predictor of smoking than BMI in African Americans.

 
11.

Use of a Hypothetical Drug Purchase Task to Measure the Reinforcing Functions of Prescription Stimulants Among College Students

Domain: Applied Research
MATTHEW J DWYER (Rowan University), Jovanna Beardsworth (Rowan University), Alicia Burke (Rowan University), Connor Andrew Burrows (Rowan University), Claudia Drossel (Eastern Michigan University), Kimberly C. Kirby (Rowan University; Treatment Research Institute at Philadelphia Health Management Corporation)
Abstract:

The non-medical use of prescription stimulants (NMUPS), such as Ritalin and Adderall, is a rising trend in America, particularly among college students. Survey research has identified reasons students are engaging in NMUPS that may be useful in understanding the different reinforcing functions of stimulants, but no research has examined if reinforcing efficacy differs by function. Behavioral economic demand curve analysis may allow us to quantify reinforcer efficacy and see if it changes according to its function. To test this, we developed a measure that asks participants to rank eight stimulant-like drug effects and complete separate hypothetical purchase tasks (HPT) to examine if demand (quantity of drug consumed at a given price) varies based on preference. Initial results indicate that certain stimulant-like drug effects were consistently ranked higher than others, supporting the hypothesis that there are multiple reinforcing functions for NMPSU. Pilot demand curve analysis also found differential performance on the HPT based on ranked order, providing preliminary support that rank-ordered preference produces quantifiable demand differences. These initial results support the ability to measure reinforcer efficacy by different reinforcer functions and allow us to continue using this approach to measure abuse liability in experienced users and, in future studies, non-users.

 
12.

Behavioral Economic Measurement of Cigarette Demand: A Systematic Review of the Cigarette Purchase Task

Domain: Basic Research
ALLYSON R SALZER (The University of Kansas), Gideon Naude (The University of Kansas), Brett Gelino (The University of Kansas), Brent Kaplan (Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute), Tyler Nighbor (University of Vermont), Derek D. Reed (The University of Kansas), Stephen T. Higgins (University of Vermont)
Abstract:

The Cigarette Purchase Task (CPT) is a behavioral economic method for simulating demand for cigarettes. Growing interest in behavioral correlates of tobacco use in clinical and general populations, as well as empirical efforts to inform policy, have seen an increase in published articles employing the CPT. Accordingly, an examination of the published methods and procedures for obtaining these behavioral economic metrics is timely. The purpose of this investigation was to provide a review of published approaches to using the CPT. We identified 38 empirical articles published through the year 2017 that reported administering a CPT. Articles were coded for participant characteristics (e.g., sample size, population type, age), CPT task structure (e.g., price framing, number and sequence of prices; vignettes, contextual factors), and data analytic approach (e.g., method of generating indices of cigarette demand). Results of this review indicate no standard approach to administering the CPT and bring to bear the need for replicability of these behavioral economic measures for the purpose of guiding clinical and policy decisions.

 
13. Discounting Tasks as Psychological Tests: Smoking in Low-Income, Urban African Americans
Domain: Basic Research
CARISSA VAN DEN BERK-CLARK (Saint Louis University School of Medicine), Lynn Zhao (Washington University School of Social Work), Joel Myerson (Washington University), Leonard Green (Washington University), Richard Grucza (Washington University)
Abstract: Although substance use/abuse is a problem in low-income communities and reliably linked to discounting, only one study of the relation between substance use/abuse and discounting has focused on low-income African Americans (Myerson et al., 2015). Moreover, although abused substances often result in delayed losses as well as immediate gains, studies of decision-making involving the latter vastly outnumber studies of the former. We assessed discounting of delayed gains and losses as well as probabilistic gains in a large sample of low-income, urban African Americans originally recruited for a study of the genetics of alcoholism. With participants dependent on other substances (e.g., alcohol) removed, smokers (N=77) showed significantly steeper discounting of delayed outcomes and significantly shallower discounting of probabilistic ones than nonsmokers (N=219). Point-biserial correlations of smoking and the three discounting measures (AuCs) were all weak (.11<|r|<.16) although in the expected directions (negative for delayed outcomes, positive for probabilistic ones) and significant or at the trend level (ps<.054). However, logistic regression revealed that discounting failed to identify most smokers, and extensive overlap of smokers and nonsmokers was responsible for the observed pattern of results (Fig.1). These findings highlight the need to look deeper than statistical significance, particularly when application is the goal.
 
14.

A Reinforcement Pathology Model of Ultraviolet Indoor Tanning

Domain: Basic Research
RACHEL NICOLE SOBOL FOSTER (University of Kansas, Applied Behavioral Economics Laboratory), Brent Kaplan (Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute), Warren K. Bickel (Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute and Department of Psychology, Virginia Tech), Derek D. Reed (The University of Kansas)
Abstract:

Ultraviolet indoor tanning (UVIT) is ubiquitous in American youth, and is associated with skin cancer, as well as other risky health decisions such as drug and alcohol use. Given that researchers have begun discussing indoor tanning as a reinforcement pathology and behavioral addiction, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between demand and discounting within UVIT users. Undergraduates (N= 93) completed a hypothetical purchase task noting how many times they would pay to use an indoor tanning bed in the span of a month at prices ranging from $0.00-$150.00 per use. Participants also completed a discounting task framed in terms of a probabilistic health gain: how likely they are to stop engaging in a hobby that would permanently increase their chances of being alive and cancer-free by various probabilities (ranging from 5% to 95%) in 30 years. Hyperbolic discounting rates indicate that participants with a higher breakpoint for UVIT discounted health gains (cancer risk reduction) significantly more than participants with lower breakpoints for tanning demand (p< 0.0001; α= 0.05). Additional analyses explore the interaction between general health demographics and tanning demographics to identify specific predictor variables of risky health decisions with known cancer risks.

