Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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10th Annual Autism Conference; New Orleans, LA; 2016

Program by Day for Monday, January 18, 2016


Manage My Personal Schedule

 

Workshop #W1
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Ethical Issues in Assessment and Treatment in ABA Clinical Services
Monday, January 18, 2016
9:30 AM–12:30 PM
The Celestin Ballroom
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Jennifer Zarcone, Ph.D.
TIM COURTNEY (Little Star Center), LAURA MCKEE (Autism Home Support Services), ROBERT ROSS (BEACON Services), STEVEN WOOLF (BEACON Services), JENNIFER ZARCONE (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Description: In the first part of the workshop—Contracting With Insurance Companies to Provide ABA Services: Using the CPT Codes and Ethical Business and Clinical Practices—the presenters will discuss ethical issues related to the assessment and treatment process for individuals with problem behavior. Issues related to doing an analog functional analysis and the required training, managing self-injurious and/or aggression safely, and limitations and alternatives to conducting time intensive and complex assessments. The presenters will also discuss the legal and ethical implications of treatment of severe problem behavior with respect to the Professional and Ethical Compliance Code and State Licensing laws. The second part of the workshop—Ethical Issues in the Assessment and Treatment of Problem Behavior—will focus on how to use the new CPT codes correctly and ethically using current guidelines. In addition, the presenters will provide information on how to negotiate contracts that allow you to provide quality of services correctly and ethically.
Learning Objectives: After completion of the workshop, participants will be able to:(1)identify and understand billing codes and apply billing codes consistent with the BACB Professional and Ethical Compliance Code for Behavior Analysts; (2)list operational and practice considerations when negotiating contracts with payers; (3)use appropriate strategies to address common ethical challenges encountered by ABA practitioners.
Activities: Instruction, discussion, Q and A
Audience: Board certified behavior analysts, licensed psychologists, graduate students.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Basic
 
Workshop #W2
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Integrating Behavioral Economics Principles With Assessments and Treatments for Autism Spectrum Disorder
Monday, January 18, 2016
2:00 PM–5:00 PM
The Celestin Ballroom
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Henry S. Roane, Ph.D.
HENRY S. ROANE (State University of New York Upstate Medical University)
"Dr. Henry Roane received his Ph.D. in Psychology with an emphasis in Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) from Louisiana State University. He completed a pre-doctoral internship at the Kennedy Krieger Institute and the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. Dr. Roane has held previous clinical and faculty positions at the Marcus Institute/Emory University School of Medicine and the Munroe-Meyer Institute/University of Nebraska Medical Center. At present, Dr. Roane is the Gregory S. Liptak MD Professor of Child Development in the Department of Pediatrics at Upstate Medical University in Syracuse NY. In this capacity, Dr. Roane serves as the Chief of the Division of Development, Behavior and Genetics where he directs medical and behavior analysis clinics that provide treatment services for children affected by autism and related disorders. Dr. Roane is a former Associate Editor for the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis and Behavior Analysis in Practice, and serves on the Editorial Boards of several journals in the field. Dr. Roane previously served on the Board of Directors for the Behavior Analysis Certification Board and presently served on the Board of Directors for the Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. Dr. Roane has co-authored over 75 research articles and chapters as well as three books on ABA and the assessment and treatment of behavior disorders. He also has been the principle investigator on grants funded by National Institute of Health and the New York State Department of Health and serves as a consultant to programs nationwide."
Description: Positive reinforcement contingencies are common in response acquisition and behavior reduction programs for individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Given the ubiquity of this process, it is critical to identify stimuli that will function as effective reinforcers, especially under conditions in which access to those stimuli might be delayed. Based on the nature of a socially mediated positive reinforcement contingency, positive reinforcement-based programs may be viewed as an economic system in which responding is considered an interaction between several variables, such as the price of the reinforcer, demand for a particular reinforcer, and the magnitude of reinforcement. This basic conceptualization of positive reinforcement contingencies permits practitioners to apply principles of microeconomics to the development and refinement of positive reinforcement-based interventions. This workshop will provide an introduction to basic principles of behavioral economics. After introducing these topics, the focus of the workshop will shift to translational research in behavioral economics whereby laboratory findings have been extended to treatments for behavioral correlates of ASD. Examples will focus on the use of economic principles to identify differentially effective position reinforcements, to conduct schedule thinning, and to modify behavior in token economies. Throughout the presentation, clinical examples of these concepts will be provided to demonstrate application for the treatment of behaviors associated with ASD.
Learning Objectives:
  1. Participants will describe the basic clinical procedures and designs that are commonly used in behavioral economic-based treatments for ASD.
  2. Participants will describe basic principles of behavioral economics.
  3. Participants will describe recent research-based extension to the use of behavioral economics in applied settings.
Activities: Activities will consist oflecture, discussion, video observation, and question/answer.
Audience: BCaBAs, BCBAs, BCBA-Ds
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Basic
 
Poster Session #1
Poster Session
Monday, January 18, 2016
6:00 PM–8:00 PM
Storyville Hall
1. Promoting Daily Living Skills for Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorder via Parent Delivery of Video Prompting on the iPad
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ELISA M. CRUZ-TORRES (Florida Atlantic University)
Abstract:

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by persistent deficits in social communication and interaction and restricted, repetitive patterns of behaviors which together limit and impair everyday functioning. Research has shown that the use of video modeling procedures can support individuals with ASD to acquire and maintain a variety of daily living skills (DLS) leading to enhanced levels of independence. A variety of devices have proven to be effective tools for the delivery of videos aimed at promoting independence among individuals with ASD while reducing the need for external prompts provided by parents and professionals. As technology advances, devices have become more portable and, ultimately, affordable. Parents and caregivers have not only attained these devices, but actively seek to become more competent in using them to assist their children with ASD. Relatively few studies have examined whether parents can be trained to effectively deliver video modeling interventions through the use of mainstream devices. The current study sought to evaluate the impact of parent delivery of a video modeling procedure using an iPad as taught during behavior skills training. A multiple baseline across participants' design was used to determine if adolescent children with ASD were able to acquire and master the steps of a targeted DLS as delivered by their parents. Results indicated that parent delivery of the training procedures was successful in teaching their children to correctly and independently complete the DLS with high accuracy. Implications for parent training and future research are discussed.

 
2. Use of Lag Schedules of Reinforcement to Promote Accurate Social Skill Variability
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Keith Radley III (University of Southern Mississippi), EVAN DART (University of Southern Mississippi), James Moore (University of Southern Mississippi), William Ford (University of Southern Mississippi), Kate Helbig (University of Southern Mississippi), Allison Battaglia (University of Southern Mississippi), John Lum (University of Southern Mississippi), Zachary LaBrot (University of Southern Mississippi)
Abstract:

Restricted and repetitive behavior is a central feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with such behaviors often resulting in lack of reinforcement in social contexts. The present study investigated training multiple exemplars of target behaviors and the utilization of lag schedules of reinforcement in the context of social skills training to promote accurate and varied social behavior in children with ASD. Five participants with ASD between the ages of 10 and 15 attended a twice-weekly social skills group for 8 weeks. A multiple baseline design across skills was utilized to assess intervention effects. During baseline, participants demonstrated low levels of skill accuracy and variable responding. During lag-0 with one trained exemplar, skill accuracy increased while accurate variability remained low. Training of three exemplars of target skills resulted in minimal improvements in accurate variability. Introduction of a lag-2 schedule with thee trained exemplars was generally associated with increased accurate variability. Further accurate variability was observed during lag-4 with three trained exemplars. Limitations and implications are discussed.

 
3. Neurobehavioural Effects of Developmental Toxicity: A Study in Valproic Acid-Induced Model of Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
BIKASH MEDHI (Post-Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research), Rakesh Kumar Ruhela (PhD Scholar), Shringika Soni (JRF)
Abstract:

Autism is a highly disabling disorder whose causes remain to be better understood, and treatments have to be improved. However, several recent advances have been made in diagnosis, etiopathology, and treatment. Whereas reliability of diagnosis has improved with operational criteria, including Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5), validity of the disease boundaries remains unclear because of substantive overlaps with other psychotic disorders. Interview is the best method to access autism but in animals we can access the symptoms of autism by their specific behavioral parameters. Exposure of rat fetuses to valproic acid (VPA) on the 12.5th day of gestation (VPA rats) is the well-established animal model of autism. The model has striking anatomical, pathological, and etiological similarities to human data, however, it has not been characterized in some important behavioral testing. In order to determine if VPA rats present behavioral aberrations observed in autism, their development and behavior was extensively evaluated in early behavioral testing in: weight, malformation screening, eye opening, milk band evolution, walking initiation, grid walking, forced swim test, olfactory discrimination, hanging wire, three chamber sociability test, elevated plus maze and morris water maze. We evaluated all these behavioural parameters in VPA induced autistic pups. The results of the present experiments demonstrate that VPA rats exhibit: (a) delayed maturation, (b) lower body weight, (c) malformation in tail, (d) impaired olfactory system, (e) poor milk band, (f) delayed eye opening, (g) enhanced walking initiation, (h) impaired olfaction, (i) impaired social interaction and (j) enhanced negative geotaxis and (k) heighten anxiety. Present study tried to explain whether these early behavioural tests may be a reliable predictor of the autism and it could distinguish the VPA rat model of autism from other animal models of neurodevelopmental disorders as developmental and behavioural aberrations appear before puberty.

 
4. Rapid Restraint Assessment for a Child Diagnosed With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
WENDY STRANG (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Melinda Lopez-Robison (Child Study Center), Amanda Zangrillo (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Todd M. Owen (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Morgan Hallgren (University of Florida)
Abstract:

For individuals who engage in severe self-injurious behavior (SIB), mechanical restraint devices, e.g., arm splints, may be used to restrict the behavior or to minimize the potential for damage. Wallace, Iwata, Zhou, and Goff (1999) evaluated a procedure to determine optimal levels of splint rigidity that produce both low levels of SIB while allowing for adaptive responding. DeRosa, Roane, Wilson, Novak, and Moolenschot (in press) replicated and extended the findings of Wallace et al., by assessing children's ability to complete multiple adaptive responses while also comparing random versus progressive levels of rigidity. In the current investigation, we extended the findings of DeRosa et al., by including leisure tasks in addition to consumption and academic tasks with a two-year-old diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder who was receiving treatment for severe SIB. Response opportunities, including food consumption, pre-academic skill tasks, and toy play, were presented at each level of rigidity in a random order while measuring compliance and SIB. The results of this assessment allowed clinicians to select a level of splint rigidity that allowed the child to engage in the adaptive responses presented but resulted in low rates of SIB.

 
5. Effectiveness of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for Two Children With Autism and No Expressive Speech
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
GARET EDWARDS (University of South Alabama), Kimberly Zlomke (University of South Alabama), Jessica VanOrmer (University of South Alabama)
Abstract:

Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often exhibit behavior problems (e.g., noncompliance and aggression). These behaviors are frequently the target for interventions in community-based clinics, which has led to an attempt to find efficient and effective behavioral treatments. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) is an empirically based manualized treatment, which was developed for typically developing children between the ages of 2 and 7-years-old. Traditionally, children with ASD have been excluded from PCIT due to the reliance on social contingencies, however recent research has suggested that PCIT may be an effective treatment for these children. The current study examined the effects of PCIT for two children on the autism spectrum who demonstrated no expressive speech. The first participant is a 3-year-old white male who was referred for noncompliance, elopement, and aggression. The second participant is a 5-year-old white female who was referred for noncompliance and problem behaviors related to adaptive functioning. Results of the study suggest that both children demonstrated decreases in problem behaviors (as measured by the Eyberg child behavior inventory), and increases in compliance to parent commands (as measured by observational measures). These results suggest that PCIT may be an effective treatment for children with autism who are also nonverbal.

 
6. Video Modeling for Social Behaviors of Korean-American Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SUNYOUNG KIM (The University of Alabama  )
Abstract:

The current study examined the effects of video modeling intervention (VMI) on social play and interactions of three Korean-American children with autism using a multiple baseline design across children. Developmentally and linguistically appropriate social and play levels were identified for each child prior to the intervention and applied to set individualized intervention goals. The children watched video clips of their mothers and the researcher engaged in appropriately social play prior to play sessions with their mothers. Scripted verbalizations and play actions increased among all children with autism and were maintained at high levels in a two-week follow-up session. Generalization across novel play and toy sets were also observed at relatively lower, but still increased levels.

 
7. A Systematic Review of the Effects of Behavioral Interventions on Parental Stress
Area: AUT; Domain: Theory
REBECCA FRANTZ (University of Oregon), Sarah Hansen (University of Oregon)
Abstract:

Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) face unique challenges in performing their caregiving roles. A large body of research suggests parents of children with ASD experience higher levels of stress than parents of typically developing children and children with other developmental disabilities. Highly stressed parents are less effective in their parenting roles and less able to effectively implement interventions. Although most behavior analytic research focuses on child outcomes, there is some evidence suggesting that interventions can impact parental outcomes, including stress and self-efficacy. Further research is warranted on how behaviorally-based interventions may address parental outcomes to improve parental well-being and subsequent caregiving. Systematic searches will be conducted using three electronic databases: PsychoInfo, Google Scholar, and ERIC, using key terms. An ancestral review of the literature will be conducted to identify any additional studies. Fifty percent reliability will be conducted on literature searches for each database. The following variables will be reported for each study: (a) methodology (design and rigor based on WhatWorks Clearinghouse Standards), (b) demographic information for child and parent participants, (c) intervention information (type, format, setting, agent), and (d) results (outcome measures, tau-u, effect sizes). Gaps in the literature, future directions for research and implications for practice will be considered.

 
9. The Effects of an Intensive Eye Contact Intervention on Skill-Acquisition Rates for Motor Imitation, Tacting, and Matching Tasks
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
DEWOODY TAYLOR (McNeese State University), Nicole Snow (McNeese State University), Alfred Royal Tuminello, Jr. (McNeese State University)
Abstract:

To increase eye contact in a nonverbal, low-functioning four-year-old with autism spectrum disorder-Level 3, the clinician implemented an intensive eye contact shaping procedure. Developed from the principles of respondent conditioning, the eye contact shaping procedure involved the participant, technician, and a preferred item (chosen via preference assessment utilizing PECS icons) in a barren session room. Initially, the technician delivered the preferred item, while also loudly speaking the child's name, upon each instance of spontaneous eye contact lasting one-second in duration. Initial intervention sessions concluded when 80 instances of spontaneous eye contact, one second in duration, was observed. Subsequently, the duration of spontaneous eye contact required to receive reinforcement was extended to two seconds and sessions concluded when 40 instances of eye contact were observed. Following implementation of the intensive eye contact intervention, increased skill acquisition was demonstrated in programs with a history of limited-to-no success. Results support the utilization of an intensive eye contact program in increasing skill acquisition for motor imitation, tacting, and matching tasks.

 
10. How to Implement Functional Communication Training Throughout a Client's Day
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
HOLLI STEINER (Heartspring), Beth Schneider (Heartspring)
Abstract:

Functional Communication Training (FCT) is a practice where team members look to replace problematic behaviors with communication and is an important part of an intervention program for clients with disabilities. In order to successfully implement a true FCT program, it is imperative for the professionals on the client's team to train all of those involved in working with the client and provide as many opportunities throughout his/her day to practice communication. At Heartspring school, a residential and education facility in Wichita, Kansas for students with severe disabilities, the professionals implemented a program called the Natural Opportunities program. The program provides students at least40 opportunities throughout their day to communicate and data is gathered on whether the student's communicative interactions are independent or prompted. Based on the data collected at Heartspring, almost all students who participated in the Natural Opportunities program showed increase independence in their expressive communication skills. Because the ultimate goal of FCT is for the client to independently communicate a need/want/etc., instead of displaying a problematic behavior, implementing a program like the Natural Opportunities program teaches a student how to be successful in his/her communicative interactions.

 
11. Alternating Topographies of Instruction and Implications for Acquiring Social Skills in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
HALLIE SMITH (Mississippi State University), MacKenzie Sidwell (Mississippi State University), Molly Butts (Mississippi State University), Shelby McGrew (Mississippi State University), Derick Reid (Mississippi State University), Reeva Morton (Mississippi State University), Daniel L. Gadke (Mississippi State University), Kasee Stratton (Mississippi State University)
Abstract:

Impairments in social functioning have been recognized as the most prevalent deficit across individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and should take priority for clinicians when creating interventions (Carter, Davis, Klin, & Volkmar, 2005; Weiss & Harris, 2001). This study analyzed the impact of various instructional activities used during a four-week social skills group on the acquisition of four social skills. The current research is an extension of a pilot study and aimed to expand and strengthen findings by addressing concerns with control of variables and similarity of procedures and behaviors across groups. An alternating treatment design was implemented across three social skills groups with children ranging in age from 6–15 years old diagnosed with an autism spectrum or related disorder. Intervention took place in a group setting for four hours a week, over four consecutive weeks. Students were separated into three social skills groups based on age. Social skill instruction included direct instruction of the social skill plus an additional method of delivery: play, craft, and a team-based activity. A partial interval recording of target behaviors was collected for each child across all groups, as was interobserver agreement and treatment integrity. Data will be analyzed across behaviors, age groups, and intervention delivery method. Results and implications will be discussed.

 
12. Individual and Combined Effects of Noncontingent Reinforcement and Response Blocking on Problem Behavior Maintained by Automatic Reinforcement
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
VALDEEP SAINI (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Brian D. Greer (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Wayne W. Fisher (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Katie Lichtblau (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Andresa A. De Souza (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Daniel R. Mitteer (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract:

Two common interventions for problem behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement are noncontingent reinforcement and response blocking. Noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) typically involves the delivery of stimuli shown to compete with the automatic reinforcer for problem behavior. Response blocking involves the therapist physically preventing the completion of the target response. We implemented NCR with response blocking for one boy's automatically maintained pica and found this combined intervention to be effective at decreasing high rates of pica. With another child, we compared the effects of response blocking alone to the combined intervention. With the final child, we compared NCR alone and response blocking alone to the combined intervention. Results showed that the combined intervention consistently proved effective at reducing problem behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement while maintaining moderate to high levels of item engagement. When evaluated individually, neither NCR nor response blocking proved sufficient to reduce problem behavior to clinically significant levels.

 
13. Further Evaluation of Trial-Based Functional Analysis
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CASSANDRA STANDISH (Appalachian State University), Cecilia Smith (Appalachian State University), Margaret McCoy (Appalachian State University), Stephanie Teal (Appalachian State University), Cynthia M. Anderson (Appalachian State University)
Abstract:

The trial-based functional analysis (TBFA) consists of repeated trials of assessment conditions. Each trial consists of at least one "control" segment in which the putative establishing operation is absent and a "test" segment, with the establishing operation present. The control is conducted for a pre-determined duration and the test for that same duration or until the first occurrence of problem behavior. The TBFA has been used in over 15 studies to date. Although results generally support the reliability and validity of the TBFA, procedures have varied across studies making it difficult to draw conclusions about key features of the assessment including (a) number and order of control segments, (b) segment duration, and (c) number of trials to be conducted. We addressed these issues by examining effects of pre- and post-control segments, segment duration, and steady-state responding with three individuals with autism spectrum disorder.

 
14. Errorless Toilet Training: The Potty Party
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
STEPHEN RAY FLORA (Youngstown State University), Julia Johnston (Youngstown State University)
Abstract:

The "potty party" is an all-day toilet training method. The "potty party" uses principles of errorless discrimination learning (Terrace, 1963) that maximizes chances of reinforced discriminated responding while minimizing opportunities for error. Unlike other toilet training methods that use dense schedules of brief bathroom visitation, the "potty party" has participants sit on the toilet for long periods (to start) and gives short breaks contingent on in-toilet urination. While on-seat, prior to urination, the child is given liquids, less-preferred reinforcers and otherwise engages in typical behaviors; discrete trial training, reading, toy play, etc. In-toilet urination is immediately reinforced with most preferred reinforcers and brief time off-toilet with increasing time off-toilet for each in-toilet urination. For three boys with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), in a multiple baseline across participants design, the "potty party" method successfully decreased accidents to zero levels for all three participants and increased in-toilet urination for two out of the three.