 
15.

A Behavioral Economic Analysis Towards Cue-Elicited Exposure on Gambling Cravings

Domain: Basic Research
MARY GRACE CAVALIERE (Saint Louis University), Tyler S Glassford (Saint Louis University), Alyssa N. Wilson (Saint Louis University)
Abstract:

Purchase tasks are a technology commonly used to assess demand and relative reinforcer efficacy for addictive substances and activities (e.g., UV indoor tanning, alcohol, etc.). Past research explored the effects of exposure to cues for other addictions; there remains little evidence related to gambling. The purpose of the present study is to assess the effects of cue-elicited exposure across multiple gambling dimensions (i.e. cover charge, wager, and chip price). Recreational and at-risk gamblers were recruited for this study and asked to complete the Gambling Purchase Task in two environments, neutral then gambling. In the neutral environment, participants were asked to read a magazine of their choice in an office setting before completing the purchase task. In the gambling environment, participants were asked to play a preferred game in a replica casino setting; participants could earn raffle tickets based on earnings. Results to date demonstrate that participants had greater inelastic demand and maximum expenditure in the gambling environment for cover charge and credit price over the neutral environment. These findings suggest gamblers are less responsive to change in price and bet riskier when exposed to gambling cues; findings replicate past research regarding the effects of cues on demand for addictive behaviors.

 
16.

Risky Business: Increasing Risky Betting through Rule-Governed Behavior

Domain: Basic Research
VANSHIKA GUPTA (Saint Louis University), Tyler S Glassford (Saint Louis University), Alyssa N. Wilson (Saint Louis University), Emily Dzugan (Saint Louis University ), Shelby Bates (Saint Louis University)
Abstract:

Since past research on gambling behavior has mostly focused on rule following, the purpose of the present study was to (a) replicate the findings of Dixon (2000) and (b) extend the methods to risky choice making. Four participants, were exposed to an electronic Blackjack game that was operating on random reinforcement schedule and different rules throughout the study in a multiple baseline design. Participants were exposed to three conditions in the specified order- no rule (baseline), faulty rule, and correct rule. The baseline condition involved no rules for each participant, followed by a faulty rule condition wherein participants were exposed to the rule that let it ride bets increased the odds of winning. Following that, participants were then exposed to a correct rule condition under which they exposed to the rule that let it ride bets did not increase odds of winning and were in fact riskier wagers. Participants showed significant increases in risky betting during the faulty rules condition, and three participants decreased risky betting following the presentation of the correct rule. Therefore, rules impact the play of gamblers, and the effect of a rule on play can be weakened through contradictory rules.

 
17.

Evidence on the Association Between Age of Onset of Gambling and Gambling Severity

Domain: Applied Research
TYLER S GLASSFORD (Saint Louis University), Alyssa N. Wilson (Saint Louis University)
Abstract:

Early onset of gambling and alcohol use have been linked to development of later gambling problems, however the combined effect of the two has yet to be assessed. The present study included data from 2,417 respondents that took part in the Gambling Impact Behavior Study (GIBS; 1997-1999). The primary dependent variable was gambling severity, a scale created using questions from the GIBS that closely related to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual 5 diagnostic criteria. Two models were tested, a multinomial logistic regression and to achieve more stable estimates a logistic regression were fitted to the data to determine how the association between age of onset and gambling severity is moderated by alcohol and substance use. The models also controlled for gender, region, race, family income, and age. The results of the analysis demonstrated that by themselves early age of onset and alcohol use are risk factors for being at-risk or for developing greater symptoms of gambling disorder. These findings suggest that the effect of age of onset is moderated by alcohol use. These findings are significant in that they are nationally representative and can generalize to the population, as opposed to past studies that have used clinical samples.

 
18.

High Machine Balances Increase Subsequent Preference for a Particular Slot Machine

Domain: Applied Research
ANNE C. MACASKILL (Victoria University of Wellington), Lydia Chapman (Victoria University of Wellington), Lorance Taylor (Victoria University of Wellington), Maree J. Hunt (Victoria University of Wellington)
Abstract:

Gamblers place larger bets when money has recently been added to balance they have available to wager (i.e., the "house money effect"). We replicated this effect in a simulated-slot-machine task: participants wagered more money on a machine with a higher balance. We also investigated whether higher machine balances affected preference. In an initial exposure phase, participants played on each of two machines. In a second, preference test phase, participants could switch between the two machines. Participants allocated more spins to a machine which had had a higher balance during the exposure phase, even though this was unrelated to the current machine balance or pay-off. The effect of balance was present even when, in a second experiment, machines also varied in whether they offered a free-spins feature: which previous research has found strongly drives machine preference. This provides initial evidence that capping machine balances might be a useful component of gambling-harm-reduction interventions.

 
20.

A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Effectiveness of Mobile Telephone-Delivered Contingency Management Interventions Promoting Behaviour Change in Individuals With Substance use Disorders

Domain: Service Delivery
CAROL-ANN GETTY (King's College London), Nicola Metrebian (King's College London), Michael Lynskey (King's College London)
Abstract:

Aim: Contingency management (CM) interventions have gained considerable interest due to their success in the treatment of addiction. However they require frequent monitoring of behaviour change and differential delivery of incentives making their implementation resource intensive and burdensome for clinical staff. Telephone-based systems offer a low-cost alternative, allowing greater accessibility to services; remote therapeutic contact and monitoring of behaviour; minimise issues of staffing and resources; and allow for services to stay in contact with patients over a longer period to support recovery. This review aimed to assess the effectiveness of telephone-delivered CM to promote abstinence and treatment adherence among individuals receiving substance use treatment, from studies using randomised controlled trial design. Participants: 18years+, in treatment for substance use disorder (opiates, stimulants and alcohol), receiving telephone-delivered CM or treatment as usual. Methods: Selected databases were systematically searched (from 1995 to Present) using inclusion/exclusion criteria. Data Analysis: A systematic review of findings will be undertaken and if appropriate, a meta-analysis will be performed. Results/Conclusions: 1303 records were identified with 61 retained after initial screening to be investigated as full text. The review will examine what behaviours have been successfully targeted using telephone-delivered CM (abstinence, adherence) and effectiveness across different types of substances.