 
15. Producing Meaningful Improvements in Problem Behavior Within an Outpatient Clinic: A Systematic Replication of Hanley's Study
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
WILLIAM MAULDIN (Therapy Center of Acadiana), Brandon Orso (Therapy Center of Acadiana), Grayson Butcher (Therapy Center of Acadiana)
Abstract:

Behavioral interventions have proven to be vital for individuals with autism who emit problematic behaviors such as aggression, self-injury, and disruption that include tantrums and property destruction. In order to develop these interventions, one must conduct a functional assessment in order to determine the function of these behaviors. There has been much debate on what order to include a functional analysis within the functional assessment process. This paper describes this process and how we used it to create a treatment plan to produce meaningful improvements in problem behavior for an individual. A systematic replication of Hanley et al., (2014) "Producing Meaningful Improvements in Problem Behavior of Children with Autism Via Synthesized Analyses and Treatments" was used. Variables altered for this study included teaching responses in multiple contexts within the same treatment (e.g., accepting demands placed to give up the iPad and then work on math problems opposed to separating the iPad and math problems across treatments). The phases within the treatment package we used includes the functional analysis, the simple functional communicative response, complex functional communicative responses for the iPad and math contexts, denial tolerances, homework being faded into the denial tolerance phase, and extending the treatment to ecologically relevant situations.

 
16. Pre- and Post-natal Transcriptomic Implicates Profilin (pfn) as Autism Risk Gene
Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
DEEBA BAIG (Forman Christian College University), Ammarah Fateen (Forman Christian College University)
Abstract:

Profilin, (pfn) is an essential actin binding, post synaptic density protein, which regulates actin dynamics and involved in the recruitment of postsynaptic molecules on inhibitory synapses, hence, it is involved in maintenance of synaptic balance. Present study is designed to explore the transcriptomics of different profilin isoforms (pfn1, pfn2, pfn3 and pfn4) during neurogenesis of Mus musculus at various pre and post developmental stages. Profilin isoforms were analyzed at three embryonic (E10, E14, E18) and six post-natal stages (P0, P3, P5, P10, P20 and P60). Our findings revealed that pfn1, pfn2, and pfn3 highly in pre and postnatal stages. One-way and two-way ANOVA followed by post-hoc Tukey's test and Bonferroni test respectively were used to check the significance of quantitative data which showed the overall and pair wise high significance of the results. These findings reveal pfn may present as autism risk gene because of its implication in maintaining excitatory to inhibitory balance by recruitment and translocation of postsynaptic molecules during brain development.

 
17. Evaluation of the Quick Transfer Procedure for Teaching Young Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
EMILY WHITE (AMEGO, Inc.), Amanda Karsten (Western New England University), Michael Fantetti (Western New England University), Kerry Ann Conde (Western New England University)
Abstract:

Treatment manuals and other texts suggest the use of a quick transfer procedure when teaching skills to young children with developmental disabilities (e.g., Sundberg & Partington, 1998; Barbera & Rasussen, 2007). The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of a quick transfer procedure on the rate of acquisition (i.e., trials to mastery, total duration to mastery). The quick transfer trial is defined as the 2-s trial that immediately follows a prompted trial, providing the learner another opportunity to emit an independent correct response. Findings for six children with autism suggest that the quick transfer procedure produced mastery in fewer sessions than the control procedure (i.e., a trial that is immediately prompted following an error that does not give the learner an additional opportunity to emit an independent correct response). Results are discussed in terms of future research on other applications of the quick transfer procedure (e.g., transferring stimulus control between verbal operants).

 
18. The Acquisition of Complex Conditional Discriminations in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders via Matching-to-Complex Samples
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
COLLEEN YORLETS (RCS Behavioral ), Russell W. Maguire (Simmons College), Christina M. Boyd-Pickard (RCS Learning Center), Megan Breault (RCS Learning Center), Kelly O'Loughlin (RCS Learning Center)
Abstract:

Students with autism spectrum disorders have been reported to demonstrate stimulus over-selectivity or restricted stimulus control (i.e., failure to respond to all the critical elements of a multi-element complex stimuli). This potential may have a detrimental impact on the acquisition of academic skills for these individuals if the stimuli in question contain multiple controlling elements (i.e., learning the relation between spoken words and PECS symbols and AAC icons). This study presents a number of methodologies by which attention to, and the subsequent control by, multiple elements of a complex stimulus was demonstrated. In experiment one, a 13-year-old non-vocal boy with an autism spectrum disorder was taught to select printed word comparisons contingent on their spokenand signed name comparisons (e.g., a complex stimulus) via errorless instruction. Following training, tests conducted in extinction verified accurate control by each element over the printed word comparison. In experiment two, an 8-year-old girl with an autism spectrum disorder was taught identity-matching-to-complex samples (e.g., samples containing two, physically dissimilar yet related visual stimuli). Following training, tests conducted in extinction verified accurate control by each element. These data are discussed in terms of maximizing student learning while avoiding the potential pitfalls of error histories.

 
19. Teaching Attending to Preschool Children on the Autistic Spectrum
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
DOIREANN O'BRIEN (CBI Monarch House)
Abstract:

Attending to task is one of the core skills that is targeted at children in pre-school and kindergarten. It is consider to be a precursor skill in that in order to learn and be successful with your IEP goals you will need to be able to attend to task. Not being able to attend to task or attend to people may present a considerable barrier to learning. It is also considered a barrier in the Barriers VB-MAPP assessment. The purpose of this program is to determine whether a specific program that targets teaching attending as a behavior will increase the child's attending during instructional time. This program will also examine if targeting this behavior and teaching it as a program will lead to more success in acquisition of educational targets and lead to a decreased latency between presentation of task and response of child. This program will also examine the behavior of the behaviour interventionists by reviewing the number of verbal prompts that behaviour interventionists are emitting during base line and reexamining this behavior at the completion of the program to observe if there is a reduction of verbal prompting.

 
20. Sports for Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
MOHAMED ABDELNABY (Pegasus Sports Club)
Abstract:

Children with autism have difficult experiences with sports, which creates many problems during the activities. There are several areas of motor skill development essential for participating in daily life and sports activities. The object of the research is to describe the program for sports activities for children with autism, and the aim is to improve their movement skills, motor skills, and social skills. Twenty-five children with autism perceived barriers to participation and functioning. Research was conducted inside the Pegasus Dreamland Sports Club. Standard children were reported to meet or exceed general PA occurrence guidelines and actively participated in a variety of sports activities. Several barriers to optimal sports activities were identified. Children with autism can achieve optimal sports activities with exposure to a variety of sports opportunities and assistance in identifying the best activity for each child.

 
21. Nurturing the Relationships of Children With Autism and Their Sisters: Improving Reciprocal Social Interactions
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SUSAN MCHUGH (Queens College, City University of New York), Emily A. Jones (Queens College, City University of New York)
Abstract:

Sibling relationships are the first peer relationships that children enter into, and often last a lifetime. Sibling relationships of children with autism are often strained due to social and communication impairments, as well as the presence of problem behaviors. Sharing, proximity, and joint attention are often areas of difficulty but critical to the formation of relationships. The purposes of our study are to examine the effects of prompting and reinforcement on (a) sharing between children with autism and their siblings, (b) collateral social behaviors like joint attention, affective expression, and orientation, and (c) parental perceptions of the sibling relationship. Across two sibling dyads, each child only shared once on a few occasions during baseline. Each of the children in the first sibling dyad mastered sharing in 15 sessions or fewer. Intervention will begin shortly for the second dyad. We hypothesize that the second dyad will also learn to share, all children will show collateral gains in reciprocal interactive behaviors, and parents will perceive positive effects on their children's sibling relationships. Additional reciprocal interactions like social communication and conversation can be targeted in future research.

 
22. The Effects of Schedules of Reinforcement on the Force and Rate of Responses During Extinction
Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
OFELIA M. FLORES (University of British Columbia), Laura L. Grow (University of British Columbia)
Abstract:

Approximately 30–40% of individuals diagnosed with autism display problem behaviour (e.g., aggressive behaviour, self-injurious behavior, property destruction). Problem behaviour is socially stigmatizing and generally a predictor of a poor quality of life. Although force is a defining aspect of problem behaviour, rate is the most frequent measure during behavioural assessment and treatment. With the purpose of examining the influence of schedules of reinforcement on the force and rate of the response during extinction, we conducted two experiments in three individuals diagnosed with autism. Findings of experiment one showed no clear functional relations between VR5 and the level, trend and variability of force of response during EXT. However, a functional was demonstrated between VR5 and the level, trend and variability of rate of response during EXT. Findings of experiment two evidenced functional relations between a VR5+CRF schedule of reinforcement and the level, trend and variability of force and rate of the response during EXT. Results suggest that force and rate, as a result of the introduction of one or two schedules of reinforcement, varied systematically but differently for each individual. We suggest that clinicians should include a measure of force in addition to rate during the assessment and treatment of problem behaviour.

 
23. An Assessment of the Extent to Which Preferred Items Function as Reinforcement
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LAUREN ERION (PAAL), Thomas L. Zane (Institute for Behavioral Studies, Endicott College), Jennifer Morrison (PAAL), Lena Handley (PAAL), Gloria M. Satriale (PAAL), Kaitlin Ross (PAAL)
Abstract:

Preference assessments are widely utilized to determine items and activities with which individuals may readily engage, with an unproven assumption that those highly preferred stimuli will actually function as reinforcers in increasing future rates of the behaviors they follow. However, the ability of those stimuli to actually function as reinforcement requires further support. The purpose of this research was to assess the efficacy and strength of preferred items to function as reinforcement for given tasks. Researchers utilized a forced-choice preference assessment to rank order known preferred items of an 18-year-old adolescent female with autism. The top three items were compared in an alternating treatment design to assess the efficacy of these items when made contingent on completion of a simple assigned task (sorting items by color). For the items that increased rates of responding, the complexity and effort required to complete the assigned task was systematically increased in order to determine the strength of each item to function as reinforcement and at what point contingent access to the item no longer resulted in increased task completion. Results will be discussed in terms of behavioral economics and relationship between value and effort.

 
24. Empirically Validated Reading Comprehension Strategies for Learners With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
GLEIDES LOPES RIZZI (The Ohio State University), Celine Lopes (The Ohio State University)
Abstract:

The current study proposes a systematic examination of research experiments that investigated strategies that improved the reading comprehension outcomes for learners with moderate to high functioning autism levels. The data analysis adopted the recently published Council for Exceptional Children (CEC, 2014) Standards for Evidence-Based Practice. These standards proposed by CEC are two-fold: (a) provide an eight-indicator criteria for the evaluation of studies' quality; (b) suggest a standard for the classification of "methodologically sound" experiments as evidence based (CEC, 2014). The goals of the study include informing in-service and pre-service teachers, providers of professional development training, teacher preparation programs, and researchers by providing a synthesis of methodologically sound reading comprehension strategies focused on the instruction of moderate to high functioning learners with ASD. A multidisciplinary database search of studies published from 1943 to 2015, rendered the inclusion of 27experiments, from which 9 strategies were derived, supporting the reading comprehension needs of 110 learners with ASD in grades 1–12. Implications for practice, alignment with the National Reading Panel (2000), and suggestions for future research are included.

 
26. Effects of Direct Instruction on Acquisition of Early Elementary Mathematical Vocabulary by Students With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
DAWN R. PATTERSON (West Chester University)
Abstract:

Providing young students with autism the opportunity to learn grade-level content in a format that closely aligns to general education classrooms was the focus of this research. Educational professionals continue to develop an understanding of how to meet the demands of educational reform, including the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). One aspect of CCSS is the integration of vocabulary instruction into all content areas. Research indicates systematic methods, such as direct instruction (DI), are effective for teaching components of literacy to students with autism; however, no research to date has investigated the use of DI in a group format to teach kindergarten and first grade students grade-level mathematical vocabulary. Results indicated that students can learn early elementary mathematical vocabulary. DI shows promise with students possessing prerequisite skills and learning behaviors, such as attention and engagement, when introducing new information in a research setting. Furthermore, some students continue to require explicit, systematic instruction in a one-to-one format to make progress with novel skills. Information gained from this research suggests that early elementary students can learn mathematical vocabulary; however, DI in small group may be more effective during maintenance and generalization for young students with autism. Additionally, when teaching new skills to students with autism, it is necessary to begin at their current level of communication.

 
27. Exploring an Effective Staff Training Model: Application for Teachers Working With Children Diagnosed With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LINA M. SLIM-TOPDJIAN (A Step Ahead Program, LLC)
Abstract:

The increased prevalence of autism has generated higher special needs enrollment in schools requiring teachers and/or therapists to acquire the skills needed to address the unique educational and behavioral challenges facing children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. At the same time, however, budget cuts have generated a shortage of qualified professionals with expertise in autism interventions. More effective interprofessional staff training may provide an avenue for addressing this shortage. This study investigates the impact that a staff training procedure (STP), consisting of video self-monitoring (VSM), performance feedback (PF) and reflection (R) with and without mentoring has and sustained and generalized teacher performance and on procedural integrity, on two dependent variables: application of the learn unit (LU) and rate of effective instruction (ROI). Results revealed that the STP appeared to enhance teacher/therapist performance and sustainability of procedural integrity. The greatest improvement and most consistent performance was observed among teachers who received STP plus mentoring as opposed to STP alone. In conclusion, adding mentoring to an existing STP appears to enhance teacher performance and procedural integrity with sustainable outcomes. The possibility of using VSM as a skill acquisition procedure is highlighted. Practical and theoretical implications for interprofessional practice are discussed.

 
30. Effectiveness of Self & Match as an Intervention for Increasing Appropriate Classroom Behavior in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KATHARINE M. CROCE (Self & Match)
Abstract:

This study evaluated Self & Match, a self-monitoring intervention that has student-teacher match component and reinforcement, to improve appropriate classroom behavior of seven students diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder, receiving applied behavior analytic services as a part of their individualized education program (IEP). Using a multiple-baseline within-subjects and across behaviors with a probe assessment design, the effectiveness of Self & Match was evaluated in the classroom setting. The results indicated that Self & Match is an effective intervention that leads to increases in appropriate classroom behavior and decreases in maladaptive classroom behavior for students with an autism spectrum disorder in the classroom setting.

 
31. Effects of Math Manipulatives and a Token Economy on the Percentage of Correct Responding and Challenging Behaviors in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
GREGORY R. MANCIL (Louisiana Tech University)
Abstract:

Children with disabilities often lag behind peers in mathematics. One evidence based practice for this is the use of manipulatives. However, challenging behaviors often continue to occur; thus, other techniques such as a token economy may be required to use. The purpose of this research study was to access the individual effects of manipulatives on correct responding, token economy on challenging behavior as well as their combined effects upon on-task behavior connected to academic performance. The math intervention consisted of using block manipulatives to represent numbers for addition and subtraction. The token economy was followed using procedures outlined by Cooper, Heron, and Heward (2007). The combined intervention was teaching using the math manipulative while using the token economy. Participants improved in percentage correct with the math manipulatives intervention; however, challenging behaviors remained high. During the combined intervention phase, challenging behaviors decreased and percentage of correct responding remained high. During the token only phase, challenging behaviors were low and percentage correct remained at stable levels. The phase with the greatest percentage correct and lowest level of challenging behavior was the final combined intervention phase with zero challenging behaviors across participants and 100% correct responding to math problems.

 
32. School-Based Vocational Training Program: A Case Study of a Student With an Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
SARAH ROSSWOG (Sussex Consortium), Cathy Brokaw (Sussex Consortium), Vivian J. Bush (Sussex Consortium), Heather Flood (Sussex Consortium), Tara Gambale (Sussex Consortium), Monique Hayes (Sussex Consortium), Derick Whitcher (Sussex Consortium)
Abstract:

The purpose of the study is to discuss the progress of one student with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) regarding a school-based vocational training program. Community-based work can be challenging for individuals with ASD of all ages. For students with ASD seeking employment, delayed adaptive, social, and communication skills, as well as problem behavior, can be major barriers. The outcomes for students with ASD transitioning from school to work are paramount to long-term vocational success. This study investigates existing processes and the limited research base surrounding school-based vocational training for students with ASD. Furthermore, this study describes one student with ASD's school-based vocational training program. Vocational and preference assessments were used to find specific tasks that align with the student's skills and interests. The student's individualized education plan (IEP) provided behavior analytic methods of teaching to target specific skills. Results are discussed regarding the student's response to the school-based vocational training program and progress towards his annual goals. Implications from this case study and other students with ASD are offered regarding best practices in the school-based vocational training process.

 
33. The Use of Peer-Mediated Instruction to Promote Academic Skills in Students With Autism Spectrum Disorders
Area: AUT; Domain: Theory
ABDULLAH ALWAHBI (The University of Iowa)
Abstract:

The purpose of this systematic review was to provide a synthesis of the literature on the effects of peer-mediated instruction and intervention (PMII) on improving academic skills in students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Eleven scholarly articles that met specific inclusion criteria were reviewed in terms of (a) characteristics of the participants, (b) targeted academic skills, (c) forms of PMII implemented, (d) settings in which PMII was used, (e) methods of training peers, and (f) effectiveness of PMII. A total of 31 students with ASD 3–13 years old participated in the studies. Low, average, and high achieving peers, ranging in age from 4–14 years old, implemented several PMII strategies such as peer tutoring, peer modeling, and group-oriented contingencies to teach skills related to reading, writing, mathematics, language, social studies, and physical education to the students with ASD. The PMII strategies were implemented in both instructional and non-instructional settings and were generally effective in promoting the targeted skills. However, there were some limitations in the studies. These limitations as well as directions for future research are discussed in this poster.

 
34. A Randomized Control Study of a Teaching Application for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ESTHER HONG (Center for Autism and Related Disorders), Dennis Dixon (Center for Autism and Related Disorders), Marlena Novack (Center for Autism and Related Disorders)
Abstract:

Despite the growing popularity of computer-based teaching programs, little research has attempted to evaluate the use of computer programs in teaching children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Using technology to teach children with ASD may increase the cost-effectiveness of applied behavior analysis (ABA) intervention and make learning more entertaining for the children involved. The current study evaluated the effectiveness of the mobile application Camp Discovery, which was designed to teach receptive language skills across a variety of lessons to children with ASD. The participants, children 1–8 years of age, received computer-delivered instruction for approximately 12 hours over the course of one month. Teaching was presented in a discrete trials training (DTT) format, consisting of research-based ABA teaching procedures, including prompting and prompt fading, feedback (positive reinforcement and error correction), and repeated practice. The study used a randomized between-groups design with a waitlist control group. Preliminary results indicated a dramatic decrease in the number of unknown exemplars following the use of the application. Further analysis revealed maintenance of learned exemplars among treatment group participants. The results of the present study suggest that computer-based teaching may be an effective method of delivering treatment to children with ASD.

 
35. Analyzing the Difference of Interventions on Prompted and Unprompted Requests With a Child With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MOLLY BUTTS (Mississippi State University), Hailey Ripple (Mississippi State University ), Kasee Stratton (Mississippi State University), Daniel L. Gadke (Mississippi State University)
Abstract:

Established behavior procedures such as discrete trial training have been seen to improve children with autism and their language acquisition (Koegel, Rincover, & Egel, 1982). However a transition from classical discrete trial training to normalized interventions is occurring. Normalized interventions are lightly structured and started by a child, however the uses of antecedent-behavior-consequence procedures are implemented (Delprato, 2001). The purpose of the current study was to analyze the difference between traditional discrete trial training procedures and natural reinforcement procedures on prompted and unprompted requests in a child with autism. For discrete trial training, the child completed different activities and discrete trial training procedures were implemented. In regards to natural reinforcement, the child chose which activity to participate in (e.g., puzzles and Connect Four). When the child requested an item, the clinician did not delay in giving the item. Data was collected on prompted and unprompted requests. Overall, natural reinforcement increases unprompted requests more compared to discrete trial training.

 
36. Implementing Behavioral Support for Emerging Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorder in Higher Education
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
HALLIE SMITH (Mississippi State University), Molly Butts (Mississippi State University), Daniel L. Gadke (Mississippi State University), Micah White (Mississippi State University), Julie Capella (Mississippi State University)
Abstract:

Despite success of early intervention efforts, literature suggests that 70–80% of children diagnosed with ASD will experience significant social and communication deficits into and throughout adulthood (Shattuck, Orsmond, Wagner, & Cooper, 2011; VanBergeijk, Klin, & Volkmar, 2008). However, many young adults with ASD have the cognitive and academic skills necessary to pursue a higher education in a university setting but impairments in other areas (e.g., social skills, communication) that are core to the diagnosis of ASD may inhibit their success (Nevill & White, 2011; Shattuck, Orsmond, Wagner, & Cooper, 2011). Unfortunately, there is a gap in the literature that fails to addresses current functioning and effectiveness of intervention support for adults with ASD, particularly those enrolled in postsecondary education. In the current study, degree seeking college students with ASD were provided with a variety of behavior interventions (e.g., behavioral skills training) to increase appropriate behavior in the classroom, university, and community settings. Interventions were implemented across one academic year and a measure of the students social behavior and overall functioning were obtained using standardized behavior rating scales (e.g., SRS-2, ASR). Data is still being collected, however, preliminary results indicated that students social skills as well as their overall psychological functioning improved with intervention support. Implications of findings as well as directions for further research will be discussed.