 
21.

Employment Based Abstinence Reinforcement Improves Key Behavioral Outcomes in Women Arrested for Prostitution

Domain: Applied Research
DAVID WILLIAM SOTTILE (Western Michigan University), Anthony DeFulio (Western Michigan University), Kenneth Silverman (Johns Hopkins University)
Abstract:

The traditional criminal justice response to prostitution and drug crime is expensive and ineffective. Behaviorally based drug abuse treatments such as the therapeutic workplace may help improve outcomes if incorporated into diversion to treatment strategies in the context of criminal justice. In the therapeutic workplace people with problem drug use can work and earn wages contingent on provision of drug free urine samples. The purpose of this study was to assess the therapeutic workplace as a means of increasing drug abstinence and decreasing HIV risk behaviors in women arrested for prostitution. Participants (N=38) were opiate dependent adults arrested for prostitution whose cases were being processed in early resolution court. All participants were either enrolled in methadone or buprenorphine treatment prior to enrolling in this study. Participants were randomly assigned to usual care or usual care plus the therapeutic workplace. Drug abstinence contingencies were implemented in four steps (No drug abstinence contingencies, cocaine abstinence, cocaine and opiate abstinence, cocaine, opiate, marijuana, and amphetamine abstinence). Results show that the opiate abstinence contingency increased opiate abstinence in opiate-dependent adults charged with prostitution. Results also show that the intervention decreased the frequency of HIV risk behaviors in the therapeutic workplace group.

 
22.

Efficacy of a Smoking Cessation Treatment for Diabetics

Domain: Applied Research
DANIEL PECH PUEBLA (Facultad de Estudios Superiores Iztacala, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico), Jennifer Lira Mandujano Mandujano (Facultad de Estudios Superiores Iztacala, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico), Sara E. Cruz-Morales (Facultad de Estudios Superiores Iztacala, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico)
Abstract:

Diabetes Mellitus (DM) represents a serious health problem around the world. It is known that one of the factors associated with the onset of DM is tobacco consumption, and those who have DM and smoke have bigger risk of developing health consequences. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact on the number of daily smoked cigarettes of a smoking cessation treatment for people with DM. For this, a baseline assessment (BL), four treatment sessions (S1-S4), a post-treatment evaluation and two follow-ups were carried out in people with DM who want to quit smoking. Because this is a study that is not finished, preliminary data from 4 participants (P1-P4) are presented. P2 smoked an average of 24.23 cigarettes a day in BL, 19.14 in S1, 16 in S2, 13.71 in S3 and 5.33 in S4, while P4 smoked 43.8 cigarettes a day in BL, 43 in S1, 19.5 in S2 and 15 in S3. This preliminary data shows important reduction of daily cigarettes smoked when using this treatment. With this information and with all data that will be obtained at the end of this study, there will be enough evidence of the efficacy of this smoking cessation treatment for people with DM, treatment that can be used as a standard for this type of population and can help to reduce important health consequences that occurs when diabetics smoke.

 
23. A Long-Term Treatment for Drug Addiction and Unemployment: Interim Results
Domain: Applied Research
AUGUST F. HOLTYN (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Shrinidhi Subramaniam (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Kenneth Silverman (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
Abstract: The Therapeutic Workplace is an employment-based intervention for unemployed adults with substance use disorders. Under this intervention, substance abuse patients are hired and paid to work. To promote abstinence, employment-based reinforcement is arranged in which participants must provide evidence of recent drug abstinence to maintain maximum pay. Initially (Phase 1) participants engage in stipend-supported training. Abstinent and skilled participants are then hired (Phase 2) to perform jobs. In an ongoing trial, unemployed opioid-dependent adults are invited to Phase 1 of the therapeutic workplace for 3 months to initiate drug abstinence and establish job skills. Then, participants are randomly assigned to an IPS-Only group or an IPS-Plus Abstinence-Contingent Wage Supplements group for 1 year. Participants in both groups are offered Individual Placement and Support (IPS) supported employment and access to an employment specialist. To promote competitive employment and prevent relapse to drug use, participants in the IPS-Plus Abstinence-Contingent Wage Supplements group receive abstinence-contingent wage supplements if they obtain and maintain employment. We will present interim results related to drug abstinence, engagement in job-seeking activities, and employment from Phases 1 and 2 of this ongoing trial.
 
24.