 
37. Evaluating Parent Report Ratings on Competency and Self-Efficacy of a Parent Participation Program
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
STEPHANIE LOPEZ (Xcite Steps), Marianne L. Bernaldo (Xcite Steps)
Abstract:

Some literature demonstrates that parent participation during in-home applied behavior analysis services has been shown to reduce parent stress and increase self-efficacy (Keen et al., 2010). Literature demonstrates that individualized parent education for children with autism can support services such as ABA by providing opportunities for practice and immediate feedback (Steiner et al., 2012). This study focuses on an in-home parent participation program in which an interventionist reviewed six behavioral concepts with the parents. The program consisted of a handout review (to introduce the concept), an application assignment (to practice the concept directly with the child), and a quiz (to check competency). Each parent who completed the program provided an initial and exit survey to rate their competency of the concepts reviewed and to provide feedback on the effectiveness of the program. Data from the surveys were used to improve future programs and provide future parent support goals.

 
38. Science Instruction for Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual and Developmental Disability: An Analysis of Single-Case Research
Area: AUT; Domain: Theory
Jonte Taylor (Pennsylvania State University), Jiwon Hwang (Pennsylvania State University), Karen Rizzo (Pennsylvania State University), DORIS L. HILL (Auburn University Center for Disability Research and Service)
Abstract:

This review examined classroom science instruction for students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual and/or developmental disabilities (IDD). A total of 22 single case design studies were analyzed. The authors conducted descriptive analyses regarding the characteristics of the studies as a whole and effect size analyses on each individual study as well as reported aspects of the studies in aggregate. The researchers calculated a variety of single case effect size statistics for each study including: percentage of non-overlapping data (PND), percentage of data points exceeding the median (PEM), non-overlap of all pairs (NAP), improvement rate difference (IRD), and standard mean difference (SMD). Using the same effect size analyses, findings were further analyzed by subject characteristics (grade level, gender, race/ethnicity, disability type, and disability severity) and study characteristics (type of dependent measure data collection, type of intervention, instructional focus, instructional setting, and type of analysis used). A correlation matrix was conducted to compare effect size results.

 
39. Preference for Alternative Reinforcement Within a Treatment Package to Decrease Problem Behavior During Circle Time
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ANDREW SODAWASSER (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Patrick Romani (University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital), Brenna Cavanaugh (University of Rochester Medical Center), Amber Godsey (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Christina Simmons (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Todd M. Owen (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Amanda Zangrillo (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Wayne W. Fisher (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract:

We conducted a two-experiment study with a seven-year-old male who engaged in aggression, disruption, and self-injurious behavior during a circle time activity in an early intervention classroom. Experiment one compared a baseline condition to a differential reinforcement of alternative behavior plus response cost treatment package using an ABAB reversal design. Treatment resulted in low rates of problem behavior and high levels of compliance compared to baseline. Experiment two evaluated choice allocation for circle time versus independent cubical time using a concurrent schedules design. Three choice arrangements were evaluated. Choice one consisted of a choice between circle time and independent cubical time, each containing alternative reinforcement. Choice two consisted of a choice between circle time with alternative reinforcement and independent cubical time with no alternative reinforcement. Choice three consisted of a choice between circle time and independent cubical time, each with no alternative reinforcement available. Results showed higher allocation to cubical time during choice one and to circle time during choice two. Higher choice allocation to circle time persisted during choice three. These data suggested that the alternative reinforcement was a preferred component of the treatment package and that the circle time activity may also function as a reinforcer.

 
40. Building Capacity From Data to Delivery: Integrating the Role of the Board Certified Behavior Analyst in a Public School System
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
KATHRINE KOEHLER-HAK (Boulder Valley School District), Emilee Ritter (Boulder Valley School District), Dawn Collamer (Boulder Valley School District), Theo Robison (Boulder Valley School District)
Abstract:

The positive impact of evidence based practices for addressing the social/emotional and behavioral needs for children with autism spectrum disorder is well documented (Sallows & Graupner, 2005). Less prevalent in the research is the application of EBI's to the natural setting of a public school. Public schools are charged with the development, delivery and monitoring of educational programs for children with ASD. Yet, regular education teachers and administrators may not have the knowledge base in applied behavior analysis needed to foster comprehensive programs of service delivery that incorporate the principles of behavior analysis (Lambert-Lee, Jones, O'Sullivan, Hastings, Douglas-Cobane, Thomas, Hughs, & Griffith, 2015). While schools do consult with professionals from the community who hold expertise in ABA, those services are often too indirect to make significant change. The importance of providing services in a natural environment (i.e., Steege, Mace, Perry & Longbecker, 2007; Weiss, 2002) and team collaboration (Donaldson & Stahmer, 2014) highlight the need to incorporate best practices with ABA services in the schools. Furthermore, Dillenberger and colleagues (2012) found that parents whose children attended schools with an ABA structure to programming reported better results and satisfaction with their child's schooling, supports and level of staff training and development. Individuals who hold certification as a BCBA and a license to teach or provide support services in the schools are essential to the alignment of school based practices to best practices. This presentation defines how the role of the BCBA has been integrated into an existing school system at a public middle school. This presentation provides a description of the structure, supports and services implemented in a middle school intensive learning center (ILC) classroom. Specific consideration is given to need for development of measurable goals, ongoing data collection, data based decision making, team collaboration, parent partnerships and staff training. Examples of data systems and progress monitoring in form of graphs for reduction of maladaptive behavior and increase in replacement behavior are provided. Recommendations for practice are provided.

 
42. A Comparison of Instructional Methods to Teach Comprehension of Sight Words
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KRISTEN STRICKS (The Ivymount School), Kelsey Ruppel (The Ivymount School), Kathryn Quinn (The Ivymount School)
Abstract:

Using text only (Dittlinger & Lerman, 2011) and matching text to pictures (Fossett & Mirenda, 2006) to teach students with disabilities to identify sight words have both been shown to be effective; however, a recent comprehensive review of reading instruction by Browder et al. (2006) found that less than a third of studies investigating sight word acquisition included a measure of comprehension. The current study will utilize a single-subject design to specifically assess comprehension when teaching identification of sight words in two conditions: (1) text only and (2) matching text to pictures. Two male students with autism (ages 10 and 12 years) will be taught to receptively identify three sight words in each condition, and their ability to match the word to the actual item (or a three-dimensional replica of the item) will be assessed to ascertain if teaching the students to match text to pictures results in greater ability to generalize to functional use, as hypothesized by Fossett & Mirenda (2006). As a secondary measure, the students' rates of skill acquisition in each condition will be tracked. Procedural and inter-rater reliability data will also be presented. The results of this study will help practitioners select an efficient sight word teaching method that maximizes student comprehension.

 
44. An Investigation of Academic Engagement in a Group Setting for Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
DANIEL L. GADKE (Mississippi State University), Shelby McGrew (Mississippi State University), Reeva Morton (Mississippi State University), Dominik Keller (Mississippi State University), Grace Dorris (Mississippi State University), Joseph Devlin (Mississippi State University), Derick Reid (Mississippi State University), Carlen Henington (Mississippi State University)
Abstract:

Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often engage in challenging behaviors that impact group instruction (Strain, P. S., Wilson, K., & Dunlap, G., 2011). Previous research suggested increased engagement in academic tasks increased learning (Lequia, Machalicek, & Lyons, 2013). The current study examined the academic engagement of 14 children who were 5–15 years old with an ASD diagnosis or a related disorder. Academic engagement was measured using a five-minute partial interval recording of on-task behavior during reading instruction. Students were divided into three academic groups based on age. For the youngest group, using an alternating treatment design comparing peer versus group engagement, minimal differences in academic engagement were observed. Using an AB design for reading intervention, the middle group saw improvement in academic engagement as reading intervention performance increased. The oldest group evaluated the effects of reading intervention procedures on academic engagement. A stable trend was observed for engagement in reading, and no difference was observed in type of reading intervention. Results and implications will be provided.

 
45. The Use of Picture Exchange Communication System in Classrooms: Review of the Literature and List of Essential Competences for Special Education Teacher Preparation
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
RASHED ALDABAS (University of Northern Iowa)
Abstract:

Augmentative and alternative communication systems (AACs) have been used to support communication abilities of children with severe communication impairments. The purpose of this paper is to present the effectiveness of Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) as an element of AAC. Discussion indicates that PECS is a supportive and meaningful technique for increasing communication skills for children with limited functional communication skills. Finally, this paper discusses how educators can support the use of PECS and other AACs.

 
47. The Evaluation of the Daily Behavior Report Card on Academic Performance for a Child With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
AMANDA COSGRIFF (Mississippi State University), Reeva Morton (Mississippi State University), Daniel L. Gadke (Mississippi State University), Carlen Henington (Mississippi State University)
Abstract:

Research suggests problem behaviors and academic performance have a significant relationship (Finn, Pannozzo, & Voelkl, 1995). Brief Experimental Analyses (BEA) procedures determine effective and efficient academic and behavior interventions (Marten, Eckert, Bradley, & Ardoin, 1999). An example of one way to decrease problem behavior is a daily behavior report card intervention (DBRC;Chafouleas, McDougal, Riley-Tillman, Panahon, & Hilt, 2005). However, research is limited on how autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may benefit from specific evidenced based reading interventions (e.g., Reisner, Lancaster, McMullin, & Ho, 2014). The goals of the current study are to (a) determine the most effective and efficient intervention, (b) monitor progress in an extended analysis, and (c) evaluate the effects of a DBRC on decreasing problem behavior for a child with a comorbid diagnosis of ASD and attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD). An alternating treatment design was used to identify the intervention that provided the most gains to the participant. A changing criterion design was used throughout the DBRC. The BEA indicated repeated reading was the most efficient and effective intervention. Results indicated on-task and disruptive behavior demonstrate an increasing amount of appropriate behavior. Implications for practice and recommendations for children with comorbid disorders are discussed.