A Social Support Training Intervention for Smoking Cessation

Domain: Applied Research
CONNOR ANDREW BURROWS (Rowan University), Kimberly C. Kirby (Rowan University), Jessica Nastasi (Rowan University), Matthew J Dwyer (Rowan University), Bethany R. Raiff (Rowan University)
Abstract:

Although contingency management (CM) interventions for smoking cessation can initiate abstinence, relapse is the most likely outcome, as with all smoking cessation interventions. A primary public health goal is to develop and test more effective techniques for initiating and maintaining smoking abstinence. This study sought to co-opt preexisting social support networks to provide continued reinforcement for abstinence through social support (SS) skills training sessions. Participants (N = 12) were consented and randomized into 3 groups: CM alone (n = 6; M_age = 42, SD_age = 10.6), CM plus SS (CM+SS) training (n = 3; M_age = 29, SD_age = 19.8), or TAU (n = 3; M_age = 34.7, SD_age = 13.4). Retention rates were 83%, 0%, and 33% respectively. Attrition was particularly high among individuals assigned to CM+SS and TAU. Participants recruited into the CM alone condition were generally successful, with three participants reducing cigarette use during treatment. A general pattern of non-adherence was observed among the remaining participants. The presented methodological changes seek to address concerns related to attrition and recruitment. The proposed intervention reorients the focus of treatment towards non-smoker skills training in order to promote treatment entry and the utilization of evidence-based interventions via Community Reinforcement and Family Therapy Treatment Entry Training.

 
25.

Familiarity, Knowledge, and Barriers to Long-Acting Reversible Contraceptives Among Opioid-Maintained Women

Domain: Applied Research
CATALINA REY (University of Vermont), Heidi Melbostad (University of Vermont), Stacey C. Sigmon (University of Vermont), Lauren Macafee (University of Vermont), Anne Dougherty (University of Vermont), Sarah Heil (University of Vermont)
Abstract:

Nearly 80% of pregnancies among women with opioid use disorder (OUD) are unintended. Long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARC), namely intrauterine devices (IUDs) and implants, are the most effective reversible forms of contraception because they are user-independent. Nevertheless, only ~30% of women in opioid agonist treatment (OAT) for OUD report they are likely to use LARC. Women in OAT for OUD (N=200) completed a survey assessing familiarity with and perceived knowledge about LARC, T/F questions testing actual LARC knowledge, and reasons that may have prevented LARC initiation. Results indicate only 41% have heard of LARC. While 73% reported “little” or “no” knowledge about LARC, women answered 50% of knowledge items correctly. Of the 121 women who have never used an IUD, and 169 women who have never used an implant, 46 (38%) and 48 (28%), respectively, reported that they have thought about using the method but decided not to. The top two reasons for deciding against either method were concerns about side effects and preferring a “controllable” method. Results suggest women have moderate knowledge about LARC methods. Consistent with other reports, concerns about side effects were common. Concerns about controllability of the method, however, are more unique and should be explored further.

 
26.

Brief Intervention for the Attention of the Harmful use of Alcohol: 20 Years in Mexico

Domain: Applied Research
CESAR CARRASCOZA (FACULTAD DE ESTUDIOS SUPERIORES, IZTACALA. UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE MEXICO), Leticia San Vicente Echeverria (FACULTAD PSICOLOGÍA, Universidad Nacional de México)
Abstract:

Alcohol is the most commonly used psychoactive substance in the world. (CICAD, 2015). In Mexico, excessive consumption trends in the last survey (ENCODAT 2016-2017) went from 28% to 33.6%. The objective of this work is to review the results of research conducted in Mexico during several years, applying an intervention for excessive consumers of alcohol. It is a brief motivational, cognitive-behavioral intervention that uses self-control procedures, functional analysis of drinking behavior, identification of risk situations and development of coping strategies. We present the results of follow-ups at 6 and/or 12 months found in research carried out over these years (see Table 1), with statistically significant changes by reducing the amount consumed, maintaining them through follow-ups, reducing the problems associated with this form of consumption and the increase in the self-efficacy of users to control episodes of loss of control. DISCUSSION The process of dissemination in spaces of the health sector, the barriers and the importance of disseminate the benefits of IB in countries with limited resources such as Mexico are discussed, as they are low cost options and the possibility to address a public health problem.

 
27.

Clinical Procedures and Treatment Conclusion in Clients with Substance Abuse Problems

Domain: Applied Research
VIOLETA FÉLIX ROMERO (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico), Silvia Morales Chaine (National Autonomous University of Mexico)
Abstract:

The level at which health professionals are implementing evidence-based addiction interventions and their relation to the change in client behavior remains unknown, so it is necessary to identify which specific procedures are related to the achievement of client goals and the successful conclusion of the intervention. The objective of the study was to analyze the relationship between the level of implementation of procedures based on principles of learning with therapist under supervision and the conclusion of the intervention of the client in natural settings. 270 health professionals participated and 270 clients with alcohol and marijuana abuse levels. A direct observation system of the therapist-user interaction was used, consisting of a collated list of levels of implementation and sequential interaction record. The therapists videotaped each intervention session with their assigned clients, with the informed consent of the client and therapists and an expert supervisor recorded and gave feedback via email on the execution of the professional in the sessions. The results showed that the procedures of setting goals of consumption and alternative behavior and promotion of role playing are predictors of the successful conclusion of the client from a brief intervention. The minimum dose of implementation required to promote the conclusion of the brief intervention and the achievement of the client's goal is discussed.

 
28.

Effectiveness of a Cognitive Behavioral Smoking Cessation Intervention for College Women: Randomized Clinical Trial

Domain: Applied Research
Jennifer Lira Mandujano Mandujano (Facultad de Estudios Superiores Iztacala, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico), DANIEL PECH PUEBLA (Facultad de Estudios Superiores Iztacala, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico), Eréndira Valdez (Facultad de Estudios Superiores Iztacala, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico), Mariana Nuñez (Facultad de Estudios Superiores Iztacala, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico), Sara E. Cruz-Morales (Facultad de Estudios Superiores Iztacala, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico)
Abstract:

The tobacco use is a public health problem both in the world and in Mexico and it is associated with chronic degenerative, irreversible, disabling and deadly diseases. According to the National Survey of Addictions (2017), 17.6% of the population aged 12-65 years is active and average smoker, and states that they started the daily consumption at 20.1 years. Although there are standardized smoking cessation interventions and research in Mexico which have proved their effectiveness, it is essential to evaluate the effectiveness of smoking cessation treatments for women, particularly those aimed at students, as it is known that a significant percentage of women start smoking in the college, and they become occasional smokers or daily smokers of tobacco. Therefore, this study (which is still under way) was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a cognitive behavioral intervention for college female students, compared with a standard intervention (with self monitoring, problem solving, relaxation, exposure and nicotine fading techniques) trough a randomized clinical trial. Participants were 26 college students who smoked less than 10 cigarettes daily, with an average age of 21.96 years. The pattern of consumption was obtained and compared before, during treatment and at six months follow-up. The results are discussed in terms of abstinence rates obtained at the end of treatment and at six months follow-up, which sets the tone for the establishment of effective strategies for earlier detection in college women.

 
29.

The Role and Approaches for Deliberately Targeting the Interactions of the Recovering Addict and The Addict's Family for Behavior Modification

Domain: Service Delivery
RICHARD COOK (Penn State University)
Abstract:

Given that for many in drug and/or alcohol recovery their immediate family members will be their greatest support system, it is essential that the interactions between recovering addict and the family members be seen as "reinforcing" by both, and especially important that the interactions do not lead to discord, disagreement, and strife to the extent that the addict seeks a different environment. The presentation outlines a systematic approach to identifying both supportive and problematic patterns of interaction behavior, and deconstruct them into components that can be changed to increase the likelihood of desired interactions that strengthen the family bonds, making habits of such, and decrease the likelihood of interactions that weaken those recovering addict/family bonds, and thus increase the likelihood of emitting behaviors that lead to situational changes that then increase the likelihood of relapse.

 
30.

The Effectiveness of Family Behavior Therapy for Adolescent Behavioral and Substance Misuse Complications: A Meta-Analysis

Domain: Applied Research
TORICA EXUME (My Florida Therapy), robyn lyn (My Florida Therapy )
Abstract:

A number of systematic and meta-analytic reviews have suggested that family behavior therapy may be effective in decreasing adolescent behavioral and substance misuse. For this study, a systematic review of 10 published articles will be used to compare family behavior therapy (FBT) and another condition of treatment for adolescents with behavior problems and substance misuse. This meta-analysis summarizes FBT to control groups (CTL), treatment as usual (TAU), or alternative treatments (ATL) during the treatment process of adolescent with behavior and substance abuse disorders. Data from studies of untreated control groups, treatments as usual, and alternating treatments will be analyzed separately. The results will be displayed on a flow chart. The aim of this study is to provide a comprehensive meta-analysis of the effectiveness of FBT for adolescent with behavioral problems and substance misuses. The results we will find in this study will show and support the effectiveness of family behavior therapy compared to CTL, TAU, ATL.

 
31.

Reduction of Antisocial Behavior Through Life Skills Training in Adolescents

Domain: Applied Research
SILVIA MORALES CHAINE (National Autonomous University of Mexico), Lissette Ramos Navarro (National Autonomous University of Mexico ), Marcela Rosas Peña (National Autonomous University of Mexico ), GABRIELA MARTINEZ (National Autonomous University of Mexico )
Abstract:

Training in life skills such as control of emotions, problem solving, decision making and communication, acts as a preventive measure for addictive behavior, in addition to impact on the reduction of aggressive physical and verbal behavior, and increase behaviors Communication. The objective of this study was to reduce antisocial behavior, through training in life skills. 80 teenagers participated with an average of 12.18 years of age, presenting a comic of 4 chapters, through which they modeled behaviors of characters with characters that were at their end, it was done at the time of recess, it was registered through a Placheck record.

 
32.

Inspired: A Mobile Video Game for Smoking Cessation

Domain: Applied Research
JESSICA NASTASI (Rowan University), Bethany R. Raiff (Rowan University), Darion Rapoza (Entertainment Sciences, Inc.), Dan Scherlis (Entertainment Science Inc.), Nicholas Fortugno (Entertainment Science Inc.), Connor Andrew Burrows (Rowan University)
Abstract:

Cigarette smoking remains the number one cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the U.S. One third to one half of smokers attempt to quit at least once; however, approximately 94% of quit attempts result in relapse. Inspired is a mobile videogame-based contingency management intervention for smoking cessation. The intervention is a mobile application using in-game virtual rewards that are delivered contingent on smoking abstinence. These rewards can be used to meet game objectives and interact with other players. The prototype was tested with treatment seeking-smokers (N=28) who reported that the intervention would be helpful for quit attempts, but that the game lacked variety. The prototype testing was used to develop a full version of the game, specifically designed to compete with smoking. Researchers addressed the prototype feedback by designing levels with different enemy types, graphical design, level structure, and weapons depending on the level played. Players must submit negative CO samples with a mobile CO monitor to gain access to cosmetic points which are multiplied if the player submits consecutive negative samples. A clinical trial with 114 treatment-seeking smokers will be conducted to provide support for Inspired as a rigorous, yet enjoyable, intervention for smoking cessation.

 
33.