 
48. A Preliminary Analysis of Daily Behavior Report Card Paired With Peer-Teacher Activity to Reduce Noncompliance Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
AMANDA COSGRIFF (Mississippi State University), Reeva Morton (Mississippi State University), Daniel L. Gadke (Mississippi State University), Carlen Henington (Mississippi State University)
Abstract:

Previous research has demonstrated that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate off-task, inattention, noncompliance and escape-like behaviors (Gjevik, Eldvik, Fjaeran-Granum, & Sponheim, 2011) when exposed to difficult academic tasks (Weeks & Gaylord-Ross, 1981). Barnett and Cleary (2015) reported that mathematics is a specific area of concern for children with ASD; however, limited research on academically-based mathematics instruction has been conducted in this population (Bouck, Satsangi, Doughty, & Courtney, 2014). This study is a preliminary study implementing the combination of mathematic and behavior interventions in improving math skills and reducing problem behavior. One participant with an ASD and attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) diagnosis was used in this study to analyze the effects of a peer-teacher and a number chart intervention. Results of the A + B + C + BC design suggested that while it did not significantly reduce the student’s time off-task and noncompliant behaviors, the intervention improved the student’s mathematic skills. The participant received immediate feedback on problems answered incorrectly. Percent correct was calculated and problems were marked as incorrect if the student received immediate feedback. Data was analyzed across a total of 13 trials. Implications and future research will be discussed.

 
49. The Acquisition of Quantity Discrimination Skills in Two Elementary Students With Disabilities
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MADISON SULLY (Mississippi State University), Hallie Smith (Mississippi State University), Daniel L. Gadke (Mississippi State University), Kasee Stratton (Mississippi State University)
Abstract:

The need to acquire the building blocks of foundational mathematical skills is imperative to a student's success with future academic achievement and competence (Powell & Fuchs, 2012). Early numeracy skills (oral counting, number identification, quantity discrimination, and missing numbers) are typically mastered at a young age, even before children enter formal education (Toll & Van Luit, 2014). Research has indicated that frequently, math skill difficulties can be traced back to a skill deficit in the area of quantity discrimination (Powell & Fuchs, 2013). The current study implemented a BEA to evaluate the most effective intervention to increase quantity discrimination (QD) skills in two 9-year-old second grade students. One student was a male with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who performed best on the manipulatives task and the other student was a female with a rare genetic disorder who performed best with the number line intervention. Results suggest that both intervention procedures demonstrated improvement during instruction. Further, incorporating a manipulatives intervention may be successful in increasing QD skills for students with ASD.

 
50. Curriculum-Based Measurement of Pre-Academic Skills in Preschool-Aged Children With Autism and Related Disabilities
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MACKENZIE SIDWELL (Mississippi State University), Hallie Smith (Mississippi State University), Molly Butts (Mississippi State University), Daniel L. Gadke (Mississippi State University)
Abstract:

It is widely accepted that early intervention is of the utmost importance for the prognosis of children diagnosed with autism spectrum and related disorders. While this is true for both social and academic behaviors, it can be difficult to determine appropriate methods of progress monitoring that are sensitive to change. That being said, when intervening on academics, the use of curriculum based measurement (CBM) procedures have been demonstrated to be successful in this area (Bacon et al., 2014). The current study included 5 participants ranging in age from 30 to 60 months, each with a diagnosis of ASD or related disorder attending a summer academic clinic. The primary purpose of the study is to detail a pre-academic intervention imploring direct instruction, modeling, and immediate and corrective feedback. Additionally, the researchers seek to explore methods to effectively measure academic ability in young children with disabilities in school and clinic based settings by providing evidence that CBM's can be utilized as a useful tool for measuring academic achievement and progress monitoring during an academic intervention seeking to address letter, number, and shape identification in preschool-aged students. CBM data were collected weekly across four weeks.

 
51. The Effects of Direct Instruction and High Integrity of Learn Units on Accuracy and Engagement During Group Instruction
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
MEGAN B. BOUCHER (Ivymount School), Lauren Lestremau (Ivymount School), Brittany Frey (Ivymount School)
Abstract:

Previous research supports the use of direct instruction practices (DI; Slocum, 2004) and high integrity of learn units (Albers & Greer, 1991; Ingham & Greer, 1992; Selinske, Greer, & Lodhi, 1991) to increase accuracy of responding and engagement during instruction. In this study, we compared the effects of an intervention package that consisted of instructional practices consistent with direct instruction (DI) and high integrity of learn units to baseline responding (i.e., absence of DI practices and low integrity of learn units) using a pairwise treatment design across math and English/language arts classes. The participant was a fourteen-year-old student diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) enrolled in a private special education placement. Results support the efficacy of practices consistent with DI and high integrity of complete learn units. Further research is needed to assess the components of the intervention package that were most effective and to evaluate the generalization of the intervention package to additional individuals diagnosed with ASD.

 
52. Targeting Reading Fluency Through Brief Experimental Analysis and Evidence-Based Intervention for a Child With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SHENGTIAN WU (Mississippi State University), Joseph Devlin (Mississippi State University), Carlen Henington (Mississippi State University), Daniel L. Gadke (Mississippi State University)
Abstract:

Repeated Reading (RR) and Paired Reading (PR) have long been recognized as effective interventions for improving reading fluency (Foster, Ardoin, & Binder 2013; Macdonald, 2010). However, there is limited research examining the effectiveness of RR and PR in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). There is even less research targeting increasing reading fluency of children with low-functioning ASD (LFA). Thus, the purpose of this study is to demonstrate improved reading fluency of a child with LFA through BEA and evidence-based interventions (e.g. RR and PR). First, in order to have child engage in reading, the clinician provided an iPad game as a reinforcer contingent upon finishing reading a passage. Second, the clinician conducted brief experimental analysis (BEA) by alternating RR and PR. Then, the clinician provided RR in the rest of sessions because RR was a more effective intervention than paired reading. The percentage of non-overlapped data was 84%, which indicates that the intervention is was effective. However, it is important to note that he exhibited significant behavior difficulties on the final day of SAC and his performance was impacted, resulting in a lower than expected score.

 
53. Effect of Incremental Rehearsal on Number Identification of a Child With Multiple Disabilities
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SHENGTIAN WU (Mississippi State University), Joseph Devlin (Mississippi State University), Daniel L. Gadke (Mississippi State University), Carlen Henington (Mississippi State University)
Abstract:

Early numeracy skills (e.g. numbers, counting, and simple addition) are crucial for higher math skills and generalization of math skills to life settings. However, children with autism may often have limited early numeracy skills (Jimenez & Kemmery, 2013). The flash card is a convenient, and popular format for presenting discrete stimulus items (e.g. numbers) (Kupzyk, Daly, & Anderson, 2011). Among the flash cards interventions, the Incremental Rehearsal (IR) was the most effective one (Varma & Schleisman, 2014). However, there is limited research that has examined the effectiveness of IR on letter recognition of children with autism as well as other disabilities, such as ADHD and Intellectual Disabilities. Thus, the purpose of this is to examine the effect of the IR on number identification of a child with autism, ADHD, and ID. The intervention results showed that the IR improved participant's number identification dramatically. The percentage of non-overlaped data was 100%, which indicated that the intervention was very effective. As for the progress monitor, the student achieved mastery level in his instructional level.

 
54. Use of Progressive Ratio Assessment to Determine Reinforcement Criterion for a High School Student With Autism in School-Based Diploma Setting
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Lauren Lestremau (Ivymount School), Megan B. Boucher (Ivymount School), ZOEY KNIGHT (Ivymount School), Erica Ranade (Ivymount School), Brittany Frey (Ivymount School), Stacey M. McIntyre (Ivymount School)
Abstract:

Reinforcement criteria are often arbitrarily selected in school settings, which results in inaccurate determinations of intervention ineffectiveness and increased latency to treatment. In order to refine reinforcement criterion setting, authors in the current study utilized a progressive ratio schedule (Hodos, 1961) during the treatment assessment for a 14-year-old diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder in a non-public special education school setting. Progressive ratio schedules represent an arrangement through which the reinforcement criterion increases each trail within a session by a set increment and has been largely reserved for use in basic laboratories, with few examples conducted in an applied setting (e.g., DeLeon, Iwata, Goh, & Worsdell, 1997), without any peer reviewed examples occurring within a school-based setting. In the current study, adapted use of the progressive ratio schedule was utilized such that reinforcer potency (i.e., ability of the reinforcer to maintain behavior), was determined via rates of optimal or fastest student responding in the absence of problem behavior as opposed to seeking break points (i.e., last reinforced requirement to be completed) (Roane, 2008). Participants will be provided information about the progress ratio schedule and its adapted use in the school-based setting, the benefit of assessing reinforcement criteria, and data-based decision making to determine reinforcement criteria to be included in treatment plans.

 
55. Let Us Play!: Direct Instruction of the Types of Play Using Naturalistic Teaching, Video Modeling, and Play Groups to Increase Play Skills for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
KATHRINE KOEHLER-HAK (The Cottage School), Kelly Miller (Boulder Valley School District)
Abstract:

Social competence is a broad, evaluative term that encompasses whether a child can demonstrate appropriate, socially valid behaviors in certain social tasks or situations (McFall, 1982, as cited in Hupp, LeBlanc, Jewell, & Warnes, 2009). Although theories of social competence vary, it is commonly asserted that play skills are one major component of social competence. The degree to which a child can effectively interact with others in diverse social situations impacts not only the development of peer relationships, but also affects family cohesion, secure attachment development, coping skills, and emotional, psychological, and academic adjustment (Rose-Krasnor, 1997; Hupp et al., 2009). Typically developing children acquire the sophisticated social skills necessary for successful interactions with little direct teaching. Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), meanwhile, face barriers to the natural acquisition of social skills. Social impairment is a diagnostic criterion and core feature of autism, with research indicating that the children on the spectrum "are less likely to initiate interactions with peers, spend less time interacting with peers, have lower "quality" interactions and spend a larger amount of time in non-social "play" (Owens, Granader, Humphrey, and Baron-Cohen, 2008, p. 1944). The literature supports use of naturalistic teaching strategies (Boutot, Guenthery & Crozier, 2005; Carfinkle & Schwartz, 2002), video modeling, and integrated play groups to increase the quality and quantity of positive social exchanges for children with ASD. While available programs address target skills (i.e., joining in, joint attention) that are necessary for play, there is a paucity of programs that directly teach children the types of play (i.e., solitary play, parallel play, associative play etc.). Let Us Play! is a program designed to teach children the rules for different types of play (i.e., just me play, side-by-side play, you and me play etc.,). Drawing from the research on naturalistic teaching, direct instruction, video modeling and activity based intervention, the program provides children a structure for understanding and engaging in different play interactions. Emphasis is placed on use of Let Us Play! in both school and private practice based settings.