Behavioral Activation for Reanimation of the Recovering Addict

Domain: Theory
MATTHEW GROSS (Shippensburg University ), Richard Cook (Penn State University Applied Behavioral Medicine Associates )
Abstract:

Patients undergoing recovery from addiction, especially following an acute inpatient rehabilitation experience, often experience a period of time during which they are "spared" from typical daily activities, responsibilities, and reinforcers. During this time, particularly if living "back at home," demands on them are initially reduced, or non existent, but ideally should gradually increase, commensurate with ongoing successfulnhabit development, but too often, they don't do so. Unfortunately, for some patients, their families, their rehabilitation clinicians, their healthcare payers/insurers, the legal system, their friends, and other key stakeholders in their recovery, either in being well intentioned..or simply by not paying attention.., set up an environment sheltering them not only from responsibilities "too much for them to handle" at this time, but unfortunately also from the many natural consequences that would bring life back to them, shaping their behaviors, overt and private, to assist to return them to (ideally, improved versions of) their "normal" lives. While they might participate in some sort of outpatient "program," sadly the absence of a systematically implemented, reevaluated, revised, and increased set of responsibilities and actions expected of them within their family or other living situation, outside of their formal outpatient drug rehab program activities, can allow them, or arguably, cause them, to become "permanent teenagers," returning from their outpatient program activities to their home, where they can isolate themselves into their rooms, pajamas, snack foods, phone, computer, and up all night schedules of internet or video or game controller or tv reruns, often absent even much interaction with other family members in the house. Instead of focusing on "esteem building," behavioral activation robustly employed, with a goal of developing patterns of behavior useful to returning to a (more desirable) day to day life going forward, can get them showered dressed, out of their rooms, out of their houses, and into volunteer or part time job activities which will, if guided well, expose them to natural reinforces that will train them, rehabilitate them, reanimate them, redefine them, and reintegrate them into the (hopefully well chosen) worlds around them, and increase the likelihood they will be fortified against the stimuli, internal and external, that might lead them to emit behaviors of relapse.

 
34.

Crime, Delinquency, and Substance Abuse: A Review of the Literature

Domain: Basic Research
TIMOTHY TEMPLIN (HABA)
Abstract:

A review of the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis has provided some articles focusing on this substance abuse and addiction. Presented below are data regarding the publication of articles with a focus on these areas of interest in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis from the years 1995 to 2017. These articles include the examination of addiction as a �disorder of choice� (2012), trial contingency management in a drug court (2008), internet based vouchers to reduce cigarette smoking (2007) and other pertinent topics such as gambling (2012). In addition, the different areas of research and practice where the study of addiction may be relevant. Options available for the dissemination of behavior analysis to these areas of interest are discussed. In particular, the use of research on substance abuse and addiction can aid in the understanding of crime and delinquency. Crime is viewed as having a special relationship to the problem of addiction, and both areas are of interest from the behavior analytic point of view.

 
35.

Attitudes Toward Evidence-Based Practices and Their Influence on Beliefs About Contingency Management

Domain: Service Delivery
MEGAN COWIE (University of Calgary), Angela Wallace (University of Calgary), David Hodgins (University of Calgary)
Abstract:

There is a growing recognition of the importance of using evidence-based practices (EBP) to inform our decisions in treatment. Importantly, the use of EBP allows for improved outcomes by mitigating harms that might arise with the improper provision of services. Contingency Management (CM) has been hailed by researchers as an efficacious treatment for numerous addictive populations and among a diverse clientele. Despite its documented efficacy, CM continues to be underused within addictions treatment. Attitudes and beliefs towards EBP have been identified as a major predictor towards the uptake and use of EBP. Thus, this study will examine how attitudes toward EBP impact attitudes toward CM in both the managers and service providers in substance abuse treatment organizations across Canada. Additionally, we will gauge manager and service providers knowledge of CM and the prevalence of its use to better understand the targets for later implementation. We will describe our plan to carry out this research including the background, proposed methods, implications, and future directions. Preliminary findings will be presented. Importantly, this research will allow us to understand whether misperceptions about CM are rooted in misunderstandings about EBP, allowing us to better target erroneous beliefs prior to the implementation of CM interventions.

 
36.

Phenotypes of Recovery: Social Connectedness, Impulsivity, and Recovery from Addiction

Domain: Basic Research
ALEXANDRA MELLIS (Addiction Recovery Research Center), Derek Pope (Addiction Recovery Research Center), Warren K. Bickel (Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute and Department of Psychology, Virginia Tech)
Abstract:

Recovery from addiction is a process defined by choice for the long-term benefits of abstinence despite the immediate temptations of substance use. Social systems and recovery communities are promoted to support the recovery process. We explored the relationships between social connectedness and impulsive choice in recovery from addiction using the International Quit and Recovery Registry. 181 individuals in recovery (63% alcohol-, 3% cigarette-, 15% cocaine/stimulant-, 14% opioid-, 3% marijuana-, and 1% tranquilizer-users) completed a recovery assessment and the Lubben Social Network Scale, a measure of social connectedness. Of these, 49 participants also completed a $1000 delay discounting task, which assesses impulsive choice between smaller, immediate and larger, delayed reinforcement. Individuals who reported substance use within the past year had significantly lower social connectedness scores than individuals who did not report past-year use (mdn=27, n=40; and mdn=34, n=141 for past-year- and not-in-past-year-use, respectively; p = 0.0057). Furthermore, among individuals who completed the delay discounting task, social connectedness was significantly correlated with discount rate (r = -0.37, p = 0.0092), with relatively more impulsive individuals also demonstrating lower social connectedness. These results suggest that successful individuals in recovery demonstrate greater social connectedness and less impulsive choice.

 
37.

Examining Cross-Substance Generalizability of Statistical Optimization in Alcohol and Cannabis Use Disorder Criteria

Domain: Theory
YOANNA MCDOWELL (University of Missouri), Jordan Stevens (University of Missouri), Douglas Steinley (University of Missouri), Cassandra L. Boness (University of Missouri), Timothy J. Trull (University of Missouri), Kenneth J. Sher (University of Missouri)
Abstract:

The proposed statistical optimization employs complete enumeration to evaluate all possible diagnostic criteria sets and rules (DCSRs; i.e., combinations of diagnostic criteria with all possible thresholds) of a given set to identify more efficient diagnostic rules. All DCSRs are assessed by identifying a diagnostic criteria set and threshold that maximally separates diagnostic groups on a predefined objective function (i.e., Cohen�s d) with respect to relevant disorder-specific correlates. This approach has been used to identify alcohol use disorder (AUD) DCSRs that best differentiate diagnostic groups based on AUD-specific correlates, such as heaviness of consumption (e.g., Steinley et al., 2016). To date, the generalizability of the optimization approach to other substances has yet to be examined. Using data from the National Epidemiological Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III, we use statistical optimization to derive AUD and cannabis use disorder (CUD) DCSRs that maximally separate diagnostic groups on heaviness of consumption. The optimization analyses were restricted to past year drinkers (N=20,495) and cannabis users (N=3,701). Both optimal DCSRs consisted of a criteria set with 7 symptoms and a diagnostic threshold of 3; however, only 4 symptoms were consistent across DCSRs. This could suggest the need for substance-specific decision rules for AUD and CUD.

 
38.

Who Intends to Initiate Marijuana Use in Response to Legalization?

Domain: Theory
Olivia Bolts (University of North Carolina Wilmington), NORA NOEL (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Abstract:

Given recent changes of marijuana legalization in the United States, it is an important concern whether more lenient marijuana laws associate with increased marijuana use. Reports on the relationship between changes in marijuana use and legalization vary. Some studies suggest no significant changes in use, while others report increases in use related to legalization. The present study examined whether prospective legalization can impact intentions to begin using marijuana based on specific marijuana-related contexts (eight scenarios) and expectancies among young adults. Participants (N = 319) completed a survey on their marijuana use, expectancies, and use intentions in legal versus nonlegal contexts. Results indicated that participants projected themselves as more likely to use marijuana in a legal versus illegal context, t(318) = 15.14, p <.001. In addition, a regression analysis showed that marijuana use expectancies specifically predicted nonusers� intent to begin using marijuana, R2 = .18, F(6, 129) = 4.57, p < .001. Nonusers who reported fewer expectations of cognitive or behavioral impairment related to marijuana use also reported greater intentions to initiate use (� = -.27, p = .007) with legalization. These findings suggest potential targets for future prevention of initiation to regular or problematic use among young adults.

 
39.

Mental Health and Substance Use Problems in the College Population

Domain: Theory
TANIA GORDILLO (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México), Alejandra Montserrat Rivera (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México), Silvia Morales Chaine (National Autonomous University of Mexico)
Abstract:

College students present different difficulties that affect their health and put them at risk of consuming substances; the data indicate that 13% of the global burden of disease is due to mental health problems and that these constitute one of the three leading causes of death among people aged 15-35 years (WHO, 2009). The aim of this study was to identify early the risk of presenting mental health problems in the university population, and the link of these problems with the consumption of substances. The sample was 355 university students with an average age of 19 years (24% men and 76% women); the ASSIST screening instrument (WHO, 2010) and a screening instrument based on the mhGAP guide (WHO, 2010) were used. The results indicate that 74.6% of college students consume alcohol at a low level of risk, while 4.7% consume tobacco, 16% consume marijuana and 6.3% consume other illegal substances, all of the above with moderate risk. To mental health problems, it was identified that 63.2% had two or more symptoms of depression, 14% had two or more symptoms of anxiety, 12.4% had symptoms of psychosis and 11.3% reported a risk of self-harm.

 
40.

Characterizing Blunt Use among Twitter Users: Racial/Ethnic Differences in Use Patterns and Characteristics

Domain: Basic Research
Latrice Montgomery, PhD (University of Cincinnati College of Medicine), KAMONTÁ HEIDELBURG (University of Cincinnati)
Abstract:

Twitter is a popular social media platform among young adults. Young Twitter users are exposed to and often participate in tweets that promote risky behaviors, such as blunt use. Blunts are hollowed out cigars or cigarillos that are filled with marijuana. The current pilot study was designed to determine the prevalence rates and characteristics of African American, Hispanic and White young adult Twitter users who reported past month blunt use. Method: Young adults (N = 753) who reported past month blunt use were recruited via Twitter to participate in a brief anonymous online survey about their blunt use. Results: Findings revealed that African American young adults initiated blunt smoking at an earlier age, reported more days of blunt smoking in the past month and smoked more blunts in the past month than their Hispanic and White counterparts. Further, several racial/ethnic differences were found on thoughts about blunt use, reasons for initiating and continuing to smoke blunts and obstacles to quitting blunt smoking. Conclusions: Findings suggest that blunt use among Twitter users, especially African Americans, is high and that cognitions related to blunt use vary by race/ethnicity. Future online and offline prevention and treatment interventions should specifically target African American young adult blunt smokers, as well as perceptions regarding blunt use among African American, Hispanic and White young adults.

 
41.

Single and Double Blind Administration of Information About Anaesthesia

Domain: Applied Research
MAGNE ARVE FLATEN (Department of Psychology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim), Pia Hunsbeth (Department of Psychology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim)
Abstract:

Topic: The placebo effect refers to the observation that the mere expectation that a drug or treatment will have an effect, e.g. reduce pain, can indeed induce that effect. Question: The study manipulated the information provided to patients receiving dental treatment, and investigated whether the effect of anaesthesia on pain could be modulated by whether that information was administrated single or double blind in two experiments. Participants: forty-four and 52 patients in Experiment 1 and 2, respectively. All received drilling in a molar. Methods: Pain induced by drilling in a molar was the primary dependent variable. The Extended information groups received information that enhanced expectations about the anaesthesia and did not include emotionally negative words. The Standard Information groups received information that is normally provided. The information was given by the dentist (single-blind), or by a dental technician without the knowledge of the dentist (double-blind). Results and data analysis: Extended information administrated single-blind reduced pain by about 50% compared to Standard Information. Reduced negative emotions predicted the decrease in pain. However, when administrated double blind, pain levels were the same in both groups. Conclusions: Preliminary analysis suggests that the method of administration can enhance or decrease the effect of expectations.