 
57. Implementation of School-Based Modified Rapid Toilet Training
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
DERICK WHITCHER (Delaware Autism Program), Sarah Rosswog (Delaware Autism Program)
Abstract:

School-based, modified rapid toilet training (RTT) was implemented with an 8-year-old boy with a seizure disorder and an educational classification of autism. Modifications included (a) shortened training hours (i.e., from eight to two hours a day), (b) omission of an overcorrection procedure, (c) omission of urination detection devices, and (d) the use of scheduled standings (i.e., instead of sittings). After two weeks of intervention at school, the participant demonstrated a marked increase in successful urinations in the toilet, as well as a significant decrease in urination accidents. This trend remained as intervention supports were faded and generalized to other settings. Urination success generalized to the home setting with minor training from school staff (i.e., a “how to” document). Results indicated that appropriate, in-toilet urinations can be achieved using a modified version of Azrin and Foxx's RTT, which proved more practical for school-based practitioners. Suggestions for future implementation, as well as extensions and limitations, are discussed.

 
59. The Effects of Prompting and Time Delay on Literacy Comprehension of Linguistically Diverse Elementary Students With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CARYN ALLISON (The University of North Carolina at Charlotte), Jenny Root (The University of North Carolina at Charlotte), Diane Browder (The University of North Carolina at Charlotte)
Abstract:

In this single-case study, researchers utilized a multiple probe across participants design to examine the effects of constant time delay, as well as a modified system of least prompting, on the grade-aligned literacy comprehension of three linguistically diverse elementary students with autism. All participants attended a self-contained classroom for students with autism. Two students were Hispanic, and came from Spanish-speaking homes. One student was African-American, and due to hearing impairments affecting both parents, American Sign Language was primarily spoken in his home. Results indicated a functional relation for the use of constant time delay to teach comprehension rules. A functional relation was also found for using a modified system of least prompts to teach literacy comprehension of grade-level texts. Implications for practitioners will be covered, including the importance of considering culturally and linguistically diverse populations when determining an evidence base for interventions. Suggestions for future research in the area of autism and comprehension, general curriculum access, systematic instruction, and the complex needs of culturally and linguistically diverse students with autism, will also be presented.

 
60. The Utility of a Brief Experimental Analysis for Sight Word Fluency and Acquisition for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
REEVA MORTON (Mississippi State University), Antario Knight (Mississippi State University), Daniel L. Gadke (Mississippi State University)
Abstract:

A brief experimental analysis (BEA) is a quick process to investigate the effectiveness and efficiency of intervention procedures (Martens, Eckert, Bradley, & Ardoin, 1999). Previous literature has examined BEAs to measure oral reading fluency (e.g., Daly, Martens, Hamler, Dool, & Eckert, 1999), written letter formation (e.g., Burns, Ganuza, & London, 2009), math fluency (e.g., Mong & Mong, 2012) and problem behavior (Schmidt, Shanholtzer, Mezhoudi, Scherbak, & Kahng, 2014). Despite the research supporting the use of BEAs, very seldom literature exists for BEAs of sight word fluency (e.g., Baranek, Fienup, & Pace, 2011) using two children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The primary purpose of the current study was to evaluate the most effective and efficient intervention for sight word fluency and acquisition using evidenced based reading intervention techniques in children with ASD. The secondary purpose of the current study was to conduct an extended analysis on the most effective and efficient intervention. An alternating treatment design was used to compare three sight word interventions using cumulative graphing techniques and an AB design was used throughout the extended analysis. The findings suggested that the listening passage preview technique is the best procedure to use for increasing sight word fluency and acquisition.

 
61. A Comparison of Math Intervention Procedures for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
REEVA MORTON (Mississippi State University), Dominik Keller (Mississippi State University), Madison Sully (Mississippi State University), Daniel L. Gadke (Mississippi State University)
Abstract:

There is limited literature that exists for math interventions such as “cover, copy, compare” (CCC) and “copy, cover, compare” (MCCC) improving math skills for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; Barnett & Cleary, 2015). Previous research suggests that in comparison there was no difference in accuracy between CCC and MCCC (Grafman & Cates, 2010). The purpose of the current study was to expand research on CCC and MCCC for children with ASD by comparing the two effective instructional math procedures in middle school and high school children. This study compared digits correct per minute (DCPM) in both interventions. An alternating treatment design was implemented for three children ranging in age from 12–15 years old diagnosed with ASD or a related disorder. Intervention aimed to increase fluency and accuracy of math skills and monitor progress across time. Results indicated that CCC was more effective for two participants at increasing DCPM. There was not a significant difference in DCPM between the interventions for the third participant.

 
62. Using a Looxcie for Staff Training in a Community-Based Setting
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JESSICA ZAWACKI (PAAL), Thomas L. Zane (Institute for Behavioral Studies, Endicott College), Eric Shindeldecker (PAAL), Gloria M. Satriale (PAAL)
Abstract:

The development of staff competence has long been an important topic of study in the area of service delivery in developmental disabilities. There is a rich literature on the most efficient ways of training staff to perform their duties, as well as investigations on the extent to which staff maintain skills over time. With the increasing implementation of training programs across community settings, and the lessening focus on centralized service delivery, the need for efficient staff training and mechanisms for supervision remains critical. Technology (e.g., Internet, wireless systems, smart phones, Looxcie, Bluetooth) may have utility in these areas. The purpose of this study was to use Looxcie technology to train staff to implement instructional protocols when teaching adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in various community settings (e.g., grocery store, library, food stores). Specifically, supervisors listened in and viewed via live streaming video staff providing instruction without their awareness of specifically what staff behaviors were being monitored and when during the day the monitoring occurred. The target behaviors consisted of prompting hierarchy implemented by the staff participants as well as instructional program fidelity. Using a multiple baseline design across participants, the findings showed that supervisors could effectively supervise staff from a distance using this technology, and offer support in a way that reduced staff errors in implementing instructional protocols and increased fidelity of programming. Results were discussed in terms of the capacity of technology to support staff when providing services across a wide geographical area.

 
63. Beyond Transition Planning: The Post-Secondary Occupations of Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
GLEIDES LOPES RIZZI (The Ohio State University), Celine Lopes (The Ohio State University)
Abstract:

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act, reauthorized in 2004, mandates the implementation of transition services for persons with disabilities by their 16th birthday. This legal provision includes individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Practitioners and service providers are required of abide by this law; however, little guidance is available to inform practitioners of the best channels to plan and implement transition services. Moreover, there is no legal requirement to report the outcomes of planning and implementing transition programs, nor there is a system for reporting these essential long-term outcomes. The extent to which planning will be effective is dependent on (a) practitioners being provided data reporting on post-secondary academic and vocational trends, (b) practitioners using the data to inform the preparation of students with ASD for transition to post-secondary living. Similarly, service-providing agencies may benefit from national and state data regarding transition outcomes when lobbying and grant writing. Thus, this study investigates the academic and vocational long-term (from high school graduation up to8 years after) outcomes for individuals with ASD reported by federal and state agencies from 1995 to 2015. Implications for policy, practice, and research are included.

 
64. Treating Self-Feeding Physical Prompt Dependence in a Child With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CHRISTINA SIMMONS (University of Georgia), Sara Moore Snyder (University of Georgia), Kevin Ayres (University of Georgia)
Abstract:

Restricted and repetitive behaviors are a core feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In the current study, we evaluated ritualized feeding routines (i.e., physical prompt dependence) in an 8-year-old female with ASD. No other feeding concerns were noted. Parents conducted a home baseline following typical mealtime procedures. Therapists measured latency to first bite, number of bites taken at each prompt level, avoidant behaviors, and attempts to elicit prompting. She did not independently consume any food. A prompt level assessment was conducted to determine the controlling prompt for consuming food. She reliably consumed food with physical guidance to pick up food. To determine preferred foods, therapists physically prompted bite consumption for 5 s, rotating between 5 foods until 5 bites of each were consumed or 5 minutes elapsed. Foods consumed 80% of prompt attempts were included in treatment. Treatment consisted of contingent praise, continual prompt delivery, prompt fading, and extinction for problem behavior and attempts to elicit physical guidance. Sessions ended after 5 bites were consumed or 5 minutes passed; preferred toys were provided for 2 minutes. Prompts were systematically faded through nine prompt levels, from physically guiding picking up food to holding hand 3” from her shoulder. Results generalized to caregivers and the home.

 
65. Motivating a Student With Autism Spectrum Disorder to Participate in Morning Exercises: Effects of Video-Based Interventions Incorporating Special Interests
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
AYAKA TAKAHASHI (Hyogo University of Teacher Education)
Abstract:

This study investigated the effects of video-based interventions incorporating special interests on improving task engagement of a student with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The participant was a 7-year-old boy enrolled in a special school for students with intellectual disabilities. Four target behaviors were selected from daily morning exercises: rhythmic gymnastics with para-balloon, walking, running, and gymnastic exercises. According to an assessment of the participant's interest, insects (e.g., beetle, butterfly) were identified as the participant's special interests. He often talked about insects and imitated them. Therefore, the author introduced the video hero modeling (VHM) in which insects served as models engaging in the target behaviors. In the VHM intervention, the participant watched the video immediately before the morning exercises. A multiple baseline design across behaviors revealed that the first and second target behaviors were improved immediately after the VHM was introduced although the level of the performance was not stable. These behaviors became stable after the video hero modeling with praise (VHMP), in which an insect engaged in the target behaviors and praised the participant engaging in the behaviors was introduced. The remaining target behaviors were improved, without introducing the VHM, when the performance of the first target behavior was stable at the highest level.

 
66. Increasing Social Communication Skills Using Reciprocal Imitation Training
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
NATALIE P. P. CROTEAU (Child and Community Resources)
Abstract:

Social communication is a complex set of behaviours that include eye contact, imitation, and reciprocation. Children diagnosed with autism benefit from a systematic approach to teach social communication skills. Reciprocal imitation training (RIT) is aimed at teaching imitation through play. This study reviewed the effectiveness of RIT techniques and methodologies for children diagnosed with autism. The objective was to increase eye contact and imitation using RIT techniques to further increase social communication skills. The effectiveness of 5-minute RIT sessions were evaluated for 2 children diagnosed with autism in an intensive behavioural intervention (IBI) program. It is hypothesized that by the end of the treatment, there would be an increase in eye contact, gross motor imitation, and object imitation.

 
67. Effects of Background Stimuli on Acquisition and Generalization of Tacts
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
DANIEL R. MITTEER (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Kevin C. Luczynski (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Victoria Smith (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract:

Teaching children with an autism spectrum disorder to name (tact) images is a common skill area. Teaching with backgrounds may increase the difficulty of discriminating the target and may lead to faulty stimulus control (e.g., the background image rather than the target evokes the response). However, including backgrounds may enhance stimulus generalization to additional exemplars of the category and videos containing backgrounds. To date, no study has examined the effects of including or removing backgrounds during expressive-skill teaching. This study used an adapted alternating treatments design to evaluate the effects of teaching with backgrounds on acquisition and stimulus generalization to novel images, videos, and figurines using a multiple-baseline design across target groups. Across four participants minimal differences were observed in the number of sessions to mastery in teaching with backgrounds (M = 6) or without backgrounds (M = 4). Stimulus generalization occurred more often in the condition taught with backgrounds (33%) than without backgrounds (0%). When including differential reinforcement during generalization, mastery was observed in 54% of background groups and in 40% of no-background groups. Practitioners teaching with backgrounds may observe marginally slower acquisition but improved performance with novel images and videos containing backgrounds as compared to teaching without backgrounds.

 
68. Missed Research When Only Reading JABA
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
NICOLE L. BANK (The PartnerShip, LLC)
Abstract:

Staying in touch with the literature is an important part of being an effective autism treatment provider. Yet many professionals find it difficult to do so. Scholarly journal subscriptions are expensive, there are many journals to subscribe to, the indexing databases are expensive and cumbersome to search and Google Scholar is almost too comprehensive. Aside from the resource barriers many practitioners encounter, there are hundreds of research articles published each year pertaining to the behavior analytic treatment for autism spectrum disorders. At this rate, it can be discouraging to try and keep up. The current online resources available are arranged in such a way that reading the abstracts and available full text articles in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (JABA) is the most common way practitioners stay up to date. This poster clarifies some of the barriers practitioners face when trying to access current behavior analytic literature. Additionally, this poster quantifies how much of the literature isn't accessed when reading JABA alone.

 
69. Making the Point: Training Teachers to Implement Behavior Contracts as a Tier II Positive Behavior Support Intervention for Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder/Developmental Disorders During Extended School Year Services
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
DORIS L. HILL (Auburn University Center for Disability Research), Regina Kearley (Auburn University)
Abstract:

This study investigated the use of behavior contracts in the extended school year (ESY) setting for students with autism spectrum disorders and/or developmental disorders (ASD; DD). The research questions were: (a) Could implementation of behavior contracts be taught to pre-service teachers with fidelity in an ESY setting? (b) Could pre-service teachers be taught to effectively collect behavior data using contracts? (c) Could data be effectively graphed to communicate progress? (d) Did students identified for positive behavior change through contracting make progress during ESY? Pre-service teachers evaluated student's academic and behavior challenges in comparison with their IEPs prior to ESY services. Four elementary students (ages 6–7 years) with behavior challenges in two classrooms were selected based on records review and baseline observations conducted. Six teachers (pre- and in-service) were instructed on point sheet development/implementation. Preference assessments were conducted and each elementary student selected a daily reward at the beginning of the instructional day when the point goal was set. Data collection occurred across the day and points reviewed after each activity outlined on the contract. Student data were graphed and fidelity of implementation data collected on teachers. The six participating pre- and in-service teachers demonstrated fidelity of implementation, competence in data collection, and in graphing student progress. Each student demonstrated progress as a result of intervention.

 
71. Using a Prompting Hierarchy as a Social Skills Intervention for Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
HAILEY RIPPLE (Mississippi State University), Madison Sully (Mississippi State University), Amanda Cosgriff (Mississippi State University), Shengtian Wu (Mississippi State University), Jonathan Tritley (Mississippi State University), MacKenzie Sidwell (Mississippi State University), Daniel L. Gadke (Mississippi State University), Kasee Stratton (Mississippi State University)
Abstract:

Individuals with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) typically display social skill deficits in a variety of forms including limited social reciprocity, sharing behaviors, and perception of emotions (Ratcliffe, Wong, Dossetor, & Hayes, 2014). These social skill deficits have the potential to lead to social isolation and lack of control over one's social environment (McFadden, Kamps, & Heitzman-Powell, 2014). However, research has indicated that early intervention on these deficits results in maintenance of skills and improved adaptive behavior (Peters-Scheffer, Didden, Korzilius, & Matson, 2012). A combination of prompting procedures and praise/rewards has been shown to be effective in increasing social skills of school-age children with ASD (Licciardello, Harchik, & Luiselli, 2008). This study aimed to examine the effects of a prompting intervention paired with praise/rewards on pre-school aged children with ASD. Pre- and post-rating scales of social behavior as observed by parents were also collected. Data from the intervention indicate the prompting intervention was effective for some participants. Pre- and post-data collected from the SRS-2 indicate a decrease in score on the SCI scale.

 
73. Using Behavioral Skills Training to Teach High School Students to Implement Discrete Trial Training
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
EVAN DART (University of Southern Mississippi), Keith Radley III (University of Southern Mississippi), Christopher M. Furlow (University of Southern Mississippi), Ashley Murphy (University of Southern Mississippi)
Abstract:

Discrete trial training (DTT) is frequently used to teach a wide range of skills to children with autism; however, implementing a comprehensive DTT program can be resource intensive, especially in settings where personnel resources are scarce (e.g., the classroom), inhibiting its use and utility. To address this issue, there is some evidence to support the implementation of peer-mediated DTT programs in a classroom setting; however, the literature does not endorse a particular method for training school-aged children to implement DTT with fidelity. This is concerning, considering the strong link between treatment fidelity (i.e., integrity) and intervention effectiveness. The purpose of this study was to compare two training approaches to determine which produced higher rates of treatment integrity. Using a didactic instruction approach, four seniors from a public high school were trained to implement a DTT protocol with four of their peers with autism and other development disabilities. Following unsatisfactory rates of treatment integrity upon implementation by all four participants, a behavioral skills training (BST) package was introduced using a multiple-baseline design that incorporated (a) didactic instruction, (b) modeling of the DTT protocol, (c) roleplay of the DTT protocol, and (d) feedback on implementation. The results demonstrate that the BST package produced convincingly higher rates of treatment integrity compared to didactic instruction for all four participants. Additionally, all participants demonstrated acceptable levels of integrity (i.e., 80% or greater) following BST for the duration of the study without the need for re-training or follow-up procedures.

 
74. The Effects of Exposure on Selections During a Concurrent-Chains Preference Assessment
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
VICTORIA SMITH (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Nicole M. Rodriguez (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: Researchers have argued the importance of incorporating the recipients of behavior-change procedures into the treatment selection process (e.g., Hanley, 2010). When an individual has limited language capabilities, concurrent-chain schedules offer a means of assessing preference among behavior interventions and teaching strategies (Hanley, 2010). Our initial purpose was to evaluate the preference for various contexts with children diagnosed with autism who were receiving early intervention services. However, the majority of participants engaged in patterned selections consisting of one selection of each initial link, similar to how exposure trials were arranged. Thus, using a discovery-oriented approach, we evaluated a method of disrupting patterned responding under arguably the most simple and salient of terminal link arrangements (i.e., one reinforcement context versus two extinction contexts). For four of six participants who initially demonstrated patterned responding, manipulation of the number of exposures to the reinforcement context was sufficient to produce discriminated responding. For two participants, the academic task also needed to be removed. Once discriminated responding was observed under such manipulations, discriminated responding maintained when the initial exposure arrangement was reinstated. Results are discussed in terms of the potential effects of history of exposure to errorless teaching strategies on selections during concurrent-chain schedules.
 
75. A Demonstration on the Use of Telehealth in an Outpatient Behavior Clinic
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
ALYSSA N. SUESS (The University of Iowa), David P. Wacker (The University of Iowa), Jessica Emily Schwartz (The University of Iowa), Nicole H. Lustig (The University of Iowa), Jessica Detrick (The University of Iowa)
Abstract:

Research has shown that telehealth can be an effective way to deliver behavior analytic services. However, much of the telehealth research is supported by federally funded dollars, and less is known about how telehealth services can be incorporated into outpatient clinics that evaluate and treat problem behavior. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to provide a demonstration on how telehealth services could be incorporated into an outpatient behavior clinic. We coached parents of young children with autism via telehealth to conduct functional analyses within multi-element designs during one 60-min appointment. A non-concurrent multiple baseline design was used when the parents implemented functional communication training during three 15-min appointments. Interobserver agreement was collected on 59.6% of sessions and averaged 91.5%. Results showed that behavioral functions were identified for 4 out of 5 children, and problem behavior was reduced by an average of 61.2%. Manding and task completion also increased by the end of the third FCT appointment. The results from this study support previous research suggesting telehealth is an effective service delivery method to treat problem behavior. This study extended the telehealth literature by showing how it can be used to deliver services within an outpatient behavior clinic.

 
76. Treatment of Feeding Problems in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Applied Behavior Analysis Versus Wait-List Control
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CHRISTOPHER ENGLER (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Kathryn M. Peterson (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Cathleen C. Piazza (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract:

Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often display feeding problems, and food selectivity, defined as consumption of a limited variety of foods (Schreck, Williams, & Smith, 2004), is the most commonly reported feeding problem. Results of studies have showfn that treatments based on applied behavior analysis (ABA) are effective as treatment for feeding disorders in the general pediatric population (e.g., Piazza, Patel, Gulotta, Sevin, & Layer, 2003; Volkert & Piazza, 2012). Although ABA treatments have empirical support for feeding problems, and ABA also has empirical support for the treatment of the core symptoms of ASD, there are no ABA randomized clinical trials with a well-defined cohort of children with ASD and food selectivity. We are currently conducting a randomized clinical trial of ABA treatment of food selectivity in children with ASD relative to a wait-list control group. Data for thetwo children who completed the trial showed that the ABA treatment increased acceptance of 16 novel target foods.

 
77. Western Michigan University Behavior Analysis Training System Program
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
RICHARD W. MALOTT (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: The students in the Behavior Analysis Training System (BATS) program are trained as practitioners and complete coursework to become competent Board Certified Behavior Analysts (BCBA) in two years. Throughout the program our students acquire a solid foundation in the principles and concepts of behavior analysis through completion of two practical MA projects rather than an MA thesis. Our students also attain early, intensive, behavioral intervention skills, supervision experience, and time management skills.
 
 

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