 
42.

A Program Focused on Modification of Behaviors of the Family Members of the Post-Rehab Recovering Addict to Decrease the Likelihood of Relapse

Domain: Theory
RICHARD COOK (Penn State University)
Abstract:

While the immediate family of the recovering addict is often the primary support system post discharge from a rehabilitation program, programs rarely are found to dedicate time to directly focus on making that home environment more reinforcing (and less likely to irritate the returning recovering addict to the point of leaving the home and relapsing) by deliberately focusing on identifying problematic behaviors of the family members, and modifying them to decrease the likelihood of problem interactions with the recovering addict, and increase the likelihood of continued building of stronger family relationships and patterns of behavior, thus decreasing the likelihood of being irritated by the family environment, and leaving to seek reinforcement elsewhere, possibly involving relapse. This presentation outlines a program in which in a systematic fashion deliberate attention is made to identifying past behavior and interaction problems within the family, and focus directly on changing those family member habits, and similarly, build upon prior family habits previously reinforcing. The applied behavior analyst is uniquely well positioned to apply the principles of behavior change in a robust fashion to the many habits that don’t simply go away by talking about them, thru the systematic application of techniques in the behavioral modification armamentarium including, but not limited to functional assessment, changing factors in the antecedent and consequent states, and directly modifying the topography of family member behaviors, as well as the differential reinforcement/punishment of competing, alternative, or incompatible behaviors.

 
43.

Global Correlates to Addiction Disabilities: Mapping Factors for Desired Behavior Changes Towards the Healthicization of Society

Domain: Basic Research
GABRIELA WALKER (National University), Mark Yockey (University of South Dakota), Bernard Wone (University of South Dakota)
Abstract:

This study targets public education points of interest that would contribute to behavior changes preventing short- and long-term disabilities caused by four addiction behaviors: smoking, over-eating, alcohol over-drinking, and using illegal drugs. This analysis promotes the understanding of disabilities caused by addictions from a social model approach, adding to the literature on prevention and treatment of addiction disabilities. The healthicization of addiction requires changes in lifestyles, and the present study is meant to contribute to this understanding. A Canonical Correspondence Analysis identified 13 (out of 38) explanatory variables as statistically significant predictors impacting the length of disabilities due to alcohol, drug, food, and tobacco addictions [final model: F13 = 5.64, p < 0.001 after 1,000 permutations, which captured 0.131 of the total inertia (i.e., weighted variance) in the dataset]. The results revealed that three national political factors, three national economic factors, and seven national and global socio-cultural factors are interacting at a significant level with the four addictive behaviors. In conclusion, the multivariate analysis of globalization variables, addiction factors, and the developmental status of a country provide a better understanding how each addictive behavior is impacted by the unique combination of the factors in different countries.

 
44.

Generalized Essential Value in Exponential Demand: Implications for Psychopharmacology and Public Policy

Domain: Basic Research
JOSHUA HARSIN (University of Kansas), Brett Gelino (University of Kansas), Brent Kaplan (Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute), Steven R. Hursh (Institutes for Behavior Resources, Inc.; Department of Psychiatry And Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Derek D. Reed (University of Kansas)
Abstract:

Behavioral economic demand analyses quantify the degree to which organisms defend baseline consumption of reinforcers against increasing constraints (e.g., costs, effort). Such analyses thereby provide a quantitative marker of hedonic scaling. One advantage of the exponential demand equation is its specification of a single parameter (a) to describe the rate of change in elasticity across the entire curve. However, because a is not independent of k (range of consumption in logarithmic units), Hursh (2014) proposed a generalized essential value (EV) formula that corrects for this interaction. The current study sought to evaluate the utility of this metric by comparing EV and Pmax (price associated with unit elasticity) across and within commodities of abuse (e.g., cigarettes, alcohol). After conducting a review of the purchase task literature focused on demand for these commodities, we used software to extract raw data from published demand curves. We then re-analyzed these data using both the EV formula and the Hursh (2014) Pmax formula to assess the transitional validity of Pmax and EV. Results indicate the importance of correctly specifying demand parameters when using quantitative models. Implications for research, model development, and policy will be discussed.

 
45.

Systemic Approaches to Substance Abuse Prevention

Domain: Applied Research
ASHLEY E. BENNETT (Touchstone Health Services), Bryan J. Davey (Touchstone Health Services), Erica Chavez (Touchstone Health Services), Lydia Cossio (Touchstone Health Services)
Abstract:

The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of a treatment package to reduce prescription drug abuse in high school aged youth. The treatment package consisted of four components: a one hour didactic workshop, a community-led coalition, on-going evidence-based educational workshops for youth and parents, and public awareness campaigns. The first component, the one hour didactic workshop utilizing a research-based curriculum called RX360, will be discussed in this poster. Ninety-seven parents/guardians and 1997 youth between the ages of 14 and 18 participated. Pre and post measures of participant knowledge were measured. Results indicated that both groups significantly increased their knowledge on prescription drug abuse with youth demonstrating an overall knowledge increase of 16.9% and adults at 32.3%. In order to determine the effect of learning on behavior, longitudinal studies of individual and group behavior should be investigated. Implications of selection of behavior at the individual and cultural level will be discussed.

 
 

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